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American lewish Archives

Devoted to the preservation and study of American Jewish historical records

DIRECTOR: JACOB RADER MARCUS, PH.D.

Adolph S. Ochs ProfCSsor of American Jewish History

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR: STANLEY F. CHYET, PH.D.

Assistant Profcssor of American Jewish History

Published by THE AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, CINCINNATI, OHIO 45220

on the Cincinnati campus of the HEBREW UNION COLLEGE

- JEWISH INSTITUTE

OF RELIGION

VOL. XVI NOVEMBER, 1964 NO. 2

In This Issue

Five Gates - Casual Notes for an

Autobiography JACOB SONDERLING 107

For the rabbi of Hamburg's Israelitischer Tempe1 Verein, "a new life

opened" in 1923, when he left Germany to settle in the United States. Dr.

Sonderling discusses his American experience in this memoir, which includes

reflections on Jewish life in New York, Chicago, and Providence, and Dr.

Sonderling's encounters with Stephen S. Wise, Shmarya Levin, Louis

Ginzberg, and Kaufmam Kohler.

American Synagogues : The Lessons of the

Names ABRAHAM CRONBACH I 24

"Proclamations of ideals constitute, by and large, the essence of the names

borne by our congregations," concludes Professor Cronbach in this essay on

the onomasticon of the American synagogal scene.

The Drachrnans of Arizona FLOYD S. FIERMAN I 35

Polish-born Philip and Samuel Drachman settled during the 1860's in the

"backward stretch of land" that was to become the State of Arizona. Together

with friends and associates like Michael and Joseph Goldwater and Isaac

Goldberg, these pioneering brothers helped shape the development of

Arizona - but, as Dr. Fierman points out, "failed at the task of educating

their children to keep the Jewish 'tree of life' alive."

A Cry for Help


Reviews of Books

Bingham, June, Courage to Change.

Reviewed by Carl Hermam Voss

Kranzler, George, Williamsburg: A Jewish Community in Transition.

Reviewed by Henry Cohen 163

Lzlrie, Harry L., A Heritage Affirmed.

Reviewed by Benjamin B. Rosenberg

Brief Notices I 68

Index to Volume XVI 173

Illustrations

Rabbi Dr. Jacob Sonderling, page I z I ; Shrnarya Levin, page I 2 t ; Temple

Beth El, Akron, Ohio, page 139; Ternple Israel, Boston (1889), page 140;

Arizona Jalapeiios : Samuel H. Drachman and Philip Drachman, page 1 57;

The S. H. Drachman Store, page I 75.

Patrons for 1964

THE NEUMANN MEMORIAL PUBLICATION FUND

AND

ARTHUR FRIEDMAN LEO FRIEDMAN ?'T BERNARD STARKOFF

Published by THE AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES on the

Cincinnati campus of the HEBREW UNION COLLEGE - JEWISH IN-

STITUTE OF RELIGION

NELSON GLUECK President

0 1964, by the American Jewish Archives


Five Gates

Casual Notes for an Autobiography

JACOB SONDERLING

What happens to a sensitive, highly cultured man who comes to

America to be a rabbi -particularly when, like Jacob Sonderling, that

man combines in himself the diverse traditions of German scholarship

and Jewish pietism? The question Jinds an answer in the autobiographical

ruminations which appear below.

Born on October zg, 1878, at Lipine, Silesia, to Wilhelm and

Johanna Lebowitsch Sonderling, our autobiographer comes of a family

of Hungarian and Galician Hasidim. Johanna Lebowitsch's family had

produced Yismach Mosheh, the founder of Hungarian Hasidism;

Wilhelm Sonderling had been ordained by the Sanzer Rebbe. That

heritage has never been far from their son, Jacob, but it has main-

tained itself in him side by side with the Wissenschaft des Judenthums

that flowered during the z8ooYs in Geman-speaking Central Europe.

After studying at the Universities of Vienna and Breslau as well as at

seminaries in Vienna, Breslau, and Berlin, Jacob Sonderling received his

Ph.D. degree from the University of Tiibingen in zgoq and was ordained

by Dr. Baruch Jacob Placzeck, Landesrabbiner of Moravia and Chief

Rabbi of Briimz. That same year, at Breslau, he married Emma Klemann,

who would bear him three sons - Egmont, Fred, and Paul. Four years

later, Dr. Sonderling became the rabbi of Hamburg's celebrated

Israelitischer Tempel Verein, the cradle of Refom Judaism. He held

that pulpit until his emigration to America in 1923, although his tenure

in Hamburg had been interrupted during the First World War, when

he served as a Geman A my chaplain on Field Marshal Paul von

Hindenburg's stag.

The German Amy's Drang nach Osten brought Dr. Sonderling

into close contact with Jewish lge in Lithuania -an experience which

'07


inspired in him feelings rather akin to those called up in another German

serviceman on duty in Eastern Europe - Franz Rosmzweig. In later

years, Dr. Sonderling would write: "If I am ever reborn, I would like

to be born a Litvack."

In 193~~ the Sanderlings took up residence in Los Angeles, where

Dr. Sonderling founded the Society for Jewish Culture, known today

as Fairfax Temple. He has served that congregation as its rabbi for

nearly thirty years.

In 19 t 3, a new life opened to me - America. The Manchuria

left Antwerp -the last city in Europe I had seen - and went

out on the high seas towards an unknown tomorrow. Standing at

the rail, a passenger who had crossed the ocean many times showed

me a little light, gleaming through the darkness. "Watch it," he

said. "This is the last sign of life you will see. For five days and

nights, we will see nothing but water."

The travelers, to me, were a nondescript crowd - chatting,

promenading, playing. The only one of their languages that I under-

stood was Yiddish, spoken by quite a number. The only person I

knew by reputation was Bruno Walter, the famous conductor, who

was going to America for his first concert. On the third day he

asked me: "What about cigars?" "I'm almost finished - let us

inquire the price of a cigar." We learned that it cost twenty-five

cents. Twenty-five cents in German currency amounted, in 19 t 3,

to r 2,500 marks. Who could afford to pay that? But a man has

to smoke.

I had with me two bottles of cognac. The Manchuria, an American

boat, suffered from prohibition, but there were a number of people

on that boat who loved a drink; so, the rabbi turned into a bartender

- one cigar, one small glass of cognac - and we managed beauti-

fully until we arrived in New York.

One afternoon, there was that picture, so strange for European

eyes - skyscrapers next to little houses, and at the pier the Statue

of Liberty. One Jewish woman told me that the inscription on that

statue was made by Emma Lazarus, a Jewess.


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 1°9

From the Hotel Commodore, I rushed early in the morning over

to Forty-third Street and Fifth Avenue to see Temple Emanu-El-

which some years before had cost me, or rather the Hamburg

Temple, one million marks. When the Hamburg Temple set out

to raise funds for a new building, Mr. Henry Budge, a very rich

New York banker who had returned to Europe and lived in Hamburg,

had been my first target for a contribution. My president had sent

me to him, and I had told him about our plan to build a new temple

in Hamburg. Budge had asked me how much it was going to cost.

We had figured one million marks. I expected him to give us 5,000

or 10,000 marks. "You can have the million," he said, "under one

condition. I would like to have a service like Temple Emanu-El in

New York - men and women sitting together, men without hats

and without talesim (prayer shawls) ."

c c I have to refuse your generous offer, Herr Budge - we are

building a Temple for Hamburg Jewry, not for you."

Returning to my board, I had offered my resignation as their

rabbi. Having refused so generous a gift, I could not, I felt, hold

on to my pulpit. My board, however, agreed with me, and in the

Hamburg Temple, the cradle of Reform, men and women remained

separated up to the last moment.

It took me years to accustom myself to seeing men and women

sitting together.

The same afternoon, my first in New York, I strolled down

Fifth Avenue, admiring the famous boulevard. A thought struck

me; I had been here almost twenty-four hours, without meeting

an acquaintance - that was strange. At that moment, a man stopped

me. He spoke English, and I could not understand one word, but he

continued in German and said: "I was born here in New York,

and last year, for the first time, I went to Europe, stayed in Hamburg

and watched you every morning, watering your flowers in your

garden. Won't you have lunch with me?"

I shall never forget those first days in New York. Here I was -

lost in the colossus of houses, streets, faces, a babel of languages -

a replica of the Wandering Jew. How often I stood, looking at

Hebrew letters like Bosor Kosher (kosher meat), which gave me a

feeling of nostalgia!


Julian Obermann, later professor at Yale University, was my

only acquaintance. He helped me to get a room at Broadway and

One Hundred Thirteenth Street. The first Friday evening I went

to a synagogue and at eight o'clock in the evening came to a Jewish

restaurant on Broadway. The place was dark. I tried the door - it

opened; the man was about to leave.

"What's the matter?" I asked.

"Shabbos (the Sabbath)," he said.

"Can you let a Kosher Jew starve?"

< <

No, I'll give you something to eat," and he was about to go to

the kitchen.

I stopped him.

"Wait, it's Shabbos. I have no money." (I had money.)


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY I11

Having finished my repast, I took out a bill, but the manager

[steward] said: "You see, sir, the kitchen is closed, and so are the

books - consider yourself our guest."

Can you imagine how much all those little things meant to me -

coming as I did from a country where strict correctness was the

aim of life? How often I stopped at a newstand, taking a paper and

putting two cents in the box, without anybody watching.

Dr. Obermann introduced me to Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, of

blessed memory. Sitting in his study, I glanced at the shelves filled

with books.

"Dr. Wise, I know that book over there -it is the handbook

of my teacher, Marcus Brann, in Breslau."

"Yes," he said. "I bought his library."

"Brann's book in New York! -I am at home in America."

An old friend of mine, Shmarya Levin, met me at I I I Fifih

Avenue, the Zionist headquarters.

"What are you doing here?" he cried. "Go back to Europe -

this is no place for YOU."

It was not very encouraging to hear that from so clever a man.

There, too, I met Louis Lipsky, the leader of American Zionism,

Maurice Samuel, and others, who took me to a Zionist meeting.

Called upon, I spoke in German. The next morning I received a

telegram from the Zionist Organization of America, offering me

an engagement for a series of talks on Zionism throughout the

country, and I began to bring the message of Theodor Herzl to

American Jewry. One of the first communities I visited was Chicago.

Everything was new to me. I was what was called a "greenhorn."

Reporters came; I had never met one before, and I took their

questions seriously. One of them asked me: "What do you think

about American culture?" In all innocence I said: "America is a

young country, and culture doesn't travel by express." The papers

carried a story about it. So I became nervous. Two days later, five

men came to see me.

66

I don't want to see reporters."

6 6

We are not reporters," they answered. "We are officers of a

congregation, and listening to you last night, we decided that you

have to become our rabbi."


"But I cannot speak English!"

"You will learn."

"What kind of congregation are you?"

"We are Orthodox."

"I'm not Orthodox."

"We are semi-Orthodox."

I didn't know what it meant. They did not argue - they just

took out a contract and asked me to sign it. With the help of a

dictionary, I found out that they had offered me a decent salary and

obligated themselves to bring my family over from Europe and to

furnish me with an apartment. I signed. They left, and here I was

sitting in my hotel room, believing that I had dreamed it. So, four

weeks after my arrival in a new continent, I had a congregation.

Another four weeks passed by, and they asked me whether I would

agree that they amalgamate with another congregation. That was

new to me.

"How do you do that?"

"Oh, we sell our synagogue."

"Whom do you sell it to?"


FIVE GATES -CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY "3

In all innocence he explained: "Every synagogue member, ac-

cording to American law, is entitled to five gallons of sacramental

wine. The congregation is buying that wine from the Government

at a cheap price, selling it afterwards at a very high price to all

the people, and doing great business."

Of course, I refused to do that, and my congregation was upset,

believing that its rabbi was queer. My friend Levin, whom I men-

tioned before, said once that Orthodox rabbis, doing big business

in those days in sacramental wine, had changed the Tilim (Psalms) ;

Psalm I z I says, "From whence (me-ayin) does my help come?"

Levin suggested: "Instead of me-ayin ('from whence'), read miyayin

('from wine') !"

I became homesick for New York. It had attracted me from the

very beginning. The fantastic figure of two million Jews in one city

never failed to impress me. I loved to exaggerate: New York is a

Jewish city where we permit a few goyim (non-Jews) to exist -

try not to be Jewish in Brooklyn or the Bronx! So I went back and

found a congregation on the outskirts of Brooklyn - Manhattan

Beach. Sitting together on a porch with the board which gave me

the once-over, I heard a man whispering to the president: "If you

take that rabbi, I shall increase my membership [dues] to $~,ooo.oo."

I became curious afterwards. Eighteen years earlier that man had

come from Russia, penniless. When I met him, he was estimated

as having $16,000,000. He could hardly read English, but he had

an uncanny nose for the future value of a corner in Manhattan.

One day I asked him: "Do you need publicity?"

"Of course."

"What about having your picture on the second page of the

Herald-Tri bune? ' '

"How much?" he asked.

"Fifteen thousand dollars for the Keren Hayesod (the Jewish

National Fund) ."

"Can you make it for ten?"

"No, but if you give me a check for $~z,ooo, to be dated one

day after your picture appears, you can have it."


I approached Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and asked him to come out

to Manhattan Beach. There, in my admirer's home, Dr. Wise and

his host would be photographed together, and then I would give

Dr. Wise the Ifb~z,ooo. It was done, and the picture was published.

A few days later, my friend asked me: "Rabbi, what is the Keren

Hayesod? "

There were two congregations in Manhattan Beach. One day

two boys were talking to each other in a room next to my study.

Both raved about the rabbis. The boy from the other congregation

asked our boy: "What's the difference between your rabbi and

our rabbi?"

The answer came: "It is between a Ford and a Cadillac."

Another two years passed by, and I moved from Manhattan

Beach to Washington Heights. Members of the new congregation

approached me with a request: "The butchers in Washington Heights

are selling trefa (non-kosher) meat - something has to be done!"

I refused. I told them that I was not Orthodox and that the Vaad

Hakashruth (the representative board overseeing Kashruth matters)

of Greater New York was in charge. People came again and again.

Finally, they approached Dr. Louis Ginzberg, of the Jewish Theological

Seminary, who lived opposite me in Washington Heights,

to induce me to do something.

Let me digress a little bit. Before coming to America, I had

asked rabbis about Dr. Ginzberg, of whom I had known through

various publications appearing in scientific magazines. I myself and

many others admired his extraordinary knowledge and brilliance.

"What has he written here in America?" I asked.

"Legends of the Jews."~

I was disappointed. "Why does he waste his time?"

Wilhelrn Bacher had left us with six volumes of Jewish legends,'

and Bialik had written others.3 For months I did not come near

I Legends of the Jews (1909-19z8), 7 vols.

a Die Agada de7 Tarmaiten (I 884-1 890), 2 vols.; Die Agada de7 palastinensischen Amo7ae7

(1892-1899), 3 vols.; and Die Agada de7 babylonischen Amo7ae.i (1878), I vol.

3 Hayyim Nahman Bialik and Joshua H. Rawnitzki, compilers, Sefer Ha-Agadah (1907-

1go9), 3 vols.


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY Ir5

Ginzberg, until, working on a lecture one blessed day, I needed a

Midrash (homiletical collection) and saw on the shelves his Legends

of the Jews. Hesitatingly, I took one of the volumes and found a

foomote in Volume V. That was the beginning of an adventure,

which is still with me up to this very day. There is nothing Ginzberg

would not deal with in his footnotes -and not just matters of

Jewish learning. The knowledge of that man, to me, borders on the

miraculous.

Once I asked him: "How did you get the material?"

He answered: "Mostly by memory."

I worshipped him. When it was raining on Shabbos, he would

not go to the Seminary synagogue, but, together with his wife, he

would come to my synagogue in Washington Heights. They were

sitting together, when one day I asked him: "Mr. Ginzberg, how

can you?" And here is his answer: "When you live long enough in

America, you will realize that the status of womanhood has changed

so much that separating women from men has become obsolete."

That convinced me, and today, in my synagogue, our men and

women sit together - with one exception, which I regret: My wife

protests at being seated on the platform!

So, to pick up my story, Professor Ginzberg approached me

and urged me to take over the supervision of Kashruth. I called

eighteen butchers together and told them that - only out of respect

for Professor Ginzberg - I would be willing to supervise Kashruth

under two conditions. First, the mashgiach (inspector) and I myself

had to have the right to inspect their places twenty-four hours a

day. That was accepted. Second, if I found it necessary to take

back a butcher's certificate of Kashruth, that butcher should have

no recourse to the law. About that they argued - I remained

adamant. There was still another condition. The mashgiach could

neither be hired nor fired by the butchers. His salary was to be

paid by the butchers into a special fund.

So we started. The mashgiach would report to me every day.

Once he came and told me that one of the butchers had a chicken

market elsewhere and kept it open on the Sabbath. When I called

the offender in, he told me that his partner was not Jewish and

gave me a talmudical analysis that, in this case, his place could be


open. I rehsed to follow his thought. "You make your living selling

kosher meat to people who believe in Kashruth. I have lost my

confidence in you - give me back my certificate." I finally got it.

A month later, another certificate appeared in his window, signed

by an Orthodox rabbi on the Lower East Side; the butcher had

gotten it for $50. I was finished with the supervision of Kashruth.

Something else happened in the congregation. One Friday morning

I found out that Mayor [James J.] Walker would occupy my pulpit

the same night. Nobody had bothered to ask me. That finished my

work in that synagogue.

A congregation in Providence, Rhode Island, had repeatedly

invited me to lecture. One day I said to them: "Look, you cannot

let the same rabbi speak to you all the time - you need some

varietv."

.I

"Would you come out to Providence and be our permanent

rabbi?" they asked.

"What shall I do in Providence?"

They came again and again. Finally, a committee traveled to

New York and pleaded with me to come out for a conference. I

met with them in a hotel room and told them that I was not fit for

life in a small community.

"Couldn't a decent salary satisfy you?"

tt

It is not a question of money," I said. "Men don't get younger -

to provide something for the future might be necessary."

"How much do you want?"

"I'm not a businessman, and remember this: when I mention a

sum, I mean it." Then, bearing in mind what I had said about pro-

viding something for the hture, I mentioned a substantial sum.

One of the men said: "Rabbi, can't we discuss this?"

I interrupted him. "Gentlemen, it is now five o'clock, and there's

a concert downstairs -may I invite you to be my guests for tea?"

t t Does that mean our conversation is closed?"

"Yes, it is closed."

Within five minutes, I had my contract. A few months later I


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 1'7

surprised my congregation, one Friday night, with an organ. After

services, a few men came out of a classroom, all excited.

"What happened?" I asked.

"Oh, nothing."

"Something must have happened."

One of the men said: "But, rabbi, you know, playing an organ

on Shabbes is against the law."

I opened his vest.

"You are looking for my tallis katon (scapular prayer garment),

rabbi? I forgot it today."

"Gazlon (thief), you never had one -don't tell me you are

religious."

My Sisterhood came with the request: "Boys after bar mitzvah

and girls after confirmation need more instruction -what would

you suggest doing?" I told them, "Let me think." Finally, I called

together the boys and girls, about thirty-five in all, and suggested

something.

"If you want it, build an organization without bylaws, without

officers - just a name, a meeting place, and a time. The name:

'The Rabbi's Bodyguard'; the place: the synagogue; the time: every

Sunday morning at eight o'clock. Boys appear with their weapons -

tallis (prayer shawl) and tefillin (phylacteries) ."

And so it was. We came together for a service in English and in

Hebrew; the girls came in afterwards, and we all went together

into our social hall. Here we had a breakfast prepared by the mothers.

After grace had been said, one of the "bodyguards" would thank

the mothers for their hospitality, and we would go to Sunday school.

A few weeks later, a seven-year-old boy came.

"What are you doing here?"

"Rabbi, I want to pray."

"Look, you want to have breakfast -you are invited."

Fathers appeared, telling me that they had had some job finding

tefillin, but the sons had urged them to come. Sometimes, I heard

a rumor that the mothers grumbled -too much work for breakfast.

I would tell them: "Don't worry. Mrs. Sonderling will be glad

to do it." She never had to.

One day I called in one of my boys.


"Jerry, I have to leave for three weeks for Europe, and there is a

rumor in the city that you fellows come regularly on Sunday because

of the whip I use. I shall be absent for three Sundays. I make you

responsible for a good attendance. Remember, my reputation is in

your hands."

On my return, Jerry reported that they had broken all the

attendance records. A few years later, after I had left Providence,

one of my Sunday school teachers visited me in New York.

"How are things, Celia?"

"Bad, rabbi. Everything you organized has gone. The board

does not permit the boys to pray in the synagogue on Sunday

morning; so the boys pray in one corner of the kitchen, while the

girls prepare breakfast in another corner. That's all that's left."

One Sunday morning, as I sat in my study and the fathers waited

outside for the children to come from Sunday school, a poor man

came in to ask for a nedove (charitable contribution). The richest

man in town said to him with a booming voice: "Go in to the

rabbi! He has a good heart." That man claimed to enjoy my sermons

on "Love thy neighbor as thyself"!

That moment, I must confess, was the turning point in my

spiritual career. It made me feel that I was a failure, and I had to

find out. I went back to New York and, looking from the distance

at Columbia University, I began to ponder: What is Jewishness?

A theology? A number of abstract definitions? A psychological

analysis? An ethical guide? I remembered Jeremiah's indictment of

religious leaders: "The priests said not: 'Where is the Lord?' And

they that handle the law knew Me not" (2 : 8). I felt I had no purpose.

At various German universities, I had studied philosophy, art,

history, and esthetics; one of my professors had written two volumes

on the theory of illusion. Imagine; you are sitting in front of a

desk. You have occupied the same chair for years. You know exactly

the form of the desk in front of you. One day, for some reason,

your chair has been moved to the other side, and the desk you

look at is a different desk; the perspective is different. That thought


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 119

bothered me. All the time I had looked upon matters Jewish from

one viewpoint - the viewpoint of the pulpit. I determined literally

to change my viewpoint, to look upon Judaism from the viewpoint

of the pew, from a different perspective. The thought intrigued me.

This is what I would do.

I had a friend, a Wall Street banker, and I told him: "Look, for

one year I'm not going to occupy a position. Here are $5,000 I have

saved - I don't know what to do with it. Will you take it?"

"Leave me the money," he said. "I'm going to invest it. If the

stocks rise, you win; if they fall, I lose."

And a new adventure started. I went from one Jewish place to

the other - watching, looking, listening, all with a non-partisan

spirit. I went to an Orthodox shul, to a Conservative synagogue,

to a Reform temple, and saw what I had never seen before. For

instance, in a very beautiful Reform temple, there were two pulpits,

one occupied by a rabbi and one by a cantor. The two alternated,

and when the cantor began, for a moment's moment something

happened to the face of the rabbi - for a fleeting second, a look of

impatience: "Why doesn't he stop, so that I can start again?" The

rabbi was a highly respected theologian, highly regarded, but the

illusion was gone. In another place, another rabbi spoke on charity,

on the beauty of giving. Behind me sat two men, and one spoke to

the other: "Listen to him! He never gave a cent!" Which was

not true.

A thought came to me: What is religion? A kind of human

experience about which I, only a rabbi, know nothing. But there

might be another experience, one perhaps known to me: love. Love

is the coordination of all our senses, and if the religious experience

is similar, the rabbis have become the most successful killers of

four senses for the benefit of one, because the only sense through

which we try to gain the experience of religion is the ear: "Hear,

0 Israel." If one could only investigate the four other senses, one

of them might open and point out a channel leading to the experience

of religion.

Here I stopped. It sounded correct, but I hungered for an au-

thority to support my theory. For three months I lived in the

libraries of New York; I went from shelf to shelf, but found nothing.


I did not give up. There is that Jewish stubbornness which forced

me to continue. Passing a shelf one blessed day, I picked up a book

at random - Rabbi Moses Isserles' Torat Ha-Olah, a philosophical

explanation of the sacrifices in the ancient Temple. I got angry

with myself- what did sacrifices have to do with my theory?

I was about to close that book, when my eyes fell upon a sentence

in which the author said: "The Temple in Jerusalem was sur-

rounded by a wall, and that wall had five gates, according to the

five senses." Here was my theory!

About twenty-five years ago, after wandering through Jewish

life in America, I came to Los Angeles on a two-day visit. I was

urged to stay, and I have never regretted it. Afier so many years

of spiritual struggle, I still bear a question mark - what am I?

Scientifically speaking, I am a Liberal. Emotionally, I could not

be without tradition. If I were to define myself, I would say that

I am Orthodox among the Reformers and a Reformer among the

Orthodox. I look forward to the day when extreme Orthodoxy and

Classical Reform will disappear, while "left-wing" Conservatives

and "right-wing" Reformers - "Neo-Reformers," as some might

put it - will regain their strength.

Two great American Jews have given me an assuring answer.

One was Solomon Schechter, who says in one of his essays: "The

greatest virtue in life is consistency. The Jew has been a genius

in that respect. He was consistent in his inconsistency." The other

is the saintly Kauhann Kohler. When I came to New York in

1923, I followed an old tradition about paying respect to a famous

scholar and visited him. Dr. Kohler received my visiting card and

came out all excited.

"What do you think of American Reform?"

Taken unawares, I said: "Professor Kohler, do you want a

compliment? Have it. Do you want to discuss it?"

And we went into his library.

In 191 8, I said, the Hamburg Temple had celebrated its centenary,

and I had published an article in Hermann Cohen's monthly Neue


Rabbi Dr. Jacob Sondcrling

(SCC pp. 107-20, 12;)

Hoxs Brady, I'i~otogropher. Sari Francisco, CaliJ.


FIVE GATES - CASUAL NOTES FOR AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 123

Jiidische Monatshefte, reviewing a hundred years bf Reform Judaism.4

In 18 18, a hundred men gathered in Hamburg to find a solution for

the problem of diminishing interest in religion. They came to the

conclusion that a traditional prayer book did not satisfy the modern

mind, that were youth to be given a modern prayer book, they would

find their way back to their inherited religion. "A hundred years

have passed," I had said. "Let us compare the first with the third

generation. Not one of the grandsons remained Jewish, so the prayer

book was no remedy. Assimilation did not help." Professor Kohler

disagreed heatedly.

