The SAA Archaeological Record - Society for American Archaeology

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The SAA Archaeological Record - Society for American Archaeology

SPECIAL FORUM: LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYtheSAAarchaeological recordNOVEMBER 2012 • VOLUME 12 • NUMBER 5S O C I E T Y F O R A M E R I C A N A R C H A E O L O G Y


See You in Honolulu, HI!April 3–7, 2013 • www.saa.org/annualmeetingJoin the Conversation! Mention #SAA2013 on Twitter, Facebook, and nowInstagram for all Annual Meeting Related PostsPali Lookout, Kailua, Oahu. Photo Credit: Hawaii Tourism Authority (HTA) / Chuck Painter.FORTHCOMING IN 2013!Hawaii’s Past in a Worldof Pacific IslandsBy James M. Bayman and Thomas S. DyeA NEW VOLUME IN THE SAA CONTEMPORARYPERSPECTIVES SERIES


theSAA archaeologicalrecordThe Magazine of the Society for American ArchaeologyVolume 12, No. 5November 2012Editor’s CornerFrom the PresidentIn BriefAnnual Meeting: More than Surf and SandAnnual Meeting: Welcome to Hawaii!Publication Guidelines forThe SAA Archaeological RecordVolunteer Profile: Gwynn HendersonThe SAA’s Historically Underrepresented GroupsScholarships Fund: A New Opportunity and ChallengeManaging the Unexpected: The East St. Louis MoundGroup and the New Mississippi River BridgeCareers in Archaeology:A “Long and Winding Road…”2 Jane Eva Baxter3 Fred Limp4 Tobi A. Brimsek5 Gordon F. M. Rakita7 Kathy Kawelu and James Bayman81011 Diane Gifford-Gonzalez and Anna S. Agbe-Davies17 Thomas E. Emerson and Brad H. Koldehoff23 Ranel Stephenson CapronSPECIAL FORUMLIFE IN RUINS: WORK–LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYsponsored by the committee on the status of women in archaeologyguest editor: sarah barberIntroduction: A Life in Ruins?Work-Life Balance in ArchaeologyYou Want to Go Where for Six Months?Work-Life Balance and International Field ResearchYou Want Me to Move Where?Living with an “Alpha” and Making Your Career WorkLife on the Parenting Track and the Tenure TrackWill You Please Move With Me To…?Work-Life Balance in a Museum SettingDual-Career Couples: A View from the Trenches26 Caryn M. Berg27 Sarah “Stacy” B. Barber29 Heidi Roberts31 Christopher B. Rodning33 Stephen E. Nash35 M. Kathryn (Kat) Brown and Jason YaegerIn Memoriam: Duccio Bonavia BerberIn Memoriam: David A. Fredricksonfinancial statementspositions opencalendar38 Ramiro Matos39 Richard E. Hughes, Gregory G. White, andThomas M. Origer404243


theSAA archaeologicalrecordThe Magazine of the Society forAmerican ArchaeologyVolume 12, No. 5November 2012The SAA Archaeological Record(ISSN 1532-7299) is published fivetimes a year and is edited by JaneEva Baxter. Submissions should besent to Jane Eva Baxter, JBAXTER@depaul.edu, DePaul University,Department of Anthropology, 2343North Racine, Chicago, IL 60614Deadlines for submissions are:December 1 (January), February 1(March), April 1 (May), August 1(September), and October 1(November). Advertising and placementads should be sent to SAAheadquarters, 1111 14th St. NW,Suite 800, Washington, DC 20005.The SAA Archaeological Record isprovided free to members and institutionalsubscribers to AmericanAntiquity and Latin American Antiquityworldwide. The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord can be found on theWeb in PDF format at www.saa.org.SAA publishes The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord as a service to its membersand constituencies. SAA, itseditors and staff are not responsiblefor the content, opinions and informationcontained in The SAAArchaeological Record. SAA, its editorsand staff disclaim all warrantieswith regard to such content,opinions and information publishedin The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord by any individual or organization;this disclaimer includes allimplied warranties of merchantabilityand fitness. In no eventshall SAA, its editors and staff beliable for any special, indirect, orconsequential damages or anydamages whatsoever resulting fromloss of use, data, or profits, arisingout of or in connection with the useor performance of any content,opinions or information includedin The SAA Archaeological Record.Copyright ©2012 by the Society forAmerican Archaeology. All RightsReserved.EDITOR’S CORNERJane Eva BaxterThis month features a wealth of content from the SAA. The Committee on theStatus of Women in Archaeology (COSWA) sponsored this month’s specialforum, which was guest-edited by Sarah Barber. This forum, “Life in Ruins?”features articles on work-life balance in archaeology. In 2005, I wrote an article for TheSAA Archaeological Record that reported on the COSWA-sponsored questions in the2003 Member Needs Assessment Survey (5(4):7–9). Responses revealed that over twothirdsof the male members of the SAA and over half of the women in the SAAbelieved that work-life balance was the most important issue facing women in archaeologyat that time. As the authorship and content of these current articles suggest,engaged parenting by both parents and active careers for both partners means thatbalancing careers and lives beyond careers is a relevant issue for many SAA membersregardless of their gender.Work-life balance also is not an issue exclusive to those who are in a partnership or whomade the choice to have children. If anyone would like to write about issues of worklifebalance that are not related to partnerships or parenting, I’d be happy to includesuch an article in an upcoming issue of the magazine.Content beyond this forum comes from different corners of the SAA as well. The PublicEducation Committee offers its latest installment in the occasional Careers Column,a feature that will appear regularly over the next several issues. Our VolunteerProfile this month features Gwynn Henderson who is half of the dynamic team (alongwith Nicholas Laracuente) behind these continuing columns that build on the March2011 issue of The SAA Archaeological Record on Careers in Archaeology. This issue alsoreports the launch of the new SAA Historically Underrepresented Groups ScholarshipFund, and details the rationale and process behind this important new initiative by theSAA and its individual members. And, if you are not already excited about going toHonolulu for the Annual Meeting, the venue and program reports are certainly enticing.Finally, the new guidelines for The SAA Archaeological Record are available here inprint, and are also available on the SAA website. These guidelines were approved bythe Publications Committee at the Annual Meeting in Memphis and are consistentwith SAA policies. Authors wishing to publish in the magazine should consult theguidelines in preparing their manuscripts, and work with the editor as necessary.Future editors may wish to change the guidelines and/or SAA policy changes mayrequire amendments to the document, and authors should always consult the electronicversion for the most up to date guidelines for publishing in The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord.2 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


FROM THE PRESIDENTFROM THE PRESIDENTFred LimpFred Limp is the President of the Society for American Archaeology.Dear Colleagues:A great “perk” of serving as the President of theSociety is an opportunity to see the extraordinaryrange of activities. I want to share with you informationon a few of these. The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord is another fantastic source of information onwhat’s happening— as is our website and our Facebookpage.Committee MembershipOne of the most important Society activities is serviceon a committee. The call for committee memberswill go out in early November. There are morethan 40 committees, and service is an excellent opportunity tobecome more engaged, to have a better understanding of theSociety’s activities, and to help influence our future directions.In 2009, the Society’s Board initiated a new way of filling membershipson the committees. This is the “open call” approach. Ineach annual open call all members are encouraged to submit anapplication to serve on a committee. Even current committeemembers must re-apply if they would like to serve a secondterm. The application is your opportunity to introduce yourselfand to indicate why you are both interested and capable of servingon the committee. Almost all of SAA’s committee membersare chosen from the pool of these applications. Membership onany committee is available for only two consecutive two-yearterms, after that an individual must rotate off, though they mayrejoin the committee later. The objective of this system is toopen the committees to the widest possible participation. In ourSociety-wide needs assessment, more than 40 percent of themembers said they wanted to serve on a committee, and thisstrategy has been developed to make that possible. But itdepends upon you— please take the time to submit a thoughtfulapplication. Even if you are currently serving on a committeeyou must again submit an application to serve a second term.The committee’s Board liaison and the committee chair maketheir selections from the pool of applications. We recognize thatfor many committees there may be more applications thanthere are slots in the committee. If you are not selected— don’tbe discouraged— remember that every year new slots open up.Remember also that you may apply at one time to two committees.With very few exceptions all committees have atleast two student members— so if you’re a studentplease consider applying. It’s a great way to becomemore knowledgeable about the Society and frankly todevelop lifetime connections.The Society is a volunteer organization and we havea truly exceptional group of volunteers. If you are notalready I encourage you to join this group— I thinkyou will find it immensely rewarding.Online Journals and New DevelopmentsThis year the board authorized the implementationof new online journal options. The complete contentsof both American Antiquity and Latin American Antiquityare available to the members on the web immediately uponpublication— as are the last two years. To access them you onlyneed to log on to the SAA’s website with your member login. Inthe latest issue of Latin American Antiquity supplemental digitalmaterial has also been added to the web. Recommendations fora comprehensive strategy for supplemental digital materials,color photos, video, databases, etc. are now under review by theBoard. Planning is also underway for a digital version of CurrentResearch.Chimney Rock National MonumentAlong with many other groups and individuals, the Society, viathe Government Affairs Committee, strongly supported the designationof the Chimney Rock National Monument. We aredelighted that President Obama has designated the area as anational monument. Our thanks to all of the Society membersand all of those who worked so hard to make this happen.New Meeting Submission SystemThose submitting abstracts for the Hawaii meeting were thefirst to use our new meeting submissions technology. This hasallowed our abstracts to now be 200 words. The system was alsodesigned to increase the ease of submission and reduce thecomplexities. The submission process for this year’s meetingwas the smoothest so far and the numbers were among thelargest we’ve experienced.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record3


IN BRIEFIN BRIEFTobi A. BrimsekTobi A. Brimsek is executive director for the Society for American Archaeology.SAA Is Returning to Latin America!August 2014 has been selected for the 2 a Conferencia Intercontinentalin Lima, Peru. The exact dates will be announced once thelocation has been contracted. The Conferencia Intercontinentalis a unique meeting designed to bring SAA and Latin Americanstogether. The first was held in Panama City, Panama this pastJanuary and was extremely well received. For the most part, all ofthe materials developed about and for the Conferencia have beenin Spanish, as Spanish is the sole language for the meeting.Watch the SAAweb Home Page for the details on submitting forand attending this meeting. ¡Nos vemos en Lima en 2014!SAA 2013 BallotThe 2013 SAA ballot link will be sent to all members the firstweek in January via email. If the Society does not have youremail address, or if the email bounces back, a postcard withinstructions on how to access the ballot material will be mailed.To help ensure the efficiency of the web-based balloting system,please remember to update your email address in the Members’section of SAAweb (www.saa.org) or by emailing your updated/current email address to the SAA staff at membership@saa.org.Most importantly, please make sure that the ballot email fromelections@vote-now.com makes it through your spam filters!Committee Service—It’s Time to Volunteer!Two years ago, the Society began a new way to populate its committeeswith volunteers. In order to open the process to themembership, each November the Society puts out a web-basedcall for volunteers for SAA committee service. This Novemberthe call will be put out for committee vacancies beginning at theclose of the Business Meeting at the 2013 Honolulu meeting.Committee terms are generally two years. You may submit up totwo separate interest forms each November. If you are seekinga reappointment to a committee, you are also required to applythrough the open call and submit a form. Board policy allowsfor a member to serve up to two consecutive terms on the samecommittee. The exception is all awards committees, where nomember is eligible for a second term.The committee interest form does include a question for eachpotential volunteer to address: Please describe your experiences,skills and/or interests that are relevant to the committee’s charge.Your response is one way for the committee chair and Boardliaison to get to know you and your potential contributions tothe work of the committee.Please be aware that there are generally more volunteers thanavailable slots. Decisions from among the volunteers are madewith the input of the committee chair by the Board liaison to thecommittee. With the open call, the Board instituted a selectionprocess that involved the Board liaisons, rather than all committeeappointments resting with the President and the chair.One goal of the selection process is to ensure the diversity ofperspectives on the committee. Please watch for the emailannouncement of the open call in early November. Thank youfor considering volunteering on a committee.Honolulu 2013 Annual MeetingPlease plan ahead to attend the 78th Annual Meeting of theSociety for American Archaeology in Honolulu, HI. The headquartershotel for the meeting is the Hilton Hawaiian Village,which is about a 12–15 minute walk from the Hawaii ConventionCenter, where all of the sessions and the Exhibit Hall willbe scheduled. Three properties have been contracted exclusivelyfor SAA student attendees: Aqua Palms Waikiki, RamadaPlaza Waikiki, and the Ambassador Hotel, Waikiki. A link willbe established for an airport shuttle service for which advancereservations will be required. Discounts on two air carriers havebeen arranged. For details and the most current logistical information,please check out www.saa.org and click the appropriatelink for the 78th Annual Meeting. The preliminary program willbe mailed in late December and posted online in mid-December.Don’t miss the array of workshops, excursions, and specialevents such as the Saturday night lu’au at the Bishop Museum.Honolulu will surely provide a memorable experience to the2013 Annual Meeting attendees, especially given that the numberof submissions received for this meeting is the second highestever!4 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMORE THAN SURF AND SANDGordon F.M. RakitaGordon Rakita is the Program Chair for the SAA 78th Annual Meeting.Aloha! As I write, the Program Committee is diligentlyreviewing and organizing the over 800 individual paperabstracts and nearly 300 contributed posters that havebeen submitted. Additionally, the committee will be scheduling160 organized symposia, 18 poster sessions, and 13 forums. Asmy predecessors have often remarked, being Program Chair forthe meetings is an eye opening experience. While I, like theother committee members, am reviewing in detail my portionof abstracts, I also am getting a chance to see the full sweep oftopics, methods, geographic regions, and theoretical perspectivesbeing explored by Archaeologists from around the globe.Many years ago, when submissions to American Antiquity andLatin American Antiquity were sent via snail-mail, the editors ofthese journals had a tradition of remarking at the Annual Meetingsupon the most interesting/unusual/creative use of postage.Alas that tradition has gone extinct with the new online submissionsystem. By way of substitution, I offer the following listof interesting/unusual/creative titles from the 2013 meeting:How to Make Stone Soup: Paleolithic Archaeology and the “PaleoDiet”; Hide and Seek: Children in Ancient Maya Art and Iconography;What a Waist: Examining Dimensions in Victorian EraCorsetry; It’s the Pits!: Optimal Field Methods for the Location andExcavation of Prehistoric Roasting Pits in the Jornada Mogollon;Knee Deep in Paul Revere’s Privy: Archaeology of the Paul RevereHouselot, Boston, Massachusetts; and Amelia Earhart’s Last Meal?A Review of Zooarchaeological Evidence from a Castaway Camp onNikumaroro.Of course, the Hawaii venue allows more of our colleagues fromAsia to join us and it’s no wonder that the sessions from theseareas are numerous. Some highlights include a double sessionon the origins, spread, and development of metallurgy in SoutheastAsia and Southwest China, a session that reviews the stateof Mongolian cultural heritage, a session focused on the bioarchaeologyof northeast Asia, a session examining the applicationof historical archaeology to the Khmer and other southeast Asianstates, and a group of papers exploring the cultural sequence ofHokkaido Island, Japan. Of course it would not be an SAA meetingin Hawaii if there weren’t a generous helping of sessionsfrom around the Pacific Rim and Oceania. These include a doublesession on theoretical and methodological issues of Oceaniccolonization, a session highlighting historical archaeology in thePacific, a forum that explores the ways Native Hawaiian communitieshave and are transforming archaeological practice, anda symposium developing global perspectives on the Archaeologyof Islands. If these and other organized sessions are not enoughfor you, relax— there are an additional forty individual Oceaniapapers that will be presented in Honolulu.Not to be outdone, our colleagues working in Mesoamerica havesubmitted over twenty organized symposia. These sessionscover a range of sites from Monte Albán to Chichén Itzá andfrom the Tuxtlas Mountains to Cerén, El Salvador. Themesinclude social inequality, multiethnic population centers, powerand identity, funeral contexts, iconography, population mobility,households, and political economy. Our meeting will alsoinclude over ten sessions from South America including paperson Amazonian archaeology, Nasca society, the formative periodat Chavín de Huantar, Tiwanaku temples, multidisciplinaryresearch on Ecuadorian prehistory, and the Inka landscape inthe Cusco Valley. The program committee will certainly work ashard as possible to make sure these regionally themed sessionsdo not all get scheduled at the same time, but we know therewill be some overlaps and thus difficult choices for you aboutwhich sessions to attend. However, I am happy to report that allpaper sessions will be held in twenty-seven rooms on the samefloor of the Hawaii convention center.If you become overheated in the Hawaiian sun, you can alwaysattend the “35 Years of History and Archaeology on the IditarodNational Historic Trail” session. Cultural Resource Managementsessions explore large-scale hydroelectric projects, theNavajo-Gallup water supply project, and CRM on military installations.Several sessions honor notable archaeologists includingLeigh Kuwanwisiwma, Patrick Kirch, Henry Wright, Bill Isbell,Ken Ames, Anthony Aveni, Richard Gould, and Bernard Wailes.Bioarchaeology and forensic archaeology are well representedwith a paper entitled “Clandestine Burials of U.S. Personnel inDien Ban District, Vietnam” and a session on “Children andChildhood in the Past: Exploring Biological and Social Transformationsof Children in Antiquity through Emerging BioarchaeologicalMethod and Theory.” Equally common are papers usingevidence from mortuary contexts and a session titled: “Per-November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record5


