somewhat agree - COMPAS

somewhat agree - COMPAS

Multiple Meanings ofMulticulturalism• MC as Demographic Reality• MC as an idea or ideology• MC as Government Policy• MC as a message or discourse

Multiculturalism, Ethnic andNational Identification

Belonging to Canada: Perceptionand RealityWhen asked whether they agree if the loyalty ofimmigrants to Canada suffers if they maintain astrong attachment to their countries of originwhile becoming Canadian a majority ofCanadians say it does. However when askedimmigrants, ethnic and religious minoritiesgenerally report high rates of belonging toCanada. Moreover contrary to what someobservers insist high rates of belonging to one’sethnic group do not result in weaker belongingto Canada

Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree of stronglydisagree with the following statement: The loyalty of immigrants to Canadasuffers if they maintain a strong attachment to their countries of origin whilebecoming Canadian?Centre for Researchand Information onCanada-2004Total AgreeCanada 58 39Atlantic 60 38Quebec 54 43Ontario 60 36MB/Sask57 40Alberta 57 40BC 58 40Total Disagree

Ethnic Belonging does not undercutStatsCan EthnicDiversitySurvey –AllRespondentsSense ofBelonging toEthnic orCulturalGroup1 - not strong atallSense of Belonging to Canada1 - notstrongatall 2 3 45 - verystrong8.3% 3.9% 10.9% 16.5% 60.0%2 2.9% 5.8% 12.7% 25.5% 52.9%3 2.4% 4.2% 16.2% 24.0% 53.1%4 1.9% 3.2% 12.4% 31.5% 50.6%5 - very strongCanadian Belonging1.9% 1.6% 6.2% 10.9% 78.9%

Muslims and Sense of Belonging to CanadaStatistics Canada-Ethnic Diversitysurvey -Muslims2002Sense of Belonging toEthnic Grouip1-not important at allSense of Belonging to Canada1 - notstrongat all 2 3 45 - verystrong4.3% - 2.1% 12.8% 74.5%2 2.5% - 10.0% 27.5% 57.5%3 2.1% 4.2% 8.4% 22.1% 60.0%4 1.9% 3.8% 13.5% 26.9% 51.0%5-very important 1.0% 1.6% 6.5% 17.8% 67.1%

Multiculturalism and SharedValues in Canada

It has been argued that in the name ofmulticulturalism equality rights are put at riskand that those who value the message ofdiversity are very often less attached to acommon culture and possess less nationalpride.However evidence from a survey conducted by LegerMarketing on the occasion of the 25 th anniversary of theCanadian Charter of Rights demonstrates that it those whoare favorable to multiculturalism that are more likely todescribe gender equality, supporting vulnerable segments ofthe population and patriotism as very important

Those who consider the equality of the sexes very important alsoconsider multiculturalism very importantMULTICULTURALISM - NOTIMPORTANT61%MULTICULTURALISM...Somewhat important73%MULTICULTURALISM... Veryimportant85%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%Those who felt Equality between men and women was ... Very important

Those who consider the safety net very important also considermulticulturalism very importantMULTICULTURALISM - NOTIMPORTANT32%MULTICULTURALISM...Somewhat important40%MULTICULTURALISM... Veryimportant64%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%Those who felt a Strong safety net was ... Very Important

Those who consider patriotism to be very important are morelikely to consider multiculturalism to be very importantMULTICULTURALISM - NOTIMPORTANT40%MULTICULTURALISM...Somewhat important40%MULTICULTURALISM... Veryimportant56%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%Those who felt a Strong safety net was ... Very Important

Multiculturalism, Interculturalismand Cross- Cultural Dialogue• Does Federal MC Policy and its Messagediscourage contact between communities andfoster social separation as opposed toIntercultural Policy which purportedlyencourages cross-cultural cultural dialogue? If it is truethan why in the province of Quebec whichoccasionally boasts of its intercultural approachis the degree of contact between communitiesless on the one hand and the degree of positivesentiment towards religious minorities amongstfrancophones weaker than those EnglishCanadians reporting similar levels of contact

Direct contact of ENGLISH speakers withopinion on Jews-CanadaCanada-Environics20068060402065.126.944 43.6 42.5 44.727.243.40Often Occasionally Rarely NeverVery favourable 65.1 44 42.5 27.2Somewhat favourable 26.9 43.6 44.7 43.4