Three weeks later, the Board of Jewish Ministers in New York

invited me to speak, and I chose as my topic, "The Trend Towards

the Irrational." One man spoke in the discussion - Kaufmann

Kohler. This is what he said: "Listening to our speaker, I feel like

a man who has received a verdict of death. For me, the pupil of

Abraham Geiger, to hear that the time of rationalism has passed,

is hard to take." But he continued: "I remember that when Richard

Wagner conducted his first opera in Paris, the critics cried, 'That

is not music, that is noise.' But one of them added, 'It is noise, but

behind that noise there is music.' " "Mr. Chairman," Kohler con-

cluded, "I suggest that the lecture of our colleague from Germany

should be printed."

Permit me now to conclude with one thought. Years ago I said

to my young colleagues in Palm Springs: "Friends, if your ancestors

in the Reform rabbinate saw you today, they would turn in their

graves. The first Reformers were Germans. Judaism is this, they

said, or it is nothing at all. Today we have in Reform the grand-

children of people who came from Poland, from Russia, from

Lithuania. We have grown beyond those days in which it was

possible for us to give a clear-cut definition of what we are. We

are a living people, and I hope, in a few more years, to live together

with a young generation of daring and believing rabbis."

4 "Die neueren Bestrebungen des Hamburger Tempels," Neue Judische Mmatshefte:

Zeitschrift fur Politik, Wimchaft und Literafur in Ost und West, 111 (no. I: Occ., 19 I 8)

12-18.


American Synagogues: The Lessons of the Names

ABRAHAM CRONBACH

The number of Jewish congregations in America runs into the

thousands. A complete list is unobtainable because countless names,

particularly those of small Orthodox congregations, appear in no

printed record. It was possible to compile, from a variety of sources,

a list of 1,688 congregations -a list remarkable both for its diver-

sities and for its repetitions. In various instances, the identical name

labels more than one congregation. Three hundred and two con-

gregations carry the name "Israel," I 52 the name "Bethel," and

ninety-two the name "Emanuel." Not a few of the congregations

bear not one name but two, a Hebrew name and an English name,

the English usually indicating the street on which the house of

worship is located.

There are congregations whose names hold the word "Con-

servative," and those whose names include the word "Reform."

That divergence in Jewish life is so significant that it has to be kept

in view. Curious, for Conservative congregations, is the frequent

use of the word "Temple," which was originally a Reform innova-

tion. Still more emphatic is the divergence proclaimed by such titles

6 6

as Progressive Synagogue," "Liberal Synagogue," and "New

Thought Synagogue." Those which are oriented toward the future

thus differentiate themselves from those that incline toward the

past. A number of congregations have copied the name "Free

Synagogue" from that of Stephen S. Wise in New York City.

"Free" meant originally that the rabbi was not to be fettered -

Dr. Wise called it "muzzled" -by the temple board. Dr. Wise

founded the Free Synagogue soon after he had scornfully rejected

Dr. Abraham Cronbach, whose "Autobiography" appeared in the April, 1959, issue

of the American Jewish Archives, is Professor Emeritus of Jewish Social Studies at the

Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati.


AMERICAN SYNAGOGUES: THE LESSONS OF THE NAMES Iz5

a call to New York's Temple Emanu-El. The call had hinted that

the board of the temple reserved the right to exercise some control

over the rabbi's utterances.

In various ways the names of congregations reflect prevailing

trends. An illustration is the present use of the word "Jewish"

where an earlier generation would have said "Hebrew." No longer

does "Hebrew" function as a euphemism. Jews no longer find

"Hebrew" less embarrassing than "Jew" or "Jewish," nor do non-

Jews find "Hebrew" more polite. While the word "Hebrew" still

persists in the names of congregations, the word "Jewish" appears

many times as ofien. As the prestige of the Jew in America grows,

"Jew" and "Jewish" mount in the scale of dignity.

Thanks to the discoveries of medicine, one of our problems has

gotten to be that of the aged. We think of this when we are told

about a "Senior Citizens Congregation'' at Miami Beach, Florida.

It further catches our attention that some congregations have

names indicating a jurisdiction not, as usual, confined to a city, but

one extending over a larger area. Examples are: "Temple Beth

Sholom of Orange County" at Santa Anna, California; "Peninsula

Temple Sholom" at Burlingame, California; "Sholom of East Gabriel

Valley" at Covina, California; "Beth Sholom of Anne Arundel

County" at Glen Burnie, Maryland; "Beth Am of the South Shore"

at Hingham, Massachusetts; "Ventura County Jewish Council"

at Ventura, California; "Central Synagogue of Nassau County"

at Rockville Centre, New York; and "Free Synagogue of West-

chester" at Mount Vernon, New York. At Ishperning, Michigan,

Temple Beth Sholom is called a Temple Center in the geographical

sense that, standing at the outskirts of Ishpeming, it also serves

the neighboring towns of Marquette and Negaunee. Such names

suggest that the automobile, commonly regarded as centrifugal in

religion, sometimes becomes centripetal. The automobile, which

often keeps people away from worship, can do the opposite and

bring them to worship.

Consider, too, the name "Actors Temple." Such a congregation


is to be found in New York City. We have long known the ex-

tensiveness of Jewish participation in the work of the stage, but we

think of the actor as someone remote from religion; of the things

with which we associate the actor, religion is the last and the least.

The mere existence of an "Actors Temple" is surprising, whatever

may be the frequency with which thespians make use of that facility.

A synagogue in New York City bears the name "Millinery

Center Synagogue." Is this, perhaps, like Cincinnati's "Downtown

Vaad Synagogue," a house of worship located in the business dis-

trict near the places where Jews pursue a particular calling? Such a

synagogue might indeed be welcomed by those punctilious about

being present in a group of at least ten males when reciting the

prayer which commemorates their dead.

A large number of Jewish places of worship go by the name of

"Center," such as "Jewish Center," "Jewish Community Center,"

and the like. ?here are a hundred such in the State of New York

alone. That word "Center" highlights a trend. It signalizes the

many nondevotional features which have entered into congregational

programs. The edifice used for worship is used also for lectures,

dances, parties, club meetings, athletic events, theatricals, and even

for swimming. "A Schul mit a pool" is a timeworn jest. The pre-

ponderance of recreational items in the schedules of many Jewish

congregations has provoked some adverse comment, particularly

from rabbis. Ever so often we hear of or read denunciations of the

tendency to pack the synagogue with nonreligious activities. Dances,

as a rule, draw a large attendance when religious services do not.

Hayrides are popular with the young when Hebrew classes are

not.

The debate brings to mind the story about the two Jewish savants

in Eastern Europe who were out walking together one morning

several decades ago. The savants came upon a Jew wearing skullcap,

prayer shawl, and phylacteries, and reciting the early prayer. Such

sights were not infrequent; when the hour for prayer arrived, the

Jew would pause and recite the prayer wherever he might chance

to be, even on the street, in the shop, or in the railway coach. The

savants noticed that the Jew, while reciting the prayer, was at the

same time loading his wagon preparatory for the day's peddling.


AMERICAN SYNAGOGUES: THE LESSONS OF THE NAMES 127

One of the savants exclaimed: "What a materialistic people

are the Jews! Even when they engage in prayer, they ply their

occupation!"

His companion rejoined: "What a spiritually minded people are

the Jews! Even when they ply their occupations, they engage in

prayer !"

Similarly, shall we say: "How regrettable that these Jewish

centers dilute worship with such an array of activities which have

nothing to do with worship!"? Or shall we say: "How gratifying

that, where recreational activities take place, worship also takes

place!"?

Another trend is mirrored in the name "Beth Am" borne by

twenty-three of our congregations. The phrase, meaning "House of

the People," is common today in the State of Israel. That name

for a congregation probably connotes the Jewish nationalistic revival.

We have observed that I 52 congregations are called "Beth-El"

and ninety-two are called "Emanu-El." This involves a paradox.

Why should a Jewish house of worship be named afier a place

which, more than once in the Bible, receives unfavorable mention?

Beth-el was stigmatized by the prophets. It was a place at which

worship was offered a golden calf (I Kings I 2: 29; I 3 :4; I1 Kings

10:29). The prophet Amos quotes God as saying: "I will punish

the altars of Beth-el [j: 141 . . . seek not Beth-el . . . Beth-el shall

come to nought" (5: 5). The pilgrimages to the shrine at Beth-el

were, according to Amos, not acts of sacredness, but acts of trans-

gression (4:4). The prophet Hosea disdainfully calls that locale of

calf worship not "Beth-el" ("House of God"), but "Beth-aven"

("House of worthle~sness'~)

(4: I 5 ; 5 : 8; I 0: 5). The prophet Jeremiah

reports that "the house of Israel was ashamed of Beth-el their

confidence" (48 : I 3).

The name "Emanu-El," too, receives a sinister implication.

"Emanu-El" is the Greek spelling of the Hebrew words "Immanu-

El," which mean "God is with us." "Immanu-El" is uttered, in

the Bible, only by the prophet Isaiah. Protesting against an alliance


etween his country, Judah, and the Assyrians, Isaiah predicted that

the Assyrian allies would drive off certain armies by which Judah

was being invaded, but that, after the invasion had been stopped,

the Assyrians would not go home. They would remain and subjugate

Judah to the Assyrian power.

Once the Assyrians had halted the invasion, the people of Judah

would, full of gratitude, exclaim: "Immanu-El," .'!God is with us."

Newborn children would be named "Immanu-El" (Isaiah 7 : 14).

But how inappropriate! Rescue would not, by any means, have

been attained. The country would simply have fallen into the clutches

of the Assyrian helpers. Isaiah speaks of the Assyrians as a river

which shall "sweep through Judah . . . shall reach even to the neck"

and "shall fill the breadth of thy land, 0 Immanu-El" (8: 8). What

an irony in that name!

To be sure, the unfavorable implications of these names could

hardly have been known to the rank and file of today's Jewish people.

Few were sufficiently acquainted with the Bible to be aware of

what the prophets said about Beth-el or of what Isaiah thought of

Emanu-el. No reproach, moreover, attaches to Beth-el in the story

of Jacob's dream, a story often rehearsed in the Sunday schools.

That story may have made "Beth-el" popular. But how account for

the introduction of the name "Emanu-El"? It has been suggested

that "Emanu-El" derived from the influence of the Christian en-

vironment. With Christians the name "Emanuel" is momentous.

Christians took "Emanuel" to be identical with "Jesus." They

believed that, when Isaiah pronounced the name "Ernanuel," he

was predicting the nativity which was to occur 732 years later.

Why Jews should have given their congregations a name which

Christians equated with Jesus is hard to explain. The explanation

of "Emanu-El" will have to be sought elsewhere. It happens not

seldom that Jewish people welcome a Hebrew word or phrase

regardless of what that word or phrase may mean. The word or

phrase is acceptable just so long as it is Hebrew, no matter how

inappropriate it may be for the context within which it gets

placed.

There is, however, one congregation about the Christian origin

of whose name there can be no doubt. This is the congregation whose


AMERICAN SYNAGOGUES : THE LESSONS OF THE NAMES 129

house of assembly in New York City is called "The Center of

Jewish Science." "Jewish Science" is the counterpart of "Christian

Science."

Christian Science was attracting Jews in considerable numbers.

The faith healing claimed by Christian Science lured many whom

medicine had failed to help. A grain of truth may lurk in the witticism

that a certain Christian Science church had so many Jews among its

members that non-Jews refused to join. The late Rabbi Morris

Lichtenstein, the founder of Jewish Science, sought to neutralize

that fascination by offering religio-therapy under Jewish auspices.

Intellectually Rabbi Lichtenstein was markedly superior to Mary

Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science. Before entering upon

his venture, Rabbi Lichtenstein took a graduate course in psychology

at Columbia University. Since the death of Rabbi Lichtenstein, his

project has been continued by his widow.

We must not fail to draw a sharp distinction between "Jewish

Science" and "The Science of Judaism," if we may thus translate

the German Wissmschaft des Judmthums. The difference between

the two is antipodal. Wissmschaft des Judenthums stands for scholarly

research in Jewish history and literature, demands rigid adherence

to scientific method, and is, by a whole world, removed from the

credulities of faith healing.

The frequency of names containing the word "Sinai" -their

number is forty-six - can possibly be accounted for by the familiar

references to Mount Sinai at Sunday school and perhaps also by the

association of Sinai with confirmation, the most popular of modern

Jewish rituals. The name which occurs more frequently than any

other is, however, the name "Israel" - 302 instances. The hesitation

which once existed about "Jew" and "Jewish" may, in part, account

for this. Hardly could the predilection for the name have been

motivated by the explanation of the name in Genesis 32: 29, which

tells how, one harrowing night, Jacob wrestled with God and won

the contest, whence God changed his name from Jacob ("the crafty")

to Israel ("the divine struggler"). That would not account for the

present-day favoritism shown that name; too scant is the number

of those who have heard or read the amazing story.


A noticeable aspect of our list is the rarity of congregations

named after any of the prophets. Until comparatively recent years

one congregation stood alone in that regard - Congregation Isaiah

in Chicago. A merger afterward altered the name into Isaiah-Israel.

Subsequently, the name Isaiah was adopted by three other Jewish

abodes of worship - a Temple Isaiah in Los Angeles; one in Forest

Hills, New York; and one in Lexington, Massachusetts. Aside

from these four congregations honoring the name of Isaiah, there is

a recently formed Congregation Micah in Denver, Colorado, and a

newly organized Congregation Jeremiah in Winnetka, Illinois.

Perhaps, for a religious institution, the name of a prophet is

inappropriate, because some of the prophets opposed religion of the

institutionalized kind - some, but not all. Ezekiel was not anti-

institutional, nor was Haggai. Besides, how extremely few are the

people even in the rabbinate, who realize the intensity of the opposi-

tion to the ancient sacrificial cult on the part of Amos, Hosea,

Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the author of the celebrated passage in the

Book of Micah about doing justly, loving mercy, and walking

humbly!

The following incident may be worth recounting. After a Friday

evening service at a temple, a small group of people, closely identified

with the temple, proceeded to the home of the president of the

temple for conversation and refreshments. The group consisted of

the incumbent rabbi, of a visiting rabbi who had preached that

evening, of the secretary of the congregation and his wife, and

perhaps of a few others, including, of course, the host and the

hostess. The conversation glided into the subject of the prophets.

The visiting rabbi quoted from Isaiah I : I 1-17:

To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me?

Saith the Lord. . . .

New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations I cannot

endure. . . .

Your new moons and your appointed seasons

My soul hateth;

They are a burden unto Me. . . .


AMERICAN SYNAGOGUES : THE LESSONS OF THE NAMES

And when ye spread forth your hands [in prayer],

I will hide Mine eyes from you;

Yea, when ye make many prayers,

I will not hear. . . .

Wash you, make you clean,

Put away the evil of your doings

From before Mine eyes. . . .

Seek justice, relieve the oppressed. . . .

The quotation threw the hostess into a state of dismay. She was

a woman fervently dedicated to her temple. When she heard the

words of Isaiah, she gasped: "According to that, we ought to have

no temple at all!"

The quoter pleaded: "Do not blame me. I never told Isaiah to

speak in that manner."

When the guests took their departure, the hostess refused to

shake hands with the quoter or even to bid him good night. Fre-

quent in her attendance at religious services, she must have heard

the passage from Isaiah many times before. She must have heard

similarly upsetting utterances of Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Jeremiah.

But amid the formalities of public worship, the meaning had never

struck home. Those words had to be spoken in an easygoing con-

versation over refreshments in her living room. A widely known

Bible scholar, now deceased, used to remark that some of the

grandest passages of the Bible stand there because they were mis-

understood. Had they been understood, they would have been ex-

cluded from the sacred collection.

The anti-institutionalism of certain prophets will thus hardly

account for the rarity of the prophets' names among the names of

congregations. Let us venture a guess: Children do not remain in

Sunday school long enough to hear about the prophets, much less

to learn about the prophets. The same might apply to names from

the Talmud. The chief talmudic name to greet us is that of Hillel.

Eleven of our congregations honor that talmudic celebrity. The only

other talmudic figure to receive any mention is Akiba, and that occurs

nowhere except with Temple Akiba in Culver City, California.


A number of congregations are named after notables of modern

times: Baron Maurice de Hirsch, Leo Baeck, Theodor Herzl, Haym

Salomon, Judah Touro, Isaac M. Wise, and Stephen S. Wise. No

fewer than four are named after Sir Moses Montefiore.*

Our list includes also such names as Temple Albert, Temple

Miriam, Temple Aaron, and the Louis Feinberg Synagogue, names

of local personalities honored in the annals of their respective

congregations.

We are unable to explain the total absence of the word "Jeru-

salem" from our nomenclature, although "Zion," the poetic equiva-

lent of "Jerusalem," appears no fewer than eighteen times.

* Baron Maurice de Hirsch, a noted philanthropist, was born in 183 I in Germany, and

died in 1896 in Hungary. His vast philanthropies were devoted chiefly, although not

exclusively, to the occupational rehabilitation and training of underprivileged Jews in

various parts of the world.

Leo Baeck, born in 1873 in Germany, died in 1956 in London. The leading rabbi of

Berlin, he became the outstanding Jewish figure in Germany at the time of the Hitler

persecutions and barely escaped death in a concentration camp.

Theodor Herzl, born in 1860 in Hungary, died in Vienna in 1904. A noted journalist

and author, he was the initiator of the world Zionist organization.

Haym Salomon, born in 1740 in Poland, died in Philadelphia in 1785. Salomon was a

Jewish hero of the American revolution, and helped secure money to further the cause

of the American colonists.

Judah Touro, born in 1775 in Newport, Rhode Island, died in 1854 in New Orleans.

Touro was an enterprising merchant and a large-scale philanthropist, bestowing his

largess on a broad variety of causes, non-Jewish as well as Jewish. Among his noted

beneficences was a huge contribution to the fund for the rearing of Bunker Hill

Monument.

Isaac Mayer Wise, born in 18 19 in Bohemia, died in 1900 in Cincinnati. He was the

famed rabbi of the Plum Street Temple (Bene Yeshurun Congregation) in Cincinnati.

The pioneer organizer for Reform Judaism in America, he founded the Union of Amer-

ican Hebrew Congregations, the Hebrew Union College, ". and the Central Conference

of American ~abbys. "

Stephen Samuel Wise, born in 1874 in Hungary, died in 1949 in New York City.

Wise was the founder and the celebrated rabbi of the Free Synagogue in New York

City and also the founder of the American Jewish Congress and of the rabbinic training

school known as the Jewish Institute of Religion. He was an orator of unsurpassed

eloquence, a noted Zionist, and a leader of the first rank in a multitude of civic and

philanthropic endeavors.

Sir Moses Montefiore was born in 1784 in Italy of British parents. He died in England

in 1885 at the age of more than one hundred. Montefiore was, for a large part of the

nineteenth century, England's foremost Jew. His prodigious philanthropies were bestowed

regardless of creed. On more than one occasion he intervened to rescue Jewish

people exposed to persecution in foreign lands.


AMERICAN SYNAGOGUES: THE LESSONS OF THE NAMES '33

Some of the names possess charm. Examples are: "Synagogue of

the Hills" at Rapid City, South Dakota; "Temple on the Heights"

at Cleveland Heights, Ohio; "Valley Temple" at Cincinnati;

"Village Temple" in New York City. Particularly with the Hebrew

names are the touches of beauty in evidence: "Tree of Life,"

"Gates of Prayer," "Gates of Heaven," "Covenant of Peace,"

"Pursuer of Peace," "Flag of Israel," "Way of Pleasanmess."

The temple at Chattanooga, Tennessee, is "Temple Mizpah."

"Mizpah" means "Lookout." How apt for a temple near the base

of Lookout Mountain! The temple at Toronto, Canada, has the

name "Holy Blossom." This name happens to be inadvertent. The

name is said to have originated with a congregation of Jewish youth

which went by a Hebrew appellative that means "Holy Fledglings."

The Hebrew word for "fledglings" resembles the Hebrew word

for "blossom." The congregation, taking its name from that of the

youth congregation, mistranslated. "Holy Blossom" was the charm-

ing result.

The names of most of our congregations are Hebrew. Those

Hebrew names, consisting usually of words or phrases taken from

the Bible, are, like many of the English names, aglow with idealism.

The Hebrew names often derive from such biblical exemplars as

Abraham, Jacob, David, Samuel, Moses, Solomon, and Mordecai.

These names of congregations read "Sons of Abraham," "Sons of

Isaac," "Love of Isaac," "Sons of Jacob," "House of Jacob,"

"Sons of Judah," "House of Moses," "Sons of Aaron," "Sons of

Joshua," "House of Samuel," "Sons of David," and "House of

Mordecai." Also invoked are the Hebrew terms for Light, Service,

Learning, Prayer, Friendship, Brotherhood, Kindness, Righteous-

ness, Diligence, Glory, Help, Hope, Holiness, and Peace. The

Hebrew word for "peace," shalmn, occurs 144 times. According

to a somewhat cynical explanation, the frequency of that word

could intimate the lack of peace in the schisms with which new

congregations were sometimes started; like the Latin quip about

the person named "Light," in Latin "Lucus." The quip runs:


"LUCUS

a non Iuc~do," " 'Light' because not giving light." Similar

is the supposition that congregations were, in some word-combination

or other, named Shalom, "Peace," because there was no peace. A

friendlier explanation would be that the frequency of the word

Shalom, in the names of congregations, is due to the word's famili-

arity. It is a word often heard in Jewish conversation, particularly

among the immigrant Jews by whom most of our congregations

were founded.

There are English names with an idealistic turn, such as "Temple

Concord" at Binghamton, New York; "Society of Concord" at

Syracuse, New York; "Hebrew Friendship Congregation" at

Harrisonburg, Virginia; "Brotherhood Synagogue" in New York

City; "Woodbine Brotherhood Synagogue" at Woodbine, New

Jersey. The "Hebrew Benevolent Congregation" in Atlanta,

Georgia, bears that name because the congregation grew out of

an organization devoted to charity. In Cincinnati, Ohio, "Congrega-

tion New Hope" consists of people who were fugitives from Hitler.

Attention may be called to the tendency which once existed, the

tendency to choose for congregations names of Messianic import,

that is to say, names whose biblical context voices hope for Jewish

national restoration or for a golden age to come. Examples are

those names which, translated from the Hebrew, mean "Remnant

of Israel," "Remnant of Judah," "Hope of Israel," "Door of Hope,"

"Holy Seed," and perhaps others.

Proclamations of ideals constitute, by and large, the essence of

the names borne by our congregations. When the names are Hebrew,

those names may have been understood by very few layfolk. Even

where the name is English, the name may seldom enter into people's

thoughts. The attendance at services may be sparse, listless, and

unappreciative. Yet there is about a congregation something which

towers. People can, in some subtle way, be affected by an outlook

of which they are rarely conscious. Places of worship can announce

to the world aspirations which their supporters are too busy to

ponder. In their names, congregations possess vehicles for such ideals.


The Drachmans of Arizona

FLOYD S. FIERMAN

The evening of March 10, I 896,I was a gala occasion in El Paso.

Two of the daughters of Isidor Elkan S~lomon,~ of Solomonville,

Arizona, were about to be married at the Vendome Hotel. The

Solomon family had probably come to El Paso for the weddings,

instead of celebrating them nearer home, at Phoenix or Tucson,

because most of their family was located in the El Paso area. Isidor's

brother Adolph was in business there, while the Freudenthals,

Isidor's in-laws, were situated in the environs of Las Cruces, New

Mexico, only forty miles away.

The festivities had a significance beyond that of gracing the

social life of El Paso, "a city of I 5,000 inhabitants and 25 saloons."

They marked a double wedding, unusual in itself, and they were of

particular Jewish interest. Eva Solomon was to be wed to Julius

Wetzler, of Holbrook, Arizona, and Rosa A. Solomon was to

exchange nuptial vows with another Arizonian, David Goldberg,

of Phoenix. The first ceremony took place at eight o'clock in the

evening; the second, at nine. There were two officiants, Judge

Frank Hunter, to satisfy the requirements of the civil law, and

Samuel H. Drachman, of Tucson, to perform the Jewish religious

portion of the ritual, "in which the bride and groom pledge each

other in wine."

There was no rabbi in this section of the Southwest in 1896.

Neither Santa Fe, Tucson, nor Phoenix had a rabbi, and El Paso

Dr. Floyd S. Fierman, rabbi of El Paso's Temple Mr. Sinai, is a special lecturer in

philosophy at Texas Western College. He acknowledges his particular indebtedness to

Dr. B. Sacks, Historical Consultant of the Arizona Historical Foundation, Phoenix,

Arizona, for his valuable aid and for permitting the generous use of his files on Philip

and Samuel H. Drachrnan.

Cleofas Calleros, El Paso Times, October 9, 1952. Herbert Given, of El Paso, brought

this reference to the writer's attention.

'See Floyd S. Fierman, Some Early Jewish Settlers on the Suuthwest Frontier (El Paso:

Texas Western Press, I 960).


did not call a rabbi until 1899. Religious occasions requiring He-

brew prayers fell, in a rabbi's absence, upon the shoulders of a

learned layman or at least of a man familiar with the ritual. Such

a person was Samuel Drachman. In addition to being the uncle of

David Goldberg, one of the grooms, he obviously had some famili-

arity with Jewish religious practice.

The Drachmans had migrated to the Southwest during the last

half of the nineteenth century. Samuel and his brother Philip, his

two brothers-in-law Hyman Goldberg and Sam Katzenstein, and

Hyman7s brother Isaac, were all closely identified with the growth

of the Arizona Territory. These men were not flat tortillas; they

were spicy jalapeGos giving flavor to the frontier. While they never

personally accumulated the wealth that was potentially attainable,

their efforts as prospectors were sifted on the dry washer to the

advantage of the Territory. As merchants, they allowed only the

small coins to remain in their cash drawers; the paper bills were

blown about to the welfare of the people. Who can measure their

contributions to the economic and political development of what

was then a backward stretch of land?

