What are the issues in Southern Africa? - Danish Water Forum

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What are the issues in Southern Africa? - Danish Water Forum

Global changeadopted from Hilder Mumba


Linkages between climate change, humanhealth, water and food security: What are theissues for Southern Africa?M.J.Chimbari, D. Mazvimavi, G. Manase, M. Ramaano, P. Furu, M. Feilberg,JR. Jensen, P.V. Madsen, AM. Sorensen,


Overview• Background - What are the issues in Southern Africa• Review of work linking climate change, health and foodsecurity in Southern Africa• Gap analysis on linkages between climate change,health, water and food security in Southern Africa• Formation of SACCNET and its objectives


What are the issues in Southern Africa?Adults and children estimated to be livingwith HIV/AIDS as of end 2001North America940 000Caribbean420 000Latin America1.4millionWestern Europe560 000North Africa& Middle East440 000Sub-SaharanAfrica28.1millionEastern Europe& Central Asia1 millionSouthEast Asia & Pacific& South-East Asia6.1 million1 millionAustralia& NewZealand15 000Total: 40million


What are the issues in Southern Africa?World water scarcityhttp://whyfiles.org/131fresh_water/2.html


Current and possible future impacts andvulnerabilities associated with climate variabilityand climate change in Africa (IPCC FAR, 2008)


Background of Network initiativepaper• Inferences on Africa are based on scanty data andsharing of such information has not happened in asystematic manner• It is against this background that three Danish networksand some Southern Africa institutions initiated this workas a basis for establishing a SSN network on CC


Objectives• To take stock of current regional activities related toclimate change and its impact to health, water and foodsecurity in Southern Africa• To identify knowledge gaps and capacity building needsfor addressing linkages between climate change, health,water and food security• To initiate a process for creating a network to addresslinkages between climate change, health, water and foodsecurity


Processes• Commissioning of 3 thematic desk studies– Climate change and health– Climate change and water– Climate change and food security• Knowledge sharing workshop at which the threebackground papers were presented• Formation of regional research network emphasizing S-S-N collaboration


Number of institutions where CC workrelated to health is conducted in SADC


Number of institutions per country where CCwork related to health is carried out in SADC


SADC studies on infectious diseasesmaking reference to climate


CountryPrioritization of health issues inLDCs NAPAsNumber ofprojectsDRC 3 0Lesotho 8 0Malawi 5 0Mozambique 4 0Madagascar 15 13, 14Tanzania 6 6Zambia 9 9HealthPrioritization


Issues on Health• Not much work on CC and health is taking place in SSA.But globally and in East Africa much more work is beingdone• SSA is perceived to be overly vulnerable to CC impactsmainly in the agricultural and water sectors that directlyor/and indirectly impact on health• CC effects on health will be much more significant inSSA than is appreciated now• Much of the work on CC and health is in the area ofmalaria


Distribution of studies on climatechange and water by institutionType of InstitutionPrivate4NGO7Inter9Public11Academic180 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20Number


Distribution of studies on climatechange and water at different levelsScale of Analysis of Impact StudiesRegionalLocalNational0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50%


Scientists involved in research onclimate change and water in 2005African Scientists involved in Climate Change Research 20051201041008060402021 19 18 17145 4 42 2 2 1 0 00South AfricaZimbabweBotswanaZambiaTanzaniaMalawiMozambiqueLesothoNamibiaDRCSeychellesSwazilandMadagascarAngolaMauitius


Distribution of studies on climatechange and water by disciplineResearcher ProfileEconomistSocial ScientistHydrologist0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70%


Issues on Water• There are many knowledge gaps and uncertaintiesaround the impact of CC on water resources in SADC• The following issues are particularly under-researched– Economic dimensions of CC and water– Impact of CC on groundwater– Gender dimensions– Linkages between CC water, health and food security• The research capacity of SADC countries in terms ofhuman resources and facilities varies greatly. There isan urgent need therefore for a network to facilitateknowledge sharing and foster collaborative research


Programmes and institutions workingon climate change and food security• 15 programmes in SADC working on climatechange and food security were identified– 7 international– 8 regional• 28 institutions in SADC working on climatechange and food security were identified– 16 universities– 12 other institutions (networks, NGOs,international organizations)


