Future Craft: How Digital Media is Transforming Product ... - CHI 2008

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Future Craft: How Digital Media is Transforming Product ... - CHI 2008

Future Craft: How Digital Media isTransforming Product DesignLeonardo Bonanni, Amanda Parkes, Hiroshi IshiiMIT Media Lab20 Ames StreetCambridge MA 02139 USA{amerigo, amanda, ishii}@media.mit.eduFigure 1. ‘Product Autopsy’ engages students in a discussion ofwhere and how products are (and should be) made.Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).CHI 2008, April 5 – April 10, 2008, Florence, ItalyACM 978-1-60558-012-8/08/04.AbstractThe open and collective traditions of the interactioncommunity have created new opportunities for productdesigners to engage in the social issues aroundindustrial production. This paper introduces FutureCraft, a design methodology which applies emergingdigital tools and processes to product design towardnew objects that are socially and environmentallysustainable. We present the results of teaching theFuture Craft curriculum at the MIT Media Lab includingprincipal themes of public, local and personal design,resources, assignments and student work. Novelethnographic methods are discussed with relevance toinforming the design of physical products. We aim tocreate a dialogue around these themes for the productdesign and HCI communities.KeywordsProduct Design, Sustainability, Craft, Digital Media,Design Methodologies.ACM Classification KeywordsJ.7 Computer in other systems: Consumer products.IntroductionThe interaction community is increasingly engaged withproduct design through the growing impact of digital


2devices on society and the environment. But the HCIcommunity only indirectly deals with industrialproduction and design. The time has come for a directdialogue between these to address the fundamentalproblems of what should be made and how to make it.Future Craft is a new design methodology thatconsiders how the processes of design and productioncan be used to reflect new social values and to changedominant cultural practices. It addresses design as botha process and a result of a process, influenced bytechnological developments, the socio-economicconstraints of the manufacturing process, and thecultural context that gives rise to the need for objects.Industrial production has fostered vast distancesbetween the sources of products and their users, withoften disastrous social and environmentalconsequences. Designers and engineers usually workfar from the factory or the sales floor; and manyproducts can be overly generic, complex, harmful topeople or the environment. But the HCI community isincreasingly engaged with industrial production throughefforts to simplify products, to make processes moreefficient, to strengthen communities and individualsand to inform consumers. The depth and complexity ofdigital devices is motivating major manufacturers tosearch for a new 'simplicity' in consumer electronics[30]. Last year, a 'Best of CHI' award went to a paperbased on the assumption that 'sustainability can andshould be a central focus of interaction design.[3]'Advances in personal fabrication techniques andcomputing in developing countries are spurring thegrowth of 'fabrication labs' where developingcommunities can begin to design and manufactureproducts suited to their needs [21]. Physical andmental illnesses are being addresses through digitalwearables and intelligent prosthetics [2,24]. Supplychaintraceability interfaces have been developed toensure the quality of products, most notablygovernment-mandated tracking of meat in Japan [41]and NGO-sponsored analysis of toxics in consumerelectronics [23, 39]. All of these efforts are being aidedby the principles of the open-source community, whodepend on transparency and shared platforms to fostercollective projects to resolve social needs.The practice of product design is being transformed bythese innovations, enabling a new engagement with thepublic, local and personal issues around industrialproduction. Public Design introduces the newfoundcapacity of individual designers to develop a globalidentity, engage in complex issues such as ethics andenvironmental sustainability, and collaborate acrossgeographic and cultural boundaries of projects. LocalDesign proposes tools for design and manufacture atthe scale of individual communities, fosteringsustainable, empowering and appropriate products.Personal Design offers human-scale technologiestransforming the longstanding relationships betweenour bodies and the world.Future Craft seeks to apply these emerging tools andprocesses to the teaching of product design in order tointervene directly in the conception of new objects tostrive for social and environmental sustainability. Wepresent the course through a series of themes,interspersed with useful resources and student projectsto illustrate the issues and solutions arising from t hismethodology. We also cite innovative ethnographictechniques relevant to informing the design of physicaldigitaldevices.