Direct contact of FRENCH speakers withopinion on Jews-Environics20066055.3 54.1504035.144.443.930201021.526.18.90Often Occasionally Rarely NeverVery favourable 35.1 21.5 26.1 8.9Somewhat favourable 44.4 55.3 54.1 43.9

Quebec, Multicultural andIntercultural Confusion-Resultsfrom Leger Marketing Survey-August 2007

Models of Diversity• When asked which of three models theyprefer when it comes to the managementof diversity, Quebecers prefer the meltingpot as opposed to the multicultural model(though it is favored by nearly one-third ofQuebecers surveyed). The model theyreport favoring least is the Frenchrepublican model

QA6. Tenant pour acquis que le français est la langue officielle duQuébec, lequel des trois modèles de diversité culturelle suivantsconvient le mieux à la société québécoise selon vous ? (n=1001)46%31%19%4%… Le modèle du"melting pot" -encourage le mélangeet la fusion desdifférentes cultures defaçon à former une… Le multiculturalisme- si elles le souhaitentles minoritésconservent leurspropres coutumes ettraditions… Le modèle civique -les minorités sontdécouragées deformer descommunautés etpoussées àNe sait pas / Refus

• In part the presumed contraction in reactions tominority religious practice on the part of thosefavoring the multicultural model may have to dowith the way it is understood. Some 44% ofthose who favor the multicultural model agreethat Quebec immigrants must give up theircustoms and traditions and become more likethe majority of Quebecers compared with 52%of those favoring the melting pot. It is advocatesof the civic model that are far more likely to callfor immigrants to abandon their customs andtraditions.

Multicultural Assimilation?• Not surpisingly the Quebec advocates ofmulticulturalism are least inclined to favorimmigrants giving up their customs andtraditions and become more like themajority of Quebecers (but some 44% ofQuebec multiculturalists still favorimmigrants giving up their customs)

When it comes to issuesof immigrants andminorities do youstrongly agree,somewhat agree,somewhat disagree orstrongly disagreeQuebec immigrants mustgive up their customsand traditions andbecome more like themajority of QuebecersAssuming that French is the official language ofQuebec which of the following three models ofcultural diversity best suits Quebec society in youropinionMulticulturalism - if they sochoose,minoritiesmaintain theirown customsand traditionsMelting Potmodel -Encouragemixing fusionof variouscultures toform a newnationalcommunityCivic model -Minorities arediscouragedfrom formingcommunitiesand urged toabandon theirculturalpracticesstrongly agree 17.9% 20.3% 52.6%somewhat agree 25.9% 32.8% 32.6%somewhat disagree 34.5% 33.3% 7.9%strongly disagree 21.7% 13.4% 6.3%

Nearly 40% of those Quebecers who say that we have beenstrengthened by the diversity of cultural and religious groups agree athatimmigrants should give up their customs and traditions... Quebec immigrants mustgive up their customs andtraditions and become morelike the majority ofQuebecers... Quebec society has been strengthened by the diversityof cultural and religious groupsStronglyAgreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat DisagreeStrongly DisagreeComple-tely AgreeSomewhat agreeSomewhatDisagreeCompletelyDisagree20.1% 18.8% 37.4% 66.2%18.8% 37.7% 38.4% 16.9%34.9% 34.7% 14.7% 6.2%26.3% 8.6% 9.5% 10.8%

The Multicultural Melting Pot: One-third of those who feel that Quebec shouldtry harder to accept minority group customs and traditions also agreeimmigrants should give up customs and traditions and become like the majorityQuebecimmigrantsmust give uptheir customsand traditionsand becomemore like themajority ofQuebecersstrongly agreesomewhat agreesomewhatdisagreestrongly disagree... Quebec society should try harder toaccept minority groups' customs andtraditionsstronglyagreeof Quebecerssomewhatagreesomewhatdisagreestronglydisagree11.8% 12.2% 19.1% 51.2%20.0% 29.8% 42.4% 18.7%20.0% 43.3% 30.4% 15.9%48.2% 14.7% 8.1% 13.5%

A majority of those Quebecers supporting the republicanmodel want the hijab banned from public view... Muslim women inpublic wearing thehijab, , the veilcovering only thehair but not the faceCompletely Accept...Lemulticulturalisme - si elles lesouhaitent, lesminori...Le modèledu "melting"pot " -encourage lemélange et la...Le modèlecivil - lesminorités s sontdécouragéesde forme28.7% 21.4% 13.1%Somewhat Accept43.0% 48.4% 33.5%Somewhat Oppose12.4% 17.3% 21.5%Completely Oppose15.9% 12.3% 31.9%