Philip Drachma113 and Michael and Joseph Goldwater, bearers

of two family names destined to help shape the state of Arizona,

traveled steerage to New York in 1852. Mike was later to become

the godfather of Philip's first son, Harry Arizona Drachman. The

Goldwaters went on to California, and Philip left for Philadelphia,

where relatives had assured him that he would find employment as

a tailor.4

3 Philip Drachman, born at Piovkow (Peuikov), near Lodz, Russian Poland, on July

4, 1833, the son of Harris and Rebecca Drachman, married Rosa Katzenstein at New

York City, on April 6, 1868. Their children were Harry Arizona, Moses, Albert,

Emanuel, Rebecca (Mrs. Solomon Breslauer), Phyllis (Mrs. A. P. Bell), Minnie (Mrs.

Phil Robertson), Myra, Lillie, and Esther. (Correspondence of Carl Hayden with

Harry A. Drachman, July I I, 1945.) Rosa K. Drachman used the date April z I, 1868,

as her marriage date in a manuscript dictated to her daughter Lillie, on October 21,

1907, at Los Angeles, California (Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society, Tucson,

Arizona).

4 Correspondence with Bert Fireman, Arizona Historical Foundation, November 18,

1960.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA I37

Philip was sixteen years of age when he arrived in Philadelphia,

but he did not remain there very long. It could be that the letters

which this young colt received from the Goldwaters made him

restless. At the age of eighteen, in 1854, he decided to go West.

Six years later, on October 16, I 860, he was naturalized as a United

States citizen at San Bernardino by Judge Benjamin Hayes.5 A letter

to Brevet Major J. H. Carlton from San Bernardino in 1861 sug-

gests that it did not take Philip very long to become acquainted

with the problems of the West.

We have heard within the last few hours from, as we believe, a reliable

source that a band of some forty or fifty desperadoes are now dispersed

throughout the Coast range of hills south of this place, and intending to

make a sudden foray upon the merchants of San Bernardino and after

securing their plunder make good their escape across the Colorado on

their way to the Confederate States of the South. We therefore hasten

to make this information known to you and ask that you will in the emer-

gency forthwith give us the protection of a Company of U. S. troop^.^

By 1863 Philip was in La Paz, Yuma County, as a member of

a combine which called itself the "Colorado River Farming and

Stock Raising Association."7 The 1864 Census of the Territory of

Arizona designated him as a thirty-year-old merchant, whose real

estate was valued at $~,ooo and whose personal estate was valued

at $4,000.~ Young Philip, who had come to the frontier with the

5 Carl Hayden, op. cit.

6 Among the signers were Mark Jacobs, F. H. Levy, B. Breslauer, P. Drachman and

Co., Isadore Cohen, S. Folks, Wolf Cohn, Jacob and Harris M. Calisher, Q. S. Sparks,

Jacob and Isador Cohn, Charles Denzig, and Morris Wolf. A Mr. Leonard and a Mr.

Goldberg (doubtless Isaac Goldberg) delivered the message, dated August 6, 1861

(R. N. Scott et al., edd., War of the Rebellim [Washington, D. C., 1880-19011, Series

I, Vol. 50, Part r, pp. 554-55).

7 The following residents of Los Angeles County, Calif., and the District of La Paz,

all citizens of the United States, formed themselves into a joint stock company for

the purpose of occupying a tract of land on the Colorado River on the Eastern or "New

Mexico" side to be styled "Colorado River Farming and Stock Raising Association":

H(yman [often spelled Heyrnan in documents]). Manassee (Mannassee), J. S. Manassee

[sic], M(oses) Manassee [sic], W. W. McCoy, J. M. McCoy, G. L. McCoy, B.

Roberts, Fred G. Fitch, John H. St. Matthew, I(saac) Goldberg, P. Drachman, Henry

Soberkrop, H. Behrendt, M. Schiller, C(har1es) 0. Cunningham. Recorded March

23, 1863, at La Paz Mining District (Files of Dr. B. Sacks).

8 The 1864 Census of the Territory of Arizona, La Paz No. 7, P. Drachman No. z.,

pp. 123-24. If Philip Drachman was eighteen in 1854. according to our sources, then


typical pack on his back, had thus accumulated, from 1852 to

1863, a modest capital of $5,000.

During this period Philip Drachman and Isaac Goldberg,g pool-

ing their resources and energies, initiated a parmership by acquiring

a parcel of land in La Paz.I0 The indenture of December 14, 1864,

makes no mention of a store located on the lot, but we can infer,

from an advertisement in the Arizona Miner of October that same

year,I1 that they either constructed a building or that there was

already one there. In any case, Goldberg and Drachman did not

limit their activities to the store in La Paz. Advertising in the

Arizcma Miner, they informed their readers that, though "formerly

of La Paz," they were "now located in the Juniper House, Prescott

[Arizona] ."I2 Philip Drachman was hardly a retiring personality,

and on August z I, I 865, he was among those who petitioned Gen-

eral J. S. Mason, Commander of the Military District of Arizona,

for aid against the Indians.

in 1864 he would have been twenty-eight, rather than thirty years of age, as shown

by the Census of the Territory of Arizona. Wanting perhaps to become an American

citizen in 1860, he advanced his age and then forgot that he had done so.

On La Paz, a boom mining town of 5,000 residents, see Will C. Barnes, Arizona

Place Names, revised and enlarged by Byrd H. Granger (Tucson: University of Arizona

Press, ca. 1960), p. 378.

9 "The Pioneer Society records show the date of his [Isaac Goldberg] birth as 1841,

but the 1864 census gives his age as 28, which would fix the year of his birth at 1836.

I think that this is about correct, because he could not have been naturalized as an

American citizen in 1859 unless he was twenty-one years old at that time. . . . He

had to have been five years in the United States to become naturalized so that he came

to this country not later than 1854, during which year he would be a young man of

r 8." Carl Hayden, op. cit. The problem of whether Isaac Goldberg was a naturalized

citizen is raised by the assistant attorney general. See Arizona Citizen (Tucson), March

14. 1879, 3:~.

I0 Indenture, dated and recorded December 14, 1864, in which Fransois Quinet con-

veyed to H. P. Drachman and Isaac Goldberg "all the lot or parcel of land being forty

eight feet front on East Side of Lander Street [formerly Main Street, the principal

street of La Paz, running North and South] . . . ." (Files of Dr. B. Sacks, Historical

Consultant, the Arizona Historical Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona.)

'I Buck and Cook in an advertisement, October 12, 1864, stated that they had estab-

lished a restaurant in La Paz. This was located on the corner of Lander Street, opposite

the store of (Philip) Drachman and (Isaac) Goldberg. Ariwna Miner, October 26,

1864, 3:2.

Arima Miner, September 2 I, 1864, 3 :4.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '4'

. . . . We most respectfully ask that you establish at or near this place

a military command, to act in concert with the civil authorities, or under

the direction of the Supt. of Indian Affairs, the Hon. Geo. W. Leihy -

not only to act as a military presence to intimidate the Indians, but to

enable the Superintendent to enforce the U. S. laws pertaining to Indian

Affairs.13

By July, 1870, Goldberg and Drachman had commercial in-

terests in Tucson, Arizona's leading town, with a population, in

the 1860's~ of perhaps a thousand, mostly Mexicans. While its

citizens were not of a class to inspire confidence in peaceful, law-

abiding Americans, it did offer a challenge to the enterprising

Goldberg and Drachman. The partners moved with the progress of

Arizona. From La Paz and Prescott, they extended their enterprise

to Tucson, where their store first appeared in the newspaper ad-

vertisements as Goldberg and Co., selling "Dry Goods consisting

of Hats and Caps of every description . . . Cloaks, Shawls, Boots,

Shoes . . .A large stock of Old Rye Whiskey and the best Cali-

fornia Wine and Brandy . . . A large Stock of groceries, Butter,

Honey, Cheese, and Dried Fruits which we offer for sale; whole-

sale and retail."I4 Goldberg and Co. was not interested in a credit

business, and the firm was listed as a "Cash Store." The very

next week, the firm advertised itself as "Goldberg and Drachman,"

also a Cash Store.15 In this case, however, Goldberg was listed as

a Tucson resident and Drachman as an importer, a resident of San

Francisco. It could be that a San Francisco address gave the store

status.

Philip was well situated enough, between 1864 and 1868, to

think of a wife. In 1868 he married Rosa Katzenstein, of New

York. How he met her and where they were married are disclosed

by Rosa's "Reminiscences of Grandmother Drachman."I6 Philip's

Sacks, ibid.

'4 The Weekly Aziwnian, July 16, 1870, 3 :4. Similar advertisements appeared as early

as February, 1870, without a mention of wine and liquor.

Is Ibid., July 23, 1870, 3 :4.

16 Rosa K. Drachman, a manuscript dictated to her daughter Lillie, on October z I, 1907,


I+f

AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1964

parmer, Isaac Goldberg, did not submit himself to the nuptial

canopy until two years later, when The Weekly Arizonian recorded

in good humor:

MARRIED: Mr. Drachman has received a letter from California which

brings the gay tidings of the sudden and unexpected marriage of I. Gold-

berg, the everlasting "Lomo de Oro." A few of his friends, at the time

of his departure for California some three months ago, had a sneaking

idea that his "pleasure trip" would result in some tragedy. MORAL -

Now all young men a warning take, and stay at home for mercy's sake.17

The partnership of Goldberg and Drachman went under a

number of names, including "Goldberg and Co.," "Goldberg and

Drachman," and "P. Drachrnan and Co." Goldberg had freight

trains and a number of government contracts under his name, as did

Philip Drachman. A letter from Arizona City, dated December 5,

1870, reveals the various business associations that were made by

the two partners:

Goldberg and Co's freight arrived here last night, 17 days from San Diego;

Mr. [Philip] Drachman of that firm, and Mr. Hopkins, of the Pioneer

Brewery, Tucson, go up on this day's buckboard . . . .r8

at Los Angeles, California. Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society, Tucson, Arizona.

Rosa's brother, Samuel Katzenstein, married Freda, the sister of Albert Steinfeld.

They had two children, Albert and Lulu (telephone conversation with Harold Stein-

feld, January 8, 1962). Photographs of Sam Katzenstein leave the impression that he

was a rugged individual, which indeed he must have been to hold postmasterships at

Greaterville (1879-1880) and at Charleston (1885), a town more notorious than Tomb-

stone. Mose Drachman (Philip and Rosa Drachman's son) records that Sam owned a

store in Charleston, where Mose worked for a short time (Mose Drachman, op. cit.).

Sam Katzenstein purchased a lot in Charleston in 1880 for f roo from Henry Fish-

back. (Index to Real Estate Grantees, Pima County, Arizona, September 30, 1880,

Book 7, p. 504.) There is also on record an indenture between Sam and Anna Downer

in Cochise County. On this occasion, Sam received $500 for his land. (Index to Real

Estate, Grantors, Pima County, Arizona, October 18, 1882, Book 11, p. 632.) The

records that have been found to date concerning Sam Katzenstein are incomplete.

The Historical Secretary of the Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society writes: "We

have very little material on Sam Katzenstein. He was . . . the proprietor of the old

Cosmopolitan (OrndoriT) Hotel in the 1880's." (Correspondence with Yndia S. Moore,

December 28, 196 I .)

'7 The Weekly Arizonian, November 19, 1870, 3:1. "Lomo de Oro" ("hill of gold")

is a Spanish play on Goldberg's Germanic name; "Lomo" ="Berg," "Oro" ="Gold."

18 Arizona Citizcn (Tucson), December 17, 1870, I : 3.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '43

Also, in March, I 879:

Philip Drachman's freight train came in last Saturday with 15,ooo pounds

of [Charles Trumbull.] Hayden's [Tempe] family flour and 7,000 pounds

of barley for [Charles H.] Lord and wheeler W.] Williams.19

To meet an Army contract to furnish hay to Camp Grant,

northeast of Tucson, Goldberg and Drachman, in 1870, sent eighty

men to cut hay in the San Pedro Valley. In March, 1870, their

wagon train, loaded with supplies for the haying crew, was attacked

by Apaches. The assault was made a little after sunrise at Canada

del Oro, near the northern spur of the Catalina Mountains, while

the men were at breakfast. Robert Morrow, an army paymaster,

with an escort of ten soldiers, was camped about a mile away.

Hearing the gunfire, Morrow and the soldiers joined forces with

the teamsters, who had scattered into the brush.

Angel Ortiz, the wagon master, was killed early in the day and

buried there. By about 11 A.M., the Apaches had finished looting

the wagons and left, after first driving off twelve yoke of oxen

grazing about 250 yards from the camp. The four wagons, loaded

with supplies like clothing, coffee, sugar, bacon, tobacco, shovels,

scythes, axes, and ten thousand pounds of barley, were emptied,

but not destroyed. Sixty Apaches captured the members of the

haying crew who had not been killed in the fray."^

Isaac Goldberg made no claim for this loss until June 8, 1888."'

The claim was made at Tucson, and, though the original report of

the encounter reads I 87 1, Goldberg used the date I 870. He esti-

mated the total loss at $7,150 and also mentioned in his claim that,

during this period, the company had also suffered a loss at Florence.

Six horses - four kept in a corral and two that the stage driver

had used on the night of the depredation - had been stolen. The

horses were valued in all at $700, bringing the loss in both depreda-

tions to $7,850.

'9 Ibid., March 14, 1879, 3 :z.

lo In the Court of Claims: Isaac Goldburg [sic], Surviving Partner of Isaac Goldburg

and Philip Drachman, Deceased, v. The United States and the Apache Indians (Indian

Depredations No. 6846).


On cross examination before the United States assistant attorney

general, Goldberg stated that he had misplaced his books while

moving from place to place. Having had little hope of recovering

anything from the Government, he said, he had not been careful to

preserve the account books. Goldberg said on re-examination that

he and his partner, Philip Drachman, had quit the business in 1875

because they had lost so much through these depredations.

The evidence, according to the assistant attorney general, was

inconclusive as to the amount of merchandise taken or destroyed.

"The claimant lost his books and has no inventory and relies on

estimates of the value of the various items." He went on to say:

The amount of groceries and clothing seems to be extraordinary, con-

sidering the purpose for which it was intended - that of supplying a

camp of men engaged in cutting hay, who could not have been expected

to stay in one place for a great length of time, and who would not need

large supplies of clothing or dry goods. Moreover, it is incredible that

the Indians in the short time they were engaged in the attack could have

taken or destroyed all the property in the wagons.

The assistant attorney general, in presenting his case, also dis-

cussed the matter of citizenship. Both claimants, he said, were

foreign-born. Philip Drachman had been naturalized in 1860, but

no record of Goldberg's naturalization could be found in the Govern-

ment files. Competent evidence, he added, might be produced be-

fore the case went to trial, but if not, judgment could not be ren-

dered where Goldberg's share of the claim was con~erned.~~

Faced with this rather devastating argument and other thrusts

from the assistant attorney general, Goldberg was no doubt ad-

vised - or the heirs of Philip Drachrnan, who had died in 1889

while the case was being adjudicated, were counseled - to dis-

solve the Goldberg and Drachman partnership. In February, I 893,

an indenture was made between Isaac Goldberg and the heirs of

Philip Drachman,'3 one-half of Goldberg's claim of $7,840 (later

The law relating to claims of this kind specified that, to obtain judgment, the claimant

had to be a United States citizen. At a later date this clause was repealed.

23 "Assignment. I. Goldberg to Heirs of P. Drachman, February, 1893. Whereas a

partnership has heretofore existed between Isaac Goldberg and Philip Drachman,

both of Pima County, Arizona Territory, under the firm name of Drachman and Gold-


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '45

reduced to $5,090) against the Government being transferred to

Drachrnan's heirs.

The case dragged on; in 1903, it was dismissed by the Court

of Claims, which found that the Indian defendants had not been in

amity with the United States at the time of the attack.

When Isaac Goldberg testified before the assistant attorney general

that he and his partner, Philip Drachman, had quit their business

in 1875 as a result of the depredations, he may or may not have

been correct. In 1872, the two men had declared themselves bankrupt

in Tucs0n,~4 but whether they were bankrupt as a result of

the depredations is a moot point. "Wielders and dealers" like

Goldberg and Drachman should not have been irreparably damaged

by a loss of $7,840 -unless, of course, they were overextended.

Yet this seems to be the case, for a year later they were in further

difficulty and lost their store premises in Tucson. In 1872, it was

the merchandise that was up for public auction. In 1873, one of

their creditors, Lionel M. Jacob~,~~ dissatisfied with the outcome,

took the matter into court.

berg, which said co-partnership is hereby dissolved and determined: . . . Isaac Gold-

berg. Signed and delivered in the presence of Thos. A. Barton."

'4 "Assignee's Sale, In the District Court of the United States for the District of Cali-

fornia. In the matter of Phili Drachman and Isaac Goldberg, Bankru ts. Notice is

hereby given that by virtue orthe authority in me vested as assignee orthe estate of

Philip Drachman and Isaac Goldberg, bankrupts, I will offer for sale at public auction,

on Monday March 4, 1872, at 10 o'clock, A. M., at the store formerly occupied by

said bankrupts, in the Town of Tucson, A. T., the stock of merchandise belonging

to the estate, consisting of dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes, hats, crockery, hard-

ware, tinware, etc. Terms of sale-cash. Wm. A. Darby, Assignee By M. Gold-

water, Attorney in Fact. Tucson, A. T., Feb. 22, 1872'' (Arima Citizen, February

24, 1872, 2:j).

'5 "Sheriff's Sale. In the District Court of the First Judicial District, County of Pima

and Territory of Arizona, Lionel M. Jacobs vs. Philip Drachman, Rose Drachman,

Isaac Goldberg, Amelia Goldberg, Francis M. Hod es, Joseph Goldtree, and William

E. Darby as assignee in bankruptcy of the estate ofphilip Drachman and Isaac Goldberg,

bankrupts, defendants.

" 'By virtue of an order of sale . . . by which I am required to sell the premises therein

described, or such part thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the plaintiffs judgment,

amounting to $3,015.16, with interest at the rate of two per cent per month

from the zznd day of March, 1873, together with costs of suit, and accruing costs and

ex ense of sale.

'On Monday the ~1st of April A. D., 1873, at 10 o'clock a.m. of said day. . . I

will sell at public auction to the highest bidder for cash that certain lot and parcel of


But Philip Drachman was not economically embarrassed very

long, for by 1875 he was selling land again:

Drachman, Philip, on Tuesday, sold the lot on Main Street which he

recently purchased from the village authorities, to George Cooler for

$450. There seems to be a ready market for well located real estate in

Tucson, at advancing prices.26

In I 88 I he opened a saloon:

Phil Drachrnan has filled up his new saloon in a costly manner. The counter

is inlaid with rare pictures, and the whole place has an air of tone and

elegance. It is named "Postoffice Exchange." Paul Jenicke, late of the

resides behind the bar. The place will be opened to the public

this a P ternoon. Location: the comer of Congress and Church Streets,

near the printing office.'?

In 1886 he purchased a cigar store: "News Item: Phil Drachman

has purchased the cigar store of Sampson and CO."~~ And in 1889,

he had "a new and elegant ~arry-all."~9

It is difficult to evaluate whether Philip Drachman operated all

these businesses at the same time, but we can infer that he was

often in more than one business at a time. Whether he experienced

success or failure, he always seemed able to retain his drayage

business. His obituary notice attests to this:

He first engaged in the mercantile business and afterwards did an ex-

tensive freighting business between Tucson and Yuma. When the railroad

was built (1880) he established a herd line here, which he has maintained

ever since.30

Drachman died in Tucson of pneumonia on November 9, 1889,

and the news of his death was carried by both the Prescott and the

land situated on the east side of Main Street, in the Town of Tucson, and described

as follows, to-wit: . . .' " (Ariuma Citim, April I z, 1873, I :5).

l6 Ibid., April lo, 1875.

27 A rim Star, December 29, 1881, I :I.

la Ibid., July 28, 1886, 4.

Ibid., June 2 3, I 889, 4: I.

Weekly Citim (Tucson), November 16, 1889.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA I47

Tucson papers.S1 He had represented Pima County in the House of

Representatives, 4th Territorial Legislature, at Prescott, September

4, to October 7, 1867,~" -and had become a charter member of

the Society of Arizona Pioneers at Tucson on January 31, 1884.

Tucson's Arizona Lodge No. I of the Ancient Order of United

Workmen and the B'nai B'rith could also claim him as a member.

Fifty-six when he died, he was buried in the Masonic Plot of Ever-

green Cemetery in Tucson. The Weekly Citizen observed:

The death of Mr. Drachman has cast a gloom over the entire community,

and many were the expressions of sorrow heard this morning, in the busi-

ness houses and on the streets, when the sad news was announced. . . .33

The date of Samuel H. Drachman's arrival in the United States

is uncertain. If Philip was sixteen when he came to these shores in

1852, then Samuel was twelve that year. If, as one biographer

states, Samuel was eighteen when he came to America, then his date

of arrival should have been 1856.35 TO add further confusion to the

date question, Samuel H. Drachman wrote in his diary: "Arrived

in N. Y. on the 30th of the same month (November 8th, 1863)."~~

The I 863 date may, of course, be a typographical error.

3I Weekly Prescott Courier, November I 5, I 889, t : I ; Weekly Citim (Tucson), Novem-

ber 16, 1889.

3' Correspondence with Harry A. Drachman, March 14, 1951.

33 Weekly Citizen, November 16, I 889.

34 Born at Petrikov, Russian Poland, on November 9, 1837, Samuel H. Drachman

was four years his brother Philip's junior. He spent his childhood and his youth in

his native country. In 1875 he married Jenny Migel at San Bernardino. There were

four children: Herbert, Lucille (Mrs. Floyd C. Shank), Myrtle (Mrs. J. H. Birnham),

and Solomon, an attorney who went to fight in the Spanish-American War, fell off

a horse, and then returned to Tucson to die. Samuel H. Drachman himself died on

December 26, 191 I, at Tucson, Arizona.

3s See Leslie E. Gregory's biographical sketch of Samuel H. Drachman, Arizona

Pioneers' Historical Association, Tucson, Arizona.

36 Samuel H. Drachman's diary, copied by Armand V. Ronstadt. "We have just

finished copying the Drachman diary. You know we promised the Drachmans no copy

would be made unless the spelling and some parts of the grammar were corrected. I

always consider corrections a mistake, but such was our promise. This has taken an

extra long time in copying . . . ." (Correspondence with Eleanor B. Sloan, Historical

Secretary, May z, 1951.)


On arrival, Samuel apparently remained for a short time in New

York, where he had relatives. His diary relates that, after receiving

word of his mother's death, he left Charleston, South Carolina, on

October 12, 1866. Why and how he came to Charleston,37 the

extant records do not disclose. We can only conjecture that he

may have had relatives in Charleston, South Carolina, which shel-

tered an old Jewish community, or he may have been attracted

by the economic opportunities which this port city afforded. A

biographical sketch of Drachman states that "he served through the

entire Civil War under General Beauregard and with a creditable

military record. . . ."S8 Dr. B. Sacks, however, was unable to find

Drachman's name among the Confederate veterans listed at the

National Archives.S9

On November 8, I 863 (I 866), he went to New York to meet

his widower father, who had been living in Philadelphia with his

late wife.40 A dutiful son, Drachman put his father on the boat for

Hamburg. Leaving New York on May 2 I, I 867, he landed in San

Francisco on June I 2, I 867. After visiting friends, "Levy, a country-

man, Greenbaum, Goshlinski, Cohn, and A. Goldwater," he left

San Francisco on June 2 I, 1867, "on board the Pacific." After stops

at Santa Barbara and San Pedro, he reached Los Angeles on June

23, 1867, and lefi for San Bernardino by stage the following day.

All this time, his diary refers to letters that he had written to his

father. In the interim, his brother Philip wrote him that Isaac Gold-

berg had left Tucson for San Bernardino, and by July 3rd, Samuel

was already at work for Goldberg. Samuel's sister lived in San

Bernardino, where he visited her frequently. His diary records that

37 For Charleston's Jewish history, see Barnett A. Elzas, The Jews of South Camlina

(Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1905).

38 Leslie E. Gregory, op. cit.

39 "I looked for Drachman's name on the microfilm index of Confederate Soldiers in

the National Archives, but am sorry to report that it does not appear. Although this

list is most com rehensive, the possibility exists that there were omissions. . . ." (Correspondence

wit! Dr. B. Sacks, April 30, 1961.)

"I have been told that Sam Drachman went into the Confederate Army under the

name of Sam Harris, which was his father's first name." (Correspondence with George

Chambers, A ~ i Silhouettes, m Tucson, Arizona, March I, 1962.)

S. H. Drachman's diary, op. cit.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA I49

he played the piano, and there are frequent references to his card

playing. On August 19, 1867, he left by stage for Tucson, arriving

there on September 4, I 8 67.

Samuel was a lighthearted person. He writes that he saw some

Mexican minstrels: "very funny, never saw anything like it." Also,

during a noon hour, he "watched I. Goldwater and A. Barnum

play cards for wine and in the evening play for boots." He obviously

liked cards himself: "At night after the store was closed,

played solo," or "Soon after breakfast showed a trick to Goldtree,

won a bottle of wine . . . played with Frenchy a game of pickey for

a bottle of wine, after dinner, and lost." All this time he had not

seen Philip, then in Prescott. In the interim he worked for Goldberg.

Samuel Drachman had strong religious feelings, and his diary

gives us clues as to how Judaism was observed on the frontier.

"While ill with a headache and dizziness . . . at night felt very

dreary on account of [being sick on] Rosh Ha~hona."4~ "Not

better, had to say my prayer in bed."4z "The second day of Rosh

Hashona somewhat better . . ."43 and: "At night, which was Kol

Nidra night . . ."44; "The 2nd Sukoth, felt better . . ."45; "Yom

Kipur Monday, Sept 2 ~th.''4~

One might conclude either that Samuel had a religious calendar

with him47 or that there were enough Jews in Tucson in 1867 to

have public religious services.

dlIbid., September 29, 1867.

Ibid., September 30, 1867.