78TH ANNUAL MEETINGforming Death: Archaeologies of FuneraryDrama in Early Medieval Europe.” Gender andgender theory figures prominently in manypresentations, for example the “Up Close andPersonal: Gendered Materialities and theComplexity of Situated Knowledge in theEveryday Life” session. Archaeologists areoften on the bleeding edge of new technologyand several sessions highlight this including asession on mobile computing in the field andone by Indiana University of Pennsylvaniagraduate students on using new technology.Other things that you should definitely put onyour “must attend” list include the PresidentialForum on Wednesday evening entitled “TheFuture of Archaeology: Engagement withDescendant Communities.” Participants willexplore the intersections between the differingepistemologies of archaeologists and descendants,and how archaeological practice is beingchanged to meet the needs of both groups.Please also make sure to schedule your Fridayevening dinner plans late enough for you toattend the 5:00 pm annual Business Meeting.This is a great opportunity to hear what newinitiatives the Board of Directors are exploring,reports of some of the reports Society’s officers,and the presentation of awards. Ofcourse, there will be a cash bar at the meeting,so it won’t have to cut into your post-sessioncocktail hour.The 2013 Annual meetings in Honolulu promisesto be one of our biggest meetings ever.With abstract submissions second only toMemphis, there will be no shortage of papers,symposia, forums, and posters to see. But our2013 and 2012 meetings have another connectionbesides being our largest to date: bothlocations boast former homes of Elvis Presley.While Memphis has its Graceland, Hawaii hasa grand estate on the North Shore where theKing stayed when filming in Hawaii. So just aslast year we promised you “No Cause for Bluesin Memphis” I can assure you that whetheryou are an Elvis fan or not, there will be noBlue Hawaii.Waikiki beach and Leahi (Diamond Head). Photo credit: Hawaii Tourism Authority (HTA) /Tor Johnson6 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


78TH ANNUAL MEETINGWELCOME TO HAWAI’I!Kathy Kawelu and James BaymanKathy Kawelu (University of Hawai‘i–Hilo) and James Bayman (University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa)are the chairs of the local advisory committee for the 78th Annual Meeting.SAA visitors to Hawai‘i will encounter an abundance ofopportunities to witness and experience our rich history,heritage, and beautiful island landscapes.Memorial that is administrated by the National Park Service tocommemorate the 1,177 men and women who died on December7, 1941.Many archaeologists will be attracted to state and federal parkson O‘ahu and elsewhere in the archipelago, where heiau(Hawaiian religious monuments) and other Hawaiian culturalsites can be experienced. The Pali Lookout, 5 miles northeast ofHonolulu, offers a spectacular view of the windward coast. Keepdriving past the lookout and you’ll reach Ulupō Heiau State HistoricSite, where this ancient heiau sits next to taro gardenstended by a local communitygroup. Travelers with more timecan take inter-island trips to culturalsites on Kaua‘i (Wailua RiverState Park) and Hawai‘i Island(Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National HistoricSite, Pu‘uhonua O HōnaunauNational Historical Park,Lapakahi State Historical Park).Inter-island air service is frequentand easily arranged by visitorswishing to experience more ofHawaii’s island cultures and naturalscenery.The first Hawaiian ruler to politicallyunify the archipelago, Kamehameha,is memorialized in astatue just steps away from his former compound in Honolulu.Those interested in Hawaii’s “post-contact” history will want tovisit ‘Iolani Palace, across the street from the Kamehameha statue,constructed in the late 19th century under the direction ofKing David Kalākaua, the Merrie Monarch. Or visit QueenEmma’s Summer Palace in Nu‘uanu Valley, the Victorian Periodretreat of Alexander Liholiho, King Kamehameha IV, and hisqueen and their son.SAA visitors with an interest in World War II history will wantto visit the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center and the USS ArizonaPu‘ukohalā heiau (temple) constructed by Kamehamha, the first Hawaiianruler to politically unify the archipelago. Credit: National Park Service.Experience the many cultures of Hawai‘i through our food.Grab some manapua (char siu bao, pork-filled steameddumplings) in Chinatown, or poke (raw fish) at Tamashiro Market.Walk to Ke‘eaumoku Street for some excellent Korean food.Or drive out to Kahuku on the North Shore for fresh shrimp,prepared in one of the many roadside shrimp trucks. Don’t forgetthe Portuguese malasadas from Leonard’s Bakery, or the Filipinocascaron for desert. TheSaturday morning Ala MoanaFarmer’s Market is only a fewblocks away from the ConventionCenter, stop there for some Konacoffee in the morning. Of coursewe’ll serve delicious Hawaiianfood at the SAA lū‘au on Saturdaynight at the Bishop Museum.Finally, visitors longing for theoutdoors can take surfing lessonsfrom the renowned WaikīkīBeach Boys, or snorkel with arainbow of fishes at HanaumaBay. Enjoy one of the countlesshiking trails throughout theislands, such as the famedKalalau trail on the Nā Pali Coast of Kaua‘i. Witness the awesomebeauty of sunrise at the summit of Haleakalā, Maui, orstargaze on the slopes of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i Island. For a trueget-away travel to the islands of Lāna‘i or Moloka‘i, where thepace of life slows, and the need for stop-lights don’t burdenthese communities. Or just find a spot near the ocean whereyou can tune in to the rhythm of the waves, and allow the pulseof island life calm you. Whether you’re interacting with peopleor place, allow yourself to appreciate the pace of life here, andthe unique mixture of cultures in our island home.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record7


SAA PUBLICATIONSPUBLICATION GUIDELINES FOR THE SAAARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORDAPPROVED BY THE SAA PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE IN APRIL 2012Launched in January 2001, The SAA Archaeological Record isissued five times a year, and is available in PDF format onthe SAA website. It is a four-color magazine encompassingSAA business, commentary, news, regular columns, job listings,opinions, forums, and articles. The magazine is not a peerreviewedpublication and does not currently have an editorialboard. Each Editor volunteers to serve a three-year term and isselected by the Board from among the SAA membership. TheManaging Editor is a member of the SAA staff. The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord replaced The SAA Bulletin, which was publishedfrom 1993–2000. The SAA Publications Committee approvedthese guidelines in April 2012 at the Annual Meetings in Memphis,TN.Submission Deadlines and DetailsThe SAA Archaeological Record publishes articles and forums ofinterest to the organization’s diverse membership, and is theSAA’s primary way of proactively reaching all of its memberswith organizational news and business. Authors wishing topublish in The SAA Archaeological Record should consider theappeal of their topic to the SAA’s professional, avocational, andstudent membership, and are encouraged to contact the Editorregarding potential articles, forums, and ideas for publication.Submissions and inquiries should be sent to the current Editor.Contact information for the current Editor may be found insidethe front page of each issue of the magazine and on the SAAwebsite. Electronic copies of manuscripts are preferred. Manuscriptsshould be sent as Microsoft Word documents.Deadlines for time-sensitive materials including Letters to theEditor, Obituaries, and pieces for “News and Notes” and the Calendarare as follows: December 1 (January), February 1 (March),April 1 (May), August 1 (September), and October 1 (November).News and Notes and Calendar items are published on a spaceavailablebasis.The Editor does not solicit obituaries for publication, butmemorials of colleagues are welcomed as submissions to themagazine. Individuals wishing to write a memorial piece shouldcontact the Editor as soon as they are able.Book reviews are published in SAA journals and are not a featureof The SAA Archaeological Record.The above deadlines do not apply to authors wishing to publishan article in or organize a forum for the magazine. Generally,articles are published in the order the Editor accepts them; however,the Editor reserves the right to publish accepted materialsin a manner that enhances content and accommodates timesensitivematerial from the SAA and its members. Most articlesare published within a year of their acceptance.Forums may be proposed at any time, and should include anabstract as well as a list of potential contributors. The Editor willevaluate the proposal, and if accepted the forum will be scheduledfor publication in a specific issue of the magazine. The Editorwill issue a deadline for forum participants. Most forums arepublished within a year of their acceptance. It is the responsibilityof the forum organizer/guest editor to communicate relevantpolicies and procedures to contributors, to collect the manuscriptsfrom contributors and provide them to the Editor, andto review the manuscripts to be sure authors have followed theguidelines and style guide for the magazine prior to submittingthem to the Editor.Advertising and placement ads should be sent to the manager,Membership and Marketing (advertising@saa.org), SAA headquarters,1111 14th St. NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20005.Submission Lengths and Style GuideItems for News and Notes and the Calendar should be between50–150 words. Longer pieces and pieces with artwork cannot beaccepted.8 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


SAA PUBLICATIONSObituaries should be kept to 650 words including selected bibliographies.A single photograph may accompany memorialpieces.Article lengths vary, and authors are encouraged to contact theeditor to negotiate an appropriate word count for their article.Most articles are kept to fewer than 2,500 words, although occasionallyitems up to 4,500 words are accepted for publication.Longer articles generally are subjected to longer wait times forpublication.Because The SAA Archaeological Record is a magazine and not apeer-reviewed journal, authors are encouraged strongly to keepbibliographic citations to a minimum and to focus their contentaccordingly. If an extended bibliography is required, a selectedbibliography may be published in the magazine and an author’scontact information furnished for those wishing to acquire afull list of citations.The magazine does not publish abstracts, keywords, or summarieswith articles, and these items do not need to be submitted.New courses offered bythe University of ColoradoCenter for Cognitive Archaeology• History of Cognitive Archaeology Since 1969withProf. Thomas Wynn, University of Colorado• Cognitive Evolution with Profs. Thomas Wynnand Frederick L. Coolidge, University of Colorado• Neandertal Cognitionwith Profs. Thomas Wynnand Frederick L. Coolidge, University of Colorado• Paleoneurology with Prof. Emiliano Bruner,Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre laEvolución Humana, Burgos, Spain• Rock Art and Modern Cognition with Prof. IainDavidson, Emeritus Professor, University of NewEngland, New South Wales, Australia• Symbolic Evolution with Prof. April Nowell,University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada• Language Typology and Universals inRelation to Language Origins, Cognition,and Social Discourse with Prof. Linda Watts,University of ColoradoThese 3 credit courses are a ailable online at both theThese 3-credit courses are available online at both theundergraduate and graduate levels. Sign up through theCollege of Letters, Arts and Sciences Extended Studies.Enroll now or ask questions:Contact: bglach@uccs.edu or twynn@uccs.eduWeb: www.uccs.edu/~lases or www.uccs.edu/~cca/Authors should otherwise follow the SAA Style Guide availableon the SAA website.Photographs and ImagesHigh-quality color images are encouraged with each submissionto The SAA Archaeological Record. The number of images issubject to approval by the Editor, but as a general rule between3–5 images is considered ideal for the magazine format.All photographs, images, and other figures submitted must beat least 300 dpi in resolution at 7 inches wide (4 megapixels).Written permission must be obtained from the copyright holder(usually the photographer), and also from each individualdepicted in a recognizable fashion in the image. For furtherquestions about copyright permissions, please contact the managingeditor at publications@saa.orgSingle images for the cover are welcome from all SAA members,whether or not they are authors in the magazine. Magazineimages must also have at least a 300 dpi resolution when theimage is expanded to a 9” x 12” size (2700 x 3600 pixels, or 9megapixels).November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record9


VOLUNTEER PROFILEvolunteer profile:Gwynn HendersonThe timing of Editor Jane Eva Baxter’sinvitation couldn’t have been better. Inpreparing this essay, I have discovered,much to my amazement, that when Inext attend the Annual Meeting(which will be in 2014), it will be thefirst time in two decades that I will notbe a member of any SAA committee!Much to my chagrin, my current termas an advisor to the Public EducationCommittee (PEC) is ending, and I cannotrenew it given the new membershiprules. Jane’s request has given me an opportunity to reflecton my volunteer experience in a formal way. It’s unlikely I wouldhave done so otherwise. Thank you, Jane!My SAA volunteering began in 1992, with a short stint on theGovernment Affairs Committee. Site protection and site preservationissues were hot topics for me at that time: I had recentlyestablished a site stewardship program for privately ownedarchaeological sites in Kentucky. Acting on an informal invitationfrom a committee member, I sat-in on a meeting, and then,I joined. I remember it being as simple as saying, “I’d like tobecome a member.”It was fascinating to hear about the issues and challenges facingarchaeology on a national level and to be part of a conversationconcerning how the SAA should respond. But, I didn’t feel I hadenough experience in Section 106 regulations or in handlinggovernment issues at the state and federal level to be a usefuland active member. So, I left the committee and wished it goodluck in its important work.Through my work with the site stewardship program, I hadbegun to realize that archaeologists needed to do a much betterjob of reaching out to, educating, and enlisting the public in ourefforts to protect and preserve archaeological sites. And, I hadheard about another committee: the PEC. As I had before, Iacted on an informal invitation from a committee member andsat-in on a meeting. WOW! Members talked about educationprojects they were involved with in their respective states andabout effective teaching tools and approaches. They discussedand worked on committee projects and initiatives like theArchaeology and Public Education Newsletter, Native Americaneducation, a network of state/provincial archaeology educationcoordinators, and improving university undergraduate education.It was instantly clear— I had found a home in the Society.I joined the PEC in 1995, the same year I became EducationCoordinator for the Kentucky Archaeological Survey. And therest, as they say, is history.What did I do as a PEC member? All kinds of things! I served(still will) as the Education Network Coordinator for Kentucky. Iprepared content for the Archaeology for the Public webpages.As part of a membership survey project, I conducted interviewswith Society members to learn about their perspectives on publicarchaeology/education. I chaired and organized a workshopabout education programs evaluation. I co-chaired the Careersin Archaeology project. I offered my insights and perspectivesfrom Kentucky on topics large and small considered by theCommittee.And what I gained personally was invaluable. I networked withcolleagues and participated in real discussions and idea sharingon topics and issues of deep importance to me. I also receivedprofessional development in many aspects of education (and anew vocabulary). I discovered a new and stimulating researchfocus— how kids learn about the past— on which I have sincepublished. And I improved my ability to communicate theresults of my archaeological research to the public.And oh my goodness, the people I’ve met! It’s funny, but I thinkof them as “new” friends (after all, I did meet many of them inmy early 40s), but that is a misnomer. They are old friends, now,in the very best sense of the term.So, what’s the take-away message from this “reflective piece”?Find a committee with a mission that resonates with you. Thenvolunteer. It will change your life in ways you cannot imagine!10 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