Issues on climate change and foodsecurity• Food security issues largely address production with littlefocus on availability, stability, utilisation & accessibility• Issues related to markets’ influences on food prices,including (but not exclusively) the role of bio-fuels needto be addressed• Research results should be effectively disseminated andcommunicated to relevant end-users• Capacity-building and awareness-raising amongpolicymakers and researchers about the cross-cuttingnature of climate change and the need for a crossthematicapproach in research


Workshop observations• Projects on CC and health are few and focus has beenplaced on vector borne diseases• The socio- and economic dimensions of CC health,water and food security are not adequately addressed• Researchers working on CC issues work in isolationresulting in limited sharing of knowledge• There are many networks on climate change but littlecross fertilization of ideas occurs


Workshop observations• Predictions on CC for the region are based on limiteddata• While temperature changes are demonstrated withempirical data there is little convincing evidence on longterm changes in rainfall for the region• Countries do not have policies on CC and hence providelimited support for research in that area


Recommendations• Governments and the development community shouldmake available resources for further research elucidatinglinkages between climate change and health, water andfood security• Research on CC and health should be increased• Governments should develop national policies on climatechange and ensure that CC is an integral part ofdevelopment plans


Recommendations• There is need to build capacity to conduct research onCC, human health, water and food security• A network on CC human health, water and food securityshould be established to provide a platform forknowledge and information sharing


Formation of Southern Africa ClimateChange Network (SACCNET)• Mandated to facilitate activities that elucidate linkagesbetween climate change, health, water and food security.• Mandated to bridge the gap between research and policy• Membership of SACCNET is open to all interestedpeople/institutions


Climate change induced linkagesbetween health, water and food securitywaterFoodLivestockWater quantityWater qualityExtreme eventsHealth•Water quality•Water quantity•Communicable disease•Extreme eventsFood•HIV\AIDS and other diseases•Crop diversity•Zoonoses•Malnutrition


Structure and governance ofSUCCNET• General members• Working Groups• Secretariat• Steering Committeehttp://www.ddrn.dk/index.php?side_id=219.


Membership of Interim SteeringCommittee• Selected through voting by 40 representatives from 10 ofSADC countries• 8 members– HOORC – University of Botswana (Chair)– University of Zambia (Deputy Chair)– Zambia Meteorology office (member)– ES – University of Botswana (member)– University of Lesotho (member)– Danish Water Forum (member)– Danish Development Research Network (member)– ENRECA-Health• One year office term


Terms of Reference (TOR) ofSUCCNET Interim Steering Committee• Development of Network policy• Creating and appointment of Working Groups• Creating and appointing other relevant subcommitteesto work on special tasks;• Review the work of sub-committees and groups• Decide on recruitment, appointment and removal of theSecretariat;• Recommend new Members to be approved at theSACCNET annual members meeting;• Establish links with other networks;• Convene the annual Network Meeting


Working Groups (WG)• Identifying gaps and recommending development ofresearch programmes• Providing professional and technical advice to theNetwork• Develop conceptual approaches for operationalimplementation of climate change research• Improving the exchange of experiences by networkingexpertise within the region as well as establishedcontacts to other regions and the international expertise


Terms of Reference (TOR) ofSecretariat• Implement decisions of the Steering Committee;• Execute instructions from the Chairperson;• Support the committees and working groups• Responsible for the financial management andaccounting of the Network;• Facilitate effective networking, communication andinformation sharing among SACCNET members;• Prepare annual work plans, reports and budgets, anddirect the implementation of the work plans, ensuringinvolvement of members in the planning andimplementation thereof• Contribute to the raising of funds for regional activities• Act as the focal point and formal address of SACCNET


Role of general members• Adopt the strategic directions and policies for theNetwork;• Comment on the yearly activity report and the yearlyfinancial statement of the Steering Committee;• Appointment of new members of the Steering Committee• Approval of new members and SACCNET staff• Approves, reviews and adopts all coordinatingstrategies, plans, budgets and activities of SACCNET• Adopt proposed guidelines and regulations governingSACCNET• Consider and decide on the expulsion of Partners fromthe Network, after recommendation of the SteeringCommittee.


Contact details• http://www.ddrn.dk/index.php?side_id=219• Moses Chimbari (HOORC)– mjchimbari@gmail.com– mjchimbari@orc.ub.bw• Miriam Feilberg (DWF)– mfe@dhigroup.com• Marianne Forti (DDRN)– maf@ddrn.dk

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