43 Ibid., October I, 1867.

44 Ibid., October 8, 1867.

45 Ibid., October 14, 1867.

46 Ibid., September 25, 1871.

47 There was at least one English-language Jewish calendar available during this period:

A Jcwish Calendaf for Fifty Years f~um A. M. 5614 to A. M. 5664, covering the years

1854-1904. This book, published at Montreal in 1854, was the work of Jacques Judah

Lyons and Abraham de Sola, ministers of the Sephardic congregations in New York

and Montreal, respectively.

Drachman may also have carried a prayer book with him. "Pocket" prayer books

were printed in Germany: "One of the most interesting editions of the prayer book

is that printed in Fuerth, Germany, in 1842. This book is a revealing historical docu-

ment since its title page names it as a prayer book for those who may be traveling

to America." Herbert C. Zafren, "Printed Rarities in the Hebrew Union College


Samuel's work for Goldberg and Drachman consisted primarily

of letter writing, making out statements, writing contracts, and

stock control.

By 1873, he had severed his business relation~hips4~ with Isaac

Goldberg and Philip Drachman, and had established his own

business :

I beg to inform the public of Tucson and vicinity that I have removed to

the store formerly occupied by Messrs. H. Lesinsk and Co., where I

shall take pleasure to serve one and all to the best o 7 my ability. Always

on hand a well selected stock of general merchandise as is needed in

Arizona.

S. H. Drachma1149

Samuel followed the pattern of Goldberg and Drachrnan, which

meant that he had many business interests. He bid on government

contractsso and gathered dust by buckboard around the surrounding

territory; "S. H. Drachman returned early in the week from Apache

Pass"sl; he went to Mesilla, New Mexico, to buy applesS2 and

visited San Francisco for extensive periods of time.53

Sam was also civic-minded. When, in 1879, the Tenth Legis-

lative Assembly authorized the Arizona lottery, he was the agent

in Tucson. Unfortunately, the lottery, designed to provide funds to

construct capitol buildings and to help support the public schools,54

Library," Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, V (1961), 139 (Library of the Hebrew

Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio).

4' "Samuel H. Drachman, an 'old good friend of the Miner,' is about to start business

in the building just vacated by Lesinsky and Co." (Arizona Citizen, September 27,

1873, 3:~).

49 Ibid., Saturday, March I, 1873.

sa See below, "The Drachmans, Government Contracting and Licensed Indian Traders."

sr Arizona Citizen, July 18, 1874, 3:t.

S2 Ibid., September 5, 1874, 3 :2.

53 "S. H. Drachman left from San Francisco by stage Thursday, [November ~gth]

expecting to be absent about thirty days." (Ibid., November 21, 1874, 3:t.)

54 "Arizona Lottery, under the direction of Governor J. C. Fremont, [Governor from

1878 to 18821 . . . Michael Goldwater. . . Herewith a Lottery will be drawn at Pres-

cott, A. T., on Wednesday, June 4, 1879." See Legislative History of Arizona, 1864-

1912, compiled by George H. Kelly, State Historian (Phoenix: Manufacturing Sta-

tioners, Inc., 1926), pp. 76-8 I.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA ISr

failed, and the Eleventh Territorial Legislature repealed the law

which had authorized it.

"S. H." was also a director in the Missouri Valley Life In-

surance Company.55 As a merchant in Tucson, he was listed in

1874 as a businessman who grossed $50,000 for that year.s6

Bidding for mail contracts was also a source of revenue:

S. H. Drachman will superintend the running of the mail between here

and Apache Pass.57 The new buckboards are in use now but they will be

replaced by more commodious vehicles just as soon as business will war-

rant the additional expense required. Eight buckboards arrived here on

Sunday last, and five of them were sent on to Points East and Apache

Pass.s8

Apparently mail contracts were lucrative, for there is evidence that

he was still bidding on them in 1877.59 Sam, in fact, seems to have

experienced no business reverses until 1884, when he had difficulty

meeting a government contract.60 Up to that time he did very well,

55 Arizona Citizen, July 17, 1875, 1:7. (This paper was known at various times as

The Arima Citizen and The Weekly Arima Citim.)

56 Trade for I 874 in Tucson:

E. N. Fisk and Co.

Tully, Ochoa and Co.

Lord and Williams

J. H. Archibald

L. B. Jacobs and Co.

Zeckendorf and Bros.

Wood Bros.

S. H. Drachman

Theo. Welisch

D. Velasco

(Ariwna Citim, September 25, 1875, 4:2)

57 Apache Pass is a deep gorge about four miles long in Cochise County, Arizona.

It was reputed "one of the most dangerous locations for encounters with Indians in

the whole of Arizona . . . . Apaches took advantage of the heights above. . . to watch

the passage of emigrant wagon trains.. ." (Barnes, op. cit., p. 29).

S8 Arima Citizen, July 4, 1874, 3 :3.

59 In 1877, Drachman entered a bid of $659 per annum for the mail contract from

Tucson to Greaterville, sixty-five miles and back. This was the low bid, and it was

received on January 15, 1877. Later a note attached declared the route unnecessary.

60 See below, "The Drachmans, Government Contracting, [etc.] ."


improving his residence at a cost of $1,500,~' while he and his wife

sold a site in Tucson to L. M. Jacobs for $~oo.oo.~'

Politics had a magnetic charm for Samuel, who was a member of

Arizona's Eighth Territorial Legi~lature.~~ The official returns from

Pima County in November, 1874, showed that Sam had received

the fourth largest vote - 613 -for election to the Territorial

Assembly.'j4 Earlier that year, his name had appeared on a long list

of signatories to a petition addressed to the Pima County Board of

Supervisors, requesting the appointment of H. B. Jones as justice of

the peace for the Tucson

Besides his interest in politics, Sam reached out in other directions.

He was a charter member of the Masonic Order in Tucson

and of the Pioneers' Society before which, in 1885, he read a paper,

"Arizona Pioneers and Apa~hes."~~ Nor did he forget his faith. A

Purim ball which he attended in 1886, held under the auspices of

the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society, was described as the most

brilliant and successful event ever held in the city of Tucson. Among

the costumes receiving special mention was that of Jenny Drachman,

Sam's wife, who attended the ball as a "Tamale gir1."67

Both the Drachman brothers ofien concerned themselves with

Government contracts and Indian trading licenses.

On June I, 1876, Samuel, designated by the name of S. H.

Drachman, was awarded a license to trade with the Papago Indians

on their reservation at St. Xavier, Arizona Territory. He filed a

6' Weekly Arima Citizen, January I, 1881, 3 :3.

61 Ibid., August to, 1882, 3:3.

63 Legislative History of Arim, r86q-rgr2, p. 66.

64 Arima Citizen, October 10, 1874, t :4.

65 Ibid., July 18, 1874, 3 :t.

66 S. H. Drachman, "Arizona Pioneers and Apaches" (Tucson, May 4, 1885): a

handwritten manuscript.

67 Arizona Weekly Citizen, March 13, 1886, 4:3.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '53

$5,000 bond with J. H. Archibald and Chas. [Charles] N. Etchells

as sureties. The license was issued for one year.68

Bidding for Government contracts could sometimes involve the

bidder in controversy. On one such occasion, Philip Drachman,

Sam's brother, showed himself a man able to defend himself when

his honesty was questioned. In a letter to the editor of the Weekly

Arizonian, he wrote:

I find in a letter signed C. C. Bean, published in the Miner of December

25 [1869,] a series of statements regarding the letting of a contract at

Fort Whipple, and observing therein a species of shadowy allusion to

myself and I hope you will permit me, through your columns, to reply . . . .

The I st of November I 869 being the day named as that upon which pro-

posals to furnish grain to the Q. M. Department at Camp Whipple were

to be opened, I handed my bid for 500 tons at 6-1/4$ per pound. Mr.

Bean, for the same contract, bid as follows: loo tons at 5-3/4#, 100 tons

at 6#, IOO tons at 6-1/8& loo tons at 7# and loo tons at 7-I/I~#. Now in

the statement published by Mr. Bean one of his bids is misstated and one

omitted. . . . So soon as it was discovered that Bean, Baker and Co. were

defeated in fact, the presence of intrigue became evident.

Unlike the straightforward manner in which the successful bidder is at

once made known here [in Tucson], we bidders at Whipple must assemble

at 4 P.M. to learn the result. I called but was informed that I could learn

nothing before the next morning. Next morning I called again and was

informed that the quartermaster had left town and that my informant,

the clerk, can give me no information regarding the bids. Upon returning

from the quartermaster's office in company with Mr. Parker, likewise a

bidder, he remarked, "There's something rotten," and sure enough some-

thing was very rotten as I soon afterwards discovered. Not only had the

quartermaster left town but so likewise had a special messenger, bearing

the bid of Bean, Baker and Co. - ahead of mail - that it might be ap-

proved before exposure could be effected. Feeling that it became necessary

to act at once and determinedly, if I would defeat this abuse of justice

and position, I set out for San Francisco and upon my arrival called upon

the Chief Quartermaster, who informed me that strict justice would be

done in the affair.

The contract has since been re-let, which fact shows how much honesty

has been blended with the proceedings under consideration.

6a Bureau of Indian Affairs, Miscellaneous Trader's Licenses, Vol. 3.


The Miner, however, remarks that Gen. Wheaton was present at the

opening of the bids, and that, consequently, no injustice could have been

practised. Gen. Wheaton, I am aware, was present, and believe the fact

may account for the removal of the faighful [sic] Baker.

These are the facts stated calmly and dispassionately. I am represented as

feeling sore-headed, yet my statement betrays less heat of brain than does

that to which it is intended as a reply. I regret that above my signature

any term so rude and meaningless as "hurling stinkpots at people" should

appear. I leave this style of explanation with the gentleman who sets it

forth; he perhaps is worthy to employ it; I am not.

P. Drachman69

There are six contracts listed between Philip Drachman and the

Government, and thirty-five contracts between Samuel H. Drach-

man and the Government as suppliers for transportation purposes.

They seemed to do well at the beginning. Philip was awarded his

first contract on May 30, 1870, to transport supplies from Fort

Yurna to Camp Mchwell; Samuel secured his first in November,

1870, to deliver flour to Camp McD0well.7~ Philip, according to

the records, stopped as a supplier in 1879, while Samuel continued

to 1884, when he found himself in difficulty. Three contracts were

involved, all of them signed on May I 5, 1884:

Contract A. To supply 900,000 pounds of machine-cut gama

hay to Fort Huachuca, A. T. [Arizona Territory], at 61.8# per

IOO pounds. The sureties for the $3,000 bond were Leo Gold-

schmidt and Emil Loewenstein.

Contract B. To supply 240,000 pounds of machine-cut straw to

Fort Huachuca, A. T., at 60.9# per IOO pounds. The sureties

for the $1,000 bond were Frederick L. Austin and Emil

Loewenstein.

Contract C. To supply 150,ooo pounds of straw or hay to

Fort Bowie, A. T., at 64.444 per IOO pounds. The sureties

for the $500 bond were Frederick L. Austin and Ernil Loewen-

stein.

69 Weekly Arizonian, January 8, 1870.

r0 Samuel's first contract was, however, subsequently disapproved.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '55

Samuel found himself in trouble with deliveries at Fort Huachuca,

but only to a trifling degree at Fort Bowie. He explained his diffi-

culties on August 3oth, in two letters to the quartermaster at Fort

Huachuca :

In response to your telegram, I address you regarding the contract ex-

isting between the government and myself for the delivery of hay and

straw at Fort Huachuca. This season is one of unexampled drought and

there has been a total failure in the growth of gamma [sic] grass. The

truth of the statement is borne out by my personal observations in Pima

and Cochise Counties, for I have made it my business to make a thorough

search through said counties with a view of ascertaining whether by any

possibilities I should be able to find grass in quantities sufficient to cut

under my contracts. Not only have I examined for myself, but have made

persistent inquiries from cattlemen and dealers in hay with the same

result . . . .

. . . . There now remains but one question, when the government upon

this showing and under these circumstances will not feel itself justified, in

itself cancelling the contract, rather than take advantage of my mis-

fortune by declaring a forfeiture on my part and involving myself and

sureties in default.

I most certainly feel that the presidence [sic] heretofore established in the

class of cases justify the action, which I suggest on the part of the govern-

ment.

On July 13, 1885, the Chief Quartermaster of the Military

Department of Arizona, Major A. J. McGonnigle, reported to the

Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army Samuel Drachman's

failure at Fort Huachuca as well as the minor defection at Fort

Bowie. Drachman could supply hay for Fort Huachuca to the

amount only of $103.98, which meant that the Quartermaster's

Department would have to buy hay and straw in the open market

to satisfy the fort's requirements. The average cost to the Govern-

ment of hay so purchased was $ I .44 per IOO pounds, instead of the

contract price of 61.8j and 60.9#, for hay and straw, respectively.

Had Drachman been able to supply the required hay and straw to

Fort Huachuca, the cost would have been $8,529.39, but now the

cost would come instead to $19,980.77 - a loss to the Government

of $11,347.44, allowing for the $103.98 hay load delivered by


Drachman. The situation at Fort Bowie was less serious. Drachman

was unable to deliver the I 50,000 pounds of hay contracted for, and

Government purchases were made in the open market for $975, as

compared to the contract price of $966.60. The loss amounted,

therefore, to only $8.40.

The Government decided to sue Drachman and his sureties.

On October 9, 1885, Leo Goldschmidt had asked for himself

and Emil Loewenstein release from their bond "in penalty of

$3,000" on the ground of the prevailing drought in Southern Arizona

and the absence of a provision in the contract (Contract A.) to supply

any other kind of hay. On the following day, Frederick L. Austin,

on behalf of himself and Emil Loewenstein, had made a similar

request for release from their obligation under bond of $r,ooo

(Contract B.). Both requests were refused, but a compromise was

reached in 1887, when Goldschmidt and Loewenstein were re-

quired to pay only the court costs of $186.95.

The other two cases dragged on until 1890, when, after much

correspondence, the remaining two suits were settled for $too.

Thus the Government lost $ I I ,3 55.84, plus the total costs of

litigation, minus $386.95 paid in settlement. Austin, in addition to

five years of anxiety, suffered because for a time the Government

withheld payments due him in connection with contracts of his

own. 7I

Following this experience, Samuel Drachman appears to have

Samuel H. Drachman, Consolidated Quartermaster's Contract File (R. G. No. 92,

National Archives).

The matter of sureties was, in eneral, often troublesome. The same men provided

bonds for many contracts, and ofen for one another. It is fortunate that they were

not often called upon to pay a penalty on these bonds, for if they had been - even

assuming that they could pay (as they seldom could) -the losses of these sureties

could have been rohibitive.

An example ofthe inadequate finances of sureties is illustrated by a bond, dated at

Las Cruces, New Mexico, December 18, 1869, to guarantee a contract of Henry

Lesinsky, dated at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, the same day. The sureties were

W. L. Rynerson and J. F. Bennett, of Las Cruces, and A. Staab, of Santa Fe. The

amount of the bond was $~o,ooo. All four men signed the bond, Henry Lesinsky as

principal. Although it is stated in the body of the bond that J. F. Bennett is "of Las

Guces," as mentioned above, when he appeared before a notary public, Edwin J. Orr,

of Las Cruces, on the same day, he was referred to as "of La Mesilla, N. M." Henry

Lesinsky, "of Las Cruces," swore that he was worth $3,000 over and above debts

and liabilities, and Bennett $2,000.


THE DRACHMANS OF ARIZONA '59

terminated his career as a contractor, for no record of any agree-

ment of his is found after May I 5, I 884.

To survive on the frontier, the pioneer had to inure himself to

the conditions that he found and to seize upon the opportunities

that he discovered. The Jewish pioneer had the impulse not merely

to survive, but also to survive as a Jew. And he wanted his children

to do so as well. Judaism, however, is not only an inheritance; it

is also a maintenance. The solidarity of the Jewish family is de-

pendent upon the soil of religious observance, and the Drachman

brothers failed at the task of educating their children to keep the

Jewish "tree of life" alive.

The soil of Arizona was unlike the soil of their native Peuikov.

The Southwest's lack of formal Jewish institutions or even one

rabbi before I 899 presented insurmountable obstacles. Many of the

newcomer Jewish families could perpetuate their faith at first

through the arroyo of marrying into the families of other Jewish

settlers, but for those born and bred on the frontier, the waters of

faith obtained from the arroyo proved unreliable. Their Jewish

identity dried up and became lost in the sands of the desert.

What happened when one of the family married out of his faith

is incisively recorded by Moses Drachman. In traditional Judaism,

intermarriage is construed as the first step toward apostasy. If a

Jew takes nuptial vows with somebody outside of the faith, a

breach is opened. And so, as Moses wrote:

My marriage [to Ethel Edmunds, a non-Jew] did not please the rest of

my family. We were Jews -not very strict Jews, but they thought

that I should have married a Jewish girl. Strange as it may seem, not

one of them married a Jew and only one of my sisters married a Jewish

man . . . . So I decided to locate in Phoenix until the clouds rolled away.

The fears of Philip and Samuel Drachman were well founded. All

their descendants were to abjure Judaism.

A pioneer has the advantage of being in a new settlement before

others are there in large numbers. The Drachrnans were in many


places before competitors could establish themselves. There were

many economic opportunities, but presumably the reins slipped out

of their hands and the gold nuggets fell through their fingers. They

were persistent in their search, tireless in their efforts, and astute

in finding opportunities, but Samuel and Philip Drachman never

attained the state which they sought. We are fortunate, however,

that the newspapers of the day, the urge which impelled the Drach-

mans to write of their past, and the records of the National Archives

could be pieced together to give us a glimpse into this family that

played so prominent a part in the history of Arizona.

A CRY FOR HELP

It was no pleasure to be a prisoner of war during the Civil War, and the

Union's prisoner of war camp at Fort Delaware, Delaware, must have been a

grim place of incarceration. Confederate Jewish soldiers held there, however,

could and did appeal for help to their Northern coreligionists.

The following letter is the second or third we have received from the

same persons, who are now in Fort Delaware, and were there about a

year and a half. Please read the letter and give them such assistance as is

in your power. These young men are innocent.

Fort Delaware, Sept. 27, I 864.

Rev. Dr. I. M. Wise - Dear Sir. - Refering to our letter from last

year, in which we took the liberty in stating to you our case, we again

write you today. We were not fortunate enough in procuring our release,

and not seeing any prospects of any change for the benefit of our situation,

we appeal through you to your congregation to assist us in our behalf.

We are in need of some pecuniary aid or food, especially coffee. Anything

you send will be thankfully received. We are not permitted to write but

ten lines. Hoping to hear from you, we are

Very respectfully yours,

In care of Captain G. W. Ahl.

[The Israelite (Cincinnati), Oct. 14, I 8641

LOUIS MEYERSBERG

MAX NEUGAS

A. WATERMAN

Prisoners of War


Reviews of Books

BINGHAM, JUNE. Courage to Change. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

1961. 414 pp. 87-50

Courage to Change is exactly what its author, June Rossbach (Mrs. Jonathan)

Bingham, calls it: "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Reinhold

Niebuhr." Mrs. Bingham alternates the chapters in contrapuntal fashion

so that they deal seriatim with biographical facts and theological exposi-

tion. The biographical parts are perhaps superior to the theological ex-

planations, but both will help persons who are confused by Niebuhr's

legion interests in his hyperactive seven decades and are bewildered by

his multifaceted thought in a half dozen disciplines.

The title, Courage to Change, was suggested by the prayer written one

Sunday morning in 1934 just before Niebuhr entered the pulpit of the

little church near his summer home in Heath, Massachusetts:

0 God, give us

Serenity to accept what cannot be changed,

Courage to change what should be changed,

And wisdom to distinguish the one from the other.

A "Courage to Change" is characteristic of Niebuhr's life and thought,

for he does not hesitate to shift his position when facts impel him to do

so. That is surely one of the reasons why Niebuhr's thought cannot fail

to interest Roman Catholics and Jews, as well as Protestants.

To Protestants, Niebuhr is, along with Karl Barth and Paul Tillich,

the most powerful figure in the Reformation tradition since John Calvin

and Martin Luther. Primarily he focuses attention on the centrality of

Christ, reaffirms the validity of biblical theology, rediscovers the reality

of sin, emphasizes anew the necessity for grace and forgiveness, and

undergirds his entire system with a classical emphasis on the omnipotence

of God. At the same time, he corrects the illusions of the Social Gospel

that man is perfectible and that the Kingdom of God may be achieved

here on earth. He is critical of the efficacy of organized religion in the

social crisis, yet gives impetus to the church and to churchmen by illurnin-

ing afresh the prophetic insights of both the Old and the New Testaments.

Roman Catholics, whether friendly or hostile, recognize in him the

most trenchant critic of Thomism in our day. He exposes the pretensions

of the Catholic concept of The Church which lifts "a historic institution

into a transhistoric reality, making the claim of speaking for God, or

being a privy to the divine will, and of dispensing divine grace." He has

161


great regard for Catholic thinkers like Jacques Maritain, John Courtney

Murray, and Gustave Weigel. They, in turn, accord him profound respect

and hold him and his critical thought in high esteem, knowing that

the wounds of a friend are faithful.

Observant, professing Jews have found Niebuhr to be unique among

Christians, for he has made it clear on several occasions - notably in

Pims and Secular America (1957) - that Christianity errs in trying to

convert Jews because it is virtually impossible to do so and fails to do

justice to distinctive ethnic and religious factors in Jewry and Judaism. He

echoes his friend Martin Buber by saying: "To the Christian, the Jew is

the stubborn fellow who is still waiting for the Messiah; to the Jew, the

Christian is the heedless fellow who in an unredeemed world declared

that redemption has somehow or other taken place."

Leading rabbis and laymen in Judaism agree with Abraham Joshua

Heschel: "Niebuhr's spirituality combines heaven and earth, as it were.

His way is an example of one who does justly, loves mercy and walks

humbly with his God, an example of the unity of worship and living.

He reminds us that evil will be conquered by the One, while he stirs us

to help conquer evils one by one."

Jewish leaders are equally aware - some with gratitude and some

with regret! -that Niebuhr profoundly influenced Will Herberg and

encouraged Herberg to embrace Judaism rather than Christianity after

recanting Marxism.

There is, however, another aspect of Niebuhr's relation to the Jewish

community which has not been fully recognized. I refer to his deep interest

in Zionism. He gave leadership to the American Christian Palestine

Committee, and has shown a profound understanding of the national

aspirations of the Jewish people while at the same time remaining acutely

aware of the universal, nonnationalistic implications of Judaism as a faith.

To secular-minded Jews, Niebuhr is an apostle of religion. Witness

the tremendous influence which he has on Felix Frankfurter, James Loeb,

and James Wechsler, and on a host of men and women in an organization

like the Americans for Democratic Action (which he helped found in

1946). A thoughtful but nonpracticing Jew, now the United States ambassador

in a South American country, says in all seriousness, "Reinie

is my rabbi."

Saratoga Springs, New York CARL HERMANN VOSS

Dr. Voss, a former Chairman of the Executive Council of the American Christian

Palestine Committee, recently edited The Universal God, an interfaith anthology.


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 163

KRANZLER, GEORGE. Williamsburg: A Jewish Community in Transition.

New York: Philipp Feldheim, Inc. 1961. 3 10 pp. $6.95

George Kranzler has brought to his study of the Jewish community of

Williamsburg an unusual combination of academic background and personal

experience. A professional sociologist and educator, he is a leading

figure in the Jewish Day School movement. Dr. Kranzler tells us that the

data on which his study is based were gathered "in fifteen years of intensive

and systematic participative observation" of the community itself.

The result is an incisive and provocative analysis that poses a challenge

to all concerned with the future of American Judaism.

The phenomenon warranting this study is the flourishing Hasidic life

of a segment of Brooklyn that seems to defy the usual social and economic

trends in urban - and Jewish - life. Dr. Kranzler's hypothesis is that

"the basic changes that took place in the major phases of the community

life of Jewish Williamsburg were primarily due to changes in the religiocultural

values of its population." According to studies which assumed

that the fate of the neighborhood would be determined by the broad economic

and ecological trends evident in New York urban and suburban

life, Williamsburg was, in the mid-193o's, doomed to deteriorate into a

blighted and, eventually, a slum area. In the late I ~~o's, however, a colony

of more than I ,500 Hungarian Hasidim moved into the neighborhood and '

established a religio-cultural life that converted the "natives" from norma-

tive Orthodoxy to dedicated Hasidism, reversed the socio-economic de-

cline of the community, and created a flourishing center of Jewish reli-

gious life.

Dr. Kranzler demonstrates his thesis by comparing three phases of

Williamsburg's development. Prior to 1938 (Phase I), the Polish and

Galician Jews who had remained in Williamsburg after the Depression

were officially Orthodox. The rabbi, however, had a very low social

status, and the successful businessmen directed community life. Phase I1

(1939-1948) saw the "war prosperity," a diamond trade introduced by

Belgian refugees, and the influx of Hasidim led by their world-famous

rebbes. Despite the recession at the beginning of Phase I11 (1948-1954)~

the new valuational pattern resulted in an improvement of real estate

values and economic life as well as in changes in the social status scale,

the family, the synagogue, and educational institutions. The rebbes became

the communal leaders. The older kosher butcher stores were forced out of

business, as the Hasidim insisted on glatt kosher (strictly kosher), and even


the older residents were willing to "spend more and have a clear con-

science." The manufacture of tallesim (prayer shawls) and tejillin (phylac-

teries) and Hebrew book publishing became significant. The amounts of

money donated for religious and educational institutions represented real

sacrifice motivated by religious commitment. The community provided

not only its own business and professional men, but also an adequate

number of skilled and semiskilled workers. Above all, Dr. Kranzler por-

trays an intense communal spirit and a feeling of pride in a remarkable

achievement: preserving what the residents considered the authentic

Jewish way of life in the heart of Brooklyn.

The description and analysis of social change are fascinating, even

though Dr. Kranzler's basic thesis - that the change in values prima~ily

caused the change in the major phases of community life - may still be

open to question. Certainly, the values of the Hasidim had great impact.

This impact, however, was dependent on a variety of material conditions.