3Public DesignThe globalization of industrial production isolatesconsumers from designers and manufacturers, andencourages complex, closed products and resourceintensiveand opaque manufacturing practices. Recentlysociety has grown more concerned with the severeconsequences of unchecked industrial production,including pollution, resource consumption, toxicproducts, and unethical practices. Today, companiesseeking to differentiate themselves are engaging inpublic transparency, often through blogs and other onlineservices [1]. Novel web services have sprung up tohighlight ethical or environmental practices by trackingand publishing their manufacturing practices [10,7].Web-based publication and software enables designersto engage directly with consumers and producers, whileproviding an invaluable marketing tool. Public Designdescribes the benefits when product designers create apublic identity to become informed, to interact with themarketplace and to offer novel and improved products.Theme I. Public Design: Transparency and CollectiveIntelligence in DesignReadings:Episodes of Collective Invention by Peter Meyer [33]Assignments:-Online Identity: start a blog and learn to embedvideo, audio and other media-Open Design: use and improve on an open craftproject-Product Autopsy: use the web to research howwhere and why a product was made (see fig. 1)Increasingly designers from around the world are usingthe internet as a portal to make themselves known, toshare ideas and to do business. Blogs and socialnetworks make it possible to become known world-widefor individual projects and to develop relationships withother professionals. Proficiency in on-line publishing,especially blogs, video- and photo-sharing websites isbecoming necessary for any designer to exist in themodern design world. More than a webpage, today'ssocial networks are evolving, serendipitous virtualplaces for people to connect, learn and produce. Once adesigner is engaged with the blogosphere, a number ofresources become available to enrich research,collaboration and novel means of production anddistribution. For these reasons the entire course wastaught using a multi-user blog where each studentcould maintain their own presence within the structureof the syllabus (futurecraft.org).'Green' and 'ethical' products are highly desirabletoday, yet few design schools teach how to make them.On-line services can fill the gap by making availablevast resources about global ethical and environmentalconcerns that were once unknowable. Problems withcorporate ethics and pollution are being published onlineby NGOs [23, 39, 40, 13]. Governments anduniversities are providing resources for individualdesigners to conduct environmental impact analyses[44, 6], while new on-line portals guide consumerstoward sustainable materials and products [12].Designers can study the impact of their decisions andpublish them alongside their designs to imbue theirproducts with significance.


4themselves and develop an on-line identity through theinstructions they post on-line [27]. One successful opendesign site uses a hybrid of a DIY and open-sourcemodel to engage a motivated community in inventingand fabricating low-cost prosthetics [35].Figure 2. One student’s online identity targets the blogcommunity: he carefully selects a market (yupsters: betweenyuppies and hipsters) and proposes products that could satisfythem (font flash cards, 16:9 glasses), whether or not they areproduced.Transparent business practice stand in opposition to theclosed tradition of intellectual property. But many typesof products can be better made through open sharingof the design process. Inspired by the 'open source' or'free' software community, Open Design projects useweb-based platforms to aggregate the ideas and toolsof product design to collectively produce objects outsidetraditional commercial means [42] These efforts havenot been as successful as the free software movement,in part because designers are still not used topresenting their work on-line. One promising newdirection is the advent of popular 'do-it-yourself'websites and social networks, whereby designers,hackers and tinkerers can learn to make productsInstead of mass-producing generic objects to somewhatsatisfy a lot of people, internet distribution enablesdesigners to target custom-designed products tocommunities and individuals. Following the 'long tail'model of internet music distribution, where manyunique musicians can find their small audiences, on-linesales services allow on-demand manufacturing of smallbatches of products [37, 30] and direct-to-consumersale of craft items [14]. These types of sale promoteindividualized design, including fitted products andfunctions that more closely match the desires of agroup of people. In turn they can have the benefit ofpromoting local manufacture, avoiding inventory,overhead and overseas manufacturing.One consequence of product design through a publicidentity is that designers can achieve notoriety forconceptual products whereupon they can chooseTheme II. Local Design: Engaging in the Empowermentof Local GroupsReadings:Tools for Conviviality by Ivan Illich [26]FAB by Neil Gershenfeld [21]Cradle to Cradle by McDonough, Braungart [32]Assignments:-De-Technologize: simplify a product-Invent a Material-Design for up-cycling