SAA COMMITTEESTHE SAA’S HISTORICALLY UNDERREPRESENTEDGROUPS SCHOLARSHIPS FUNDA NEW OPPORTUNITY AND CHALLENGEDiane Gifford-Gonzalez and Anna S. Agbe-Davies (with assistance from Tiffiny Tung)Diane Gifford-Gonzalez is at the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz and can be reached at (dianegg@ucsc.edu).Anna S Agbe-Davies is at the Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and can be reached at (agbedavi@email.unc.edu).The Society for American Archaeology’s Mission Statementasserts that “to serve the public interest, SAA seeks thewidest possible engagement with all segments of society,”and its Statement on Diversity says that the SAA “is committedto promoting diversity in our membership, in our practice, andin the audiences we seek to reach through the dissemination ofour research” (http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/tabid/54/Default.aspx). Notwithstanding these aims, some groups havebeen, and continue to be, underrepresented in archaeology andin the SAA. More significantly, failing proactive recruitmentefforts, this demographic imbalance may become even morestark in coming decades.The SAA Board of Directors recognized these issues severalyears ago by setting up a Diversity Initiatives Task Force, whichsubmitted its recommendations in 2011 (Rogers et al. 2011),and by creating the Minority Scholarships Committee (MSC).In principles and objectives, the MSC roughly parallels theNative American Scholarship Committee. By its charge, theMSC, “oversees the Historically Underrepresented GroupsScholarships program by developing guidelines and policy, publicizingthe program, selecting the recipients, monitoring theprogram, and recommending changes in guidelines as needed.”These are “intended to encourage members of underrepresentedethnic minorities to complete archaeological field schoolsand to pursue undergraduate and graduate degrees in archaeology,thereby contributing to diversity in American archaeology.”The MSC strategy is modeled on the successful Native AmericanScholarship Fund’s incrementally developed field school,undergraduate, and graduate awards.As members of the MSC, we’d like to sketch why supporting theHistorically Underrepresented Groups Scholarship fund is notjust “doing the right thing” but also a way to practically assurethe SAA’s future relevance and vitality. Being archaeologists, wewill give you some data to support our assertions.Demography: USA and Canada in the Twenty-First CenturyThe 2010 U.S. Census (Humes et al. 2011:4 Table 1) indicatesthat 63.7 percent of the U.S. population identify themselves asnon-Hispanic white (Figure 1). Since 2000, this group had theslowest growth (1.2 percent) of any census category for race 1and ethnicity. Faster-growing census categories include AfricanAmerican (12.3 percent growth since 2000), Asian (43.3 percentgrowth), Pacific Islander (35.4 percent growth), two or moreraces (32 percent growth), and Hispanic or Latino (43 percentgrowth). Projections suggest that these trends will continue inthe next decades, regardless of shifts in immigration rates (Ortmanand Guarneri 2009).The recruiting pool for future archaeologists is rapidly changing.The 2010 census showed that 46.5 percent of US residents under18 identified with a census category other than non-Hispanicwhite (Groves et al. 2011: 22). This K-12 demographic is thefuture of our discipline (Figure 2). Specifically for the SAA, thedata presage a dramatic demographic shift toward groups fromwhich very few archaeologists have been recruited in the past.The SAA’s 1994 Member Survey of over 1,600 members providedthe first well-documented baseline for assessing demographictrends, including ethnicity, in North American archaeology.Zeder’s analysis noted that the surveyprovides empirical support for the impression one getsattending any major archaeological gathering in NorthAmerica, that American archaeologists are a homogenousgroup composed almost exclusively of people ofEuropean ancestry. People of Hispanic, African American,Native American, or Asian ancestry make up only 2 percentof respondents [Zeder 1997:9, emphasis ours].Zeder (1997:13) concluded that, though archaeology aims toNovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record11


SAA COMMITTEEScycle out of active participation in the SAA. Among surveyedarchaeologists under 35, 82 percent identify as non-Hispanicwhite. Absent significant new recruitment, 10 years from now,the membership of the Society will probably still be predominantlywhite, with even higher proportions of this ethnic groupamong its senior leadership. Viewed in the context of the 2010demographic profile for U.S. K-12 students, the disparitybetween SAA membership and societal composition maybecome more pronounced in two decades.Figure 1. Distribution of racial and ethnic groups in the 2010 census data.“Asian” and “Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander” categories combined forconsistency with Figure 3. Hispanic/Latino ethnic category includes a diversityof racial self-identifications. Source: Humes et al. 2011.understand diversity in the past, the North American disciplineis “starkly homogeneous.”Canada, home to 4.6 percent of current SAA members, has alsoseen dramatic changes in ethnic composition. In Canada, Eastand South Asians comprise the preponderance of non-FirstNation minorities. These minorities increased from about 4.7percent of Canada’s total population in 1981 to around 16.2 percentin 2006 (Statistics Canada 2008). Between 2001 and 2006alone, this population segment grew at five times the 5.4 percenttotal population growth rate (Statistics Canada 2008).One could claim that, because the percentage of non-whitemembers has increased at an increment of close to one percentper year since 1994, that these demographic patterns “naturally”will produce greater ethnic diversity in the SAA, with yet another16 percent of members recruited from non-white groups inanother 16 years, bringing the society closer to US nationaldemographics.However, one can also argue from the data that, failing proactiverecruitment, incremental progress will still leave the society wellout of balance with national demographic composition by 2028,when a majority of college-age people will be from non-whiteethnic groups. A laissez-faire perspective also does not considerthat the one percent per year growth may fall off, due to the differentiallyheavier impacts on minority families of college-eligiblestudents of the home mortgage debacle, parental layoffs in apoor jobs market, and recent, steep increases in state collegetuitions (College Board 2011). As is the case with entry intosmall business ownership, members of minority groups are differentiallyaffected by economic downturns, due to markedlyThe Canadian Archaeological Association has not conductedsurveys comparable to those conducted by the SAA, nor does itrequest ethnic affiliation data from its members, but Canadianmembers of the MSC believe it unlikely that the ethnic compositionof archaeological professionals is keeping up with thesedemographic trends.The SAA’s 2002 and 2010 Needs Assessment Surveys (Societyfor American Archaeology 2003, 2011) indicate that ethnic balancewithin the SAA has changed somewhat since 1994, withabout 16 percent of current membership identifying as membersof groups other than non-Hispanic white (Figure 3). However,the increase from two percent in 1994 to 16 percent in2010 is not keeping pace with the present or projected demographiccomposition of North America. Moreover, close study ofthe by-age breakdown in the 2010 survey indicates that the 84percent “non-Hispanic white” segment of the SAA is not simplya Baby Boom effect that will shift to a more ethnically diversecomposition when that generation’s many senior membersFigure 2. Distribution of racial and ethnic groups among youth under 18years of age in the 2010 census data. “Asian” and “Native Hawaiian/PacificIslander” categories combined for consistency with Figure 3. Hispanic/Latinoethnic category includes a diversity of racial self-identifications. Source:Humes et al. 2011.12 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


SAA COMMITTEESarchaeology may wane— and with it, a commitment to conservingnational archaeological heritage.Figure 3. Distribution of self-identified ethnicities in the 2010 SAA NeedsAssessment Survey (Q4, N=3012). Source: https://ecommerce.saa.org/saa/staticcontent/staticpages/survey10/index.cfm.lower median levels of family income (College Board 2011: 24)and familial wealth accumulation (Fairlie 2008).Does It Matter?One could argue that this is simply an ethical problem and thatthe correct action is for the Society as a whole to live up to thegoals of its mission statement by increasing the diversity of itsmembership. Another argument for proactively recruitingunderrepresented groups is that, as we have learned from thegreater participation of women and Native Americans/First Peoplesin the profession, diversity among archaeologists significantlyenriches our ability to generate self-critical theory andmethod (Leone and Preucel 1992).If these worthy goals are not sufficiently compelling, then considerthat anyone who values the SAA’s role in protecting Americanarchaeological heritage should view building a sociallydiverse membership as a practical strategy for maintaining thesociety’s relevance in the twenty-first century. Promoting publicappreciation and preservation of our archaeological heritage is acentral goal of North America’s archaeological societies. Regionaland national archaeological societies have made archaeologyand the deep American past relevant to many North Americansof European ancestry, thereby positively influencing culturalresource legislation and implementation. Incorporating morepersons from groups historically underrepresented in archaeologywill enable the discipline to continue prospering and contributingintelligibly in our increasingly diverse political contexts.Without establishing its relevance with other communities,the SAA’s painstakingly nurtured public appreciation ofWhat Kind of Scholarships?As one of several tactics to recruit a broader segment of societyinto archaeology, the MSC has proposed to the Board that theawards eventually parallel those of the Native American ScholarshipFund. The NASC originally focused on field schools butit quickly became apparent that a wider range of needs existed.Support now includes college tuition, books and supplies, andsimilar expenses. However, the MSC believes that summer fieldschool scholarships for college-age students from historicallyunderrepresented groups are centrally important. Archaeologicalfield training is an unofficial prerequisite for entry into graduateprograms and entry-level public archaeology jobs. TheMSC surveyed Canada/US and domestic college-sponsoredoverseas field school costs for 27 programs in 2011. The averageexpected student expenditure for a field school offering academiccredit was around $5,800 (Figure 4). When one eliminatesoverseas field schools— these ranged from Antigua-Barbudato Ethiopia— domestic field school costs average a healthy$3,530. However, this is only part of the cost of field training.Few college financial aid packages cover summer coursework orlab and field training outside the regular academic year, makingsuch study an out-of-pocket expense. Moreover, the timerequired for rigorous field instruction, even if near home, isusually incompatible with paid employment. Even working atminimum wage, a student could gross around $4,600 in a 16-week summer. In combination, these facts present many studentsfrom low-income backgrounds with a major economicbarrier to intensified participation in archaeology. This may beespecially true for students who are the first in their families toattend university, who come from communities where archaeologyis an unusual career choice, or whose families or universityfinancial aid programs expect them to earn a share of collegeexpenses over the summer. Thus, a field school scholarshippackage should go toward offsetting both the program cost andthe financial losses incurred through participation in field training.The Native American Scholarship Committee (NASC) haslong acknowledged this fact in their well-established Scholarshipsfor Archaeological Training.The NASC has supported Native American students’ entry intocareers as anthropological archaeologists for nearly twodecades. Using income from the donation-based Native AmericanScholarship Fund, the National Science Foundation grants,book royalty donations, and proceeds of its Silent Auction atSAA Annual Meetings, the NASC regularly offers field trainingscholarships ( now up to $5,000), as well as some undergraduateeducational scholarships (up to $5,000), and graduate fel-November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record13


SAA COMMITTEESFigure 4. Costs of 2011 public and private institution archaeological summer field schools, from MSC survey of advertised schools. Overseas field schools notedwith an asterisk.lowships (up to $10,000). The Historically UnderrepresentedGroups Scholarship effort would be designed to establish soundfunding for its scholarships and to pursue all possible avenuesfor developing higher education.Minority Scholarships Committee’s FunctionsTo swiftly offer a parallel set of scholarship opportunities to studentsfrom historically underrepresented groups without waitingdecades for an endowment fund to reach critical mass, theSAA Board of Directors implemented an annual fund for thescholarships, allowing scholarships to be given directly fromdonated funds, rather than solely from interest earnings. Meanwhile,the MSC is pursuing other lines of fundraising. 2 TheMSC has a representative, Jason de Leon, on the SAA FundraisingCommittee.The MSC has developed a scholarship solicitation, application,and selection process, modeled on the well-established NASCprocess. The first solicitation for applications will be publishedin an issue of The SAA Archaeological Record and online. Applicationsand nominations will be reviewed and ranked by a panelof reviewers from the MSC. Recipients of Historically UnderrepresentedGroups Scholarships will be required to submit abrief report on their field school experience, which will formpart of the MSC report to the SAA Board.Who Is Eligible for the HUG Scholarships?After assessing SAA survey data, the MSC and the Board ofDirectors concurred that the HUG Scholarships program shouldencourage applications from “underrepresented minorities,”typically targeted by federal guidelines, as well as members ofother groups that are strikingly underrepresented in the SAA, for14 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


SAA COMMITTEESexample, persons of East and South Asian ancestry (Figure 3).Eligibility criteria approved by the SAA Board are as follows:Applications are encouraged from U.S. and Canadian citizenswho are (1) members of North American ethnicminority groups historically underrepresented in Americanarchaeology, including, but not limited to: AfricanAmericans, Asian Americans, and Latino/as, Chicano/as;(2) enrolled in a full-time academic program leading to adegree in anthropology/archaeology at the time of application;(3) a member of the Society for American Archaeology.Note: for the present, Alaskan Natives, AmericanIndians, Native Alaskans, Native Hawaiians, and PacificIslanders are encouraged to apply to the Native AmericanScholarships program for parallel funding opportunities.Language for (1) was adapted from criteria of the AmericanAnthropological Association’s Minority Dissertation Fellowship(funded since 1999), with specific amendments to parallel andcomplement the NASC eligibility criteria, and criteria (2) and (3)are used by the NASC.A few points can be clarified. First, the application form andreview process refines the grosser-grained ethnic survey categoriesto recognize the existence of “minorities within minorities”with differential economic advantages. Second, since theNASC has previously included not only Native Hawaiians butalso all Pacific Islanders as “Native peoples” within their purview,we have not included this group in our eligibility criteria.Third, the MSC will initially seek HUG Scholarship applicantsfrom underrepresented minorities in the U.S. and Canada only.This is in part because the members of the MSC believe themselvesbest equipped to assess such applicants on the basis oftheir application package. This is also in part because wepresently believe that most members of “historically underrepresentedminorities” in Latin America are of indigenous affiliationand would thus be eligible for a scholarship through NASC.Should Latin Americans who are from non-indigenous minoritiesemerge as applicants, the MSC have been accorded the flexibilityto develop policy changes.Finally, in developing our policy, MSC chair Gifford-Gonzalezconsulted with then-NASC chair Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonhon several occasions. As individuals, rather than committeechairs, we shared the perspective that the missions of the twocommittees may ultimately lead to establishment of a combined,diversity scholarship committee to solicit, review, anddisburse student support. However, in the short run, the SAABoard of Directors deemed it important to use the energy of anew, fully staffed committee to begin the fundraising and publicityactivities for this other cohort of underrepresented groups.ConclusionPublic outreach, one of the principles of archaeological ethicsarticulated by the SAA, is enhanced when the disciplineincludes people who are members of the population with whichthey seek to communicate. This was demonstrated during theintense controversies over the African Burial Ground in Manhattan,and in the steps toward their resolution with concernedcommunities. Greater diversity among practicing archaeologistsin the academy and in public archaeology thus not only enrichesthe discipline’s intellectual life, but also facilitates outreach toa broader range of communities and legislative bodies in theyears to come.The SAA’s low representation of archaeologists of AfricanAmerican, Latino, South Asian, East Asian, Pacific Islander, andother, non-European heritage likely results from the interactionof diverse social factors, only some of which are under our control.These include an historic disinclination for first-generation-to-collegestudents to opt for such fields as archaeology, andour discipline’s lack of investment— literal and figurative— inmaking the initial steps toward entry into archaeology moreattractive and economically feasible to students from underrepresentedgroups. Archaeology and the other social sciences havebeen unusual career choices for first-to-postsecondary-educationstudents from less privileged sectors of society (NationalCenter for Education Statistics 2005: vi). Such preferences werestrikingly reflected in archaeologist Warren Barbour’s (1994)“Musings on a Dream Deferred,” in which he recounts the negativereaction of his middle class, African American uncles andstepfather to the notion that he would not follow them into theircareers in medicine and pharmacy, and his grandfather’s spiriteddefense of his choice to be an archaeologist, as one underwrittenby their achievements in their own professions.Funding scholarships is but a single step in bringing the compositionof the SAA closer to parity with North American populationsas a whole, but it is an important one. Scholarship outreachto students from underrepresented groups signals that weas a profession have invited them to join our ranks and to carryon the Society’s mission.Most of us have had a helping hand along our way into careersin archaeology, from a Work-Study job, to a Pell Grant, to thatone, strongly encouraging instructor. Support provided by theHistorically Underrepresented Group scholarships will pay forwardthat kind of help. It will not only assist individuals to realizetheir goals of entering careers in archaeology but also willassure the resilience and relevance of American archaeologyinto the future.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record15