A social theorist might ask: What conditions gave rise to the values of

the emigrants, and what social forces brought them to Brooklyn? What

kind of socio-economic conditions "allowed" Hasidism to take root and

flourish in Williamsburg? It would not have happened in Scarsdale! Per-

haps it is not so startling that a well-organized and dedicated minority

whose way of life raised their spirit above the drabness of urban monot-

ony could attract members of a larger community who already, because

of their life conditions, accepted in theory the values that were being

lived by the newcomers. It could even be that the very social decline which

was predicted for the neighborhood could have contributed to the atmos-

phere that helped the Hasidic way of life to flourish. One might wonder

about the prerequisites for such a total Jewish life: What portion of the

neighborhood should be Jewish? How much social, economic, and intel-

lectual contact with non-Jews could be tolerated? Dr. Kranzler does, of

course, recognize other causative factors. Still, it would seem that the

Williarnsburg phenomenon raises more questions in the field of social

theory than it answers.

Less academic is the normative question of the value of such a "total

Jewish life" (not necessarily Hasidic) as a pattern for American Jews.

Dr. Kranzler hints at his own view when he writes of the older residents

"who did not appreciate" the new Jewish atmosphere, and he sees in the

"intense educational efforts" of the yeshivot and all-day schools "the hope

of the Orthodox Jewish community to perpetuate such total environments."

One gathers that the in-group feeling of the community must be warm

and security-producing. Of particular interest would have been an analy-

sis of attitudes towards, and images of, the various out-groups: Reform


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 165

and Conservative Jews; Christians; Negroes, etc. It is conceivable that

false stereotypes and hostility might be almost "needed" to preserve such

a close-knit community. One also wonders to what degree the Williamsburg

residents are concerned with the great humanitarian issues that face

the larger society. Finally, this reader would have welcomed a deeper

discussion of the reasons given for the preservation of Hasidic life. To

what extent is this life dependent on the conviction that the Halachah is

the word of God? Many Jews today envy the Hasidim their commitment,

but place a higher value on the critical thinking that may destroy

the basis of that commitment.

Such thoughts lead us to the crucial question of the relation between

higher learning and group loyalty. Is it possible that a way of life which

so exalts religious study is dependent for its survival on a high degree of

isolation from the major intellectual currents of our time? Specifically,

what portion of the children of Williamsburg receive a college education

which includes exposure to science or the liberal arts? Of these, what

portion return to Williamsburg's way of life? Dr. Kranzler's discussion

of such questions seems most impressionistic. He admits that "an important

result of the influence of the new (Chassidic) yeshivot is the negative

attitude towards college and secular education in general." He adds

that a large proportion of the students of the older Orthodox Mesifta

Torah Vodaath do attend evening college and that it is "not unusual"

for them to "become instructors in the various New York colleges and

universities." Unfortunately, this kind of reporting is no substitute for

more precise data regarding the relation between higher learning and

loyalty to Williamsburg's way of life.

Still, it is easier to question particular values of the Williamsburg community

than to face the challenge that it poses to suburban Judaism: Can

our faith do something more than reinforce particular aspects of suburban

culture (e. g., togetherness, higher education, child-centered living)? Can

a prosperous Judaism remain spiritually somewhat apart from the world

and ask the critical questions? We leave Williamsburg - wondering how

our kind of Judaism, whatever it might be, can give us a perspective that

is not quite of this world.

The questions that Dr. Kranzler has provoked are a tribute to the

importance of his work. Williamsburg: A Jewish Community in Transition,

is a major contribution to the field of American Jewish sociology.

Champaign, Ill. HENRY COHEN

Rabbi Henry Cohen is the spiritual leader of Sinai Temple, in Champaign, Ill. His last

contribution to the American Jewish Archives appeared in the November, 1962, issue.


LURIE, HARRY L. A Heritage Afirmed: The Jewish Federation Movement in

America. Philadelphia, Pa. : The Jewish Publication Society of America.

1961. xi, 481 pp. $6.00

In 1895 the first formally established Jewish federation in the United

States, the Federated Jewish Charities of Boston, raised f I 1,909. By 1960

more than 250 communities had federations; in that year they collectively

raised $I 28,000,000.

In 1895 and the next several years the fledgling federations were the

fund raising agents for the charitable societies which had been established

essentially by the German Jewish groups for the relief of East European

immigrants, arriving in ever-increasing numbers on the shores of America.

By 1960 the federations (used as a generic term for the central community

fund raising and planning agencies) encompassed a network of hospitals,

homes for the aged, family counseling, child care and guidance agencies,

community centers, educational bureaus and institutions, and community

relations agencies, as well as the support of national agencies and of the

massive overseas rescue and rehabilitation programs. Paralleling the dra-

matic rise of the Jewish Community in America since the turn of the

century and especially in the postwar years, the federation movement

represents an exciting and significant aspect of the history of American

Jewry.

Harry L. Lurie has been very much a part of this history as social

worker, teacher, researcher, and executive head of the national associa-

tion of federations, the Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds.

In A Heritage Afirmed, he plots the growth of federations and their de-

velopment as perhaps the most potent expression of voluntary community

organization involving all major segments of the Jewish community.

The book is organized in three sections. The first treats the emergence

of federations from roots in Jewish tradition and their accommodation to

their American environment. The second part brings the history of federa-

tions through the post World War I1 years to the present. It was in this

period that federations reached their high plateaus in fund raising as well

as in community planning and coordination. But the very strength of

federations and their involvement in all aspects of Jewish communal

services created new problems with respect to their relationship to the

other social forces in the Jewish and the general community. The third

part of A Heritage Ajirmed deals extensively with these problems. The

author analyzes the structure and scope of federations and the function of


REVIEWS OF BOOKS '67

agencies which look to federations for support. But special attention is

given to problems of the future in the face of rapidly changing conditions

on the national scene as well as within the social structure of the Jewish

group itself. Related to this is the impact of the locally oriented federations

on the programs and objectives of major national Jewish organizations.

Recurrent through the latter part of the book is the theme of nationallocal

relationships. This finds its expression, on the one hand, in the effective

cooperation toward astounding philanthropic achievements (i. e., the

partnership of the United Jewish Appeal's agencies and the local federations

in helping to bring more than one million immigrants to Israel). On

the other hand, national-local relations focus on the conflict around overlapping

of national services, or lack of coordination in planning and fund

raising, or attempts to create a central national organization for American

Jewry along quasi political lines.

Avoiding personal references to his own significant contribution to the

federation movement in both its local and national aspects, Harry L.

Lurie treats these developments with reportorial objectivity. Throughout

the book there is a refreshing absence of polemics, of subjective interpretation,

and of prophecy of gloom or glory. In tones of understatement

so characteristic of all his writings, he assesses the role of federations and

their future: ". . .federations have had an eventful and on the whole

satisfactory history. They have grown more rather than less important

with the years."

It is this measured approach that contributes to making A Heritage

Ajirmcd a most valuable and interesting documentation of American

Jewry's affirmation of its heritage of social and communal responsibility

through voluntary association in the cooperative enterprise of the federation

movement.

Boston, Mass. BENJAMIN B. ROSENBERG

Dr. Rosenberg is the Executive Director of the Combined Jewish Philanthropies of

Greater Boston.


Brief Notices

ALLEN, FREDERICK LEWIS. Since Yesterday. New York: Bantam Books.

1961. xii, 292 pp. 60#

Subtitled "The Nineteen-Thirties in America, September 3, 1929-

September 3, 1939,'' this sequel to the author's celebrated Only Yesterday

first appeared in 1940. It has been republished as a "Bantam Classic."

ARONOW, SARA SNYDER. Havah Nagilah: Classroom Games in Rhyme. New

York: Jewish Education Committee Press. 1963. 82 pp. $ I .so

Pleasantly illustrated by Cecilia G. Waletzky, Havah Nagilah offers

fifteen games and rhymes designed to develop oral and reading skills

in the teaching of the Hebrew language.

CAMBON, GLAUCO. Recent American Poetry. Minneapolis: University of

Minnesota Press. 1962. 48 pp. 65#

As Professor Glauco Cambon, of Rutgers University, confesses,

"the available harvest" of post-World War I1 American poetry "is

so rich that one cannot avoid grievous omissions." Among the poets

to escape omission in this essay - Number 16 in the "University of

Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers" series - are Stanley

Kunitz, Howard Nemerov, Anthony Hecht, and Jack Hirschman. k

selected bibliography supplements the essay.

CRONBACH, ABRAHAM. RefOrm Movements in Judaism. New York: Bookman

Associates, Inc. 1963. 138 pp. $3.00

"The only unchanging constant is change itself," writes Jacob Rader

Marcus in a preface to Dr. Abraham Cronbach's most recent work.

Dr. Cronbach himself tells us that he has designed his book "for people

whose lives are actuated by wishes other than that of conformity with

the past." He focusses on five past reformations -the Deuteronomic,

Pentateuchal, Pharisaic, Karaite, and Hasidic - and includes also a

chapter on contemporary Reform Judaism and one on "The Next

Reformation," a Judaism whose "dominant emphasis" would rest "not

on rituals and not on doctrines but on felicitous human relationships."

The book includes an index.


BRIEF NOTICES 1 ~ 9

FREEMAN, GRACE R., and JOAN G. SUGARMAN. Inside the Synagope. New

York : Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 1963. Unpaginated.

In an editorial introduction, Rabbi Eugene B. Borowitz rightly calls

Inside the Synagogue a "beautiful and informed volume." It is designed

"to help the young child appreciate what the synagogue is and has been,

what it means and what it evokes." Its text elaborated photographically

by Justin E. Kerr and others, with illustrations by Judith Oren, the

book should achieve its purpose.

GAMORAN, MAMIE G. Samson Benderly. New York: Jewish Education

Committee Press. 1963. 44 pp. $I .oo

The life and career of the man whose work with the New York

Kehillah's Bureau of Jewish Education a half-century ago sparked a

revolution in American Jewish education are reviewed in this Hebrew

book, part of the "Lador Junior Hebrew Library Series." Mrs. Mamie

G. Garnoran's English text has been translated and adapted by Elhanan

Indelman and illustrated by Siegmund Forst.

GELBART, GERSHON I. Jewish Education in America. New York: Jewish

Education Committee Press. 1963. x, 1 32 pp. $3.00

Subtitled "A Manual for Parents and School Board Members," the

late Dr. Gershon I. Gelbart's work is "an explanatory and interpretive

statement on American Jewish Education." It includes a foreword by

Judah Pilch and a biographical sketch of Dr. Gelbart by Sylvan H. Kohn.

GLENN, JACOB B. The Bible and Modern Medicine. New York: Bloch

Publishing Company. 1963. 222 pp. $5.00

Swiss- and Austrian-trained Dr. Jacob B. Glenn, of Brooklyn, offers

"an interpretation of the basic principles of the Bible in the light of

present day medical thought" and calls for "a return to the God-given

precepts of the Torah in the fields of health, hygiene and preventive

medicine." His book includes an index and a bibliography, as well as

an introduction by Dr. Isaac Rosengarten, late editor of The Jewish

Forum.

GOLDEN, HARRY. Forgotten Pioneer. Cleveland : World Publishing Company.

1963. 157 pp. $4.00

The "forgotten pioneer" is "the old-time pack peddler," who

"walked the countryside from the earliest beginnings of our country

until the mid-1~20s; and walking, . . .made some of the history of


America." Those familiar with Harry Golden's previous books will

expect no scholarly tract; they will expect - and in Forgotten Pioneer

will find - a colorfully written, popular account. Three peddlers are

presented in this book, two of them typical, but imaginary (one is a

"Connecticut Yankee," the other a Russian Jewish immigrant in the

South), and the third quite genuine: Levi Strauss of denim jeans fame.

Forgotten Pioneer also features a bibliography, and attractive illustrations

by Leonard Vosburgh.

HECHT, BEN. Gaily, Gaily. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Company,

Inc. 1963. 227 pp. $3.95

"When you come to a certain age," Ben Hecht ruminates, "the sun

begins to travel backward. It lights the past." Here the author, who

came to Chicago in 1910 at the age of sixteen and a half and worked as

a reporter for the Chicago Journal, writes of "the five merry years that

followed." He himself is the hero of this book.

HERTZ, RICHARD C. What Cmnts Most in Life? New York: Bloch Publishing

Company. 1963. x, 72 pp. $2.25

Rabbi of Detroit's Temple Beth El, Dr. Richard C. Hertz offers in

this little book "one continuous sermon delivered at the High Holy

Days of 5723 (1962)."

HOFFMAN, FREDERICK J. Gertrude Stein. Minneapolis: University of

Minnesota Press. 1961. 48 pp. 65C

In his study of Gertrude Stein - Number 10 in the "University of

Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers" series - Professor

Frederick J. Hoffman, of the University of California at Riverside,

says of her that she had "the undoubted strength of the creative person

who is able to call upon her powers of imagination to prove what

literature might be." Her work, he suggests, "often stands by and for

itself. . . . It is tendentious in the most useful and illuminating sense

that word might have." A useful bibliography is included.

KAHN, ROBERT

I. Lessons for Life. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday &

Company, Inc. 1963. 2~ pp. $3.95

Rabbi of Houston's Congregation Emanu El, Iowa-born Dr. Robert I.

Kahn avows his belief that, "even in a world in which technology is

racing into the future with supersonic speed, morality should still be

expressed in Biblical formulations. . . . we have yet to catch up with

the Bible's ideals." Lessons for Life is based, to a large extent, on Dr.


BRIEF NOTICES I?r

Kahn's sermonettes broadcast by Station KPRC in Houston and on

his weekly column for the Houston Chronicle.

KANIUK, YORAM. Mim-metulah li-neyu-york ["From Metulla to New

York"]. New York: Jewish Education Committee Press. 1963. 43 pp.

$1 .oo

The author has written an appealing fable about an Israeli Ulysses -

Dani, a bar mitsvah who finds his way from Israel to Lebanon to New

York and back again to Israel. Yorarn Kaniuk himself has illustrated

the book very handsomely. Dani's story is part of the "Lador Junior

Hebrew Library Series."

KATz, ROBERT L. Empathy: Its Nature and Uses. New York: Free Press

of Glencoe. 1963. xii, 210 pp. $4.95

Dr. Robert L. Katz's "goal in this book is to select, focus, and

interpret insights from such apparently divergent fields as aesthetics,

biology, sociology, and psychoanalysis. . . . My exposition of the role

of empathy is occasionally punctuated with judgmental asides, which

represent my own suggestions, as a nonspecialist, concerning the more

creative use of empathy." Dr. Katz, Professor of Human Relations at

the Hebrew Union College -Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati,

has also included references, a bibliography, and an index.

KERTZER, MORRIS N. The Art of Being a Jew. Cleveland: World Publishing

Company. 1962. 247 pp. $3.95

Dr. Morris N. Kertzer, rabbi of Larchrnont Temple in New York,

sees "the art of being a Jew" as "the ability to perceive in this universe

an inherent force that makes for righteousness, an acute awareness that

within the very fabric of our being is a moral force which breathes

truth and goodness and beauty into man's experience."

LISTER, LOUIS, Compiled and Edited by. The Religious School Assembly

Handbook. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 1963.

V, 258 pp. $3.50

Louis Lister, a member of the staff at Temple Sinai in Washington,

D. C., has prepared this work to indicate the values and possibilities

of religious school assembly programs.

LONGWELL, MARJORIE R. America and Women. Philadelphia: Dorrance &

Company. 1962. ix, 205 pp. $3.00

Mrs. Marjorie R. Longwell, of Malibu, California, sets out "to give


the sweep of American History as seen through the eyes of seven

women who helped create for us our today." Emma Lazarus, author

of the poem engraved at the base of the Statue of Liberty, is one of

the seven. Subtitled "Fictionized Biography," the book ranges from a

seventeenth-century Marylander to a twentieth-century Negro bank

president.

MANNIX, DANIEL P., with MALCOLM COWLEY. Black Cargoes: A History

of the Atlantic Slave Trade, zjjz8-z865. New York: Viking Press. 1962.

...

xiii, 306 pp. $6.95

Illustrated, indexed, and supplied with a useful bibliography, this

book tells the story of "the victims of a forced migration that was more

callous, more colorful, and immensely larger, in the end, than any

such movement of modem or ancient times." Aaron Lopez, "a great

merchant renowned for his benevolence," is duly listed among the Rhode

Islanders involved in the trade on the eve of the Revolutionary War.

MARTIN, BERNARD. The Existentialist Theology of Paul Tillich. New York :

Bookman Associates. 1963. 22 I pp. $5.00

One of contemporary Protestantism's leading theologians, Paul

Tillich has also developed anthropological concepts of theological and

philosophical distinction. Dr. Bernard Martin, rabbi of St. Paul's Mount

Zion Hebrew Congregation, undertakes in this volume to "approach

his anthropology primarily from a philosophical point of view and . . .

to evaluate its general validity and significance from that perspective."

This unusual and valuable study of a Protestant thinker by a Jewish

scholar is carefully documented, and includes a bibliography and an index.

MAZAR, BENJAMIN, MOSHE DAVIS, et al., Edited by. The Illustrated History

of the Jews. Jerusalem and New York: The Israeli Publishing Institute

and Harper & Row. 1963. 414 pp. $30.00

Some two dozen Israeli and American scholars have produced this

panoramic volume on Jewish history. Magnificently illustrated - zoo

of its 500 illustrations have been reproduced in color - the book includes

a sixteen-page chapter on American Jewry by Rabbi Jack Cohen.

The editors have also provided an index.


AARONSOHN, MICHAEL, 89

ABLESON, MYER, 3 I

Abolitionism, abolitionists, 16

Acculturation, zo

Actors and actresses, 6, 37-40, 126

Actors Temple, New York City, 125-

26

Adas Israel Congregation, Washington,

D. C., 87

Adassa Lodge No. 208, B'nai B'rith,

Monroe, La., 88

Addresses, 96, 98; see also Lecturers,

Sermons, Speeches

ADLER, CYRUS, "Jacob Henry Schiff,

1847-1920" (ms.), 95

ADLER, HERMANN, 7

Admirals,: 8 3

Adventurn in Synagogue Administration, 95

Advertisements, advertising, 101-3, I 38,

141, 150

Aesthetics; see Esthetics

Aged, homes for; see Homes for the aged

Aged, the, I 25

Agnostics, 75

Agriculture, 34, 85; see also Farmers

AGUILAR, GRACE, 6

AIMEE (actress), 6

Air Force; see United States

Akiba; see Temple Akiba

Alabama, 80; Department of Archives and

History, 99; see also Mobile, Montgo-

mery

Alaska, 32, 86

Albany, N. Y., 9 I ; Penitentiary, 4

Albany, Ore., 86, 98

Albuquerque, N. Mex., 92

ALDEN, JOHN RICHARD, The American Revolutiun:

17754783, 82

Aliens ; see Foreigners

Allday schools, 165

ALLEN, EBENEZER, 43

ALLEN, FREDERICK LEWIS, Since Yesterday,

I 68 ; only Yesterday, I 68

Allies (Second World War), 56

Almanacs, IOI

ALPERN, MRS. BERNARD, 93

Index

ALTMAN, HAROLD N. (HAL), I o I

Amalgamated Clothing Workers Associa-

tion, 35

Ambassadors, 91, 162

America, American life, American people,

Americans, I, 3-4, 9-10, 12-13? 16,

19-37 277 31-32, 37,40.46-471 569 58.

60, 62, 64-65, 67, 6970, 76, 79, 81-83,

96, 100-101, 107-8, 111, 113-15, 120,

124-25, 138, 141, 147, 149, 168-69,

I 7 I ; see also Colonies, Amencan; Union

(American), United States

America: A Litany of Natiuns, 70

America and Women, I 7 I -7 2

American Bill of Rights; see Bill of Rights

(United States)

American Christian Palestine Committee,

162

American Council for Judaism, IOI

American Expeditionary Force, First

World War, 103

American Federation of Labor, 60

American Indians; see Indians (American)

American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 12

American Jewish Committee, New York

City, 2, 12, 52, 55-58, 60-61, 63, 70,

97, 102

American Jewish Congress, 79, I 32

American Jewish Historical Society, New

York City, 10, 12, 16, 87, 9!, IOI

American Jewish history; see H~story

American Tewish Historv Center. New

York it;, I 2

American Jewish Joint Distribution Com-

mittee, 80, 93, 96-97

American Jewish Per~odical Center, Cin-

cinnati, Ohio, I z

American Jewry, American Jews, Ameri-

can Jewish community, American Juda-

ism, 4. 9-16, 23, 44, 83, 94, IOO-IOI,

103, 111, 120, 163, 165-67, 169, 172

American Judaism; see American Jewry

American Peace Society, 60

American Reform Judaism, American Re-

form Jews, I 20, I 3 2; see also Reform

Judaism

American Revolutiun, The: 1775-1783, 82


American Schools of Oriental Research, dation, Phoenix, 135-36; House of

9'

American Society for the Suppression of

the Jews, 4

"American Synagogues: The Lessons of

the Names," I 24-34

American Zionism, 20; see also Zionism

Americanization, 9, 16

Americans for Democratic Action, I 62

AMES, JAMES BARR, 73

AMHERST, JEFFREY, 94

Representatives, 147 ; Lodge No. I,

Ancient Order of United Workmen,

Tucson, 147; Masonic Grand Lodge,

93 ; Pioneers' Historical Society, Tucson,

136, 138, 142, 147, 152; Tenth

Legislative Assembly, 150; see also

Phoenix, Tucson

Arizana Citizen (Tucson, Ariz.), I 50-5 I

Arizona City, Ariz., 142

Arim Miner (La Paz, Ariz.), I 38, 150,

Amsterdam, Holland, 47, too

Amusement industry, 3 2

Anchorage, Alaska, 86

153-54

"Arizona Pioneers and Apaches," I 52

"Arizona, The Drachmans of," 135-38.

Ancient Order of United Workmen, 147 141-57, 15940

Anglo-Saxonism, Anglo-Saxons, 19

Anglo-Sephardic Jewry, 43

Anshe Chesed Congregation, New York

City, 87

Anshe Emeth Congregation (Temple),

Piqua, Ohio, 87, 98

Anthologies, 162

Anthropology, I 72

Anti-immigrants, I 6

Anti-Jewish prejudice; see Anti-Semitism,

Religious prejudice

Antiquarians, 4 I

Anti-Semitism, anti-Semites, I, 3-4, 9, I 1,

20-21, 74, 89~90, 97, 101; see also

Religious prejudice

Anti-Zionism, anti-Zionists, 95, 97

Antwerp, Belgium, 108

Apache Indians, 143, 152

Apache Pass, Ariz., I 50-5 I

Apologetics, apologists, 14

Apostasy, apostates, 4, I 59

Apparel industry; see Garment industry

ellate Division of the State of New

5,

Arabs, 97

Aragon, Spain, 9

"Ararat" (choral tone poem), 103

Ararat, New York, 94

Archaeology, 9 r

Ark, 45-47, 53

ARLEN, HAROLD, 40

ARLEN, JERRY, 40

ARLUCK, HYMAN; see Arlen, Harold

ARLUCK, JULIUS; see Arlen, Jerry

Armament reduction; see Disarmament

Army, 27, 92; see also Military service,

Soldiers, War

ARONOW, SARA SNYDER, Havah Nagilah:

Classmom Games in Rhyme, I 68

Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo,

Lisbon, Portugal, 103

Art, the arts, 7, 118; collections, 99;

see also Artists, Painters

Art of Being a Jew, The, I 7 I

Artists, 5; see also Art, Painters

ARTOM, ISAAC, 5

ASA, HAIM, 96, 98

ASCH, SHOLEM, 82

Ashkenazim, Ashkenazic Jews, 43, 50; see

also Germany

Ammean (New York City), IOI

Assembly, freedom of; see Freedom

Assimilation, I z 3

Assyrians, I 28

Athletics, I 26

Atlanta, Ga., 86, I 34

Atlantic Charter, 5 I, 6 I

Atlantic Fleet (United States Navy),

ARCHIBALD, J. H., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I, I 53 94-5'5

Atlantic Monthly, 55

Atlantic Ocean, 172

Atonement, Day of; see Yom Kippur

Attorneys; see Lawyers

Auction sales, 145

AUERBACH, BERTHOLD, 6

AUERBACH, JEROLD S., "Human Rights at

San Francisco," 5 1-52, 55-70

AUSTIN, FREDERICK L., I 54, I 56

Archives, I I, 102

Argentia Bay, Newfoundland, 5 1

Argentina, 8 5

Aristocracy, 3, 8

Arizona, Arizona Territory, 105, I 3638,

141, 150, 152, 156, 159-60; Eighth Ter-

ritorial Legislature, I 52 ; Eleventh Ter-

ritorial Legislature, I 5 I ; Fourth Terri-

torial Legislature, 147; Historical Foun-


Austria, 56, 92

Authors, 5, I 3 2; see also Writers

Autobiographies, 98-99, 107-20, I 23

Automobiles, 27, I 25

AVIGDOR, ELIM D', 7

BACHER, WILHELM, I 14

BACHMAN, Portland, Ore., 6

BAECK, LEO, I 3 2

Baia's Denunciations, I 03

BAKER, JOSEPHINE; see Drew, Mrs. John

BAKER, MR.; see Bean, Baker & Co.

BALABAN & KATZ, 40

BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, 90

Balfour Declaration, 90, IOI

BALLIN (family), I 03

Baltimore, Md., 12, 50, 90, IOO

Bankers, banking, banks, 3, 7, 3 I, 109,

119, 172

Bankruptcy, bankrupts, 145

Baptist Joint Conference Committee on

Public Relations, 63

Bar Mitzvah, 83, I I 7

Barbados, West Indies, roo

BARBOUR, JAMES, 94

Barnard College, New York City, 63

BARNETT, ROSS R., 86-87

BARNUM, A., Tucson, Ariz., 149

BARRYMORE, ETHEL, 38

BARRYMORE, JOHN, 38

BARRYMORE, LIONEL, 38

BARTH, KARL, I 6 I

BARTON, THOMAS A., 145

BARUCH, BERNARD M., 96

Baseball, 24-26, 37

Baton Rouge, La., 6

BAUM, ALBERT G., 93

Bavarian Jews, 32

BEACONSFIELD, EARL OF; see Disraeli,

Benjamin

BEALE, JOSEPH HENRY, 73

BEAN, BAKER & CO., Ariz., I 53

BEAN, C. C.; see Bean, Baker & Co.