5whether to make a physical or cultural contribution. Anumber of artistic and research projects have becomefamous through blogs and viral videos, leaving theirinventors to choose whether to mass-produce them orpublish them in the press. By obtaining hype beforegoing into production, considerable material waste canbe eliminated. One Future Craft student created a webpersona to his designs to gain internet fame ratherthan to sell products. He identified a niche (yupsters -between hipsters and yuppies) and came up with aseries of conceptual products that are clever enough tobe blogged about, but not significant enough to meritactual production (see fig. 2).On-line services offer new production models wherebyproducts may not need to be designed for disposal andobsolescence. A number of sites have sprung up toencourage re-use and up-cycling, where products gainvalue after use [18,17]. New services even allowproducts such as cars to be shared through on-linereservations, foregoing the need to own and promotingdurable, re-usable product design. Engaging in newsystems of production, distribution, ownership and reuseallows designers to promote truly sustainableproducts by shifting the dominant models and culturalpractices.Local DesignDesign and manufacturing have become concentratedin opposite parts of the world; perhaps as a result massproduction under-serves many local communities byfavoring high-tech, disposable products and exoticmaterials. This section considers how the needs andresources of local communities can be addressed bynew techniques in design and fabrication. MassCustomization opens the door to products designed tosuit individual needs as well as a return to a localeconomy of expert craft. Mass Craft offers ways to rethinkmanufacturing so that high-tech products can bemade with low-tech means. De-Technologizing is aprocess of selecting materials technologies that areappropriate to users and local resources. Up-cyclingconsiders how materials and products can gain valuewhen they are designed for local re-use. And PersonalFabrication combines all of these technologies into amicro-factory that can be installed far from globalmanufacturing centers.Three-dimensional scanning and rapid prototypingmachines are making it easier to tailor products toindividual consumers and under-served communities.Recent initiatives have sought to strengthen communitycobblers in Italy by providing laser-scanners in shoestores and using computer-controlled machines toprepare personalized shoe lasts around which uniqueshoes can be formed [4]. Hearing aids are made to fitindividual ears by a similar method of scanning and 3dprinting [19]. Mass customization can literally addressthe needs of a single consumer, while elevating theproducer to the level of skilled craft.Along with manufacturing, many of the techniqueswhereby products are made today have moved to ahandful of industrial centers. As a result many productstoday cannot be made outside of the most modernfactories. Recent developments in electronics and HCIhave focused on simplifying and making universal themeans by which we assemble our electronics. Someresearchers have discovered way to weave electronicsfrom special cloth instead of using traditional fiberglassand solder [28]. One wheelchair designer has used theinternet to distribute plans for an improved wheelchair,


6including directions for manufacturing it in any part ofthe world [45].The blanket application of digital solutions to productdesign problems favors complexity, and is based onfaster, smaller and more expensive microprocessors.The increasing sophistication of even simple productsmakes them more likely to be thrown away thanrepaired. The commodity materials of modernmanufacturing are often synthetic, with little hope forlocal repair or efficient re-use or recycling.De-Technologizing considers how little technology isnecessary in a product, including the replacement ofactive components with innovative form and materialdesign. By simply eliminating many of the parts of aconventional product far more sustainable practices canbe established. One researcher has developed a solarpoweredprinter that does not consume ink in an effortto eliminate consumables from these wasteful devices[15]. A famous combination solar-powered and handcrankedradio was developed to provide rural residentsof Sub-Saharan Africa to be informed about health andsafety. One student proposed a voltmeter consisting ofa magnetic fluid in a vial, able to indicate current whenit moves in response to the magnetic field emitted bythe circuit.Because many products are designed to be disposable,localities distant from production centers must rely onconstant importation. Up-cycling is a process wherebyproducts can gain multiple functions after the originalone is complete, usually through the addition of labor.One famous example is a beer bottle which was maderectangular so that, after use, it could be used as abrick in construction [36]. Design for up-cyclingrequires careful consideration of local needs andresources so that products live out their intendedsecond lives instead of being thrown away.Figure 3. Mass Customization and De-Technologizing: onestudent sought to make unique-sounding acoustic guitars thatcould give each musician the ability to design their own soundthrough custom acoustic chambers joined on a single neck.Personal Fabrication Laboratories (Fab Labs) are acombination of mass customization and mass craftwhich can empower communities to design and buildtheir own devices, regardless of complexity, in a localshop with widely available materials [21]. Some rapidprototyping machines can now repair themselves, sothat a remote shop can keep itself working withoutdepending on foreign parts [38]. Advances in these