SAA COMMITTEESReferences CitedBarbour, Warren T. D.1994 Musings on a Dream Deferred. Federal Archeology Report 7,no. 1. U.S. Department of Interior: National Park ServiceArcheologist/ Archeological Assistance Division (Spring1994), Washington, D.C.The College Board2011 Trends in College Pricing 2011. College Board Advocacy andPolicy Center, Princeton, New Jersey.Fairlie, Robert W.2008 Race and Entrepreneurial Success: Black-, Asian-, and White-Owned Businesses in the United States. MIT Press, Boston.Groves, Robert, Marc Perry, and Nicholas Jones2011 Operational Press Briefing, National Press Club. U.S. Departmentof Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration,U.S. Census Bureau. Electronic document, http://2010.census.gov/news/pdf/transcript_3-24-11.pdf,accessed September17, 2012.Humes, Karen R., Nicholas A. Jones, and Roberto R Ramirez2011 Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin. U.S. Department ofCommerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S.Census Bureau. Electronic document, http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf, accessed September 17,2012.Leone, Mark P., and Robert W. Preucel1992 Archaeology in a Democratic Society: A Critical Theory Perspective.In Quandries and Quests: Visions of Archaeology’sFuture, edited by L. Wandsnider, pp. 115-135. Southern IllinoisUniversity at Carbondale, Center for ArchaeologicalInvestigations, Carbondale.National Center for Education Statistics2005 First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education: ALook at Their College Transcripts. Executive Summary. U. S.Department of Education Institute of Education. Washington,D.C. Electronic, document, http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005171 accessed 9/17/2012.Ortman, Jennifer M., Christine E. Guarneri2009 United States Population Projections: 2000 to 2050. AnalyticalPapers, 19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington D.C. Electronicdocument, http://www.census.gov/population/www/.../analytical-document09.pdf.Rogers, J, Daniel, J. Anna S. Agbe-Davies, Frances M. Hayashida, LisaJ. Lucero, and Desirée Renée Martinez2011 Diversity Initiatives Task Force Final Report. Submitted to theBoard of the Society for American Archaeology, April 6, 2011.Society for American Archaeology2003 2003 Needs Assessment Survey. Association Research Inc.,Rockville MD. https://ecommerce.saa.org/saa/staticcontent/staticpages/survey/index.cfm2011 2010 Needs Assessment Survey. Association Research Inc.,Rockville MD. https://ecommerce.saa.org/saa/staticcontent/staticpages/survey10/index.cfmStatistics Canada2008 2006 Census: Ethnic origin, visible minorities, place of workand mode of transportation. Statistics Canada. Electronic document,http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/080402/dq080402a-eng.htm, accessed September 17, 2012.Zeder, Melinda1997 The American Archaeologist: A Profile. Altamira Press, WalnutCreek, California.Notes1. The US Census Bureau continues to use the term “race” todescribe geographic variations in ancestry and culture that mostanthropologists would be happier terming “ethnicity,” and it reservesthe latter term only to make the Hispanic/Latino vs. non-Hispanic/Latino distinction. Our citation of 2010 Census categories inno way diminishes our anthropologically informed view of “race” as asocially constructed category rather than a biological reality.2. In 2011, NSF Archaeology declined to fund a MSC grant applicationparalleling the one which it had funded for the NASC.Book IndexingProfessional archaeologist with 30 years ofexperience in indexing scholarly books.Turn-around time about 3 weeks, sometimes less.Fee depends upon book length, text density, etc.More information at: myweb.cableone.net/alchristensonAndrew L. Christensonalchristenson@cableone.net928-308-575816 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


ARTICLEMANAGING THE UNEXPECTEDTHE EAST ST. LOUIS MOUND GROUPAND THE NEW MISSISSIPPI RIVER BRIDGEThomas E. Emerson and Brad H. KoldehoffThomas E. Emerson is director of the Illinois State Archaeological Survey (ISAS) and Principal Investigator of the Mississippi River Bridge Mitigation Project.Brad Koldehoff is Chief Archaeologist with Illinois Department of Transportation and responsible for the management of the agency’stransportation archaeology program.Archaeology, of course, is all about the unknown— that ispart of its mystique. So, we should not be disconcertedwhen we encounter the unexpected, but we often are. Asmuch as we try to plan for every contingency, and after all thatis what the entire Section 106 process is about, we occasionallyget surprised. During the over half-century that the Illinois StateArchaeological Survey (ISAS, formerly the Illinois TransportationArchaeology Research Program, University of Illinois) andthe Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) have cooperativelycarried out archaeological investigations under an intergovernmentalagreement (http://www.isas.illinois.edu/), wehave seldom encountered truly unexpected discoveries. IDOTand ISAS put an inordinate amount of effort into the preliminarysurvey and testing stages of projects to ensure that they arenot caught unawares. But, there are those instances when thetraditional approach is not possible, and the new MississippiRiver Bridge is one of those projects. As it turned out, thisbridge project has posed all sorts of new and unexpected challengesthat are being favorably resolved with flexible thinkingand good old fashion communication— not only between highwayengineers and archaeologists but also among archaeologists,agencies, and federally recognized American IndianTribes. As a consequence, an abundance of new data about theearly historic city (late nineteenth century) and the late pre-Columbian city (eleventh to thirteenth centuries) of East St.Louis are being revealed in advance of construction.The Tale of Two CitiesThe new bridge, which is now under construction, will link EastSt. Louis with St. Louis, the famed “Gateway to the West” (Figure1). The St. Louis area has been a commercial and transportationhub since ancient times, owing in large part to its locationat the intersection of major river and overland routes.Today, interstate highways retrace old wagon roads that in turnfollowed footpaths blazed by earlier native populations. On anaverage day, well over a hundred thousand vehicles cross theMississippi River on the Poplar Street Bridge, which is one ofonly two bridges in the nation that carries three interstates highways.In 2007–2008 the States of Illinois and Missouri, with federalsupport, agreed to construct a new I–70 bridge. This $640million suspension bridge is a crucial link in facilitating localand interstate traffic flow and in providing a kick-start to localeconomic redevelopment.Since the second half of the twentieth century, East St. Louishas suffered, along with much of the Midwest and Northeast,from the loss of local heavy industry and associated railroadinfrastructure. The resulting economic decline has been coupledwith a lack of new development—a situation the newbridge will likely change. Along the 144-acre alignment thatwill carry the highway through East St. Louis are the hiddenremnants of an ancient aboriginal city. Beneath the present-daypost-industrial landscape, ISAS crews are unearthing the firstcity of East St. Louis— a Mississippian culture mound and towncomplex linked to and likely an extension of the World Heritagesite of Cahokia Mounds located just a few miles inland. To date,within the alignment we have excavated nearly 6,000 habitationfeatures.The rise and fall of historic East St. Louis, the second city, parallelsevents that occurred in this same location nearly 1,000years earlier. Based on what we know from early antiquarianaccounts, at about A.D. 1050 this location was the home of anative “East St. Louis” that with its ~50 mounds was the secondlargest Mississippian mound complex in North America— animportant elite ceremonial precinct within Cahokia’s 14.5 km 2central political-administrative complex (Pauketat 1994, 2004).East St. Louis’ prehistoric ruins were still visible when visited byHenry M. Brackenridge in the early 1800s, but by the mid to late1800s its observable traces were obliterated by industrial andcommercial expansion.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record17


EMERSON & KOLDEHOFFAct (20 ILCS 3440, 17 IAC 4170). Finally, in recognition of tribalconcerns for burial places, ISAS-IDOT initiated a process toconfirm the location and condition of about 5,000 burial siteslisted in the Illinois Inventory of Burials Sites.Figure 1. Artist rendition of the new Mississippi River Bridge at St Louis(courtesy of the Illinois Department of Transportation).Parenthetically, the new bridge runs from the former location ofthe St. Louis Mound group with its 26 mounds (now destroyed)in Missouri to the East St. Louis Mound center in Illinois (Figure2). In a project this size with impacts to major native habitationsites and possible mortuary areas, tribal consultation is acritical issue. The Missouri Division of the Federal HighwayAdministration (FHWA) took the lead in the Section 106process and initiated consultation with numerous tribes; however,only the Osage Nation asked to be involved.Illinois is in an unusual position in the Midwest: it has had noresident land-holding tribes for nearly two centuries. Nativeland loses in the 1818 Treaty of Edwardsville were followed byfinal land cessations at the Treaty of Castor Hill in 1832. Giventhis history, Illinois agencies have little experience in dealingwith tribal governments. However, with the recognition of tribalconsultation as a significant aspect of the Section 106 process,IDOT initiated contact on a project-by-project basis with tribeshaving a treaty land cessation in the state. In 2008 and 2009,IDOT and the Illinois Division of FHWA invited a wide array oftribes to a discussion aimed at broadening the consultationprocess.One result of this consultation was the creation of a web-linkedProject Notification System (PNS) by the Illinois State ArchaeologicalSurvey (ISAS) that enables IDOT and FHWA to provideimmediate project information, including maps and nearbyburial sites, to the tribes (http://www.isas.illinois.edu/news/fhwa_award.shtmlIn). The development of the PNS wonan Exemplary Human Environment Initiatives Award (EHEI)from FHWA. Another positive outgrowth was the drafting of aTribal Memorandum of Understanding that laid out the consultationprocess and created a consensus agreement to treat burialsin accordance with the Illinois Human Skeletal ProtectionOn the archaeological front, ISAS-IDOT has been conductingtesting and geomorphological work in the East St. Louis sitearea since the late 1980s as part of highway infrastructureimprovements. Earlier excavations along existing I55/70 haddiscovered intact plaza, mound bases, storage compounds, palisadelines, and residences (e.g., Fortier 2007; Pauketat 2005).While these demonstrated that portions of the site were intact,its extent and integrity were unknown. To some extent, we knewwe were going into the project with blinders on— land accessdelays, a 150 years of industrial development and demolition,the lack of reliable historic records, extensive brownfields withHAZMAT problems, standing buildings to be demolished, andmost significantly variable layers of historic fill and rubble (2–10 feet thick) along with live and abandoned utility lines andhidden old factory foundations presented obvious problems(Figure 3). Despite over 600 geomorphic cores and numerousbackhoe trenches, we had only an imprecise sense of the naturallandforms and historic development in the area. Every excavationblock had the potential of revealing the unexpected.Even after ISAS had access to portions of the right-of-way(ROW), investigations were hampered by extensive logistical andsafety concerns. The development of a heath and safety plan tocover all possible exigencies was a challenging and ongoingFigure 2. The new bridge span and associated road infrastructure begins atthe location of the former St. Louis group “Big Mound” in Missouri andends in a large Mississippian residential neighborhood of the East St. LouisMound group. (Courtesy of ISAS).18 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


MANAGING THE UNEXPECTEDFeature 2000: Unexpected DiscoveryEven with all this preparation, we were not prepared for the disconcertingdiscovery of a heretofore-unidentified mound remnantsecreted beneath the rubble of the National Stockyards.The basal remnants of this 900-year old earthen monument,called Feature 2000, covered approximately 1,300 square meters.Its precise size and function are difficult to determine becauseits upper layers were removed when the stockyards were constructedin the 1870s, and multiple buildings and a city streetfurther compromised its integrity.Figure 3. ISAS crews excavating prehistoric features among the foundationsand footings of an abandoned industrial complex. (Courtesy of ISAS).process. Excavating of up to 10 feet of historic rubble createdthousands of cubic feet of back dirt— dirt that has to be truckedto other locations within the ROW and often relocated as manyas three to four times. Since we had little historical structureinformation, the convoluted and complex construction and demolitionsequences within the National Stockyard tracts provideda constant unknown that hampered excavations. Excavationplacement, priorities, and time schedules were, as expected, setby construction needs. Such circumstances highlight the needfor precise coordination among archaeologists, IDOT engineers,and construction contractors. This coordination would havebeen impossible without the appointment of an IDOT residentproject engineer to ensure that archaeology and constructionneeds were appropriately mediated. Against this backdrop, systematictesting of the ROW was virtually impossible.Recognizing this feature reiterated the difficulty in identifyingand interpreting archaeological deposits in a highly disturbedurban context. We initially encountered these deposits whileremoving historic rubble and fill associated with the demolitionof Stockyard facilities and the asphalt and underlying road baseof a street. The mound deposits were generally sterile and werenot immediately distinguishable from episodes of historic-erasterile infilling. However, adjacent excavations revealed a smallcluster of burials and nearby trenching profiled a borrow pit thathad been purposely filled. This clustering of activities in a relativelyconfined area alerted us to the potentially unique deposits.The challenge was to identify and delineate those deposits.To resolve this issue, large-scale excavations were halted and aseries of targeted test squares and profile trenches were initiated.While these focused investigations were ongoing we werefortunate, with excavations stretching across a site nearly onekm in length, that we could reassign crews to other areas tokeep the excavations moving forward. We knew we were dealingwith a constructed Mississippian landscape— but its specificform was not clear, i.e., was it a constructed plaza or platform orwas it actually a previously unknown mound base? Ourexploratory work confirmed a complex sequence of excavatedand refilled borrow pits, zones of horizontal fill, and possiblyFigure 4. Composite illustration of Feature 2000 mound, borrow and pit fill (note distinctive buck-shot fill of intrusive pit). (Courtesy of ISAS).November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record19


EMERSON & KOLDEHOFFFigure 5. Aerial showing location of the Feature 2000 preserve within the construction corridor of the new Mississippi River Bridge. (Courtesy of IDOT and ISAS).related burial episodes (Figure 4). What proved to be critical wasthe discovery of a profile showing a short segment of a diagonalmound face proving that we were dealing with the several feetthick remnant of a rectilinear mound, about ~25m by ~52m, orientedto the cardinal directions. Within a short time, ISAS hadidentified the constructed landscape of refilled borrow pits anda mound base and through coring had been able to trace itsapproximate boundaries, even where it continued outside theright-of-way. Two things became immediately apparent: that acredible excavation of the mound remnant could not be performedin the timeframe allotted; and given the special natureof the feature, such an excavation was not, even if feasible, desirableto our tribal partners.ISAS and IDOT immediately began exploring options for thepreservation of the mound remnant. Once the feature was spatiallydefined, IDOT engineers and consultants began crafting asolution to protect the area. At the same time, the Osage Nationprovided comments and guidance during an on-site meeting.Within a month, IDOT’s engineering staff and consultants createda redesign that replaced a broad open ditch with a 42” enclosedculvert, rerouted a 42” waterline that would have cut through themound’s center, and proposed crucial landscaping changes.The coordinated action of ISAS archaeologists and IDOT’s engineersand planners meant that FHWA and IDOT could immediatelybrief tribal representatives on the issues and offer severalpotential solutions, one being preservation in place. Furtherconsultation created a 488-m 2 -preservation area blanketed witha 3–5’ cap of earthen fill, fenced, and given formal legal standingto ensure its long-term protection (Figure 5). In addition,IDOT offered to make the area available if the tribes wish toreinter human remains that had to be removed from other areasof the bridge project.Lessons LearnedThe unexpected discovery of a mound within the right-of-way inthe third year of construction on a high-profile project couldhave been catastrophic to the project schedule. That this potentialcrisis had a successful resolution was the result of a longIDOT tradition of integrating archaeology into transportationproject planning.• IDOT ensures that archaeology is not outside the planningand construction process but is an integral part of it. IDOTand ISAS have worked cooperatively for over half-a-centuryto ensure this integration. Consequently archaeologists andengineers have long-term working and personal relationshipsand a great deal of shared knowledge about managingarchaeological resources in the context of a constructiondrivenagency. This is certainly true in the American Bottomwhere, particularly during the last three decades, hundredsof archaeological sites have been investigated as part of high-20 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


MANAGING THE UNEXPECTEDFigure 6. Plan map of historic buildings superimposed over a prehistoric residentialneighborhood at East St. Louis. (Courtesy of ISAS).way construction (Emerson et al 2006; Emerson and Walthall2007). This long-term relationship with its mutual knowledgeand trust was essential when archaeologists and engineershad to cooperate in devising an emergency preservationplan.• IDOT has integrated tribal consultation into its standardplanning procedures. FHWA, IDOT, and their partner ISASused the tribal gatherings in 2008 and 2009 as a stimulus tomove beyond project consultation. It promoted the creationof the PNS, a Tribal MOU and initiated a reevaluation of burialsites. For IDOT the legal requirement of tribal consultationhas been a stepping-stone in implementing innovativeways to assist in the preservation of resources of concern tothe tribes. Meaningful consultation is best achieved withface-to-face meetings, which foster mutual respect and goodfaith negotiations. In this case, the foundation for such consultationwas built not only during our 2008 and 2009 Tribalworkshops but also sustained with regular email projectnotifications, which almost daily reinforces the openness ofIDOT-FHWA consultation.• IDOT, FHWA, and ISAS have ensured that tribal, agency,and archaeological relationships are broadly based. A greatemphasis has been placed on the development of personalinteraction in tribal consultation and we would add that it isequally true in dealing with the various agency constructionand engineering staff and contractors. Ultimately the Fea-ture 2000 consultation was successful because of the activeinvolvement and face-to-face interaction among multipleparties on all sides of the process. We saw the value of flexibility,open-mindedness, and goodwill. Like any negotiatingprocess the active involvement of multiple participantsserves to smooth out bumpy spots and keep the discussionsbalanced and on track.• The results of these joint efforts has been that since the Fallof 2008, ISAS crews have excavated nearly 6,000 features datingbetween ~A.D. 900 to 1250 including over 1400 structurefloors, 72 monumental post pits, and over 3,600 cooking/storage pits (Figure 6). No excavations of this scale have evertaken place in a Mississippian center. Additionally more thanone hundred residential and commercial features filled withhousehold refuse dating to the late 1800s and early 1900shave been excavated, providing new insights into the lives ofearly working-class families in East St. Louis.The cooperative and successful partnerships created and theresults produced during this process were recognized by FHWAthrough the presentation to ISAS and IDOT of a 2011 EnvironmentalExcellence Award for the management of cultural andhistorical resources (http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/eea2011/historical_resources.htm) in the context of the MississippiRiver Bridge Project.References CitedEmerson, Thomas E. (editor)2006 Transportation Archaeology Advances in American Bottom Prehistory.Southeastern Archaeology 25(2).Emerson, Thomas E. and John A. Walthall2007 Archaeological Practice in Large Transportation-Related Corridors:The I–270 Archaeological Mitigation Project. In LandscapesUnder Pressure: Theory and Practice of Cultural HeritageResearch and Preservation, edited by L. R. Lozny, pp.163–185.(Revised Paperback Edition), Springer, New York.Fortier, Andrew C. (editor)2007 The Archaeology of the East St. Louis Mound Center, Part II: TheNorthside Excavations. Illinois Transportation ArchaeologicalResearch Program, Transportation Archaeological ResearchReports No. 22, University of Illinois, Urbana.Pauketat, Timothy R.1994 The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics inNative North America. University of Alabama Press,Tuscaloosa.2004 Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians. Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge.Pauketat, Timothy R. (editor)2005 The Archaeology of the East St. Louis Mound Center, Part I: TheSouthside Excavations. Illinois Transportation ArchaeologicalResearch Program, Transportation Archaeological ResearchReports No. 21, University of Illinois, Urbana.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record21