BEAUREGARD, PIERRE G. T., 148

BEHRENDT, H., LOS Angeles County,

Calif., I 37

BEHRMAN, SAMUEL NATHANIEL, 100

BELASCO. DAVID. 10

Belgian ~ews, 164 '

BELL. MRS. A. P.: see Drachman. Phvllis

BEN ZEVI, ITZHAK, 92

BENDERLY, SAMSON, 169

Bene Israel Congregation, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 86

Bene Yeshurun Congregation, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 89, I 32

BENJAMIN, JUDAH P., 5, 97

BENJAMIN, HENRY; see Watson, Henry

BENNETT, J. F., Las Cruces, N. Mex., 156

BERENSTEIN, Syracuse, N. Y., 24-26, 37;

Baseball Club, 25-26

BERKOWITZ, EMANUEL, 87

BERKOWITZ, HENRY, 95

Berlin, Germany, 107, I 3 2

Berlin, Treaty of, 8

BERLOVE, MRS. LESTER J., 89

Bermuda, 102

BERNARD, SAM, 38

BERNHARDT, SARAH, 6

BEROLZHEIMER, CLARA SEASONGOOD, 103

"Beth Am" (name of Jewish congregations),

I 2 7

Beth Am (Congregation) of the South

Shore, Hingham, Mass., 125

Beth-el (in the Bible), I 27-28

"Beth El" (name of Jewish congregations),

124, 127

Beth-El S~sterhood, St. Petersburg, Fla., 87

Beth Israel Congregation, Jackson, Miss.,

86

Beth Israel Synagogue, Syracuse, N. Y., 2 2

Beth Sholom Congregation, Anchorage,

Alaska, 86

Beth Sholom (Congregation) of Anne

Arundel County, Glen Burnie, Md., I 25

Bevis Marks Synagogue, London, England,

42-44

BIAL, MORRISON DAVID, An Offering of

Prayer, 8 2

BIALIK, CHAIM NACHMAN, I 14

Bible, biblical (Old Testament) references,

biblical literature, biblical criticism, 8,

42,46-47, 84, 91, 97, 99-100, 11 2-1 3,

118, 127-31, 133-34, 161, 16970; Bible

reading in public schools, 97; see also

New Testament, Old Testament, Pentateuch,

Torah

Bible and Modern Medicine, The, I 69

Bibliography, bibliographies, 14, 82-84,

16871

BIEN, JULIUS, 7

Big Four Powers, 56, 58, 66

Bigotry; see Anti-Semitism, Religious

prejudice


Bill of Rights (United States), 56, 58

Bill of rights, international; see Internationalism

B'nai B'rith, Independent Order of, 88,98,

147; Adassa Lodge No. 208, Monroe,

La., 88; Archives, Washington, D. C.,

88; District Grand Lodge No. 7, 88;

Hillel Foundations, 84; Joseph Herz

(Joachim) Lodge No. 1 8 I, Columbus,

Miss., 86; Mexican Bureau, 98; Othniel

Lodge No. 274, Memphis, Tenn., 88;

Tucson, Ariz., Lodge, 147

B'nai Israel Congregation, Galveston,

Tex., 82-83

B'nai Sholom Congregation, Harlan, Ky.,

86; Sisterhood, 86

B'nai Yeshumn Congregation, Cincinnati,

Ohio; see Bene Yeshurun Congregation

Board of Jewish Ministers, New York

City, 123

Bohemia, I 3 2 ; Jews of, I 3 2

Bolshevism, Bolshevists, 75

Bonds; see Sureties

Books, 14, zo, 73-85, 92, 94, 102, 111,

114-15, 161-72

Borah Jewish Bait?, IOI

BOROWITZ, EUGENE B., 169

Boston, Mass., 39, .46, 50, 88, 92, 103,

I 32, 166-67; Publ~c Library, West End

Branch, 92

Boys; see Children

Bradford, Pa., 97

BRANDEIS, LOUIS D., 73-75? 90

Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass., 5 I ;

Library, 9 I

BINGHAM, JUNE ROSSBACH (MRS. JONA- BRANDES, GEORGE, 96

THAN), I 6 I ; Courage to Change (review), BRANN, MARCUS, I I I

161-62

BRAUDE, WILLIAM G., 102

Binghamton, N. Y., 26, I 34

Brazil, Brazilians, 83, 103; see also Dutch

Biographies, biographers, biography, 14, Brazil

80-81, 92-94, 96, 98-99, 147-48, 161, BRENTANO, AUGUST, 7

169

Breslau, Germany, 107, I I I

Biology, 171

BRESLAUER, B., San Bernardino, Calif., I 37

BIRNHAM, MRS. J. H.; see Drachman, BRESLAUER, MRS. SOLOMON; see Drachman,

Myrtle

Rebecca2

Bisbee Deportation, 75

Bresloff, Ethel, Fund; see Ethel Bresloff

BISNO, JULIUS, 90, 93

Fund

BLACHSCHLEGER, EUGENE, 99

Brick Market, Newport, R. I., 46

Black Birds, Syracuse, N. Y., z5

British, British Government; see England,

Black Hawk War (I 83 z), 89

Great Britain

BLACK, HUGO L., 77

British Museum, London, England, 90-91

BLAUSTEIN, JACOB, 60-62

British National Peace Council, 52

BLIVEN, BRUCE, 61

Broadway, New York City, 39

BLOCH, ERNEST, 9 I

Bronx, The, N. Y., I I 3

BLOOM, ISAAC, 93

Brookline, Mass., 82, 103

BLOOM, MRS. JESSIE S., 86

Brooklyn, N. Y., I I 3, I 63-64, I 69

BLOOM, P. IRVING, 96

Brotherhood (in names of Jewish congregations),

I 3 3

Brotherhood Synagogue, New York City,

'34

BROWN, EDMUND G., 101

BROWN, J. S., Washington, D. C., 97

BROWN, JOE E., 40

BROWNE, EDWARD B. M., 90

BROWNSTONE, EZEKIEL, Fun Eign Hoyz, 82

Briinn, Moravia, 107

BUBER, MARTIN, 96, 162

BUCHALTER, AUBREY, 93

BUCK & COOK, La Paz, Ariz., I 38

BUCKMASTER, GEORGE, 49

BUDGE, HENRY, 109

Buffalo, N. Y., 15, 3 I, 34, 89

Bulgaria, 56

Bunker Hill Monument, I 3 z

Bureau of Jewish Education of the New

York Kehillah, I 69

Burials; see Funerals

Burlesque, 3 8

Burlingame, Calif., I z 5

Burying grounds; see Cemeteries

Busses, 3 z

BUSH, FRANK, 38

Bushnell, Ill., 6

Business; see Economic life, Trade

Businessmen, 48-49, 80, 93, 104, 135,

150-5 I, 163-64; see also Merchants,


INDEX

Retail trade, Storekeepers, Trade,

Wholesalers

Butchers, I 14-15, 164

Butte City, Montana Territory, 6

BYRD, ROBERT C., 96

Central Europe, 50, 107

Central Synagogue of Nassau County,

Rockville Centre, New York, I 25

Ceremonies; see Religious obsemance

Chaplains, chaplaincy, 90, 92-93, 97, 107

CHAPMAN, MR., Syracuse, N. Y., 24

CHAPMAN, SANDY, 29

Charity; see Philanthropy

Charleston, Ariz., 142

CADBURY, HENRY J., 95

Charleston, S. C., 10, 15, 50, 88, 93, 103,

Cairo, Egypt, 94

148; Library Society, 88

Calder vs. Bull (lawsuit), 76

Charter Revision Committee, New York

Calendar, Jewish, 149

City, 55

California, 32, 136, 142, 145; see also Chasidim; see Hasidim

Hollywood, Los Angeles, Sacramento, CHATFIELD, COUNSELLOR, 5

San Diego, San Francisco

Chattanooga, Tenn., I 3 3

CALISCHER, HARRIS M., I 37

Chauvinism, 8 I

CALISCHER, JACOB, I 3 7

CHAYEFSKY, PADDY, 96; Gidem, 96

Calvary Gospel Tabernacle, New Castle, Chazan, zz, 47, 119

Pa., 97

Chemistry, 95

CALVIN, JOHN, 161

Chestnut Hill, Mass., 92

CAMBON, GLAUCO, Recent American Poetry, Chicago, Ill., 15, 22, 95, 97, 101, 105,

168

110-11, 170

Cambridge, Mass., 46

Child care and guiding agencies, 166

Camp Grant, Ariz., 143

Children, 7, 16, 25, 32, 44, 85, 88, loo,

Camp McDowell, Arizona Territory, I 54 117-18, 131, 159, 165, 169

CAMPANAL, MORDECAI, 41

Children of Israel Congregation, Fort

Campus; see Colleges, Universities

Wayne, Ind., 86

Canada, 3 I

China, 58

Canada del Oro, Ariz., 143

Christ Church, Cambridge, Mass., 46

Cantor; see Chazan

CHRIST, JESUS; see Jesus of Nazareth

CANTOR, EDDIE, 40

CHRISTIAN (King of Denmark), 89

Cape Town, South Africa, 93

Christian Science, I 29

Capitol's Who's Who for Oregon, 99 Christianity, Christians, 3-5, 7-8, I I, 13,

Caps; see Yarmelkes

20, 48-49, 83-84, 87, 101-2, 113, 125,

Card playing, 149

128-29, 132, 159, 162, 165; see also

CARDOZO, BENJAMIN N., 7 374,90

Catholicism, Christian Science, Congre-

Caribbean Sea, 44

gationalists, Episcopalianism, Mennon-

CARLTON, MAJOR J. H., I 37

ites, Mormons, Protestants, Puritans

Cartoons, 92

Chronicle (Houston, Tex.) , I 7 I

Casino Theatre, New York City, 39 Chronology, 8 3

CASS, FREDERICK M., 90

Church and state, z I, 78, 90

Catalina Mountains, Ariz., 143

Church, the, 161

Catholicism, Catholics, 55, 63, 161-62, Churches, 99

I 78; see also Christianity

CHURCHILL, WINSTON, 51, 56

CATTELL, J. MCKEEN, 93

Churchmen, 84, 161

Cemeteries, 41-42, 86-87, loo, 147 CHYET, STANLEY F., 93, 103; "A Syna-

Census (Arizona Territory, 1864), I 37-38

"Center" (designation for Jewish congregations),

I 26

Center of Jewish Science, New York City,

128-29

Central Conference of American Rabbis,

gogue in Newport," 41-50

Cigars; see Tobacco trade

Cincinnati, Ohio, 3, 50, 79, 86, 88-90,

92-97, 99, 101, 103, 126, 132-34, 171;

National Council of Jewish Women,

94; City Council, 9 I ; Museum Associa-

tion, 92


C. I. 0.; see Congress of Industrial Organizations

Circumcision, circumcisers, IOI

Cities; see Urban areas

Citizens, citizenship, civic life, 56, 62, 66,

Colonial New Spain; see New Spain

Colonialism, 5 I

Colonies, agricultural, 85

Colonies, American (Colonial America,

Colonial period, colonials), 14-15. 43,

76, 837 89, 1329 137-38, 1419 1449 150

Citizens Union of New York, 52, 55

Civil law; see Law

Civil liberties, civil rights, civil defense,

14, 20-21, 52, 76-77? 79, 81, 89-90. 97

Civil War (United States), 15-16, 80, 97,

46, 103, 132

Colonization, 9, 85

Colorado River, 137; Farming and Stock

Raising Association, I 37

Columbia College, Columbia University,

New York City, 51-52; Law School,

99, 148, 160

Civilization, 9, 58

Claibome, Ala., 86

Class, 52

Classes, the; see Labor, Middle class,

White collar class, Workers

Classical Reform. I 20

Cler y clergymen, 46-47. 83; see also

~atbis

Cleveland, Ohio, 32, 97

Cleveland Heights, Ohio, I 33

CLINE, MAGGIE, 38

Cloth trade, 3 I

Clothing business; see Garment industry

Clubs, 5, 126

Cochise County, Arizona Territory, 142,

151. I55

COHEN (member of the New York Board

of Education), 6

COHEN, MRS. CHARLES T., 96

COHEN, HARRY, 30

COHEN, HENRY^, 82-83

COHEN, HENRY= (grandson of Henry

Cohenl), review of Williamsburg: A

Jewish Community in Transitian, 163-66

COHEN, HERMANN, I 20-2 I

COHEN, ISADORE, I 37

COHEN, ISIDOR, 98

COHEN, MRS. JEROME B., 100

COHEN, MORRIS RAPHAEL, 73

COHEN, SOL CALVIN, 83

COHEN, WILLIAM C., 88

COHN, San Francisco, Calif., 148

COHN, ISADOR, I 37

COHN, JACOB, 137

52, 73, 81, 90, 129

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, 9-10

Columbus, Miss., 86

Columbus, Ohio, 97

Combined Jewish Philanthropies

Greater Boston, Boston, Mass., 167

Comedians, 37-38

Comedies; see Drama

COMMAGER, HENRY STEELE, 82

of

COHN. WERNER, 100

COHN; WOLF, I i7

COHON, BERYL D., My King and My God,

8 2

COHONS, JACOB J., 102

Cold War, 81

Colleges, I 35, 165; see also Universities

Colonia Clara, Argentina, 85

Commentary (New York City), I 2

Commerce, commercial life; see Economic

life

Commercial (Cincinnati, Ohio), 3

Commission on Human Rights, United

Nations, 65

Commission on Synagogue Administration

of the Union of American Hebrew Con-

gregations, 84

Committee to Study the Organization of

Peace (C. S. 0. P.), 52, 56, 58

Commodores, 5, 83

Community centers, 166

Community, Jewish; see Jewish commu-

nity

Community relations, community service,

communal life, 16, 20; see also Jewish

community

Composers, 6,40,99

Conductors, 108

Coney Island, New York City, 3

Confederacy (Southern), Confederate

States of America, 80, 99, I 37; .Army,

soldiers, 99, 148

Canference an "The Future of the Jews in

Gmmy," 92

Confirmation, 89, I I 7, 129

Congregation Isaiah, Chicago, Ill., 130

Congregation Jeremiah, Wimetka, ill.,

130

Congregation Micah, Denver, Colo., I 30

Congregation New Hope, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 134

Congregationalists, 46


Congregations, 82, 86-89, 92, 101, 105,

108, 112, 116-17, 124-28, 130-34, 149;

see also Synagogues

Congress (of the United States), Congress-

men, 5. 51. 79. 83, 90; see also Senate

(of the United States)

Congress of Industrial Organizations

(C. I. O.), 60-61, 65

Cmzgressiunal Record, 86

Connecticut, 3 I ; see also Hartford

Conservative Judaism, Conse~ativeJewry,

I 19-20, 165

Constitution (of the United States), 60,

7 5-79

Constitutional law; see Law

CONTENT, SIMON, 87

Continental Congress, 14

Conversion, converts, 4, 34, 84,93, 101-2,

162

Convicts, 4

COOK (family), I 03

COOLER, GEORGE, 146

COOLIDGE, CALVIN, 74

COOPER, CHARLES I., 103

COOPER, EDWARD, 6

COOPER, WILLIAM, I 02

COPELAND, CHARLES TOWNSEND, 74

CORBIN, AUSTIN, 3-4, 8

CORBIN, DANIEL CHASE, 5

Coroners, 6

Corsican Brothers, 3 7

Cortland Carriage Company, 30

Cotton, 80

COUGHLIN, CHARLES E., I o I

Council of Jewish Federations and Wel-

fare Funds, 166

Courage to Change (review), I 6 1-62

Courts, 75, 79, 102; see also Supreme

Court (of the United States), Supreme

Court of the State of New York,

Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts

"Covenant of Peace" (name of Jewish

congregation), I 3 3

Covina, Calif., r z 5

COWLEY, MALCOLM, and DANIEL P.

MANNIX, Black Cargoes: A History of the

Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518-1865, I 7 2

Craney Island, Va., 94

Creed, 52, 59-60, 62; see also Doctrines

CR~MIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE, 5

Criminality, criminals, 8

Critics, criticism, 84, IOO

CROMWELL, OLIVER, I 3

CRONBACH, ABRAHAM, "American Syna-

gogues: The Lessons of the Names,"

124-34; Reform Movements in Judaism,

I 68

Cross Town Railroad, New York City, 7

Cry for Help, A, I 60

Culture, cultural life, 10,13,16,58, 66, I I I

Culver City, Calif., I 3 I

CUNNINGHAM, CHARLES O., I 37

Cura~ao, Netherlands West Indies, 14,

48-49, 86, IOO

Currency, 43, 108; see also Money

Dachau, Germany, 89

DAILEY, DAN, 38

Daily Telegraph (London, England), 7

Dallas, Tex., 9 I

Dancers, dances, 38, I 26, 152

DANIELS, FRANK, 37

DARBY, WILLIAM A. (E.) , 145

DAVID, HARRY W., I03

D'AVIGDOR, ELIM; see Avigdor, Elim D'

DAVIS, JAMES J., 22

DAVIS, MOSHE, The Illustrated History of

the Jews, 172

DAWISON, BOGUMIL, 6

Day of Atonement; see Yom Kippur

DE BLOCH, JEAN; see Bloch, Jean de

DE CORDOVA, RAPHAEL J., 90

DE HAAS, JACOB, 90

DE HIRSCH, MAURICE; see Hirsch, Maurice

de

DE SAPIO, CARMINE, 8 I

DE SOLA, ABRAHAM, 149

DE WIT, FREDERICK, 48-49

Dearborn Indepmdent (Dearborn, Mich.),

I01

Dearborn, Mich., IOI

Declaration of Human Rights, 58-59, 69

Declaration of Independence, 8 2

Decorum (in the synagogue), 87

Delaware [, Lackawanna & Western]

Railroad, 34

Demagogues, 8 I

Democracy, 51, 66, 76, 78

Democratic Convention, New York City

(1924) 55

Democratic Party, Democrats, 80, 97,

I o I ; see also Southern Democrats

Demographers, 2 r

Demopolis, Ala., IOO

Denmark, 89

DENNY, REGINALD, 40


Denver, Colo., 85, 88, 130

DRACHMAN, HERBERT, I47

DENZIG, CHARLES, I 37

Department of State (United States) ; see

State Department (United States)

DRACHMAN, JENNY MIGEL (Mrs. Samuel

H.), 147, 152

DRACHMAN, LILLIE, 136, 141

Department of the Navy (United States) ; DRACHMAN, LUCILLE, I47

see Navy De artment (United States)

Department o ! War (United States); see

DRACHMAN, MINNIE, I 36

DRACHMAN, MOSES, I 36, 142, I 59

War Department (United States) DRACHMAN, MYRA, I 36

Department stores, 27, 3 I

DRACHMAN, MYRTLE, 147

Depression, The Great (of rgzg-193z), DRACHMAN, P., & CO., 137, 142

XI, 163

DRACHMAN, PHILIP, 105, I 36-38, 141-50,

Depressions, 48, 80

Des Moines, Iowa, 15

152-549 15-79 15-9-60

DRACHMAN, PHYLLIS, I 36

Desegregation, I oz

DRACHMAN, REBECCA~ (Mrs. Harris),

DESSAR, LEO C., 6

Detroit, Mich., 12, 83-84, 90, 170

Deuteronomic reformation, I 68

136, 148

DRACHMAN, REBECCA~, I 36

DRACHMAN, ROSA POSE) K., 136, 141-42,

Diamond industry, I 63-64

Diaries, 92, 95,9899, 147-49

DICKEY, JOHN, 62

DICKINSON, MEYER L., 89

'45

DRACHMAN, SAMUEL H., 105, 135-36.

147-577 159-607 '75

DRACHMAN, SOLOMON, 147

Diligence (in names of Jewish congregations),

I 3 3

DIMOV, OSSIP, 104

"Drachmans of Arizona, The," I 3 5-3 8,

141-57, 159-60

Drama, dramatists, 6, 39, IOO

Disabilities, 9

Dred Scott Decision, 97

Disarmament, 5 I

Disobedience, civil; see Civil disobedience

DREW, JOHN, 38

DREW, MRS. JOHN (nie Josephine Baker),

Displaced persons, 96

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, 5-6, IOZ

38

DREW, MRS. JOHN, SR. (de Louisa Lane),

District Grand Lodge No. 7, B'nai B'rith,

88

DITTENHOEFER, ABRAHAM JESSE, 6

3 8

DREYFUS, A. STANLEY, Henry

Messenger of the Lord, 82-83

Cohen,

Divine Call to that Highly Favoured People Dry goods business, 3 I, 141

the Jews, Justice and Mercy Opening Now

the Way for Their Restoratimz, 102

DOCKSTADER, LEW, 3 8

DRYDEN, JOHN, I

DUBER, MARCUS A., 90

DUBIN, MAXWELL H., 95

Doctrines, 168; see also Creed

DUBINSKY, DAVID, 19

Documents, 13-14, 89,93, 95-97, 100 DUBOFSKY, MELVYN, I 00

Donaldsonville, La., 6

Duluth, Minn., 103

"Door of Hope" (name of Jewish congre- Dumbarton Oaks, Dumbarton Conference,

gations), I 34

Georgetown, D. C., 58-60, 63, 66-67

Dorchster (ship), 92

Dutch Brazil, 14; see also Brazil

DOUGLAS, WILLIAM O., 77, 96

Dover, N. H., 99

"Down with the Jews!," 3-8

Dutch Jews, 47

Dutch, the, I z ; see also Holland

Dutch West Indies; see Netherlands West

DOWNER, ANNA, I42

Indies

Downtown Vaad Synagogue, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 126

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 37

DRACHMAN, ALBERT, I 36

DWORKIN, FREDERIC S., 96

Dying Jewess, The, I oz

DRACHMAN, EMANUEL, I 36

DRACHMAN, ESTHER, I 3 6

DRACHMAN, HARRIS, I 36, 148

DRACHMAN, HARRY ARIZONA, I 36, 147

Earlville, N. Y., 26

East European Jews, 23, 80, 166

East Side, New York Gty, 80


Eastern Europe, 15-16, 50, 108, 126 Empathy: Its Nature and Uses, I 7 I

EBAN, ABBA, 9 I

Emperors, 83

EBAN, MRS. ABBA, 9 I

Employees, 19

Economic life, economics, 5, 7, 10, 16, Employers, 19

19, 21, 23, 48, 51, 58, 66, 77-80, 95, Endless Wanderer, The, 104

136, 141, 148, 163-64

England, the English, 3, 5, 8, 43, 91, 132;

EDDY, MARY BAKER, 129

Anglo-Se~hardic Jewry, 43- Jews of, 3,

EDEN, ANTHONY, 6 I

82, I 3 2 ; see also Great Britaln

Editors, 3, 169

ENGLANDER, HENRY, 9 I, 102

EDMONDSON, ROBERT EDWARD, 10 I ENGLANDER, MRS. HENRY, 91, IOZ

EDMUNDS, ETHEL, 159

ENGLANDER, REGINE FRANCES, 9 I

Education, 20, 32, 44, 78-79, 164-65, ENGLEHART (New York State Assembly-

169; see also Allday schools, Hebrew man), 6

schools, High schools, Public schools, English (language), 27, 109, 112-13, 117,

Religious schools, Schools, Secular educa- 124, 133-349 149

tion, Sunday schools

Entertainment; see Amusement industry,

Educational Alliance, New York City, 88 Theatre

Educational bureaus and institutions, 167 Episcopalianism, 10 I

Educators, 52; see also Instructors, Pro- EPSTEIN, GRACE GREENBAUM, 92

fessors, Teachers

EPSTEIN, JUDITH G., 96

EFRON, BENJAMIN, and ALVAN D. RUBIN, Equality, political, 8, 52

Your Bar Mitzvah, 83

Equitable Life Insurance Company, 7

Egypt, 4

ERLANGER, ABRAHAM L., 39

EHLBERT, MARKUS, 96

Essays, 20, 82, 97, 102, 120

EICHELBERGER, CLARK, 56-57, 63, 65, 68 Establishment of religion, 78

EICHHORN, DAVID MAX, 96

Esthetics, I 18, 171

Eighth Territorial Legislature, Arizona, ETCHELLS, CHARLES N., I 53

152

EINSTEIN, ALBERT, 82, 90-9 I

EINSTEIN, EDWIN, 5, 7

EISENDRATH, MAURICE N., 85, 91

EISENHOWER, DWIGHT DAVID, 22

El Paso, Tex., 98, I 35-36

Elementary schools; see Public schools,

Schools

Eleventh Territorial Legislature, Arizona,

151

Eulogies, 90, 98, 103

Eureka, Nev., 6

Europe, 8-9, 19, 33-34, 44, 52, 74, 84,

96, 108-9, I r 1-1 2, I 18; see also Central

Europe, Eastern Europe

European Jewry, European Jews, 11, 52,

57996

EVANS, MADGE, 40

Evansville, Ind., 90

"Even in Puritan Boston," 50

ELIAS (family), IOO

Evergreen Cemetery, Tucson, Ariz., I47

ELIAS, ELEANOR C., 100

Evil, 162

Elite, 10

Examiner (London, England), 7

ELLINGER, MORITZ, 6

Existentialism, I 72

ELLIS, BARROW, 8

Existentialist Theology of Paul Tillich, The,

ELSNER, L., New York State, IOI

172

ELY, JOSEPH B., 75

EYTINGE, ROSE, 6-7

ELYACHAR, JACOB SAUL, 96

EZEKIEL (family), 98

ELZAS, BARNE~ A., 10

EZEKIEL, JACOB, 98

Emancipation, 8

EZEKIEL, MOSES, 7

"Emanuel" (in the Bible), I 27-28

"Emanu-El" (name of Jewish congregations),

I 24, I 27

Factories, 3 I ; see also Manufacturers

Emanu-El Conereeation. Houston, Tex., FAINTER, FRANCIS F., 89

170; wichitc~ins., 88

Fairbanks, Alaska, 86

Emigrants, emigration; see Immigrants Fairfax Temple (Society for Jewish Cul-

EMMANUEL, ISAAC S., 47

ture), Los Angeles, Calif., 108


Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, Calif., 63 FITCH, FRED G., I 37

Faith healing, I 29

FITZPATRICK, DONOVAN, and SAUL

FALK, LAWRENCE L., 100

SAPHIRE, Navy Maverick: Uriah Phillips

Family, 32-33, 74, 88, 159-60, 164

Family counseling, I 66

Levy, 83

"Five Gates - Casual Notes for an

Famous Clothing Store, Syracuse, N. Y., Autobiography," 107-20, I 2 3

25

FARJEON, BENJAMIN, 7

Flag (the American), 76, 79

"Flag of Israel" (name of Jewish congre-

FARMER, WILLIAM C., 90

gation), I 33

Farmers, farming, 27-28, 3 I, 137; see also FLORENCE, New York City, 7

Agriculture

Florence, Ariz., 143

Fasclsm, IOO

Florida, 5

Feast of Tabernacles; see Sukkoth FOLKS, S., San Francisco, Calif., 137

Federal Council of Churches of Christ in Fondo Nacional de las Artes de la Repfib-

America, 63

lica Argentina, 85

Federated Jewish Charities, Boston, FORD, HENRY, 97

Mass., 166

Foreigners, 144

Federation movement, Jewish; see Jewish Forest Hills, N. Y., I 30

federation movement

Forgiveness, 161

Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, New Forgotten Pioneer, I 69-70

York City, 55

Forrest Theatre, Philadelphia, Pa., 38

Federations; see Jewish federation move- FORST, SIEGMUND, I 69

ment

FEIN, HARRY H., 88

FEIN, ISAAC M., 92, 96

Fort Bayard, N. Mex., 156

Fort Bowie, Arizona Territory, 154-56

Fort Delaware, Del., 160

FELDMAN, ABRAHAM J., 9 I

Fort Huachuca, Arizona Territory, I 54-55

Felix Frankfurter Reminisces: Recorded in Fort Riley, Kans., 93

Talks with Dr. Harlan B. Phillips (re- Fort Wayne, Ind., 86

view), 7376

Felix Frankfurter: Scholar m the Bmch

Fort Whipple, Ariz., 153

Fort Worth, Tex., 89

(review), 7879

Fort Yuma, Arizona Territory, 154

Festivals; see Jewish holidays

Foundries, 3 I

FIELD, ARTHUR J., 100

FIELD, WALTER L., A People's Epic: High-

Four Freedoms, 5 I

Four Powers; see Bi Four Powers

lights of Jewish History in Verse, 83 Fourteen Points (of woodrow Wilson).