7techniques could lead to simpler, less toxic electronicproducts as well.One student explored the topic of Local Design byquestioning the electric evolution of guitars. He pointedout that electric guitars can only evolve through moresophisticated hardware and software, but that acousticguitars offer rich opportunities for new sounds throughsimple physical manipulation. He proposed a system formaking custom acoustic guitars by conjoining different,custom-designed resonance chambers on a commonbridge (see fig. 3). Musicians could create their owninstruments by mixing and matching resonantchambers from an on-line, shared repository. As aresult, the materials and sounds can respond not onlyto the craft and materials but also the cultures ofindividual places.Personal DesignHuman-centered design has emerged as one of thetenets of contemporary design, and decades of studiesin ergonomics have taught designers to revere the formand abilities of the body as the standard for analysis ininteraction [43]. Yet our notion of the body is changing.New technologies are allowing our bodies to becomeenhanced, augmented, expanded in functionality andaltered in form. This section considers how thechanging concept of the body, and our associatedidentities, alters how and what we strive to design forourselves and the nature of digital products made to beworn and used by the body.Fashion designers have long addressed the notion thatwhat we wear and carry projects an image of ouridentities. Yet much of the state of the art in 'wearable'technologies, such as the MIThril [9], focuses primarilyon innovation in technologies for computation, sensingand networking but appears to disregard the culturalassociations and reflection on image of a cyborgaesthetic. Ubiquitous & embedded technologies areallowing our devices to become more and more a partof us with increasing mobility and pervasiveness. In thespace of digital device design, the line between body,clothing and object is blurring. The question is arisingof what is human, where the body ends and a devicebegins. In the case of implants or prosthetics, theboundary between assistive technologies and aestheticstatements is blurring.Figure 4. One student with a chronic sports injury created agarment for body awareness - a sweater, stitched with apattern offering directions for folding into a back supportdevice. Embedded vibrating motors occasionally remind theuser to move and reorient his posture.Prosthetics which can be seen as fashion accessoriessuch as the many legs of model and athlete AimeeMullins [34], designed in a range of aesthetic andfunctionality similar to a wardrobe of shoes, orprosthetics can be designed to allow the human body


8Theme III. Personal Design: Engaging the IndividualPhysically and EmotionallySkills:-wearable design-new ergonomicsReadings:Crantz, Galen. The Chair: Rethinking Culture, Body,and Design [8]Holt, Steven & Skov, Maria. Blobjects and Beyond:The New Fluidity in Design [25]Assignments:- Create an object which is custom tailored to anindividual- Design a device that transforms the relationshipbetween the body and the worldproject, Connection Coats (see fig 6), addresses issuesof social isolation with sets of coats that zip together inunexpected ways, to allow users to hold hands inwintery climates or have private face to face intimacy ina public setting. The set for a mother and child first fitsa pregnant woman, then zips off to hold the baby as ina sling and finally transforms to a hand to handconnection, reflecting equally on the changing social aswell as physical relationships between the two.greater capabilities, superhuman, such as Hugh Herr'srock climbing legs [24]. In addition, wearabletechnologies formerly seen as medical or therapeutic,can converge with fashion, such as in the projectTapTap, or in the class project Body-Awareness Device,a fashionable sweater which doubled as a therapeuticand posture awareness prop designed by a student witha chronic sports injury (see fig. 4).Wearable technologies also have the power to createand manipulate our cultural relationships with eachother and the outside world. A Future Craft classproject, Political Prosthesis, commented on the gestureof the handshake, one that is commonplace in manycultures, but intimate in others. The sleeve of abusiness shirt was retrofit with a cuff woven in amethod creating a 'Chinese finger trap' for two peopleengaging in a handshake (see fig. 5). The projectdocumentation suggested how the appearance of adevice could evoke an unspoken attitude toward thegesture of the handshake and notions of personalsspace and cultural custom. Another Future CraftFigure 5. The Political Prosthesis was created as acommentary on the gesture of the handshake, commonplace inmany cultures but intimate in some. The sleeve of a businessshirt was retrofit with a cuff woven in a method creating a‘Chinese finger trap’ for two people engaging in a handshake.In the design of interactive objects, the layeredmultifunctionalism of many devices is removing theability to prescribe a particular ergonomic formappropriate for the device's usage. A device thatfunctions as a camera, a phone and a PDA offers threeunique relationships to the body in terms of physicalusability. In many cases such a device takes the lowestcommon denominator form, a rectangular box.


