Bed Bugs in the Hospitality Industry andMulti-unit housing:Basic Biology and the Important Role itPlays in Gaining the Upper HandGail M. Getty, M.S.University of California, Berkeley
Contact Information• NATURE.BERKELEY.EDU/UPMC• email@example.com• InsectConsulting@gmail.com
• Things start picking upA Little HistoryMid-Late 90’s• Hotels, motels, apartments, private homes,nursing homes, hospitals office buildings andschools• Hotels appear to be the hardest hit• Multiunit housing biggest increases
At Little History• New York City Dept. ofHealth• San Francisco Dept. ofHealth• 1 in 15 per CDC• 2010/44% increase in 3 yrs• Australia• 1999-2006 / 4,600% increase
• Increased world travelWhy on the Rise?
Why on the Rise?• Changes in Pest Management Practices• Target pest• Broadcast spraying• Training• Chemical resistance• Limited control choices• Self Treating• On line purchases, outdoor products indoors,application rates, spray on person/pets, botanicals• Everyone onboard
Poor recognitionWhy on the Rise?
Why on the Rise?• Local public health have limited resources• Municipal codes, tenants, landlords struggle toidentify those responsible• Delays treatment• Delays training
Why on the Rise?Underground Economy• Rental/Secondhand items• Renovated Mattresses• Subletting• Fear of authorities
Why on the Rise?• REQUIRES EVERYONE TO BE PROACTIVENOT REACTIVE
HOW BIG ARE THEY
Size of Insect
Bed Bugs on a Penny and ScrewHead
What do they look like?
What do they look like?Egg• Eggs “glued” to surfaces• Eggs hatch in 7-10 dayson averageGary Alpert, Harvard University
What about numbers?Eggs• Female lays 1-5 eggs/day• Female lays 200-500 in her lifetime• So…..if you start with 40 bed bugs how manywould you have after 6 months?
• Young nymphs arenearly colorlessWhat they look likeNymphs• What’s a nymph?• Pre-adults or babies
What about Feeding?• Adults -• 1 year with no bloodmeal• Nymphs –• 3 months without a bloodmeal• Leave dark fecal spotsbehind
What about Feeding?• One bug often inflicts multiple bites• Will travel 20+ feet/night to feed• Will feed for 5-10min/spot
Life Cycle - Feeding• Sometimes there is a cessation of bites followinginsecticide treatments.• We don’t know why• May be survival mechanism to avoid treated area• Makes determination of control efficacy difficult
Life Cycle - Adult• Thin with no blood meal• Female can lay eggs from~6-18 months• Egg to egg ~ 2 months• Bed bugs do two things onlyand do them well• Eat and make babies
JUST PLAIN FUN BIOLOGY• Mating via traumaticinsemination
Diseases and Medical Aspects• Theoretically can act as a disease vector, but noevidence to date that there is transmission
Diseases and Medical Aspects• Hepatitis B viral DNA can be detected in BB upto 6 weeks after feeding on infectious blood (notransmission found)
Diseases and Medical Aspects• Hepatitis C is unlikely
Diseases and Medical Aspects• Live HIV can be recovered from BB after 1 hrafter they feed on infected blood, notransmission evidence exists to date.
Clinical Presentations• Allergies to salivaryinjections• Not all persons areallergic• Sleeping partners mayfind only one personshows signs of beingbitten• Most people do not reactwhile being bitten
Clinical Presentations• Most commonly affectedareas arms andshoulders• Reaction to bites maytake up to 9 daysbefore lesions appear• Itching and inflammationis common
Clinical Presentations• Bites mistaken for otherinsects or rashes• Lesions can last for severaldays
Clinical Presentations• Bullous eruptions have beenreported in association withmultiple bites and anaphylaxismay occur in patients withsevere allergies• DO NOT DIAGNOSE
Where they live in your structure• BB cluster together in harborage sites• Extreme infestations lend to seeing BB easier• BB spend more than 90% of life in harborageareas• Leave harborage when driven by hunger
Habits• BB loves cracks/crevices, rough material,unfinished wood, paper, cloth and dark areas• Do not like air movement and will move out ofdrafty locations• Not uncommon to find isolated, alone BB• They usually move via hitchhiking
Habits• Sanitation has little to do with GETTING bedbugs• Sanitation and clutter have significant impact onhow efficiently you can control and infestation
Customer Anxiety• It’s real!!• Handle with care and empathy
Why are Bed Bugs Hard to Control• Technician training on BB is often inadequate• Cooperation from managers, staff, and/orresidences is often lacking• People have unrealisticexpectations• Costs, ease of control
Apartments/Hotels• 28% of time adjacent unit infested• 72% of time adjacent unit infested if one sidehas headboard on it
Early Detection Saves $$$$• Public areas, laundry area, storage areainspections• Staff should be alert in their own home
Costs• Beware of prices too good to believe!!!!!
• BE PROACTIVE!!!Objectives
The Action Plan•Show due-diligence
Thank Youggetty@berkeley.eduhttp://nature.berkeley.edu/upmcGail’s granddaughter