THE ARCHAEOLOGY DIVISIONOF THEAMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONis pleased to announcethe 2012 Patty Jo Watson Distinguished Lecturer:Susan D. Gillespie"The Entanglement of Jade and the Rise of Mesoamerica"the 2012 Gordon R. Willey Prize Recipient:Kathryn Weedman Arthurfor "Feminine Knowledge and Skill Reconsidered:Women and Flaked Stone Tools"American Anthropologist vol. 112, no. 2.the 2012 Alfred Vincent Kidder Award Recipient:Wendy AshmoreJoin us at the 2012 meeting in San Francisco, November 14-18, to celebratethe achievements of our colleagues. See http://aaanet.org/meetings/index.cfmfor program details.22 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


CAREERS IN ARCHAEOLOGYCAREERS IN ARCHAEOLOGYA “LONG AND WINDING ROAD...”Ranel Stephenson CapronRanel Stephenson Capron is Deputy Preservation Officer/State Archaeologist/Tribal Consultation Coordinator for theBureau of Land Management’s Wyoming State Office, Cheyenne, WY (rcapron@blm.gov).For the past 25 years, I’ve worked in the State Office for theWyoming Bureau of Land Management (WY BLM). Andin those years, I’ve gone from being a temporary supportstaff archaeologist to Deputy Preservation Officer/State Archaeologist/TribalConsultation Coordinator.But I’m not even from Wyoming. I’m from Texas. And I didn’tplan to become an archaeologist. I wanted to travel overseas asa languages expert. How on earth did I get here? A “long andwinding road” took me from Texas, through Oklahoma,Arkansas, Illinois, and Indiana, to Wyoming.History was always a favorite subject, but I entered collegeintending to major in languages and work for the State Department.In my mind, at the time, that type of job seemed adventurousand exotic (though now, after 25+ years with the government,I’m fairly certain reality would not have equaled thedream). Besides, my college, Southwestern University inGeorgetown, Texas, didn’t have an anthropology degree program.The summer after I started college, my mother took me to visita dig near our community. I think I became an archaeologistbecause she thought it would be interesting (the things we dofor our mothers!). I recall climbing down into a very deep (non-OSHA!) trench and looking at a bone. The archaeologist told meit had been “modified,” though, at the time, I’m not sure Iunderstood what that meant.Regardless, after that summer of “discovery” and a fall semesterrealization that going overseas was not to be, I transferred toTexas A&M University at College Station, Texas. There I took anIntro to Anthropology course from Dr. Harry Shafer.I must have impressed Dr. Shafer, because he allowed me tosign up for that summer’s field school, and I hadn’t even takenIntro to Archaeology! Field school hooked me (and I aced thatfirst archaeology class). Dr. Shafer’s classes were sointeresting— I just knew archaeology would be great fun andhopefully, a great career choice. Other people influential in mycareer include Martha Doty Freeman, project historian for theStacy (O.H. Ivie) Reservoir Project, Don Cochran, director ofBall State University’s Archaeological Resources ManagementService, and Tim Nowak, former BLM Wyoming DPO. Theirdedication to the discipline and the job, as well as their encouragementat the most opportune times, kept me on the path I followtoday.After college, I found work with archaeological consultingfirms, working on projects in Illinois, Oklahoma, Arkansas, andTexas. Like most field archaeologists, I started out as a crewmember. I excavated in Illinois at the Smiling Dan Site and profiledtrenches (again very deep) at the nearby Campbell HollowSite. I moved on to surveying in East Texas, where crawlingunder brambles (and meeting up with a copperhead half waythrough!) was common. I learned how to do flotation (in the IllinoisRiver in November— can you say cold?), identify artifacts,and run a transit. Researching courthouse records, writingreports, and managing people came later, once I had the fieldand lab experience. Remember: this was before GPS, GIS, theInternet, and cell phones (or at least their use in my world); itcertainly seems like technology has made cultural resourcemanagement easier today.During the Stacy Reservoir Project in Texas, I noticed that wewere doing a great deal of upfront recording for a historicpreservation consultant/historian. She and her husband visitedthe project on a monthly basis to make the eligibility determinationsfor historic period sites, to conduct historic research,and to do HABS drawings for the historic structures our surveycrews encountered.Not that fieldwork wasn’t fun and exciting— all those snakes andornery cows— but I thought what she did was very interesting:putting a face on the cultural remains we encountered. So Idecided to go back to school for a graduate degree, looking primarilyat schools with Historic Preservation programs.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record23


CAREERS IN ARCHAEOLOGYhorses), recreation, and the National Landscape ConservationSystem (America’s national monuments, national historic trails,wilderness areas).Figure 1. Ranel at work: with so many diverse responsibilities, she’s earnedthe two monitors and the corner office! Photo by Maren Felde.I ended up at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, Indiana. Atthe time (1982), it had two interesting degree programs: theHistoric Preservation program in the Architecture School andthe Archaeological Resources Management program in theAnthropology Department. “Hmm, the best of both worlds,” Ithought, so I took classes in both programs. I was lucky to get aresearch assistantship with the Archaeological Resources ManagementService at BSU and that helped pay for grad school.I was at BSU for three years, though it took an additional threeyears to finish my thesis (a job with BLM in Wyoming, marriage,and motherhood got in the way). My degree is a MS inArchaeological Resources Management with a minor in HistoricPreservation.A fellow BSU grad student helped me get a “temporary” archaeologyjob with WY BLM in 1985. That “temporary” job was madepermanent in 1990. In the years since, my duties have expanded,and my responsibilities have grown. Although I worked inconsulting for a relatively short period of time— six years— thatexperience, my grad school coursework, and the knowledge Igained as an assistant to the BLM cultural lead for 20+ years, allled to my ability to move into the lead job in 2008.The year before I arrived in Cheyenne, WY BLM had assumedauthority from the National Park Service for permitting qualifiedresearchers and consultants to conduct work on culturaland paleontological resources on BLM-administered lands. Ithad issued about 50 permits that year. The archaeologist positionI was hired into was a support position for the cultural programlead, and I was put in charge of the permitting programfor both cultural and paleontological resources. I never imaginedthat, decades later, the program would be at 650 permitsand counting! This number would be even higher if we hadn’tsplit out the paleontology permits from the cultural permits inthe mid-90’s.Over the years, I have taken on other responsibilities. In 1996, Ibecame responsible for collections management, and heritageand environmental education outreach. This change allowedme to have more influence over the cultural program’s funds.My interaction with school districts, teachers and students alsoincreased. I enjoyed this part of the job and turned down twoopportunities for promotion because it meant passing the educationrole off to another person.I finally stepped up into the Deputy Preservation Officer job in2008, after the death of my co-worker and friend Tim Nowak.The agency has chosen not to fill my previous position, so I haveretained old responsibilities and absorbed many new ones,including senior technical specialist, budget and statewideaccomplishments, policy making, training for archaeologistsand managers, and tribal consultation coordination.Another of my “new” responsibilities is cultural lead for twolarge transmission projects that cross several states. Have youBLM is part of the Department of the Interior. The agency managesAmerica’s National System of Public Lands. In Wyoming,those lands consist of more than 17.5 million surface acres and40.7 million acres of federal mineral estate.Because BLM has a multiple-use mission, we must find a wayto allow (or in some cases, not allow) numerous uses on ourpublic lands. My program encompasses cultural resources,paleontology, and tribal consultation. But BLM also has responsibilitiesfor, among other things, minerals (leasing for oil, gas,coal, gravel), lands and realty (authorizing rights of way, landexchanges), renewable resources (forestry, wildlife, air, wildFigure 2. Ranel and co-worker, Kathy Miller Boden, discuss complex multistatewind energy projects. Photo by Lesly Smith.24 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


CAREERS IN ARCHAEOLOGYsuch as site stewardship efforts, or funding of our culturalresource data sharing partnership.Figure 3. Ranel surrounded by documents relating to the various projects shecoordinates. Photo by Maren Felde.noticed the government’s recent focus on renewable energy?For Wyoming, this means wind energy and the transmissionlines needed to move it to markets in the Southwest. These projectsare very complicated, and the consultation efforts are on amuch larger scale than we are used to. In my position, I relyheavily on the field office archaeologists, as well as the stateleads for the other 2–3 states involved in the transmission projects.Flexibility (in process and schedule) is important as are therelationships we have built with our partners.It’s difficult to explain my typical day— truly no two days arealike! I’ll illustrate this through a litany of what might happen,and then finish by discussing the most challenging and themost favorite parts of my job.My typical day is filled with meetings. I might host a conferencecall to negotiate a programmatic agreement for one of thosetransmission lines. It would include the project applicant, theAdvisory Council on Historic Preservation, several state historicpreservation officers, tribes, and other consulting parties. Thenthere’s mailing out Wyoming Archaeology Awareness Monthposters to local schools, museums and libraries, or participatingin a conference call with our Washington Office on a review ofour cultural manuals or high priority, fast-tracked energy projects.I might go to the University of Wyoming to speak to a publicarchaeology class, or conduct a review of our curation facilityat the University of Wyoming Archaeological Repository. Imight visit one of ten BLM Field Offices to discuss particularprojects with the field archaeologists, or go with them to visit adata recovery in progress. And let’s not forget my monthly coordinationmeeting with our State Historic Preservation Office todiscuss various compliance issues, educational opportunitiesTruly, I think the most challenging part of my job is tribal consultation.WY BLM consults with tribes from Idaho, Montana,Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah, andWyoming. Many of our cultural resources are of interest to thetribes, but tribal interest also extends to the other resources wemanage such as air, water, plants, trees, wildlife, and minerals.Our managers and other program leads do not always understandwhy they must consult with tribes, so I strive to educateindividuals within WY BLM as well as the tribes about the bestway to participate in consultation. Tribal consultation for memeans going in the field with tribal members to look at sites,working via conference call on agreement documents, or assistingour project managers to present information at tribal councilmeetings. But bottom line, my tribal consultation job isabout building a relationship with the tribes through tribal leadership,the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer, cultural contacts,or tribal elders. Relationship building is most effectivewhen both sides have continuity of personnel.By far one of the most enjoyable aspects of my job is participatingin educational outreach, whether by giving talks to students,writing for BLM’s Heritage Education program or the BLMFacebook page, participating in the national Boy Scout Jamboree,or engaging with peers as part of the Project Archaeology(PA) Leadership Team. In 1997, WY BLM began promotingProject Archaeology and training teachers. We had several yearsof success. Then, as is often the case with government, ourbudgets were cut and management support declined. Less effortwas placed on teaching teachers and more energy went intobroader overall celebrations, such as the Antiquities Act Centennial.Recently, we’ve re-energized Wyoming’s PA program:five Master Teachers from around the state now work with meto spread the word about archaeology.So, to close, I would encourage archaeologists to consider a federalgovernment job. You can stay in one place your entirecareer; you can move around within your agency; or you canswitch agencies for more diversity.And what I’ve learned is this: the job is never dull. It can bedemanding. It can be satisfying. It can be so very frustrating,and you can often feel more like an administrator than anarchaeologist.But when you get to see projects through to fruition, whether it’sprotecting rock art, having a site listed on the National Registerof Historic Places, repatriating sacred objects to tribes, or justgetting the permit filing done, it’s all worth it at the end of theday. I wouldn’t change a thing!November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record25


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYA LIFE IN RUINS?WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYCaryn M. BergCaryn M. Berg is an acquisitions editor with Left Coast Press, Inc., and an adjunct instructor at Colorado State University.For its practitioners, archaeology can be a profession, apassion, a pastime, and a problem. At work, archaeologistsmay have professional responsibilities that cancomplicate their personal lives. And at home, archaeologistsmay have personal responsibilities that can complicate theirwork lives. In 2011, the Committee on the Status of Womenin Archaeology (COSWA) sponsored a forum titled “A Life inRuins? Work-Life Balance in Archaeology.” We broughttogether archaeologists from across the spectrum of the professionand examined the question: how do archaeologistsjuggle the sometimes unusual demands placed on them bytheir profession with the realities of everyday life? Therewere numerous challenges identified in this session: how tomaintain a family while working far from home, how to balanceraising growing children and taking care of aging parentswhile still retaining identity as an archaeologist, how tostay financially afloat while trying to succeed in school, howto balance life with a non-archaeologist spouse, as well assustaining a dual-career household.We asked our participants to address what work-life balancemeans, what aspects of their career create the greatest tensionwith their personal lives and how they mitigate some of thistension, what practices are most effective in maintaining ahealthy work-life balance, and what pitfalls might be on theroad ahead? A lively discussion ensued during the forum. Werealized that times have changed dramatically and there is nolonger one “right way” to be an archaeologist— if indeed thereever was. It is possible to be an archaeologist and a mother, afather, a devoted child, and a spouse. In this issue, we presentseveral of the challenges of balancing life as an archaeologist.Contributors address the challenges of sustaining two archaeologycareers in the same family (Brown and Yaeger), advancingan archaeological career while raising children and supportingthe career of a non-archaeologist spouse (Roberts),maintaining a marriage and parenting with an active internationalresearch agenda (Barber), balancing the demands offamily life with a career in museums (Nash), and having successin personal life and on the tenure track (Rodning). In myown life, I am balancing raising four children with a spousewho is a pilot, while working part-time as an adjunct instructorand part-time in publishing. We are all archaeologists. Weare all passionate about this career we have chosen. We allhave to find a way to juggle our careers with the world thatlies beyond the ruins.Some archaeologists are still walking traditional paths, whileothers are creating their own niches for themselves. As thepapers in this special forum demonstrate, we can do it all ifwe are willing to be creative in finding our balance.26 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYYOU WANT TO GO WHERE FOR SIX MONTHS?WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND INTERNATIONAL FIELD RESEARCHSarah “Stacy” B. BarberStacy Barber is an Assistant Professor at the University of Central Florida.From the very beginning, travel to exotic locations waspart of archaeology’s appeal for me. Having grown upin several (decidedly not exotic) places, leaving the confinesof small-town America for adventure abroad was highon my list of life goals. While a career in archaeology has literallyexposed me to a world of amazing experiences— a factfor which I am perennially grateful— it has also created anumber of unexpected challenges in my personal life.For 13 of the last 17 years I have spent atleast a week, and more often severalmonths, engaged in archaeologicalresearch in Mexico, Honduras, and ElSalvador (Figure 1). Those years havebeen full of important personal milestones:college, graduate school, moves,marriage, parenthood, and a tenure-trackposition in academia. As my responsibilitiesand commitments have changed, sohave my tactics for balancing my archaeologicalcareer and my personal life.Work-life balance, thus, has been anongoing process for me, often with a verysteep learning curve. I make no claims tobeing an expert at the juggling actrequired to maintain personal relationshipsand meet obligations while shuttlingoff to foreign shores, but I can speak to my own experiencesof the challenges and joys of a life spent in ruins farfrom home.Communication and CompromiseFor anyone who travels for extended periods of time, communicationwith family and friends takes on heightenedimportance. Personal relationships must be maintainedwithout the benefit of daily face-to-face interactions. One ofthe most important work-life balance questions that I havebeen forced to consider, and reconsider, is: how long can I goFigure 1. Stacy Barber at the site of Río Viejo,Oaxaca, Mexico, in 2009.without communicating with someone before our relationshipbegins to deteriorate? The answer varies significantlyfrom person to person and highlights the kinds of compromisesthat must be made in balancing international fieldworkwith a personal life.Before becoming a parent, I was generally undaunted byextended periods without direct communication home. Certainlythere were moments when I, orsomeone back home needed a hug, but Ifound that a phone call could function asan imperfect substitute. All of that haschanged now that I am a mother. A phonecall is not a good substitute for a hug to afour-year-old. Fortunately, the expansion ofthe Internet into even remote areas of LatinAmerica over the past five years has greatlysimplified contact with the people importantto me. While an internet-based videocall still doesn’t have the same value to myson as a real hug, we both prefer Skype tothe telephone. Internet-based technologiesare no panacea, however. Slow connectionspeeds and irregular hours for Internetcafes in rural Mexico can turn a video callinto an exercise in futility. I cannot recounthow many of my video call conversationsconsisted mostly of the word, “What?” Five minutes of that isusually enough for even the most devoted mother and wife toadmit defeat— I do not lay claim to being either. Sometimes aphone call has to be good enough.But communication home from the field is actually lessimportant than clear communication prior to departure. Tolerancefor research, particularly very long field seasons awayfrom home, is essential for anyone who shares his or her lifewith a field archaeologist. Some people understandably don’twant a vanishing partner, and I have seen long-term relationshipsfail because the realities of fieldwork were not dis-November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record27