9Designers must question the usability cost of multifunctionality,as suggested by Buxton [5], and applynew technological ideas, in areas such as contextawarenessor physical transformability, which offersolutions to aid ease of use, engaging technology in thespirit of universal design.Figure 6 Connection Coats featured a series of jacketsdesigned to zip together in unexpected ways creatingsituations for intimacy in public environmentsProduct EthnographiesWhen exploring the three themes, the question remainsof how designers evaluate and critique the productsthey are creating. Traditional product design oftenpreaches the value of ‘need’ based design, positioningproducts as answers to desires designated by the enduser, with the assumption that user observationbecomes an integral part of the process of design.While this remains useful in its convention, the adventof new media technologies are changing what and howproducts can be produced, stimulating previouslyundemonstrated needs and desires.Within the HCI community, several innovativemethodologies are emerging to address untappedtechniques for inquiry. The idea of ‘cultural probes’ [20]provides a way to access environments that are difficultto observe directly and capture the essence of asituation, the results of which provide designers data tobe interpreted in open-ended analysis, as much forinformation as inspiration. Transfer scenarios [29] ,presented at CHI 2007, is a way of groundinginnovation in marginal practices, using outliers of thenorm as keys for how to incorporate new technologiesinto our lives in appropriate and desirable ways.Innovative studies, such as Forlizzi's work on the socialnature of robotic products in the home, providedesigners clues as to the unintended outcomes ofproducts' functionalities [16]. Ethnographic studies canalso be used as a tool to reflect back on the state ofdesign itself. In the Future Craft course, one studenttrained in glass blowing conducted a study designed toexamine the nature of hand-crafted objects in contrastto industrial production in his discipline. He wasquestioning the importance of an artistic original, heproduced a video which documented turning himselfinto a glass blowing machine for a day and attemptingto sell his objects outside of Crate and Barrel. As partof the design practice, Future Craft posits that productdesigners need to be their own ethnographers,continuously evolving and appropriating methods ofevaluation for their discipline, both as tools in thedesign process as well as reflect back on objects made.


10Figure 7 A series of laptops designed as culturalcommentaries provide different types of survival kits forcontemporary lifeIn addition, emerging trends such as ‘critical design’[11] are demonstrating that there is a category ofproducts which can be created to illuminate a culturalor societal idea, engaging the power of a productconcept as a talking point of critique. These productsallow designers to communicate to the world throughobjects, a language which they are most familiar.Critical design allows for the creation of products whosefunctionality rests in their provocation-- how newtechnologies can be misused or re-appropriated, futurethinking on technologies which are proposed but notyet realized, or simply as a reflective tool on ourrelationship with technology products. One student inthe future craft course designed a series of laptops ascommentaries (see fig. 7). When opened, instead offinding a keyboard and trackpad, each provided a set oftools for a specific situation, such as in one, a fishingline complete to sushi making supplies, a statement onthe laptop as survival kit in today's world.ConclusionFuture Craft is a curriculum that explores the widerangingeffects of digital media on the kinds of productsthat we make as a society, in the hope of addressingand resolving many of the worsening problemssurrounding industrial production. Novel technologiesand interactions make possible a wide range ofimprovements toward social and environmentalsustainability. At the same time the questions ofproduct design need to be addressed by the interactionand engineering communities so that innovations aretargeted to improving the health of global and localcommunities and individuals. Our experience teachingthis class suggests that the types of products we designcan benefit from a continued dialogue between thedomains of HCI and product design.AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank students of the Future Craftcourse and members of the Tangible Media Group atthe MIT Media LabExample citations[1] Alboher, Marci. Blogging’s a Low-Cost, High ReturnMarketing Tool. The New York Times, 27 December2007.[2] Bonanni et. al. TapTap: A Haptic Wearable forAsynchronous Distributed Touch Therapy. in ExtendedAbstracts of CHI'06[3] Blevis, E. Design theory: Sustainable InteractionDesign: Invention & Disposal, Renewal & Reuse. InProc. CHI 2007, San Jose, CA, USA. pp. 503-12[4] Boer, C. and Dulio, S. Mass Customization andFootwear: Myth, Salvation or Reality?: AComprehensive Analysis of the Adoption of the MassCustomization Paradigm in Footwear. Springer-Verlag,London, 2007


