Budapest 2006 -

Budapest 2006 -

Classification ofTrainingExercisesandTargeting ofTrainingObjectivesProf. Dr. Sportwiss. J. Olbrecht, Ph.D.German University of Sports Sciences,Institute for Cardiology and Sports Medicine, Cologne (GER)Artevelde Institute of Higher Education, Ghent (BEL)LEN Coaches Clinic - BudapestAugust 4 th 2006

Present Observation• Are there bad coaches ?Coaches of EC-swimmers are good coaches as itis much easier to break a talented swimmer thanto make a champion. EC-coaches are cleverHowever, some of them are a little bit more clever.They know how to maximise training efficiency.What makes them different?1. make difference between more and less important2. their training meets swimmers' needs= TargetingJ. Olbrecht, 2006

Why targeting ?• maximal exploitation of swimmer's potential- no waste of time nor effort- less risk on injuries/overuse- maximise training efficiencyJ. Olbrecht, 2006

How to target ? - The right “Training Objectives” - The right Exercise”Intensity, Volume, Fraction, Rest” - The right Timing“Training Periodisation” - Systematic and reliable control oftraining adaptations“Steering Principle”J. Olbrecht, 2006

How to target ?Keywords:MEASURING• Define needs & individual adaptation capacity• Control evolutionJ. Olbrecht, 2006

Key measure for ConditioningLactate testBUT!!!!!J. Olbrecht, 2006

Important Note re Lactate Curve16Lactate curve 400m FreestyleLactate14121086420Much more important than to know therelation between speed and lactate is todiscover what originates the lactate curvesLa = 4 mmol/l1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2SpeedOlbrecht 2000

Most Important FindingBasic Drivers that move the Lactate Curve16VLamaxVo 2 maxLactate14121086⇓Anaerobic Capacity Vo VLamaxmaxVo 2 max Vo VLamaxmaxVo 2 max⇓Aerobic Capacity4201 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2SpeedOlbrecht 2000

Most Important FindingHow to explain the shift of a Lactate Curve ????Not 3 solutions :16(classic interpretation)14 Vo 2 max= Vo 2 max Vo 2 max12But 13 solutions :Lactate10(new interpretation)86Vo 2 max &max & VLamax = Vo 2 max &max & VLamaxVo 2max & VLaVLamax = 42= = == 01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2Speed J. Olbrecht, 2003

552 Tests : classic vs new interpretation algorithmDeteriorationImprovement20Shock!!!!ImprovementDeteriorationChanges in VO 2 max [ml/min/kg]100-10-20-.3136(24.6%)130(23.6%)-.2-.1.0183(33.2%)103(18.6%)Changes in Speed at 4mmol/l lactate - 400m [m/s].1.2.3ImprovementDeteriorationDeteriorationImprovementOlbrecht 2000

Capacity and PowerAerobicAnaerobicCapacityVO 2 maxVLamax Assessment conditioning profile Defining training objectives Determining appropriate volume, intensityand periodisationPower%VO 2 max Competition performance%VLamaxJ. Olbrecht, 2005

VO 2 max & VLamaxmax: : Relevance for Maximal Performances- MAX is not always the BEST -• VO 2 max : can never be too highEven for sprinters a very high VO 2 max is very useful• VLamax: must be balancedDepending on:1. Competition distance to preparesprint VLamax may be high / Long Distance VLamax may be much lower2. The higher VO 2 max, , the higher VLamaxmay beJ. Olbrecht, 2003

Framework to classifyTraining Exercises“build up”Capacity“fine tune”PowerAerobicAerobicVO 2 maxcapacity trainingAerobic%VO 2 maxCompetition timepower trainingAnaerobicAnaerobic VLamaxcapacity trainingAnaerobic%VLamaxCompetition timepower trainingOlbrecht J., Schwimmen, Lernen und Optimieren, Vol.7, 1994

Training AdaptationsClassification ApproachTraining Effect• Exercises with differentlayout / intensities mayinduce the same trainingeffectLayout of Exercise• Form-based: Interval exercise,continuous effort, In & Outs, …• Intensity-based: AER1,AER2,..Integration approach (compiles Rest, Fraction, Intensity and Volume)Offers the coach more possibilities to achieve training effectJ. Olbrecht, 2003