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYcussed clearly and up front. Part of the reason that my ownrelationship has survived the inevitable disruptions in ourlives caused by my field research is an open flow of communicationthat enables both my spouse and I to express tolerancelevels and limits. My husband understood from thebeginning how important my career was to me, and I havesought to keep him well informed of my research plans. Idon’t “spring” a long international field season on him. Inreturn, he has been clear on how much of my traveling hecan handle. I am incredibly fortunate that he is supportive ofmy career and accepting of a partner who disappears formonths every few years. We have found, in fact, that periodsof separation remind us of the many things we appreciateabout each other.My second attempt at international parenting was more successful.This year my son joined me for three months of a sixmonthfield season in Mexico, even attending the local publicschool (Figure 2). He made a few friends and was an object offascination to local children. Despite his young age, however,he found both the language barrier and the change in livingconditions stressful. My visions of an amazing cultural experiencefor my child had to be modified to meet the realities ofhis desires and expectations. Again, flexibility was fundamental.I adjusted how and where we spent our time onweekends and at the end of the workday. The bounce houseand trampoline in the town park became our evening hangout.Using old-fashioned parenting tricks like play dates andcreating consistent meal and sleep schedules, I was able toattain a level of stability that reduced behavior problems andallowed my son to more fully enjoy his time in Mexico. Mysolutions weren’t perfect, and there were lots of calls home toDaddy for help (communication was critical), but I found thatbringing my child with me on international fieldwork was aneffective means of balancing my career with my personalresponsibilities. It is something I will definitely do again.Uncertainty and FlexibilityAs we approach 10 years of marriage and thebeginning of formal schooling for our son,my husband and I have both had to redefineour positions in regard to my field research. Itwas one thing when my husband was responsiblefor the rent and the dog. It is anothermatter when he is single-parenting our child.Indeed, to reduce the childcare burden createdby my absence, I have attempted to takeour son with me whenever possible. Myefforts have met with mixed results, emphasizingthat it is essential to accept uncertaintyand to keep plans flexible. I planned a 10-week summer field season in 2009 when myson was still a toddler. We purchased his planeticket, withdrew him from childcare, andbegan looking for a caregiver in Mexico. Thenthe H1N1 flu outbreak began. With only a fewweeks to go before my departure, all of ourwell-laid plans had to change. My son needednew childcare close to my husband’s office,my husband needed to modify his workschedule, and I needed to develop long-distanceparenting tools. It turns out that videocalls with toddlers are a lot of fun becausethey don’t realize that you can’t really passobjects like toys and drinks through the monitor.My son enjoyed our video calls and I learned to acceptthat I must be flexible enough to handle extraordinary circumstances.Figure 2. The author’s son (Liam,aged 4) getting ready to visit excavationsat Río Viejo, Oaxaca, Mexico,in 2012.Lessons LearnedMy life in far-away ruins has undoubtedlyplaced unusual demands on my personal life,but I have no plans to stop traveling for mycareer. Rather, I try to learn from my manymistakes in the perpetual balancing actrequired of archaeologists who conductlengthy field season abroad. Among my mostimportant experiences:• Define boundaries: Clarify to yourselfand communicate with others regarding whataspects of your personal life you are willing tocompromise on to facilitate international fieldresearch. Know what your family membersand friends can tolerate in terms of limits todaily interaction and your absence fromimportant life events like weddings, funerals,and graduations.• Be flexible: With well-defined boundaries,it is much easier to adjust to theinevitable uncertainties of everyday life. If you,your family, and your friends all understandwhat kinds of events will and won’t affect yourresearch plans, then taking the next step in theface of the unexpected becomes much easier.• Appreciate opportunities: Accept thatyour choices have created these conundrums in work-lifebalance. Be thankful to have a career that not only allows,but encourages, you to see the world.My early fascination with exotic locations has not been diminishedby repeat exposure. I get as excited about internationalfield research today as I did 17 years ago. While balancingarchaeology and personal life unquestionably causes stress, atleast I’m not an accountant. Instead I am able to do what Ilove, making me a more contented person and thus hopefullya better spouse, mother, daughter, sister, and friend.28 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYYOU WANT ME TO MOVE WHERE?LIVING WITH AN “ALPHA” AND MAKING YOUR CAREER WORKHeidi RobertsHeidi Roberts is the owner of HRA Inc., Conservation Archaeology.Like many young and inexperienced primates my selectioncriteria for a perfect mate ignored logic and wentsomething like this: handsome-check, smart-check,alpha-check, pheromone compatibility-check. My husbandhas always been supportive of my plans to pursue an archaeologycareer, but not to the extent that he would put his careeron hold for mine. I discovered this when I landed a permanentgovernment archaeology job, and he refused to move.Since the job was in rural Utah, and there were no employmentopportunities for my husband in the area, his careerwould have languished, and so too would our relationship.In our 33 years of marriage, we relocated five times for myhusband’s jobs and each move took my career down newpaths. One of those paths led me twice to motherhood,which is my proudest achievement. My decision to supportmy husband’s career was a good one and today he works asa senior scientist at Sandia National Lab. Because my husband’scareer was stable and secure, I was able to take biggerrisks and start my own contract firm. My children are bothgrown (Figures 1 and 2), and as an empty nester I havereturned full time to the field. Currently I’m directing a largedata recovery project in southern Utah, which for me is adream come true. I’m not going to say any of this was easy,sometimes my career path felt like a Mobius Strip, but balancinga personal life with an archaeology career is possible,and definitely worth the effort.The purpose of this article is to encourage those of you whoare struggling with these issues, not to get discouraged; staythe course and you will find a way to make it work. I’d alsolike to offer some tips that I discovered— often the hardway— for balancing career and family life. My first word ofadvice is that family takes priority, what is good for them isalso good for your career. I have found that it is difficult tofocus on your work if your personal life is not in order. In myexperience, working for an understanding employer whoempathizes with the complications that fieldwork imposeson your private life is a key to success. When my childrenwere very young, I sometimes did my best report writingafter they were tucked into bed at night. Fortunately, myemployer didn’t mind if I worked at nights as long as I metmy deadlines. During these early childrearing years, mybosses also allowed me to limit out-of-town travel to 10 daysa month since longer stints did not work well with my family.Figure out what type of schedule works best for you andthen negotiate a plan with your employer.My next word of advice is to be flexible with your career path.Sometimes the path not taken is a blessing in disguise. Thefive relocations that I made for my husband’s career all benefitedmy career too, even though at times it seemed like Ihad veered quite far off my main path. For example, whenmy husband was offered a graduate scholarship at M.I.T Ineeded to find a job in Boston to support us. Because thetelecommunications industry was booming, I was hired as acustomer service representative installing telephone businesssystems in hospitals and corporations. While this positionhad absolutely nothing to do with archaeology, I did findthat my anthropology background helped me understandcorporate cultures and more readily interpret their phonesystem needs. More importantly, I honed my business skillsand took a few courses in management, which proved usefullater in my career. I also learned quite a bit about myself,namely that career success comes easier when you are doingwhat you love; I’d found telephones to be duller than dirt.Some of you may be wondering how I was able to shift fromone profession to another and obtain jobs whenever Imoved. I did it by following these steps: I researched potentialemployers, figured out what skills I could offer them, andI knocked on their doors and marketed myself. My first wordof advice is to skip the emailed resume and find a way to talkface to face to prospective employers. Network, meet them atprofessional meetings, and market your skills. In my 15years as owner of HRA only one person has ever knocked onmy door and introduced themselves as an archaeologist lookingfor work. I hired that person on the spot because INovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record29


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYFigure 1. My son Keith (26), who is pursuing a music career, workingon the Jackson Flat Reservoir Project in a Basketmaker II pithouse.Figure 2. My daughter Fern (21), who is studying to be a pharmacist,working this summer at the Jackson Flat project.admired their gumption, and they caught my attention withtheir enthusiasm. Most undergraduates don’t have theknowledge and experience yet to be a field archaeologist. Keyskills such as reading a map, safely driving on bad roads inremote areas, finding archaeological sites, evaluating a site’ssignificance, or writing a survey report aren’t usually taughtin school. The best way to obtain these skills is to offer towork as a low-paid intern.All of my five moves for my husband’s career opened up newjob opportunities for me in archaeology, and I benefitedfrom working for employers in unique prehistoric cultureareas. I choose jobs that would fill gaps in my skill sets, andI also took classes when possible. When my oldest child wasan infant, I attended graduate school and earned my M.A.soon after my second child turned one. Looking back at myvarious career moves, I doubt that I would have made any ofthem if I hadn’t been forced to relocate for my husband’sjobs. Because I put my young family first, I think I took myown career less seriously and as a result I was able to relax,enjoy my work, and learn from my co-workers.Figure out what skills you excel at and make those the centerpieceof your career. Ask your professors, employers, orfamily members where they think your career strengths lieand set your goals accordingly. Do you like working with artifactcollections, but can’t seem to locate archaeological siteduring surveys if your life depended on it? Are pithousefloors as elusive to you as differential equations? Would yourather sit in a meeting than drive on dirt roads in the middleof nowhere? If you are sociable, and like to network, youwould probably find marketing or government work rewarding.If you like to work outdoors and enjoy hiking and excavating,then contract archaeology might be just the ticket.Once you identify your strengths, hone the complimentaryskills. If you have never gotten the knack of finding archaeologicalsites, but you enjoy lab work, then focus on being anartifact analyst. If contract archaeology is your goal, thenlearn how to write descriptive and clear reports. Don’t beafraid to volunteer or work for free to obtain these skill sets,and then ask for feedback on how you are doing.Lastly, one of the most important tools I discovered to help menavigate the complex and mysterious roles of spouse and parentwas what I came to call the “Mom culture.” Stay-at-homeMoms have a culture all their own, which can be an importantsource of information, support, and comfort. I don’t knowhow I would have survived parenting without my best friendBonnie, and her network of friends, who educated me on theways of motherhood and stood by me through good times andbad. They took turns taking care of my infant daughter whenI wrote my thesis, they taught me what to expect at parentteacherconferences, they referred me to the best doctors, andthey knew remedies for everything from removing stains totreating chicken pox. They also taught me mysterious thingslike when kids should learn to swim and how to entertain childrenon long summer days. We shared babysitting responsibilities,driving duties, and even, yes, recipes.The knowledge of people and cultures that you gained inanthropology will find hidden benefits. Sometimes we strayfrom our personal goals to accommodate the needs of others.Life is often a wild roller coaster ride, with hidden twists andunexpected turns. So fasten your seat belt, relax, and enjoythe ride, sometimes a career can pick its own course, even ifit is not necessarily the route that you would have chosen.30 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYLIFE ON THE PARENTING TRACKAND THE TENURE TRACKChristopher B. RodningChris Rodning is an Associate Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Tulane University. He can be reached at crodning@tulane.edu.My life on the parenting track began when I startedlife on the tenure track. Both tracks are challenging,and both are worthwhile. Archaeology can befamily-friendly, and family can be archaeology-friendly. I wasrecently awarded tenure at a research university, in a departmentwith a doctoral program. My wife (Hope) is a lawyer.Our sons are seven years, five years, and six months old, andI am on paternity leave this term after the birth of our thirdson. Here are some of my perspectives on the method andtheory of work-life balance as an academic archaeologist withyoung kids, and some of the challenges of balancing archaeology,family, and life in a dual-career household. 1 Importantelements of work-life balance are control in scheduling, positiveattitudes about lives in ruins, and support from others.Schedules in RuinsSchedules of dual-career households are tricky, as are schedulesof parents with children. Scheduling conflicts arisebetween schools and jobs, children get sick when parentshave deadlines to keep and classes to teach, and it is hardenough trying to get everything done on “normal” days.Helpful strategies include doing what we can to control ourschedules, being disciplined about following our schedules,and making the most of brief intervals of time that we haveto get work done— or to take a nap, to go for a run, or to helpwith homework.Anybody in academia works hard, and expectations are high,but academic jobs often afford some degree of schedulingflexibility and freedom. I try to schedule classes and officehours for days and times that fit our daily rhythms of gettingkids to and from school and other activities. I would prefernot to bring work home, but I get a lot done in the eveningsafter bedtime and during afternoon naps. Although I try tomake myself available as much as I can on campus, I sometimesask to schedule events around family commitments—and, sometimes, it is possible to do so.Schedules of parents are often fragmented and unpredictable.During grad school, I sometimes had long periodsduring which I could focus on my dissertation (and distractionsfrom it, for better and worse). As a faculty member anda parent, my schedule is more fragmented, but when I writea little bit here and type in some references there, and read acouple articles while kids are napping (and, sometimes, readthem aloud to Leif, my six–month–old ... poor kid), it addsup, in the long run.I strive to set “personal” deadlines ahead of “real” deadlines,although I am still perfecting that skill. It wreaks havoc onschedules when kids get sick, or when kids have days offfrom school. It is stressful to lose an afternoon set aside forpreparing syllabi or revising a manuscript when somebodyhas to stay home from school. If lesson plans and slides areprepared in advance, if papers are drafted or proofread aheadof schedule, if proposals are submitted before grant deadlines,then unpredictable instances when parents need to orwant to concentrate on kids or on each other create lessstress. My wife and I typically “trade off” on cases when wehave to leave work unexpectedly, and we try to determinewhose schedule would be made less complicated by taking aday off or working at home for a day.As a parent of young children, I have found it difficult if notimpossible to control much of anything, and it is best just tolet go, to go with the flow, and to accept some amount ofchaos and imperfection. That said, the more we do to createstability in our routines, the better we can balance work withfamily life, and the better we can absorb the instability andunpredictability inherent in life with young kids.Lastly, with respect to scheduling, when should one havekids? Some people choose not to, or cannot make it work fora number of reasons, but for people who want to have children,there is never a “good” time and never a “better” time.By that, I mean that we will always feel busy with something,whether finishing school, getting a book done, gettingNovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record31


