Freelance Graphics - bfa4-6.PRZ

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Freelance Graphics - bfa4-6.PRZ

Using the Norm of Reciprocityin Negotiation1st: Always be trustworty & reliable yourself2nd: Be fair to those who are fair to you3rd: Let others know it when they havetreated you unfairlyPersonal Relationships vs.Working RelationshipsClose relationships trigger a norm of "equalsharing" and compromiseNegotiations with strangers causes us to expectand exhibit more competitive behaviorWorking relationships fall in between. They'rebased on both:Trust & reciprocityThe presumption that both partys are looking after theirown best interestsPsychological Strategies forBuilding Working RelationshipsThe SimilarityPrincipleThe Role of Giftsand FavorsTrust andRelationshipNetworks


Why is it So Hard to Focus onthe Other Party's Interests"Partisan Perceptions"Most people tend to approach negotiationcompetitivelyNegotiation dynamics cause people to withholdinformation, and/or bluffHow to Focus on the OtherParty's InterestsIdentify the decision-makerLook for common ground: How might it servethe other party to help you meet your goals?Identify interests that might interfere withagreementSearch for low-cost options that solves theother party's problems while advancing yourgoalsThe Sixth Foundation:Leverage


LeverageCan enhance your confidence in bargaining &increase the likelihood of reaching anagreement ... on your own termsDerives from the balance of needs and fears ofthe participantsYour (content) need becomes the other's leverageSelf-esteem (identity) needs matter tooBATNA's decreases your need & the other's leverage --Which side has the most to lose from "no deal"?For whom does time favor?Use of ThreatsThreats can be dangerous to useThreats must be credible to be effectiveYou must be perceived as capableYou must be perceived as willingIf both parties are injured by carrying out thethreat, it loses credibilityCan I Improve My Alternatives? OrMake the Other Party's Worse?Create momentum by conceding to littledemandsThis can buy more timeEnhance trust & credibilityCreate a vision that the other side something tolose from no deal


Three Types of LeveragePositiveLeverageTypesNegativeNormativeCoalitions Enhance LeverageGroup dynamics favor the side with the largernumber of constituentsIt's hard to override a consensusCoalitions gain power from socialreinforcement ("social proof")Coalitions can improve leverage by eithergiving you better alternatives, or making theother's alternatives worseCommon Misconceptionsabout LeverageLeverage and power (i.e., legitimate authority)are not the same thingLeverage is about situational advantageLeverage is a constant that doesn't changeLeverage depends on factsIt depends on the other party's perceptions

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