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The History Of Chimpanzee Coryza Agent (Renamed As ... - Whale

The History Of Chimpanzee Coryza Agent (Renamed As ... - Whale

The History Of Chimpanzee Coryza Agent (Renamed As ... -

The History Of Chimpanzee Coryza Agent (Renamed AsRespiratory Syncytial Virus RSV) And Acute RespiratoryDisease In Children.By Viera Schiebner, PhDMorris et al. (1956) described the recovery of a cytopathogenic agent that producedacute respiratory illness in chimpanzees and possibly in human beings. DuringOctober 1955, a respiratory illness characterised by coughing, sneezing, andmucopurulent nasal discharge occurred in a colony of 20 “normal” chimpanzees atthe Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. They named it the chimpanzee coryzaagent.Chanock (1956) wrote on the association of a new type of cytopathogenicmyxovirus with infantile croup. The viruses produced an unusual “sponge-like“cytopathogenic change in monkey kidney tissue culture, isolated from thepharyngeal swabs from 2 of 12 infants with croup. The infants from whom theagents were isolated and 3 additional patients developed significant increases inneutralising or haemoagglutination-inhibition and complement fixing of all 3varieties of antibodies during convalescence.Chanock et al. (1957) and Chanock and Finberg (1957) reported on two isolationsof a similar agent from infants with severe lower respiratory illness(bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis and laryngotracheobronchitis). They also foundserological evidence of infection in a number of additional children from whomthey could not isolate the virus. This infection was shown to occur in a significantportion of outpatients with respiratory infections. The two human viruses wereindistinguishable from an agent associated with an outbreak of coryza inchimpanzees (CCA virus) studied by Morris et al. (1956). A person working withthe infected chimpanzees subsequently experienced respiratory infection and,although virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful, a rise in antibody for CCAvirus was observed during convalescence. They mused that there was a suggestionthat CCA was a virus of human origin, which produced an outbreak of mildrespiratory illness when introduced into a susceptible population of chimpanzees.They proposed a name for this agent “respiratory syncytial virus.”

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