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYall have more than archaeology in our lives, and we all havecommitments to family and friends. I am sure I did moredigging, reading, writing, and teaching prep before havingkids. That said, family life puts career pursuits in perspective,and I still find time to get work done. It is worth it to meto coach youth soccer teams, to participate in life at my kids’schools, and to play at the park now and then. I once dashedoff to a graduate seminar immediately after doing a kindergartenworkshop about archaeology, and both were enrichingin different ways.Figure 1. Erik Rodning (left) and Henry Rodning (right) jumping off abackdirt pile at the Berry site (31BK22), North Carolina, June 2012(photograph by Chris Rodning).tenure, or doing a field project. Finding the right person withwhom to start a family takes time, but it is not worth waitingtoo long to reach predetermined career milestones beforestarting a family. There will always be more milestones onthe horizon. Conversations about when to have kids areworthwhile, and the answers will vary from one case toanother. But, then, just do it, and make it fit.My discussion here has focused on how parents might manageschedules. From another perspective, it is helpful ifemployers can give parents some freedom in scheduling—periods of family leave, flexible hours, good day care andschools near workplaces. With support, parents are better atthe jobs they have at work and at home.Kids in RuinsScheduling challenges aside, having kids can be compatiblewith archaeology, and several aspects of archaeology canactually have positive impacts on children. We travel to interestingplaces, whether to attend conferences, or to conductfieldwork, or to visit museums. We get to dig, and we findinteresting stuff on the ground and in the ground. We solvepuzzles, and we get to read and write. We explore a worldand a time different from ours. Kids benefit from thesekinds of activities and perspectives, when we can includethem, bring them along, or share our experiences with them.I like having our sons in the field (Figure 1), and I think thatis a positive experience for them. That said, the logistics canbecome difficult, and one of my current challenges is fittingfieldwork into our family schedule.BalanceNobody does archaeology around the clock. Many of us lovewhat we do— and we are privileged in that respect— but weBalance is hard to find and to maintain. It is not somethinganybody “gets,” but something for which we must constantlystrive, and we are better off with help along the way; my wifeand I try to support our respective career pursuits while dividinghousehold tasks as evenly as we can. What “balance”means to any of us changes during our lives— and as archaeologists,we know that the only constant is change. None ofus will figure out how to balance everything perfectly, but ifwe reflect upon what we want and need, and if we talk aboutwhat is going well and what is missing in our lives, everybodybenefits. For some of us, “family” means spouses and children;for others it includes siblings, aging parents, other relatives,and friends. For all of us, happiness and balance willmake us better friends and family members.Doing archaeology is an adventure, sometimes puzzling andvexing, but always stimulating; so also is life with kids. It isworth smiling and laughing about what goes right, what surprisesus, and what at first glance seems to have gone wrong.Most of us got into archaeology because we find it fun andfascinating, and because we decided that studying the past isworthwhile. As my friend Chris Glew once pointed out,doing something that excites and energizes us makes ushappy, which makes us better spouses and better parents,and it sets a good example for our children. I cannot imaginelife without my wife and our kids, and family life puts myinvolvement in archaeology in perspective while also makingit more meaningful for me. I feel fortunate to have the careerthat I have, and I am glad my family and friends support mylife in ruins.Notes1. Of course, I write from the experience of one man andfather. For sage commentary from a woman and a mother on thechallenges that women (and men) face in balancing careers andfamily, see the essay by Anne–Marie Slaughter in the July/August2012 issue of The Atlantic (http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/07/why-women-still-can-8217-t-have-itall/9020/).Recent discussions about Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer’s decision totake a short maternity leave and to “work through it” are also relevant.32 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYWILL YOU PLEASE MOVE WITH ME TO...?WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN A MUSEUM SETTINGStephen E. NashStephen E. Nash is a Curator of Archaeology at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science.Igrew up within a half-mile of the Museum of Science andIndustry (MSI) in Chicago, a world-class museum thatwas ahead of its time with respect to the interactive exhibitions.I worked at MSI as a tour guide, making minimumwage, from the beginning of my junior year of high school in1980 to the time I entered graduate school at the Universityof Arizona in the fall of 1988. As a result I grew up, andindeed came of age, uncritically thinking and believing thateveryone, everywhere, enjoyed access to such a remarkableinstitution. How wrong I was, and how widely my eyes havesince been opened. Put simply, if you are lucky enough to belocated near a great museum, take advantage of it as often asyou can. That said, working as a tour guide was not glamorous,and it was at MSI that I learned how to deal with boredom.My first day’s assignment was to an art gallery thatalmost no one visited, but I dutifully and faithfully guardedmy post. If one can learn to deal with boredom, one can learnto deal with almost anything. Looking back, I never thoughtabout making a career in museums. Fate didn’t work sodeliberately, at least in my experience.Fast forward through graduate school, to 1997. My first jobafter successfully defending my dissertation at the Universityof Arizona in Tucson was loading cactuses into a containerthat was being shipped to the Netherlands. During June andJuly, I repeatedly traveled 14-hours by car to and from Montrose,Colorado, for ten-hour days of contract archaeology,eight days on; six days off. In August, at the ripe old age of 32,I received an offer for my first full-time, fully benefitted job—as an assistant field crew chief in the cultural resource managementdivision of the Gila River Indian Community(GRIC). That job, which I could’ve had with just a bachelor’sdegree, required an 80-mile commute each way from Tucsonfor meager pay. I had to ask myself: was nine years of graduateschool and the Ph.D. really worth it? As luck (or was itfate?) would have it, however, before I worked even a singleday at the GRIC, The Field Museum offered me a post-doctoralresearch fellowship in my hometown of Chicago.I vividly remember standing with my wife at a payphone inRidgeway State Park in Ridgeway, Colorado, and asking her“Will you please move with me to Chicago?” She and I hadlong discussed the possibility (indeed probability) that wewould have to leave her hometown of Tucson, but for thefirst time, reality sank in. Because Carmen works in healthcare, and because people get sick everywhere, we knew thather geographical options were not restricted, as mine clearlywere. Six weeks later we loaded our belongings into a U-Haul truck and drove to Chicago. While at the Field, I cataloguedPaul Sidney Martin’s wonderful archaeological collectionsfrom the American Southwest for about $14.00 perhour, a wage rate set by the National Science Foundation forpost-docs regardless of where they worked. Necessity beingthe mother of invention, I took second jobs in catering tomake ends meet. Carmen soon got a good job at NorthwesternMemorial Hospital, so things began to stabilize.After the post-doc position ended in 1999, I was promoted toserve as head of collections in the Department of Anthropologyat the Field. Even as a native Chicagoan, I had no idea ofthe epic scope and depth of that institution’s fine anthropologyholdings, which are undeniably world-class. I enjoyed theprivilege of meeting top scholars from around the world,many of whom made Chicago and the museum a destinationof choice to analyze collections that simply cannot be duplicatedin this day and age. That said, working at the FieldMuseum made me realize just how important it is to properlycatalog and curate our research collections. Suffice it to saythat a great deal of the research potential in archaeologyworldwide has been permanently lost because collectionshave not been properly cataloged and curated. This is particularlygalling when the justification for new fieldwork is oftenthat “we can only answer these questions through more fieldwork,”which then exacerbates a nefarious feedback loop.Just over halfway through my time at the Field, Carmen andI welcomed the birth of our first son, Benjamin, in June2003. I took a month of paternity leave; it was by far thefastest month of my life. I quickly asked for another monthoff, and then went back to the daily grind, for the first timebalancing work and children. It made me realize how hardparents work, and especially how hard Moms work. I learnedNovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record33


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYMuseum and to our disciplines, and have various levels ofadministrative duties.Figure 1. Steve Nash and sons Ben (age 9), Thomas (age 4) and Charlie(age 4) "surveying" the Great Kiva at the Sawmill Site near Reserve,New Mexico, July 2012. Photo by Rick Wicker, Denver Museum ofNature & Science.to back off a bit on my expectations across the board. Onesimply cannot do, or have, it all. But it sure is fun to play withone’s children.When we moved to the Denver Museum of Nature & Sciencein late 2006, we sought to simplify our lives. We were luckyenough to purchase a home six blocks from the Museum, soI can walk to work, thereby adding up to two hours of productivework or family time over what I had in Chicago,where my (relatively) easy commute on the “L” train took anhour each way. In spite of our best efforts at simplification,however, our lives got more complicated in April 2008, whenCarmen gave birth to our twin sons, Charles and Thomas.Since then, our collective struggle to find balance betweenwork and family life has become that much more challenging.But the dudes are hilarious.Curators at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science areresponsible for making contributions in five arenas, or“buckets”: research, collections, outreach, service, andadministration. We are expected to conduct and publish originalresearch, and to publish at least one senior-authored,peer-reviewed article per year. If the research requires fieldwork,the work-life challenges we face are similar to thoseidentified by Stacy Barber (this issue). With respect to collections,we are expected to continuously improve the intellectualand physical control of the collections we hold in thepublic trust, and we work hard to make sure that our collectionsare legally and ethically held. With respect to outreach,the Museum’s primary audience is “stroller moms” and theirchildren, and curators are expected to possess a range ofpublic speaking skills such that we can easily present toeveryone from professional colleagues to preschoolers andelderly volunteers. This often presents a challenge to newhires, but we all ultimately feel better about ourselves whenwe garner such diverse skills and reach out to disparate audiences,particularly while using new distance learning technologies.Finally, we are expected to provide service to theHow, then, does one maintain work-life balance in a museumsetting? Recognizing full well that I represent a sampleof one, and that my life-long experience with world-classmuseums was not a foregone conclusion and is not thenorm, I offer a few thoughts. Looking back over the last severaldecades, whenever I have told people that I am anarchaeologist, or that I work in a museum, I have neverheard “Oh, how boring.” Instead, I have heard “Oh, I alwayswanted to do that, but couldn’t figure out how to make a livingin it.” What this tells me is that many, many people havepursued careers in order to satisfy their wallets, not theirminds, hearts, or souls. I find this tragic and disappointing,particularly in a society as wealthy as ours. The quest formoney is at once intoxicating and addictive.I will never get rich working in a museum, and indeed havelearned to live on salaries that would make other workingprofessionals cringe in despair. Maintaining a work-life balancein museums requires that one take advantage of thespecial opportunities that an archaeologist and museumcurator can enjoy. I include as much of my family as possiblein my fieldwork and other business trips, such that mysons have enjoyed life in rural New Mexico while I searchedfor the sites that Martin excavated but failed to properlyrecord between 1939 and 1955 (Figure 1). As long as the childrenremain at least tacitly interested in archaeology andfieldwork, they are welcome to join me. Carmen and I wentto Pompeii together as I conducted background research toprepare to host the exhibition A Day in Pompeii this fall. Asshe so often does, Carmen served as my foil when I startedgoing too deep into the archaeological weeds, reminding methat not everyone is so well versed, nor wants to be, in theminutiae of our discipline.Working in museums, I often feel as though I am a child ina candy store. In that context, it seems comparatively easy tomaintain a work-life balance when your children’s friends,not to mention their teachers, are so interested in your lifeand work. That said, one has to maintain a sense of perspective.Although I may want to live, sleep, eat, and breathearchaeology, I cannot expect others, particularly my spouseand children, to do the same. One approach is to marryanother archaeologist. Or one can marry outside the discipline,as I did, and hopefully find someone whose work maybe practiced anywhere and who is willing to tolerate life thatlies a bit outside the mainstream. But as many of our friendspointed out when we went to Pompeii, lots of people pay topdollar to do on vacation what we do under the guise of“work.” When all is said and done, we as archaeologists areexceedingly lucky to have the opportunities we enjoy, particularlywhen our children are able to experience the wondersof our cultural and natural worlds up close, and in person.34 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYDUAL-CAREER COUPLESA VIEW FROM THE TRENCHESM. Kathryn (Kat) Brown and Jason YaegerM. Kathryn (Kat) Brown is Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Texas at San Antonio, and Jason Yaeger is Professor of Anthropology,University of Texas at San Antonio.Dual-career couples have a long history in archaeology.In 1937, Oliver and Edith Rickeston published Uaxactun,Guatemala, Group E, 1926–1931, a descriptionof the results of fieldwork that they conducted together atUaxactun. Following the gendered division of labor commonat the time, Oliver Ricketson directed the excavations andEdith Ricketson ran the field lab, a common role for femalearchaeologists at the time, whether they were married to anarchaeologist or not. Dual-career couples have become morecommon, perhaps in part because professional opportunitiesfor women in archaeology have grown. We would like tooffer some of our own observations and experiences aboutthe benefits and pleasures of being married to a fellowarchaeologist, and some of the challenges as well. Our reflectionsderive from our experience in academia, but we thinksome of our observations apply equally to archaeologistsworking in CRM and other non-academic settings.Most of the dual-career couples we know met in graduateschool, and a few began dating as undergraduates. That wasnot our path. For years, we followed parallel trajectories firstmajoring in Anthropology— Kat at Texas State University,Jason at the University of Michigan— and then pursuingPh.D.s with an emphasis in Maya archaeology— Kat atSouthern Methodist University, Jason at the University ofPennsylvania. Life is full of ironies, and perhaps the greatestirony in our history is that— by all accounts— we should havemet long before we actually did.For most of the 1990s, we both went to Belize every year toconduct our dissertation fieldwork, excavating sites only 25km apart. We had bad timing, however: Kat would arrive inJune for a summer field season, just around the time thatJason was leaving after a spring field season. Working inBelize, we knew of each other’s research, had many friendsin common, and probably rubbed shoulders at the bar at theSAA annual meetings more than once, but we never met.That changed when Jason began conducting fieldwork in thesummer. By that point, we both had tenure-track positions,Jason at the University of Wisconsin, Kat at the University ofTexas at Arlington. Another irony: we both were very happyin our jobs and imagined that we would spend our wholecareers at those institutions. As our relationship grewstronger, however, and we began a commuting relationship,it became clear that one or both of us would have to leave hisor her job.For us, being married to an archaeologist has been professionallyvery fulfilling. Some dual-career couples co-direct aproject and co-author many of their publications; otherswork on different continents and never collaborate formally.We fall somewhere in between. Our research projects inBelize are close enough that can we share a field camp, butour distinct interests lead us to excavate at different sites,and we each hold our own research permit from Belize’sInstitute of Archaeology. Consequently, we can share thelogistical challenges of running a big field program and betogether as a family in the field, while maintaining our ownresearch agendas. We read and comment on each other’swork, and we share ideas and insights about archaeology andthe ancient Maya, but we rarely publish together. Indeed, thisis only our second co-authored article.Despite the positive aspects of a dual-career relationship, thechallenges are difficult to understate, particularly when it isa commuting relationship. Being away from your significantother is a constant strain, and communication can be challenging.No amount of email, phone calls, Facebook, or Facetimecan replace face-to-face interaction. For us, findingways to be together was a top priority, and like many dualcareercommuting couples, we expended a lot of energy findingcreative ways to achieve that.Commuting is also time-consuming and expensive. Whilewe found that long flights and lay-overs provided opportunitiesto catch up on emails, grade papers, and take the occasionalcat-nap, we both logged many travel hours that wewould rather have invested in other professional or personalendeavors. Because we had both established homes, weNovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record35


LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN ARCHAEOLOGYfaced the added stress and expense of maintaining twohouseholds. When we finally found jobs together, we brieflyfound ourselves in the unenviable position of owning threehouses— and holding three mortgages!When you layer these challenges and stresses on top of thedemands of the workplace and the anxieties of being a juniorfaculty member, it’s surprising to us that dual-career relationshipslast at all. We chalk their strength up to the passionfor archaeology and the intimate knowledge of the job and itsdemands that dual-career partners share. Could a nonarchaeologistreally understand why you cannot come homefor the weekend because you are analyzing eroded bodysherds? Or why you stayed on campus until midnight writingletters of reference for your graduate students?Despite being happy in our jobs, we setour sights on the holy grail of manydual-career couples: tenured/tenuretrackpositions in anthropology—whether at the same university or atuniversities within easy drivingdistance— that would be professionallyfulfilling AND allow us to live togetheras a family. We knew that might not bepossible. The job market is challenging;academic positions are few-and-farbetween.Given this, we knew that we might haveto compromise, and we were ready to doso if necessary. It’s not uncommon forone or both partners in a dual-career couple to accept a positionthat may not have been their ideal choice. Historically,such compromises have fallen more often on women, buthappily, this seems less so today.We established a time-line for how long we were willing toendure the commute, and we embarked on the well-troddenpath made by other dual-career couples, returning to the jobmarket. There are many reasons that dual-career couplesfind themselves job-hunting. Many universities don’t havethe resources for a new hire; others will only entertain aspousal hire within the context of a retention offer.Even in cases where a spousal hire is possible, many facultymembers have reservations about having two partners in thesame department. Some fear that a couple will lead to factionalizationand create tensions around decisions that impact oneof the two partners. While we know this can occur, we findthat couples are more likely to go out of their way to avoidinfluencing decisions about their partner. We also think fearsof spousal voting blocks are overblown— as often as not, wefind ourselves on opposite sides of an issue, an experience thatwill resonate with anybody who has a partner!Jason Yaeger, J.C. Yaeger, and Kat Brown at Tikal,June 2012.Of course, some universities and departments take a morepositive view of dual-career couples. They understand thatwhen you take away the stress and time-sink of commuting,the productivity of partners in dual-career couples usuallyincreases substantially. That has certainly been our experience.Furthermore, they will be less likely to seek anotherjob, out of loyalty and because of the challenges of findingnew jobs together. A few of the most progressive departmentsfurther recognize that not all dual-career couples aremarried, nor are all of them in heterosexual relationships.Returning to our story, we commuted for six years. Our questtook on added urgency when our son, J.C., was born at theend of our second year of commuting. Like many couples inour position, we found ways to mitigate the commute. Katreceived a research leave one year, and Jason took a sabbaticalanother year, which allowed us to commuteevery other year. When we werenot living together, childcare fell moreheavily on Kat’s shoulders, who essentiallyfunctioned as a single parent duringthe week. The stress of juggling ourcareers, parenting, and a long commutewas at times overwhelming, but wenever lost sight of our goal to be togetherand to have fulfilling careers. Whilejobs together in an academic departmentwas our hope, we realized thatmight not be possible, and we wereready to consider a wide variety of alternatives.We were thrilled that the University of Texas at San Antoniooffered us both positions in in the Department Anthropology.It felt like we had won the archaeology lottery! Kat beganat UTSA in Fall 2009, and Jason followed in Fall 2010, aftergiving the University of Wisconsin a year of service he owedfollowing his sabbatical. We consider ourselves very fortunate:we found jobs together at a rapidly growing universitythat emphasizes research. The Department of Anthropologyis an exciting place, with an established MA program and anew Ph.D. program. We are privileged to have supportiveand collegial colleagues that include another dual-career coupleand many faculty members with young children. For Kat,a native Texan, UTSA has the added bonus of being in theLone Star State and only 2 hours from her family.Our story is a success story, and we hope that it provides aglimmer of hope for other dual-career couples that are insearch of the “holy grail.” At the same time, a realistic appraisalof the academic job market should encourage dual-careercouples to be open to creative alternatives. Looking to thefuture, we are optimistic that our experience will come to bethe new normal as our discipline and academia increasinglyappreciate the benefits of supporting dual career couples.36 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