Concept for ClassifyingTraining Exercises• Each class groups workouts with the same main classeffect; i.e. inducing the same major biological andfunctional adaptation => 4 classes• Each classe is defined by criteria for:Volume - Intensity - Fraction - Rest• Enables the coach to create “freely” new training setsfor each of the classes, knowing which main trainingeffect to expectJ. Olbrecht, 2002

Classification of Training Exercises - RowingAerobic Anaerobic Aerobic AnaerobicCapacity Capacity Power Power(Endurance Cap.=AEC) (=ANC) (=AEP) (=ANP)ANC-StrengthS W S W S W S WVolume*Long(20-40min)Very High(35-70min)Moderate(10-20min)Short(5-10min)(25min)Long(35min)Short(6-20min) (4-8min)IntervalLong Short(2-10min/cnt) (1-5min/cnt)Short(20-40s)Very Short(15-30s)Short progresses to Long(1-3min) => (3-9min)Short(45s-120s)Intensity*Extensive alternated withshort intensive intervalsNearlymaximalAlloutRace Paceor somewhat fasterAll-out(QUALY + Regeneration)Rest(60-30s)Short(90-60s)Long: 2x effort(40-90s) (40-90s)Short => Very Short(90-60s) => (45-20s)Short(10-20s within 3min)Example6x5min R=60s1,3 Hi SF+Prest very easy4 x (1, 3, 10min)R=20s1 = MAX, 3 = Pand 10 = easy12x30sR=80S2x(3x30s)R=90smax8x250m R=45sto3x750m R=15sSFcomp/+12x300m R=40sto3x1000m R=20sSFcomp/+Brokens / Test Comp.3x(4x15strP) R=10sR=5-10min*depends on conditioning level Sprint and technique are not in this classificationOlbrecht 2006

Multidisciplinary ApproachPSV-Model(swimming)Strength TrainingMetabolic ProfileMedicalNutritionBiomechanic/Hydrodynamic ProfileTraining ObjectiveJ. Olbrecht, 2003

Symbiosis Biomechanics & PhysiologyMech vs Metabolic Power (W)PIETER Pmetadj8501.91.8PIETER PmetadjKLAAS-ERIKPmetadjMetabolic Power (W)7506505504503501. (m/s)JORIS PmetadjKLAAS-ERIK PmetadjNINA PmetadjSOFIE PmetadjJORIS PmetadjPIETER vKLAAS-ERIK vNINA PmetadjJORIS v1.1NINA v2501.040 60 80 100 120 140 160Mechanical Power (W)SOFIE PmetadjSOFIE vJ. Olbrecht, 2003

Interaction Metabolic Profile andNutrition100VO 2maxCaloric Contribution of Fat (%)90807060504030201062.5%VO 2max75.0%VO 2max18161412108642Lactic Acid (mmol/l)= 80 ml/min*kgAthlete A BVLamax 0.2 0.4Extensive EnduranceGlucose Contribution50 VO 2 25% 40%60 VO 240% 70%00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 900VO 2 (ml/min*kg)J. Olbrecht, 2003

Conclusions (1/2)1. Maximising training efficiency is very important tomake a champion.2. Targeting = selection of the "needed" training• objective• exercise• timing (supercompensation(supercompensation)3. Targeting will avoid waste of time and effort, and willreduce risk on injuries/overuse4. Important: objective measures to define needs andto evaluate training effectJ. Olbrecht, 2006

Conclusions (2/2)5. Make difference between the athletes' capacity andpower (aerobic and anaerobic // ...).6. Training exercises can be classified in 4 classes witheach a main as well as secundary training effect7. This classification takes into account the differencebetween capacity and power training objectives.8. Multidisciplinary approach to set priorities- everything is important, but some things more thanothersJ. Olbrecht, 2006

Thanks for your attention,You have a tremendousendurance power !!!!!

More details, examples andapplications for planning,periodizing and optimizingswim training can be foundin:The Science of WinningFor more information contact:Prof. Dr. Sportwiss. . J. Olbrecht, 2000

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