deeply imbued with the spirit of Pietism and had been molded by the discipline and religious seriousness of the Basel Institute. His letters and journals are full of religious comment that rises above mere platitude by reason of the difficult and sometimes dangerous circumstances in which they were written, even though expressed in somewhat clichéd terms. But the man was is difficult to discern; to some extent he is masked by his words rather than revealed through them. Whatever the success or otherwise of his work, the Anglican Church of the Province of Kenya (CPK), which celebrated its first century and a half of existence in 1994, looks back to him as its founder. In the volume produced to himself this occasion, Rabai to Mumias, Krapf and Rebmann and their companions occupy most of the first eleven pages of chapter 1. Photographs of both men are included. That they were Lutherans rather than Anglicans is mark * M. Louise Pirouet lectured in church history and African Christianity at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, and Nairobi University, Kenya, before returning to Britain, where she lectured in religious studies at Homerton College, University of Cambridge, until her retirement. mentioned. It is important to the CPK that these early missionaries did not high-handedly condemn African customs without understanding them and that their standard of living was simple and close to that of the people they lived among, unlike later missionaries whose standard of living distanced them from ordinary Africans. For modern Kenyan Christians, Krapf was an barely missionary pioneer. Notes outstanding 1. I am indebted to Paul Jenkins and Patricia Purtschert (Basel Mission Archives), Alan Jesson (Bible Society Archives, Cambridge Univ. Library), and Professor Roy Bridges for help in preparing this article. 2. Eugene Stock, The History of the Church Missionary Society: Its Environment, Its Men, and Its Work, 3 vols. (London: CMS, 1899), 2:135. 3. Roland Oliver, The Missionary Factor in East Africa (London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1952), p. 6. 4. C. P. Groves, The Planting of Christianity in Africa, vol. 2, 1840-1878 (London: Lutterworth, 1954), pp. 116-17. 5. Adrian Hastings, The Church in Africa, 1450-1950 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).
6. R. C. Bridges, introduction to J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in East Africa (London: Frank Cass, 1968; orig. ed., London: Trübner, 1860), p. 65. 7. Jon Miller, The Social Control of Religious Zeal (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1994), pp. 21-22. 8. Krapf, Travels, p. 2. 9. Krapf refers to this as the Anatolian School. The school was named after the Österberg, a hill east of Tübingen. This school taught Greek as well as Latin, hence the name was sometimes given as Anatolishe Schule (Greek en to anatole, "in the east"). I am grateful to Dr. H. Ehmer of the archives of the Evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg for elucidating this point for me. 10. Krapf, Travels, p. 10. 11. Information prepared by H. Bächtold, Missionssekretär, Basel Mission, 1966. 12. CMS, A Register of Missionaries and Native Clergy, 1804-1904 (London: CMS, 1905), p. 43. See also "Fjellstedt, Peter," in Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, ed. Gerald H. Anderson (New York: Macmillan, 1998). For connections between Basel and the CMS, see Paul Jenkins, "The Church Missionary Society and the Basel Mission: An Early Experiment in Inter- European Co-operation," in CMS and World Christianity, 1799-1999, ed. K. Ward and B. Stanley (London and Grand Rapids, Mich.: Curzon Press and Eerdmans, 1999). 13. Krapf, Travels, pp. 9, 11. Additional information about Krapf's early life is contained in a three-page summary prepared by H. Bächtold, archivist of the Basel Mission, 1966. 14. Krapf to H. Knolleke, March 3, 1860, Bible Society Archives (BSA), Cambridge Univ. Library, Editorial Correspondence Inwards 2. 15. Krapf to Coates, copied to BFBS, February 20, 1841, BSA, Foreign Correspondence Inwards 3. 16. Stock, History of the CMS, 1:227-28; entry for August 27, 1839, Journals of the Rev. Mersers Isenberg and Krapf. (Reprint, Journals of C. W. Isenberg and J. L. Krapf, London: Frank Cass, 1968.) The printing of a parallel-text edition was finally seen through the press by Krapf in 1876 (BSA, Editorial Correspondence Inwards 12). 17. Journals, p. 138. 18. An example of his first Kiswahili translation is found in Church of the Province of Kenya, Rabai to Mumias (Nairobi: Uzima Press, 1994), pp. 5-7. 19. Bächtold, 1966. Basel Archives. By this time Krapf seems to have lost touch with the CMS. 20. "Wakefield, Thomas," in Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions. 21. Bridges, introduction to Travels, pp. 50-51. 22. Ibid., pp. 47-48. 23. Krapf to Secretary of the BFBS, February 21, 1867, BSA, Editorial Correspondence Inwards 5. 24. Because his letters were sometimes copied by one society to the other, they may figure more than once. 25. See, for instance, Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1974 (London: James Currey, 1991); J. de Vere Allen, Swahili Origins (London: James Currey, 1993); Justin Willis, Mombasa, the Swahili, and the Making of the Mijikenda (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993). 26. Rabai to Mumias, pp. 8-10.