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IN MEMORIAMDUCCIO BONAVIA BERBER1935–2012Duccio Bonavia Berber died at age 78, on SaturdayAugust 4, 2012 in Ascope (Trujillo), Peru. His deathwas sudden, but at least it occurred while he wasdoing what he loved to do most— field archaeology. Ducciowas working with Tom Dillehay at the iconic site of Huaca Prieta,on the north coast of Peru.With Duccio’s death, Andean archeology has lost one of itsmost dedicated scholars. Duccio was without doubt one of thegreat Peruvian archaeologists of his generation.His extensive publications are a testamentto his intellectual leadership, thebreadth of his interests in science and commitmentto multidisciplinary research. Hehas left a legacy that will be hard to match. Hewrote on so many important topics, fromcamelid domestication to the origins ofmaize, from the pre-ceramic lifeways to theMoche state, and beyond.Duccio and I shared a great and enduringfriendship. We met at the UniversidadNacional Mayor de San Marcos in the mid-1950s and remained very close friendsthroughout our lives. He was born in Spalato (Dalamazia),Italy in 1935, and immigrated to Peru in 1949 with his family.He graduated with a Bachelors degree in 1960 and went onto receive a Ph.D. from the Universidad Nacional Mayor deSan Marcos. He studied with Francois Bordes in Paris from1967 to 1968. During his lifetime, he was a teacher andresearcher at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; atthe Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, at HuamangaUniversity at the University of Trujillo; and a visiting professorat the University of Bonn in Germany.His first excavations were in Ayacucho in 1958. In 1960 heturned his attention to Los Gavilanes in the Huarmey Valley;his work there was commissioned by the Botanical Museumof Harvard University. His explorations of the Casma Valley,in collaboration with Donald Collier, opened new avenues forDuccio’s future research. Those early years instilled in him apassion for the study of early maize cultivation in the Andes.As he advanced in his studies on Peruvian archaeology andgained knowledge of the Andes, his passion for the indigenouspeoples of Peru grew. He dedicated the rest of his life tothe study of the Andean past and its people tremendouscapacity to maintain many cultural traditions.ology, and led many major expeditions and field research projects.His work ranged from extensive fieldwork, such as thatdone in the Huarmey Valley where he conducted excavationsat the site of Los Gavilanes, to contributing bibliographicoverviews and developing and refining concepts used inAndean archeology. His bibliography is extensive and multidisciplinary.The totality of his work established him as one ofthe influential leaders of American anthropology. In additionto topics within the field of archaeology, he dabbled in art andart history, pre-Columbian urbanism, botany,zoology, ecology, paleopathology, the indigenousdiet, parasitology, physiology, and evensome aspects of medicine. In studying hisbibliography I counted 13 books, 7 monographs,and 50 chapters in books, in additionto countless entries made in encyclopedias.He also wrote 144 articles for specialized journals,38 popular articles, and scores ofreviews and comments on the publications ofhis colleagues.Duccio was Duccio, one of a kind, an exampleof discipline, honesty, responsibility, andethics. He had no enemies and won greatrespect and admiration. He always supported his criticismswith factual evidence. He never made assumptions and thereforeearned the great respect we have for him in the archaeologicalcommunity. He formulated a hypothesis and collecteddata, as seen in his defense of the antiquity and domesticationof maize in the Andes.Duccio was a principled and ethnical archaeologist who tookresponsibility for his actions and his words. He never left aproject unfinished, never left a site with open excavationswhich would encourage looting. He always completed hisreports on a collection and related the results to the NationalMuseum, always reported the results of his fieldwork toappropriate state agencies. He never failed to publish his excavationreports. He is truly an example for all of us.—Ramiro MatosDuccio devoted more than half a century to Peruvian archae-38 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


IN MEMORIAMDAVID A. FREDRICKSON1927–2012David Fredrickson, professor emeritus in anthropologyat Sonoma State University (SSU), California, passedaway after several years of declining health. Born inBerkeley he spent most of his non-school time with his mother’sextended family in the San Joaquin Valley. After highschool he attended the University of California, Berkeley,before enlisting in the Navy. He took an interest in archaeologyand spent several summers on excavations at central Californiasites under the direction of RobertHeizer, entering graduate school at Berkeleyin 1948. In 1952 he left graduate school andtook jobs driving cab, driving truck, givingguitar lessons, playing music, modelling, andother odd jobs.Dave returned to archaeology (1960), directingexcavations at sites throughout California,completing his M.A. degree at U.C. Davis(1966). He was hired as Assistant Professor ofAnthropology at Sonoma State College (SSC,later SSU) in 1967, received his Ph.D. degreefrom U.C. Davis (1973), and retired at SSU asProfessor Emeritus (1992). Dave was thearchitect of the archaeology program at SSCand SSU, transforming it from a very smallgroup of student volunteers in 1973 to a fullfledgedAnthropological Studies Center with anational reputation that has provided scoresof students with the experience and trainingnecessary to move on to professional careers in culturalresources management (CRM) and academia. In recognitionof his CRM efforts in California, he received a grant from theSouth African Research Council to travel to South Africa (in1989) as an Overseas Research Fellow to introduce conceptspertaining to CRM as practiced in the United States to professionalsin South Africa.Dave received (among other awards), the Presidential Awardfor Outstanding Contributions in the Service of Archaeologyfrom the Society for California Archaeology (1985), the MarkR. Harrington Award for Conservation Archaeology from theSociety for California Archaeology (1988), the LifetimeAchievement Award from the Society for California Archaeology(1993), and the Award for Excellence in CulturalResources Management from the Society for AmericanArchaeology (1998). The Anthropological Collections Facilityat SSU was named in his honor in 2004.Particularly committed to including Native Americans in allaspects of his archaeological work, Dave developed close personalrelationships with many of the individuals with whomhe interacted. He was at the forefront of breaking downunproductive stereotypes and helped to pave the way for morecooperation, mutual respect, and beneficial relationshipsbetween Native California peoples and archaeologists.Dave was a very productive scholar who publishedfrequently and was actively committedto participation and service at all levels ofarchaeology. He was a founding member ofthe Society for California Archaeology (1966),and variously acted as President, Vice-President,and Northern California Vice-Presidentfrom 1967–1985. He also served on the Boardof Editors for the Journal of California andGreat Basin Anthropology from 1973–2000.He was an extremely popular teacher andprobably the most beloved figure in Californiaarchaeology, possessed of an inclusive,non-judgmental, nurturing, and honest personalitythat was felt by all of his many studentsand in the wider archaeological communitiesin which he participated. He alsowas an accomplished guitarist in the Berkeleymusic community, completing an album(Songs of the West) for Folkways Records(1961) and, as a member of the Berkeley-based music groupCrabgrass (or Crabgrassers), recorded an album (Out West-Berkeley) for Arhoolie Records (1964). Dave’s last album, FourCords, was completed in 2005. Dave always looked forward toplaying music— around a campfire, at music festivals, or atpost-banquet gatherings at the Society for California Archaeology.Dave and Vera-Mae’s music parties at their home onParker Street in Berkeley were legendary, and many of themajor and lesser known folk musicians in the Bay Areaplayed there at one time or another.Despite all this, Dave was extremely modest, with the highestpersonal integrity, and was an unwaveringly supportive friendand colleague. The profession will never again see the likes ofDave Fredrickson.—Richard E. Hughes, Gregory G. White, and Thomas M. OrigerNovember 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record39


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POSITIONS OPENposition: assistant professor,archaeologylocation: tempe, azArizona State University School ofHuman Evolution and Social Changeinvites applications for an assistant professorin archaeology. Required qualificationsinclude a Ph.D. in anthropology/archaeology,regional specializationin the U.S. Southwest and/orMesoamerica, the ability to direct sustainedfieldwork that involves students,and the ability to contribute to undergraduateand graduate education.Desired qualifications include peerreviewedpublications and externalgrants, and an established researchfocus on topics such as urbanism andother complex social formations,resilience, technology, or other themesrelated to existing strengths of the ASUanthropology/archaeology program.Application deadline is December 1,2012. Applicants must apply online athttp://academicjobsonline.org andinclude curriculum vitae, a cover letterno longer than two pages that includes abrief statement of professional goals andteaching philosophy, and the names andemail addresses of three references.Please make sure your last nameappears in each uploaded file name. Youmay address your cover letter to ProfessorBen Nelson, Archaeology SearchCommittee Chair. Information aboutthe School can be found athttp://shesc.asu.edu. A backgroundcheck is required for employment. ArizonaState University is an equal opportunity/affirmativeaction employer committedto excellence through diversity.Women and minorities are encouragedto apply. See https://www.asu.edu/titleIX/. ASU job ID# 10201.position: two assistant professors,evolutionary anthropology or evolutionarypsychologylocation: tempe, azArizona State University School ofHuman Evolution and Social Changeseeks to build on existing strengths todevelop a World-class program in evolutionarysocial science, with a focus onthe dynamic interactions between biologyand culture responsible for humanuniqueness. We seek to hire two assistantprofessors with exceptional scholarlypotential in this scientific domain.Minimum qualifications include a Ph.D.in anthropology, psychology, or a closelyrelatedfield, and evidence of researchproductivity and teaching effectiveness.Desired qualifications include a strongrecord of field, laboratory, and/or modelbasedresearch on the interactionsbetween human culture and biology thatis grounded in evolutionary theory.Research should focus on human bioculturalevolution in deep or morerecent time, biocultural interactions incontemporary societies, and/or researchon nonhuman primates (particularlygreat apes) relevant to human uniqueness.Examples include but are not limitedto: the evolution of the human languageand cognition; the evolution ormechanics of cooperation, sociality, andinstitutions; human behavioral ecology,technology, and innovation; behavior,cognition, and sociality of great apes.Additional desired qualifications includeevidence of success in obtaining externalfunding, teaching experience inanthropology or related fields, experiencementoring and supporting students,and collaborative experienceswith an interdisciplinary research team.Application deadline is December 1,2012. If not filled, reviews will occur onthe first of the month thereafter untilthe search is closed. Applicants mustapply online at http://academicjobsonline.organd include a letter of application,curriculum vitae, and the namesand email addresses of three references.Please make sure your last nameappears in each uploaded file name. Youmay address your cover letter to ProfessorMichael Barton, EvolutionaryAnthropology Search Committee Chair.Information about the School can befound at http://shesc.asu.edu. TheSchool collaborates extensively withASU’s Institute for Human Origins(http://iho.asu.edu). Arizona State Universityis an equal opportunity/affirmativeaction employer. Women andminorities are encouraged to apply. Seehttps://www.asu.edu/ titleIX/. A backgroundcheck is required for employment.ASU job ID #10202.position: associate/full professorto serve as department chairlocation: washington, dcAmerican University invites applicationsfor an advanced associate or fullprofessor who will serve as the Chair ofthe Department of Anthropology beginningAugust 2013. The successful candidatewill have an extensive record ofresearch and publication, experience inacademic and administrative leadership,and success in obtaining externalgrant/contract support for research andprogram development. Subfield andcontent area are open. However, the successfulcandidate’s research agenda willcomplement the department’s commitmentto undergraduate and graduatetraining in publically engaged anthropology.Applications should include: acurriculum vita, a statement of researchand teaching interests, a discussion ofadministrative and grant/contract experience,a statement of leadership philosophyand academic vision, and contactinformation for letters of recommendation.Electronic applications are preferred:please put “Chair Search” in the by-line42 The SAA Archaeological Record • November 2012


and send to anthro@american.edu. Sendhard copies to: Department ChairSearch Committee, Department ofAnthropology, Hamilton Hall–8003,American University, 4400 MassachusettsAvenue, NW, Washington DC20016. Review of applications will beginNovember 6, 2012, and continue untilthe position is filled. American Universityis an Equal Opportunity/AffirmativeAction employer, committed to a diversefaculty, staff and student body, andactively encourages applications fromwomen and members of minoritygroups. AU offers employee benefits tosame-sex domestic partners of employeesand prohibits discrimination on thebasis of sexual orientation/ preferenceand gender identity/expression.CALENDAR2012NOVEMBER 27–30The ICOMOS International ScientificCommittee on Archaeological HeritageManagement (ICAHM) will hold its2012 annual conference in Cuzco, Peru,27–30 November. The theme of the conferenceis Archaeological Heritage Managementat the 40th Anniversary of theWorld Heritage Convention. The conferencewebsite is: http://www.icomos.org/icahm/cuzco_home.htmlJANUARY 9–122013The Society for Historical Archaeology’sannual Conference on Historical andUnderwater Archaeology; RamadaLeicester Hotel and University of Leicester,Leicester, England, UK. Abstractsubmission deadline: July 9, 2012. Contact:Dr. Sarah Tarlow, School of Archaeologyand Ancient History, University ofLeicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leicester,England, UK; email sat12@ le.ac.uk; fax+44 (0)116 252 5005JANUARY 14–18The Seventh World Archaeological Congress(WAC-7) will be held in Jordan atthe King Hussein Bin Talal ConventionCenter on the Dead Sea, January 14-18,2013. For further details and the mostup-to-date WAC-7 information, includingsubmission, registration, and travelgrant deadlines, visit: http://wac7.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org/or contactthe WAC-7 Program Committee at:wac7program@gmail.comMARCH 26–31International Rock Art Congress will beheld at the Marriott Pyramid North Hotel,Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Hostedby American Rock Art Research Association(ARARA). Registration and moreinformation: http://www.ifrao2013.org.Contacts: Conference Co-Chair: DonnaGillette rockart@ix.netcom.com, 805-343-2575; Conference Co-Chair: Peggy Whiteheadwhw-pjw@att.net, 303-426-7672.ARARA website www.arara.org.APRIL 3–778th Annual Meeting of the Society forAmerican Archaeology. Honolulu,Hawaii. www.saa.org.MAY 15–19Canadian Archaeological AssociationAnnual Meeting. Whistler, BritishColumbia. Contact: Eldon Yellowhornecy@sfu.edu.MAY 26–31International Rock Art Congress. Albuquerque,NM. www.ifrao2013.org2014AUGUST 8–102a Conferencia Intercontinental, Lima,Perú.November 2012 • The SAA Archaeological Record43


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¡Ya viene laSegundaConferenciaIntercontinental!Lima, PerúAgosto, 2014Espere más información prontoNEW FOR 2013Customize your membership with new 2013 renewal options!Add one of SAA’s 3 new interest groups:• Island and Coastal Archaeology Interest Group• Military Archaeological Resources Stewardship Interest Group• Zooarchaeology and Bone Technology Interest GroupSelect how you’d like to receive The SAA Archaeological Record:• Electronic only• Print and Electronic


SOCIETY FOR AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY1111 14th Street, NW, Suite 800Washington, DC 20005Change Service RequestedNon-Profit OrgUS POSTAGE PAIDHANOVER, PA 17331PERMIT NO 4Launching in 2013!ADVANCES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL PRACTICEA Journal of the Society for American ArchaeologyEdited by Christopher D. Dore,University of Arizona & ASM Affiliates, Inc.A digital, peer-reviewed, quarterly journal focusing onmethods, techniques, and innovative practices.Look for the link to the courtesy issues available in 2013!You can be a part of SAA history! Now is the time to ready yourmanuscript for the inaugural issues. For submission information,please contact Christopher Dore at advances@saa.org.

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