FIELDS, LEWIS M., 37-38

FIERMAN, FLOYD S., "The Drachrnans of

5 1

Fourteenth Amendment (to the United

Arizona," 135-38, 141-57, 159-60 States Constitution), 78

FIERMAN, MORTON C., 93

Fourth Territorial Legislature, Prescott,

Filiopietism, 10

Ariz., 147

Financial News (England), 3

Financiers, finance, 3, 5

FINE, ALVIN I., 97, 99

France, 5, 9, 43, 51

FRANCO, MOSEH DE JACOB, 43

FRANK, MRS. ISADORE, 96

FINKELSTEIN, Syracuse, N. Y., 28-29 FRANK, LEO M., 9 I

FINKLESTEIN, MOTKEY, 2 3

FRANKFURTER, FELIX, 7 3-79, I 62

FIREMAN, BERT, I 36

FRANKS, JACOB, 45

First Amendment (to the United States FRANKS, MOSES, 9 I

Constitution), 76-78

"Free Loan Association News," Boston,

First Hebrew Congregation, Albany,

Ore., 86

First World War, 51, $5, 60, 69, 80,

939 96-97, 103, 107

FISHBACK, HENRY, 142

FISK, E. N., a Co., Tucson, Ariz., 151

Mass., 88

Free Synagogue, New York City, 124, I 32

Free Synagogue of Westchester, Mount

Vernon, N. Y., I 2 5

FREEDMAN, BEN H., 97

Freedom, 58-60, 64, 66-69, 7679; of


INDEX 185

assembly, 76; personal, 78; ~olitical, 5 I ; General Services Administration, Washof

the press, 76; religious, 51-52; of ington, D. C., 89

speech, 5 I, 77

Georgia, 32, 9 I, 99; sce also Atlanta

FREEHOF, SOLOMON B., 89,95, 104 German (language), I 07, I 09, I I I

FREEMAN, GRACE R., and JOAN G. Germany, 3, 5,9,52,92-93,96, 102, 107,

SUGARMAN, Inside the Synagogue, I 69 118, 123, 132, 149; Jewsof, 11, 16,32,

FREIBERG, JULIUS, 94

80, 92, 123, 132, 166; Army, 107;

Freight, freighting business, 142-43, 146 (scc also Ashkenazim)

FR~MONT, JOHN C., I 50

Gmdc Stein, I 70

French and Indian War, 48

Ghetto, 8

FREUDENTHAL (family), I 35

Gidcun, 96

FREY, SIGMUND, 9 I

GILDERSLEEVE, VIRGINIA C., 63

Friday, I 10, I 17, I 30

GIMBEL, ISAAC, 32

FRIEDMAN, ARTHUR, 2, 106

Gimbel Stores, New York City, 32

FRIEDMAN, EDWARD, I 01

GINZBERG, ELI, 91

FRIEDMAN, JENETTE, 89

GINZBERG, LOUIS, 91, 105, 114-15;

FRIEDMAN, LEE M., 3

Legmds of thc Jcws, 1 I 5

FRIEDMAN, LEO, 2, 106

Girls; sec Children

FRIEDMAN, LEONARD M.. 98

GITELSON (family), 9 I

Friendship (in names of Jewish congre- GITELSON, M. LEO, 90-91,94-95, 100

gations), I 3 3

GIVEN, HERBERT, I 3 5

FRISCH, DAVID HENRY, 83

GLADSTONE, N. H., Ft. Wayne, Ind., 86

FROHMAN, CHARLES, 39

GLANZ, RUDOLF, Jcw and Mom:

"From Metulla to New York," 17 I Historic Grmp Rclatirms and RcligioPls

Fuerth, Germany, 149

Outlook, 84

Fun Eign Hoyz, 8 2

Glen Burnie, Md., 1 z 5

Fund raising, I 66-67

GLENN, JACOB B., The Bible and Modem

Funerals, 94, 96-97, 100

Mcdicinc, I 69

Furriers, 22

Glory (in names of Jewish congregations),

I33

GLUECK, NELSON, 89, 91-93, 100

God, 43-44? 49, 110, 129, 161-62, 165,

GADSBY, JOHN, IOZ

169

Gaily, Gaily, I 70

God, Kingdom of; scc Kingdom of God

Galician Jews, 107, 163

GODCHAUX (member of the Louisiana

Galveston, Tex., 82, 90

Legislature), 6

GAMBETTA, L~oN, 5

Gold rush, gold, 3 t

GAMORAN, MAMIE G., Samson Bendnly, GOLDBERG & CO., I42

169

GOLDBERG & DRACHMAN, 138, 141-45,150

GARFIELD, JAMES A., 94, 97

GOLDBERG, AMELIA, 145

Garment industry, 19, 24, 26, 3 I

GOLDBERG, ARTHUR J., 92

Gary, Ind., IOI

GOLDBERG, DAVID, I 3 5-3 6

"Gates of Heaven" (name of Jewish GOLDBERG, HYMAN, I 36

congregation), I 3 3

GOLDBERG, ISAAC, 105, 136-38, 141-459

"Gates of Prayer" (name of Jewish con- 148-50

gregation), I 3 3

GOLDBURG, ROBERT E., 93-94

GEIGER, ABRAHAM, I 2 3

GOLDEN, HARRY, 23, 170; Forgotten

GELBART, GERSHON I., Jewish Education Pioneer, I 69-70

in America, I 69

Golden wedding anniversaries, 103

GELMAN, ROBERT L., 88

GOLDMAN, JOSEPH, 88

Genealogy, genealogies, 14, 90, 92, roo, GOLDSCHMIDT, LEO, 154, I 56

1'33

GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIR AARON, 6

Gmcral Adzrcrtiscr (Philadelphia, Pa.), I 03 GOLDSMID, ISAAC LYON, 8

General Assembly, Maryland, 89 GOLDSMID, JULIAN, 5


Goldsmith Directory of 1831 (Charleston,

S. C.), 88

GOLDSGIN, ABE, 3 I

GOLDSTEIN, FANNY, 92

GOLDSTEIN, HAROLD K., review of Felix

Frankfurter Reminisces; of Justice Frankfurter

and Civil Liberties; and of Felix

Frankfurter: Scholar on the Bench, 73-79

GOLDTREE, JOSEPH, 145, 149

GOLDWATER, A., San Francisco, Calif., 148

GOLDWATER, I., Tucson, Ariz., 149

GOLDWATER, JOSEPH, 105, I 36-37

GOLDWATER, MICHAEL, 105, 136-37, 145,

150

GOODE, ALEXANDER D., 92

GORDON, CUPKE, 24

GORDON, SOL, 24

GOSHLINSKI, San Francisco, Calif., 148

Government, American; see United States

Government contracts, government contracting,

141-43, 150-55, 159; see also

Mail contracts

Governors, 5, 80, 83,94, 97

Grace, 161

GRAFMAN, MILTON L., 86

Grand Opera House, Syracuse, N. Y.,

37-39

Grand Union Hotel, Saratoga Springs,

N. Y., 3-4

GRATZ,REBECCA, I 3, I7

GRAU, MAURICE, 6

GRAY, JOHN CHIPMAN, 73

Great Britain, 8, 58, 62, 83; see also

England

Great Depression; see Depression, The

Great

Greateruille, Ariz., 142, 15 I

GREENBAUM, San Francisco, Calif., 148

GREENBAUM, EDWARD S., 92

GREENBAUM, SAMUEL, 92

GREENEBAUM, J. VICTOR, 89,99

Greenhorns, I I I

GREENLEAF, RICHARD E., Zumhaga and

the Mexican Inquisition, 84

GREENSTEIN, HAROLD C., 92

GREENSTEIN, HARRY, 92

Greenville, Ala., 96

GREGORY, LESLIE E., 147

Grocers, grocery business, 3 2, 141

GROLLMAN, JEROME W., 87

GROSS & CHAPMAN, Syracuse, N. Y., 23-

24

GROSS, MR., Syracuse, N. Y., 23

"Growing Up in Syracuse," 22-34, 36-40

GRUNWALD, HENRY ANATOLE, Salinger:

A Critical and Personal Portrait, 84

GUGGENHEIM (family), 80

Guiana, 49

GUMBINER, JOSEPH H., 102

G~~NZBURG, HORACE, 5

Hadassah, 96

HAHN, MAYER, 6

Halachah (rabbinic law), I 65

HAL~VI, JACQUES F. F. E., 6

HALFORD, ELIJAH WALKER, 90

HAMAN, 8

Hamburg, Germany, 105, 107, 109, 120,

123, 148

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 97

HAND, AUGUSTUS NOBLE, 75

HAND, LEARNED, 7 3, 75

HANKEY, MAURICE P. A., 90

HARDER, JOSEPH, 90

HARDING, WARREN G.. . 97 ..

Harlan, Ky., 86

HARLAN. LOUIS R.. review of Herbert H.

~ehm2 and His Era, 80-8 I

Harper's Weekly (New York City), 7

HARRIS, PHIL, 3 I

HARRIS, SAM, 148

HARRISON, BENJAMIN, 90

HARRISON, PETER, 46

HARRISON, SCHMAREL, 29

Harrisonburg, Va., I 34

Harry S. Truman Library, Independence,

Mo., 90

HART, ALLAN JUDAH, 92

HART, BENJAMIN, 88

HART, EMANUEL B., 5, 7

HART, ISAAC, 43,49-50

HART, NAPHTALI, 45

HART, SOLOMON A., 7

Hartford, Conn., 9 I, 93

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.,

169; Law School, 57, 73, 75

Hasidim, Hasidism, 107, 163-65, 168

Hats, prayer; see Yarmelkes

Havah Nagilah: Classroom Games in Rhyme,

I 68

Havana, Cuba, 92

HAY, JOHN, 90

HAYDEN, CHARLES TRUMBULL, 143

HAYES, BENJAMIN, I 37

HAYS, DANIEL P., 92


Headin' South, 38

Hemld (New York City), 7

Health, 8, 169

Herald Square Theatre, New York City,

Heath, Mass., 161

HEATH, THOMAS, 38

39

Herald-Tribune (New York City), I I 3

Hebrew (language and literature), 20, 90, HERBERG, WILL, 162

101, 117, 124, 126, 128, 133-34, 136, Herbert H. Lehman and His Era (review),

164, 169

80-8 I

"Hebrew" (designation for Jews and HERBERT, HILARY A., 80

Jewish congregations), I r 5

Heritage A@nned, A: The Jewish Federatian

Hebrew American Republican League, Movement in America (review), I 66-67

New York City and Toledo, Ohio, 90 HERTZ, RICHARD C., What Counts Most in

Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, At- Life?, 170

lanta, Ga., 86, I 34

Herzl Press, 163

Hebrew Benevolent Society, Cincinnati, HERZL, THEODOR, I I I, I 3 r

Ohio, 88

HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA, I 62

Hebrew Committee of National Libera- HESS, JACOB, 6

tion, 97

Hidden Empire, The, I o I

Hebrew Fraternal Order (Sur Israel), High Holy Days, rr, 86, 170

Philadelphia, Pa., 94

High schools, 20

Hebrew Free Loan Association, Boston, HILL, GUS, 38

Mass., 88

Hillel (name of Jewish congregations), I 3 I

Hebrew Free School Association, New HILLMAN, SIDNEY, 19, 3 5

York City, 88

HILTON, HENRY, 3-4, 8

Hebrew Friendship Congregation, Har- "HiltonSeligman Affair," 3

risonburg, Va., I 34

Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Association of

HINDENBURG, PAUL VON, 107

Hingham, Mass., 125

the United Hebrew Congregation, St. HIRSCH, EDWARD, 6

Louis, Mo., 87

HIRSCH, MAURICE DE, 85, 97, 132

Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society, HIRSCHMAN, JACK, 168

Tucson, Ariz., I 5 2

Historians, 9, 13, 15-16, 19-21, 52, 81

Hebrew schools, 2 3, 103

Historic Landmarks Commission, Sacra-

Hebrew Union College, Hebrew Union mento, Calif., IOI

College -Jewish Institute of Religion, Historical and Philosophical Society of

Cincinnati, Ohio, 11-12, 14, 91-93, 95, Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio, 86

102, 124, I 32, 17 I ; Board of Governors, Historical societies, American Jewish, I z

89; Endowment Fund, 92; Graduate Historiography, I 5-16, 19

School, 92; J. Leonard Levy Scholar- History, I, 9-16, 19-2 I, 67, 78-79,s I, 8 3,

ship, 91; Library, 98; Biblical and 103, 118, 129, 172

Archaeological School, Jerusalem, Israel, History of a Heart, 10 I

92-93

Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, 94

Hebrews; see Jewry

Hechal; see Ark

HECHT, ANTHONY, 168

HITLER, ADOLF, 4, 5 I, 74, I 3 r, I 34

HODGES, FRANCIS M., 145

HOFFMAN, FREDERICK J., Gemude Stein,

170

HOHEIMER, JOSEPH, 88-89

HECHT, BEN, Gaily, Gaily, 170

Holbrook, Ariz., I 3 5

HEILBRONN, musician, 6

Holidays; see Jewish holidays

HEINE, HEINRICH, 6

Holiness (in names of Jewish congrega-

Helena, Ark., 6

tions), I 3 3

Help (in names of Jewish congregations), . . Holland, 47, 49; see also Low Countries

'33

Hollwood, Calif., 40

HENRIQUES, M. J., New York City, 90 HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL, 73-77

Henry Cohen, Messenger of the Lord, 8 2-8 3 Holy Blossom Congregation, Toronto,

Henry Street Settlement, New York City,

80

Canada, I 3 3

Holy Office; see Inquisition


"Holy Seed" (name of Jewish congrega- ILIOWIZI, HENRY, 101

tions), 134

Illustrated History of th Jews, Th, 17 2

Home Journal (London, England), 7 IIIust~ated History of t h Siaie of Oregon, An,

Homes for the aged, I 66

99

HOOVER, EARL R., 99

Illustrations

HOOVER, HERBERT, 74

Amalgamated Clothing Workers Asso-

Hope (in names of Jewish congregations), ciation leaders, 3 5

133

Drachman, Philip, I 57

"Hope of Israel" (name of Jewish congre- Drachman, Samuel H., I 57

gations), I 34

Gram, Rebecca, 17

Hope of Israel Congregation, Curagao; see Hebrew Union College, I 8

Mikveh Israel Congregation, Willem- Hillman, Sidney, 3 5

stad, Curagao

Holy Ark, Touro Synagogue, Newport,

HOPRINS, MR., Tucson, Ariz., 142

R. I., 53

HOPPER, DEWOLF, 39

Lehman, Herbert H., 72

Horse trade, 3 I

Lwin, Shmarya, 122

Hos~itds. 166

Potofsky, Jacob S., 35

~otkls, 3,. 5

Proskauer, Joseph M., 7 I

House of Commons (of England), 3 S. H. Drachman Store, 175

"House of Jacob" (name of Jewish congre- Shubert's Men's Store, Syracuse, N. Y.,

gation), I 3 3

36

"House of Mordecai" (name of Jewish Sonderling, Jacob, I z I

congregation), I 3 3

Temple Beth El, Akron, Ohio, I 39

"House of Moses" (name of Jewish con- Temple Israel, Boston, Mass., 140

gregation), I 3 3

Torah Scroll from the Newport Syna-

House of Representatives, Arizona Terri- gogue, 54

tory, 147

"Immanu-El," I 17-18

"House of Samuel" (name of Jewish con- Immigrants, immigration, I, 9-1 1, 15-16,

gregation), I 3 3

19-20, 22-24, 27, 31-34, 479 509 859 909

"House of the People"; see "Beth Am" 93,97-98, 105, 107, 113, 134, 136, 138,

Houston, Tex., 170-7 I

147, 164, 166-67, 172

HUDSON, MANLEY, 57

Impersonators, 38

Hudson River, I z

Import trade, importers, 103, 141

HULL, CORDELL, 57, 60

INDELMAN, ELHANAN, I 69

Human rights; see Rights, human

"Human Rights at San Francisco," 5 1-52,

55-70

Human Rights Commission, United Nations,

66, 68, 70

Humanitarianism, 58

Hungary, 56, 132; Jews of, 107, 112, 132,

163

HUNTER, FRANK, I 3 5

Huntington Park, Calif., 9 I

HYAMS, HENRY M., 5

HYAMS, LEILA, 40

Hygiene, 169

HYMAN, MARCUS, 40

HYNEMAN, HEWN NAPHTALI, 7

Idealism, idealists, 19, 67-68, r 3 3-34

IGNATOW, DAVID, 82

Indentures, I 38, 142, 144-45

Independence, political; see Freedom

Indiana Legislature, 6

Indians (American), 89, 138, 141, 143-45,

151-52

Individuals, 57-58, 60, 69, 76, 78

Industry, 3 I

Innovation, 124

Inquisition, inquisitors, 8, 10, 84, 103

Inside the Synagogue, I 69

Inspector (for Kashruth) ; see Mmhgiach

Instituto de Patologia Vegetal, Argentina,

85

Instructors, 165; see also Professors,

Teachers

Insurance, insurance companies, 7, r 5 I

Intellectual life, intellectuals, 23

Interfaith marriages; see Intermarriage

Interfaith relations, 87, r 62

Intermarriage, I 59


INDEX 189

International bill of rights; see Internationalism

Internationalism, international law, 5 I, 55,

57-60, 62-64, 66, 6870

Intolerance; see Anti-Semitism, Religious

prejudice

Iowa, 3, 170; see also Des Moines

Ireland, the Irish, 2 5-26, I I 2

Isaac Goldburg v. The United States and the

Apache Indims (lawsuit), 143

Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund, 92

ISAAC, SAUL, 5

ISAACS, SAMUEL M., 10 I

Isaiah (name of Jewish congregations), I 30

Isaiah-Israel Congregation, Chicago, Ill.,

730

Ishpeming, Mich., I 25

"Israel" (name of Jewish congregations),

124, 129

Israel (people); see Jewry

Israel (state), Israelis, 20,91,97, I 27, 167,

I 7 17 2; Masonic Grand Lodge, 93; see

also Palestine

Israelite (Cincinnati, Ohio), 97

Israelites; see Jewry

Israelitischer Tempe1 Verein, Hamburg,

Germany, 105, 107, 109, 120

ISRAELS, JOSEPH, 7

ISSERLES, MOSES, Torat Ha-Olah, 120

Italy, Italians, 5, 16, I 12, 132

Ithaca, N. Y., 26

Jackson, Miss., 86-87, 102

Jacksonville, Ore., 87

Jacob H. Schif (shi ), 93

"~acob~enr~ %hi$ 1847-I~ZO'' (ms.), 95

JACOBS, theatrical magnate, Syracuse,

N. Y., 39

JACOBS sr PROCTOR, 37

JACOBS, CLYDE E., Justice Frankfu~ter and

Civil Liberties (review), 7 6-78

JACOBS, MRS. DAVID, 95

JACOBS, L. B., sr Co., Tucson, Ariz., 15 I

JACOBS, LIONEL M., 145, 152

JACOBS, MARK,

I 37

Jails, 8

Jalapeiios, I 36

Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y., 32

Jamaica, West Indies, 102

JANOWSKY, OSCAR I., 68-69

JASTRIMSKI, LEON, 6

JASTROW, MORRIS, JR., 95

JENICKE, PAUL, 146

Jerusalem, Palestine, and Israel, 4, 26.

91-93, 96; name of Jewish congregauons,

132

JESSEL, GEORGE, 5

Jessie James, 30

JESUS OF NAZARETH, 8, I 28, I 61

"Jew" (as name), 125, 129

Jew and M o m , 84

Jewelry, 31

"Jewish" (designation for Jews and Jewish

congregations), I 25, I 29

Jewish Advocate (Boston, Mass.), 88

Jewish Calendar for Fijty Years, A, from

A. M. 56r4 to A. M. 5664, 149

"Jewish Cemetery in Newport, The,"

41-42

"Jewish Center" (designation for Jewish

congregations), I 26-27

Jewish-Christian relations; see Interfaith

relations

Jewish Colonization Association, 85

Jewish Committee of the Dachau Concenuation

Camp, 89

Jewish community, 163-64, 166; see also

Community relations

"Jewish Community Center" (designation

for Jewish congregations), I 2 6

Jewish Community Relations Committee,

Cincinnati, Ohio, 79

Jewish Day School movement, 163

Jewish education; see Education

Jewish Education in America, 169

Jewish Family and Children's Service,

Denver, Colo., 88

Jewish Federation and Council of Greater

Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo., 102

Jewish federation movement, 166-67

Jewish Forum (New York City), 169

Jewish Historical Society of England,

London, England, 99

"Jewish History Week," I I

Jewish holidays; see High Holy Days,

Kol Nidre, New Year, Purim, Sukkoth,

Yom ~ip@r

Jewish Institute of Religion, New York

City, I 12

~ewiih labor movement, 19

Jewish learning; see Learning, Jewish

Jewish Ledger (Hartford, Conn.) , 9 I

Jewish life, Jewishness, 14, 74, 80, 105,

107, 120, 124, 163-65

Jewish National and University Library,

Jerusalem, Israel, 94, 102


Jewish National Fund, I I 3-14

Jewish people; see Jewry

Jewish Review, 59

Jewish Science (religious movement),

I 28-29

Jewish secular movement; see Secularism

Jewish State; see Israel (state)

Jewish Theological Seminary of America,

New York City, I 2, I 14; Library, 95

Jewish Welfare Board, 97

Jewry, Jews, 3-9, 13-14, 16, 19-21, 25-

26, 41-50, 52, 56-57, 74-75, 80, 83-87,

89-90, 96-97, 99-103, 108-9, 112-13,

120, 125, 127-29, 132-34, 148-49, 159,

I 6 1-66, 17 1-72; see also American Jewry,

AngloSephardic Jewry, Ashkenazim,

Bavarian Jews, Belgian Jews, Bohemia,

Canada, Dutch Jews, East European Jews,

England, European Jewry, Galician Jews,

Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Mexico,

Poland, Portuguese Jews, Prussian Jews,

Roumania, Russia, Sephardim

"Jews in America, The," 70

"Jews in Public Schools," 8

Jews in Suburbia, 163

Jews in Trmition, I 63

JOACHIM, JOSEPH, 6

JOACHIMSEN, PHILIP J., 6

John Carter Brown Library, Brown University,

Providence, R. I., 103

JOHNSON, LYNDON B., 96

Joint Distribution Committee; see American

Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

JONAS, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 5

JONES, H. B., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 z

I 00

JOSEPH, CAROLINE,

JOSEPHS, ETTA C. (MRS. H. Y.), 103

JOSEPHTHAL (director of Real Estate Trust

Company), 7

JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS, 82

Journal (Chicago, lll.), 170

Journal of the Virginia House of Delegates,

18r3-r8rq, 94

Journalism, journalists, 83, I 3 z

Journals, 99

Judah (country), I 28

JUDAH (family), 92

JUDAH, CHARLES, 92

JUDAH, NOBLE B., 92

JUDAH, SAMUEL, 45

Judaica (Boston, Mass.), 9 z

Judaism, 82, 84,93, 102, I 19, 123-24, 149,

I 59, 162, 165-66, 168; see also American

Jewry, Conservative Judaism, Jewish

Science, Orthodox Judaism, Reform Ju-

daism, Religious observance

Judaizers, Judaizing, 84

Judeophobia; see AntiSemitism

Judges, justices, 5-6, 78, 83, 92, 96, 102,

135

Judicial system, 76-79

Juniper House, Prescott, Ariz., 138

Junk dealers, 23

JUST, HAL, 8 3

Justice, 51, 56, 61, 66, 74

Justice Frankfurter and Civil Liberties

(review), 76-78

Kaddish, I z 6

KAGANOFF, NATHAN M., 100

KAHN, BERNHARD, 96

KAHN, ROBERT I., Lessons for Life, I 70-7 I

KALISCH, ISADOR, 103

Kallah, 9 z

KALLEN, HORACE M., 92

KANIUK, YORAM, Mim-metulah li-neyuyork,

I 7 I

Kansas, 90; see also Wichita

Kansas Citv. Mo., 06, 102; Kansas Citr *

Survey of ];wish ~ttikdes, The, 102

KAPLAN, MORDECAI M., 92-9 3

Karaites, 168

ash ruth, 9 I, I 14-1 6; see also Kosher food

Kashruth, inspector for; see Mushgiach

KATZ, IRVING I., 84-85; Successful Synagogue

Administration, 84-85

KATZ, JOSEPH, 89

KATZ, ROBERT L., Empathy: Its Nature and

Uses, I 7 I

KATZ, SAM, 40

KATZENBERG, (member of New York

Board of Education), 6

KATZENSTEIN, ALBERT, 142

KATZENSTEIN, LULU, I42

KATZENSTEIN, ROSA, I 36, 141

KATZENSTEIN, SAMUEL (SAM), I 36, 142

KAUFMANN, WALTER, 96

Kehillah, New York City, 169

KELLY, GEORGE H., Legislative History of

Arizona, 2864-rprz, I 50

KELLY, JOHN W., 38

KENNEDY, JOHN F., 92-93

Keren Hayesod; see Jewish National Fund

KERR, JUSTIN E., 169

KERTZER, MORRIS N., The Art of Being a

Jew, 171


Kctubot (marriage documents), 89 Lawyers, 5, 21, 52, 73

Kindness (name of Jewish congregations), Laymen, I 36, 162

100

LAZARON, MORRIS S., 93

Kingdom of God, 161

LAZARUS (family), I 03

King's Chapel, Boston, Mass., 46 LAZARUS, EMMA, 7, 102, 108, I72

Kingston, Jamaica, 44

LAZRUS, JAKE, 29

KIRBY, J., Cincinnati, Ohio, 86

League of Nations, 55-56

KIRSCHBERG, ELIAS, 93

Learning (in names of Jewish congrega-

KIRSCHBERG, MAURICE, 93

tions), 133

Kishinev, Russia, 52

Learning, Jewish, 8, 165

KLAW, MARC, 39

Lebanon, I 7 I

KLEMANN, EMMA, I07

LEBOWITSCH, JOHANNA, I 07

KOCH, JOSEPH, 6

LEBOWITZ, MENORAH, 9 I

KOHLER, KAUFMANN, 93, 105, I 20, I 2 3 Lectern, 46

KOHN, SYLVAN H., I 69

Lecturers, lectures, 92, I 26, 135; see also

Kol Nidre, 149; see also Yom Kippur Addresses, Sermons, Speeches

KOMPERT, LEOPOLD, 6

LEESER, ISAAC, I 5

KORN, BERTRAM W., 16, 94, 97, 99 Legends, I 14; Legends of the Jews, I 15

Kosher food, 9 I, I 16, 164; see also Kashruth Legislative History of Arizona, z864-zgz2,

KOSOVSKE, HOWARD, 92

'5."