11[5] Buxton, W. (2001). Less is More (More or Less), inP. Denning (Ed.), The Invisible Future: The seamlessintegration of technology in everyday life. New York:McGraw Hill.[6] Carnegie Mellon Green Design Institutehttp://www.ce.cmu.edu/GreenDesign/[7] Chumby manufacturing documented by Bunnie athttp://bunniestudios.com/blog/[8] Crantz, Galen. The Chair: Rethinking Culture, Body,and Design. W. W. Norton & Company; January 2000[9] DeVaul, R., Sung, M., Gips, J. and Pentland, A.MIThril 2003: Applications and Architecture. SeventhIEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers(ISWC'03), 2003.[10] Dole Organic: http://doleorganic.com[11] Dunne, Anthony. Hertzian Tales: ElectronicProducts, Aesthetic Experience, and Critical Design. MITPress, Cambridge, 2006[12] ecolect http://www.ecolect.net/[13] ethiscore: http://ethiscore.org[14] Etsy: http://etsy.com[15] Fletcher, Rich: The EcoPrinter Projecthttp://web.media.mit.edu/~fletcher/notes/ecoprinter.html[16] Forlizzi, J. How robotic products become socialproducts: an ethnographic study of cleaning in thehome. Proceedings of HRI 2007, ACM Press, 2007.[17] Freecycle: http://freecycle.org[18] Garbage Scout: http://garbagescout.com[19] Gardiner, Bryan. 3-D Printers Redefine IndustrialDesign in Wired Magazine, 21 November 2007[20] Gaver, W, Dunne, A., Pacenti, E. “Design: CulturalProbes”. Interactions, ACM Press, 1999.[21] Gershenfeld, Neil. FAB: the Coming Revolution onyour Desktop - From Personal Computers to PersonalFabrication. New York: Basic Books, 2005[22] Giudice, F., LaRosa, G., Risitano, A. Product Designfor the Environment: a Life Cycle Approach. BocaRaton, FL: CRC Press, 2006.[23] Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics:http://greenpeace.org/electronics[24] Herr,Hugh: http://www.everestnews.com/stories2005/nobarr02262005.htm[25] Holt, Steven & Skov, Maria. Blobjects and Beyond:The New Fluidity in Design, Chronicle Books, SanFrancisco, 2005[26] Illich, Ivan. Tools for Conviviality.http://opencollector.org/history/homebrew/tools.html[27] Instructables: http://instructables.com[28] Layne, Barbara. The wall hanging: a site-sensitivecloth. Extended Abstracts of SIGGRAPH 2006, ACMPress, 2006.[29] Llunblad, S. & Holmquist, L. E. “Transfer scenarios:grounding innovation with marginal practices” Proc. CHI‘07, (p.737 - 746) ACM Press, 2007.[30] lulu on-demand book publishing http://lulu.com[31] Maeda, John. The Laws of Simplicity. MIT Press,2006[32] McDonough, W. and Braugart, M. Cradle to Cradle:Remaking the Way we Make Things. New York: NorthPoint Press, 2002[33] Meyer, Peter B. Episodes of Collective Invention.US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,August 2003.http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/meyer.pdf[34] Mullins,Aimee: http://www.univie.ac.at/cga/art/patients.html[35] Open Prosthetics Project:http://openprosthetics.org[36] Pawley, Martin. Garbage Housing. London:Architectural Press, 1975.


12[37] Ponoko: http://ponoko.com[38] Reprap project http://reprap.org[39] Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition: http://svtc.org[40] Students and Scholars against CoporateMisbehavior http://www.sacom.hk/html/[41] Talbot, David. Where's the Beef from? inTechnology Review, June 2004.[42] Thinkcycle: http://thinkcycle.org[43] Tilley, A. & Henry Dreyfuss Associates. TheMeasure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design.John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002[44] US Life-Cycle Inventory Database:http://www.nrel.gov/lci/[45] Whirlwind Wheelchair Projecthttp://www.whirlwindwheelchair.org/.

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