Independent of their preferred model of diversity a majorityof Quebecers want to prevent girls from wearing hijabs inpublic schools... Muslim girls wearinghijabs in publicschoolsCompletely AcceptSomewhat AcceptSomewhat OpposeCompletely Oppose...Lemulticulturalisme - sielles lesouhaitent,les minori...Le modèle du"meltingpot" -encourage lemélange etla...Le modèle civil- lesminoritéssontdécouragéesde forme20.7% 14.9% 8.4%23.2% 29.3% 14.2%25.8% 21.6% 24.7%29.9% 34.3% 52.1%

Cohesion and Shared Values• Social cohesionist discourse is veryconcerned with the need to adopt sharedor core values. It does not necessarilyserve as a guide in translating sharedvalues into policy. Paradoxically this is anaccusation that cohesionists level at thosedefending the principle of multiculturalism.Whereas in Britain social cohesiondiscourse does not prohibit the wearing ofthe hijab in France it does.

DK/NA 4.5% 4.4% 1.9% 1.5% 4.2%Cohesionists in Canada are far more likely to favorbanning religion in the public domainEnvironics2006-2000CanadiansSurveyedSomecountrieshavedecided toban thewearing ofheadscarves byMuslimwomen inpublicplaces,includingschools.StronglyagreeDo you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree orstrongly disagree with: f. THERE ARE TOO MANY IMMIGRANTSCOMING INTO THIS COUNTRY WHO ARE NOT ADOPTINGCANADIAN VALUESSomewhatagreeSomewhatdisagreeStronglydisagreeTotalGood idea 55.5% 33.2% 21.0% 15.6% 37.5%Bad idea 34.9% 56.5% 72.5% 79.3% 53.2%Depends 5.2% 5.9% 4.5% 3.6% 5.2%

Whether Canadian Muslims want to adopt customs, remaindistinct or both they have relatively similar levels of pride inMuslim Survey-Environics-2006-500 respondentsWould you say you are very,somewhat, not very, or notat all proud to be aCanadian?being CanadianDo you think most Muslims coming to our country today want toadopt Canadian customs and way of life or do they want to bedistinct from the larger Canadian society?Want to adoptcustomsWant to bedistinctBothTotalVery proud 75.3% 66.1% 66.7% 72.3%Somewhat proud 18.5% 24.3% 28.8% 20.9%Not very proud .4% 2.6% 3.0% 1.4%Not at all proud 1.1% 2.6% 1.2%Depends .4% .2%Not a Candian/do not considerself a Canadian 3.6% 2.6% 1.5% 3.2%DK/NA .7% 1.7% .8%

Canada and AustraliaValue of Diversity

In Canada and Australia respectively those who agree strongly thatIt is impossible forpeople who do not share [Country’s] customs and traditions to become fully [Country’snationality] are least inclined to strongly agree that immigrants s improve society by bringingin new ideas and cultures. Still even those Australians and Canadians that agree stronglythat integration depends upon shared customs and traditions are more likely to valueimmigration than is the case in most other countriesIt is impossible for people who do not share[Country’s] customs and traditions to becomeISSP-20032003-20042004fully [Country’s s nationality]Immigrantsimprove[CountryNationality] society bybringing in new ideasand culturesAustraliaAgreestronglyAgreestronglyAgreeNeither agreenordisagreeDisagreeDisagreestrongly55.5% 71.3 70.8 84.3 90.3Canada35countriesAgreestronglyAgreestrongly47.1 61.8 55.3 78.7 86.030.9% 42.4 40.8%% 57.2% 64.7%

Conclusion• Critics of the idea or message of multiculturalism may ormay not miss the point depending upon how theychoose to define multiculturalism and how they believe itis interpreted by the public. On the other hand thesubstitution of multiculturalism in favor of socialcohesion as a dominant national paradigm also needsdefinition. Cohesionism-in in the public’s s view-seems farless open to difference and its supporters appear tofavor a minimalist notion of rights and freedoms than isthe case for those more favorable to multiculturalism. Inthis regard the evidence presented here suggests thanwhen it comes to their concerns over equality andmutual respect between individuals and communities,the detractors of the social cohesion model do notappear to be missing the point

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