Kovacs v . Cooper (lawsuit), 77-78

Legislature, 75-77; see also Congress (of

KRANZLER, GEORGE, Williamsburg: A the United States), Indiana, Louisiana,

Jewish Community in Transition (review), New York (State), Ohio

163-66

LEHMAN (member of the Indiana Legis-

KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH, 92

lature), 6

Ku Klux Klan, 55

LEHMAN, HERBERT H., 72, 80-81

KUHN, ABRAHAM, 94-95

LEHMAN, MAYER, 80

KUHN, LOEB, a CO., 93

LEIHY, GEORGE W., 141

KUNITZ, STANLEY, I 68

LEINER, NORBERT, 90

LEIVICK, HALPERN, 8 2

LELY, PETER, I 3

LEONARD, MR., San Bernardino, Calif., I 37

LA GUARDIA, FIORELLO H., 55, 80 LEONARD, WILLIAM ELLERY, "The Jews

La Paz, La Paz District, Ariz., I 37-38, 141 in America," 70

Labor, labor movement, laborers, 19, 100; LESINSKY, H., a GI., Tucson, Ariz., I 50

see also Jewish labor movement, Workers LESINSKY, HENRY, 156

LAFOLLETTE, ROBERT, SR., 3 I

Lessons for Life, I 70-7 I

Lampoons, 3

LEVI, HERMANN, 6

Land, 43, 138, 142, 146, 152; see also Real LEVI, NATHAN, 102

estate

LEVIN, MILTON I., 100

LANE, LOUISA; see Drew, Mrs. John, Sr. LEVIN, SHMARYA, 105, I I I, I 13, IZZ Language, 66

LEVINE, JOSEPH, 86

Larchmont, N. Y., 171

LEVINE, JOSEPH M., IOZ

Larchmont Temple, Larchmont, N. Y., LEVINE, SAMUEL, I02

171

LEVINSKI (actor), 6

LARDNER, NATHANIEL, 47

LEVINSON, ROBERT E., 86-87, 98-99

Las Cruces, N. Mex., 135, 156

LEVITAN, SOLOMON, 3 I

LASKER, EDUARD, 5

LEVY, San Francisco, Calif., 148

LASKI, HAROLD, 73

LEVY, BENJAMIN, 6

Law, 13, 44, 73, 75, 78-79; Civil, 135; LEVY, F. H., San Bernardino, Calif., 137

Constitutional, 76; see also Pentateuch, LEVY, GERSHOM, 94

Scrolls of the Law, Torah

LEVY, I. HARRIS, 2 2

Law, international; see Internationalism LEVY, J. LEONARD, 9 I

Lawsuits, 76-78, 102-3, 143, 156 LEVY, JOSEPH H., 88


LEVY, JOSEPH MOSES, 7

Lodz, Russian Poland, I 36

LEVY, LIPMAN, 92

LOEB, JACQUES, 93

LEVY, MARK (AND LOUIS LEWISSON), LOEB, JAMES, 162

BANKING COMPANY, New York City, I 03 ~EWENSTEIN, EMIL, I 54, I 56

LEVY, MOSES, 43

London, England, 3, 42-45, 82, 90, 99,

LEVY, RABBI, Syracuse, N. Y., 22-24, 34 132

LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS, 5, 8 3

Long Branch, N. J., 7

LEWISOHN (family), 80

Long Island, N. Y., 38; Railroad, 3

LEWISOHN, LUDWIG, 96

LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH, 41-42

LEWISSON, LOUIS; see LEVY, MARK LONGWELL, MARJORIE R., America and

Lexington, Mass., I 30

Women, I 7 1-72

Liberal arts, 165

Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga,

Liberal Party, 5

Tenn., 133

"Liberal Synagogue" (name of Jewish LOPEZ, AARON, 49-50, 93, I7 2

congregations), I 24

LOPEZ, MOSES, 45-46, 49

Liberalism, liberals, 75, 80-8 I, 100, I 20 LORD WILLIAMS, Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I

Libertarianism, 76

LORD, CHARLES H., I43

Liberties, civil; see Civil liberties, Freedom Los Angeles, Calif., 6, I 2,82,96, 108, I 20,

Liberty; see Freedom

130, 136, 142; County, 137

Librarians, 92

Lotos Club, 7

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., Lotteries, I 50-5 I

899 93-94

Louis Feinberg Synagogue, Cincinnati,

LICHTENSTEIN, MORRIS, I 29

Ohio, I 32

LIEBERMANN, Josh, Tierra Soiiada, 85 LOUIS LEWISSON AND MARK LEVY BANK-

LIEBMAN, SEYMOUR B., 103

ING COMPANY, New York City, 103

LIEPE, MRS. JACOB, 101

Louisiana, 5; Legislature, 6; see also Baton

Life, 59, 64, 170-71; see also Jewish life Rouge, Monroe, New Orleans

Life, American; see America

Love, I 19

Life and Letters of Montgomery Pnmguice, "Love of Isaac" (name of Jewish con-

The, 95

Life. lewish: . see - lewish life

~ife; ;eligious; see Jewish life

Light (in names of Jewish congregations),

I33

Light opera, 30; see also Opera

Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington,

Ind., 96

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, 89, 99; in Black

Hawk War (I 832), 89

LINDEN, HARRY, 86

Lipine, Silesia, 107

LIPPMANN, WALTER, 73

LIPSKY, LOUIS, I I I

LIPSTON, MRS. RUTH, 98

Liquor trade, 141

Lisbon, Portugal, 103

LISTER, LOUIS, The ReligwuS School Assembly

Handbook, I 7 I

Literature, literary life, 5, 1 3,. 96, I 29;

see also Hebrew (language . - - and Ilterature),

Yiddish

Lithuania, 107, I 2 3; Jews of, 108, I I z

gregation), I 3 3

Low Countries, 5 I ; see also Holland

Lower East Side, New York City, , - I I 6

Loyal Order of ~oose, 22

Loyalists (Revolutionary War), I 3

LUCCA, PAULINE, 6

Lucius N. Littauer Foundation, 84

LUMBERG (family), 40

LURIE, HARRY L., A Heritage A#rmed

(review), I 66-67

Lusitania (ship), 95

LUTHER, MARTIN, 161

LYNCH, FATTY, Syracuse, N. Y., 34, 37

Lyons, France, 89, 94

LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH, 149

Lyric Theatre, New York City, 39

MACK, JULIAN W., 95

MACICAILL, DOROTHY, 40

MACLEISH, ARCHIBALD, 62, 66

Madison, Wis., 3 I, 96

Liturgies, 98

Lochnu v. N. Y. (lawsuit), 76

Madison Square Garden, New York City,

55


MADURO, JOSHUA MOSES LEVY, 86 MARSHALL, JOHN, 77

Magazines; see Periodicals

MARSHALL, LOUIS, 93

MAHLER, RAPHAEL, 94

MARTIN, BERNARD, The Existentialist Theol-

Mail contracts, I 5 I

ogy of Paul Tillich, 172

Mail order houses, 27

MARX, DAVID, 86

"Major Trends in American Jewish Marxism, 162

Historical Research," 9-16, 19-2 1 Maryland, 3 I, 89, I 7 2 ; General Assembly,

Majorities, majority groups, 60, 76 89; Maryland Historical Society, 102;

Malibu, Calif., 171

see also Baltimore

Man, mankind, roz, 161, 171

Masada-Young Zionists of America, 97

Man, rights of; see Rights, human

Mascot (light opera), 30

MANASSEE (MANNASSEE) , HYMN (HEY- Mashgiach (inspector for Kashruth), r I 5

MAN), 137

MASON, GENERAL J. S., I 38

MANASSEE, J. S., LOS Angeles County, Masonic Order, Masonry, Masons, 41,93,

Calif., I 37

97, 147, 152; Grand Lodge of Arizona,

MANASSEE, MOSES, r 3 7

93; Grand Lodge of Canada, 97; Grand

Manchuria (steamship), I 08

Lodge of Israel, 93; Tucson, Ariz., 1 ~ 2

Manhattan, New York City, I r 3 Massachusetts, 5, 75; Supreme Judiclal

Manhattan Beach, N. Y., I 13-14

Court, 75; see also Boston

Manhattan Beach Com~anv. . New York Mathematics, 9 I

d .

City. 3

MATTHEW, A. WENWORTH, 94

Manhattan Beach Hotel, New York City, 8 Mattoon, Ill., 87

Manhattan Club, New York City, 7 MAY, DAVID, 3 2

Manila, Philippines, 93

MAY, JEAN WISE, 98

MANN, LOUIS L., 102

MAY, LEWIS, 7

MANNER, EDNA B., 98, 103

MAYER, CONSTANT, 7

MANNIX, DANIEL P., with MALCOLM Mayors, 6, 80

COWLEY, Black Cargoes: A History of the MAZAR, BENJAMIN; MOSHE DAVIS; et al.,

Atlantic Slave Trade, 1118-1861, I 7 2 The Illustrated History of the Jews, 172

MANSFIELD, RICHARD, 37, !9

MCCARRAN, PAT, 8 I

Manufacturers, manufacturing, 30-3 I ; see MCCARTHY, JOSEPH R., 8 I

also Factories

McCollmn v . Board of Education (lawsuit),

Manuscripts, 84, 95, 136, 141

78

Map engravers, maps, 7

McCoy, G. L., Los Angeles County,

MARCUS, JACOB RADER, 93, 100, 103, 168; Calif., I 37

"Major Trends in American Jewish Mck, J. M., Los Angeles County,

Historical Research," 9-16, 19-2 I Calif., r 37

MARITAIN, JACQUES, I 62

McGx. W. W.. Los Aneeles " County,

MARKENS, ISAAC, r 3

calif.,. I 37

MARKS, B. S. (artist), 7

McCulloch v. State of Maryland (lawsuit),

MARKS, H. S., Hollywood, Fla., 98 77

MARKS, HARRY HANANEL, I ; "Down with MCGONNIGLE, MAJOR A. I., 155

the Jews!", 3-8

MCINTYRE & HEATH (comedians), 38

MARKS, MORRIS, 6

MCINTYRE, JAMES, 38

MARKS, PHILLIP A., 102-3

MCREYNOLDS, JAMES CLARK, 74

MARLOWE, JULIA, 38

Medicine, 13, 125, 129, 169; see also

MARQUESS, EMANUEL, I03

Physicians

Marquette, Mich., I 2 5

Medieval period, 8

MARQUSIE, JULIUS, 3 I

Memoir of Julius Ochs, A , 98

Marranos, 14, 103

Memoirs, 14, 98-99

Marriage, marriages, 8, 22,86,89,98, 100, Memphis, Tenn., 87-88, 99

107, 135-36, 141-42, 147, 159; see also MENDELSSOHN, FELIX, 6

Intermarriage, Ketubot

Mennonites, 2 2

MARSHALL, CHARLES C., 55

Mercantile industry; see Merchants


[Minnesota] State v. Weiss Sunday

Closing Law case, 103

Minorities, minority groups, 56, 60, 69,

76; rights, 76, 81; treaties, 55-56, 60, 69

Minstrels, 38, 149

Minyan (quorum of ten adult males for

religious worship), I 26

Miriam (name of Jewish congregation),

I 3 2; see also Temple Beth Miriam

Missionaries, 4, 34, 101-2

Missouri Valley Life Insurance Company,

Merchants, 31-32? 48, 132, 136-37, 151,

I 7 2 ; see also Businessmen, Department

stores, Retail trade, Storekeepers, Trade,

Wholesalers

Mesifta Torah Vodaath, New York City,

'65

Mesilla, N. Mex., I 50, I 56

Messiah, Messianism, 19, 42, 134, 162

Metro-Goldwyn

Calif., 40

studios, Hollywood,

Metulla, Israel, 17 I

Mexican Bureau, B'nai B'rith, 98

Mexican Campaign (1916), 90

151

MITCHELL, J. W., 93

Mexico, Mexicans, 14, 84, 98, 103, 141, Mitzvot, 49, I I o

149; Jews of, 98

"Mizpah" (biblical name), I 3 3

Mexico City, Mexico, 98

Mobile, Ala., 52

MEYERBEER, GIACOMO, 6

MEYERSBERG, LOUIS, 160

Modem period, modernism, I z 3

Mohel, 10 I

MEYEROVITZ, JACOB I., 9 1

MO~SE DELEON, Charleston, S. C., 93

Miami, Fla., 98

Money, 43, 48; see also Currency

Miami Beach, Fla., I 25

MONNET, JEAN, 7 3

Michigan, 61 ; see also Detroit

Monroe, La., 88

Michilimackinac Island, 89

Middle Ages; see Medieval period

MONROE, MARILYN, 93-94

MONTEFIORE, LEONARD, 7

Middle class, z I

MONTEFIORE, MOSES, 8, 87, 132

Midrash, I I 5

Montgomery, Ala., 6, 97

Midsummer Night's Dream, 3 7

MIGEL, JENNY; see Drachman, Jenny Migel

Montreal, Canada, 89, 149

Mooney Report, 75

Migration; see Immigrants

Morality, I 707 I

Mikado, The, 30

Moravia, 107

Mikveh (Mikve) Israel Congregation,

Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands An-

MORDECAI, ELLEN, I o 1-2

MORDECAI, MOSES &HEN, 94

tilles, 44, 48-49, 86

MORGENTHAU, HENRY, SR., 74

MILAN, GABRIEL, 89

Mormons, Mormonism, 34, 84

Military service, I I, 27; see also Army, Morocco, 102

Soldiers, War

MORRIS, RICHARD B., 82

Militia, 89; see also Soldiers

MORRIS, ROBERT, I4

Mill Street Synagogue, New York City;

see Shearith Israel Congregation, New

MORROW, ROBERT, 143

MORSE, LEOPOLD, 5

York City

MOSES, 8

MILLER, ARTHUR, 93

MOSES, ABRAHAM, 41

MILLER, JUDEA B., 90,93

MOSES, BAR~TTE E., 97

MILLER, SARAH RUBINOVITZ, 103

MOSES, MOSES, 9 I

Millinery Center Synagogue, New York Moss, LUCIEN, 7

City, 126

Moss, THEODORE, 6

Milwaukee, Wis., 15, 96

Motion picture industry, motion picture

Mim-metulah li-neyu-york, I 7 I

directors, 40

Minersville District v. Gobitis (lawsuit), 78 Mount Sinai, I 29

Minhag America, 103

Mount Vernon, N. Y., I z 5

Ministers; see Clergy, Rabbis

Mount Zion Hebrew Congregation, St.

Minneapolis, Minn., 103

Paul, Minn., 172

Minnesota, 98, 102-3; Jewish Council, Mourner's Prayerbook, 98

103; see also Duluth, Minneapolis, St. Mulberry St. Synagogue, Syracuse, N. Y.,

Paul

22, 24


INDEX '95

MURPHY (saloonkeeper), Syracuse, N. Y.. National Commission on Law and Social

30

Action of the American Jewish Congress,

MURPHY, FRANK, 77

79.

MURPHY, LOUIS, 40

Natlonal Council of Jewish Women, 94

MURPHY, RALPH, 40

National Jewish Welfare Board, I I

MURPHY, TOM, 25

National Union for Social Justice, IOI

Murphy's Shamrocks, Syracuse, N. Y.. Nationalism, 19,68, 70, 78, 127, 134, 162

a 5-2 6

Nationality, 5 z

MURRAY, JOHN COURTNEY, 162

Naturalization, I 37-38, 144

MURRAY, PHILIP, 64-65

NAUMBURG, GEORGE W., 99

Museums of the Peaceful Arts, New NAUMBURG, GEORGE W., JR., 99

York City, 95

NAUMBURG, WALTER W., 99 . .

Music, musicians, 6, 13, 103; see also Navigation, 5 I

Light opera, Opera

Navv (of the United States); see Navy

Musical comedy, 38-40

~baiunent, United States

Mutual Life Insurance Company, 7 Navy Department (United States), 80

My King and My God, 8 2

Navy Maverick: Uriah Phillips Lmy, 83

MYERS, HYAM, 94

Nazism, Nazis, 52, 81, 89, 92, 94

MYERS, MYER, 45

NEBEL, ABRAHAM L., 90, 94, 97

MYERS, NAPHTALY HART, 89

Nefutst Yisrael Congregation, Newport,

MYERS, THEODORE W., 7

R. I., 42-50; see also Yeshuat Yisrael

Congregation, Newport, R. I.

Negaunee, Mich., I 25

Negro Jews, 94

N. A. A, C. P.; see National Association Negroes, 10,25,38,61,112, 163,165,172;

for the Advancement of Colored People see also Slavery

NADICH, ISAAC, 98

NEILSON, ADELAIDE, 6

NADICH, JUDAH, 98

NEMEROV, HOWARD, I 68

N. A. M.; see National Association of Neo-Reformers, I zo

Manufacturers

Netherlands West Indies, 48

Narragansett Bay, R. I., 42

Neue Judische Mmatshefe, I Lo, I 2 3

Nashville, Tenn., 96

NEUGAS, MAX, 160

NA~, THOMAS, 7

NEUMANN (family), 103

NATHAN (family), 94

Neumann Memorial Publication Fund, 2,

NATHAN, ELI M., 94

106

NATHAN, FREDERICK, 7

NEUMANN, NORBERT, 103

NATHAN, HARMON, 7

Nevada, 3 2

NATHAN, HAROLD, 94

Nevin Bus Lines, 32

NATHAN, JONATHAN, 94

NEVIN, HARRIS, 3

Nathun Levi v. John Gadsby (lawsuit), loz

NATHAN MAUD, Once Upon A Time and

Today, 94

NATHAN, P. W.; see Nathan (family)

National agencies, 166

National Archives and Records Service,

Washington, D. C., 102, 148, I 60

National Association for the Advancement

of Colored People (N. A. A. C. P.), 61

National Association of Manufacturers

(N. A. M.), 61

National Association of Temple Adminis-

trators, 84

National Cemetery of the Pacific, Hono-

lulu, Hawaii, loo

NEVINS, ALLAN, review of Herbert H.

Lehman and His Era, 80-81

New Amsterdam, I z

New BastableTheatre, Syracuse, N. Y., 39

New Castle, Pa., 97

New Christians, 103

New Deal, 80

New England, 47

New Hampshire, 3 I

New Mexico, I 37; see also Albuquerque,

Las Cruces, Santa Fe

New Orleans, La., 50, 88, 132

New Rochelle Post No. 48, Jewish War

Veterans of the United States, New

Rochelle, N. Y., 94


19~

New Spain, 14

New Testament, 161; see also Jesus of

Nazareth

"New Thought Synagogue" (name of

Jewish congregations), I 24

New World, 10, 48

New Year (Rosh Hashanah), 86, 149

New York Bar, 55

New York Central Railroad, 34

New York City, 3,5,8, 10, 15, 32, 34, 37.

39, 44-47, 50, 52, 55, 80, 84, 87-97,

100-101, 103-5, 108-9, 111, 113-14,

I 16, I 18-20, 125-26, 132-34, 136, 141,

147-49,. 1-63, 169, 171; Bar, 55; Board

of Charltles and Corrections, 6; Board

of Education, 6; Charter Revision Com-

mittee, 55, Port of New York, 94; see

also East Sde, New York City; Lower

East Side, New York City

New York Club, 7

New York County, 55

New York (State), 5-6, 3 1, 40, 80, 101,

126; Appellate Div~slon, 55; Assembly,

6; Supreme Court, 55,92 ; see also Albany,

Bronx, The; Brooklyn, Buffalo, New

York City, Rochester, Syracuse

New York Sun, 10 I

New York Times, 6 I, 67,94

Newe Shalom Congregation, Paramaribo,

Surinam, 44

Newport, R. I., 1,7, 15,41-50,53-54,93,

132

Newsboys, 32-34

Newspapers, 3, 5, 7-8, 13, 24, 28, 32-34.

50, 88, 90, 95-97, 101, 103, 14.1, !47,

15 I, 153, 160, 169-70; see also Penod~cals

NIEBUHR, REINHOLD,

I 61-62 ; Pious and

Secular America, I 62 ; The Universal God,

I 62

Nineteenth Century (London, England), 7

NOAH, MORDECAI M., 5, 94

Nob Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 63

Nobel Prize, 2 I

Nobles, nobility, 8

NOLDE, 0. FREDERICK, 63-64

Nonimportation agreement (I 770), 9 I

Non-Jews; see Christianity, Hinduism,

Indians, Islam

Non-kosher food; see Treffa

Nordicism, Nordic racialism, 16, 19; see

also Racialism

Norfolk, Va., 94

North (United States), 16

North America, I 2, 14, 44

AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1964

Norway, 34, 5 I

Norwich, N. Y., 26

Novels, novelists, 83

Nuclear physics, r 3

NUSSBAUM, PERRY E., 86-87

OBERMANN, JULIAN,

I I 0-1 I

Obiruaries, 9 I, 94, 97, 146-47

Observance, religious; see Religious observance

Occident (Philadelphia, Pa.), 10 I

OCHOA (of Tully, Ochoa & Co.), Tucson,

Ariz., 15 I

OCHS, ADOLPH S., 92

OCHS, JULIUS, 98

O'CONNELL, HUGH, 40

Odessa, Tex., 87

OFFENBACH, JACQUES, 6

Offering o Prayer, An, 82

Ofice o ! Public Affairs, United States

State Department, 62

Oheb Shalom Congregation, Sandusky,

Ohio, 87

Oheb Sholom Congregation, Washington,

D. C., 87

Ohio, 86-87, 133-34, 139; Senate, 6;

Volunteer Infantry, 99; see also Cincinnati,

Cleveland, Columbus, Piqua,

Toledo

Oklahoma City, Okla., 55

OLCOTT, CHAUNCEY, 38

Old age homes; see Homes for the aged

Old Testament, 8, 161; see also Bible,

Pentateuch, Torah

OLGIN, MOISSAY, 82

Omnipotence (of God), I 6 I

Once Upon A Time and Today, 94

Only Yesterday, 168

Opera, 6, I 23 ; see also Light opera

Orators, I 3 2

Ordination, 95, 107

Oregon, 6, 99; see also Portland

OREN, JUDITH, 169

Organ, I I 7

ORLINSKY, HARRY M., 83

Or~heum Vaudeville Circuit, 40

ORR, EDWIN J., 156

Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jews, Orthodoxy,

112-14, 116, 119-20, 124, 159,

163, 165

ORTIZ, ANGEL, 143


INDEX '97

101, 114, 120, 123, 169; seealso News-

papers

Persecution, religious, 5 z

Pesach; see Passover

Petersburg, Va., 15

Petit v. Minnesota Sunday Closing Law

Othniel Lodge No. 274, B'nai B'rith,

Memphis, Tenn., 88

OTTERBOURG, MARCUS, 6

Out-marriages; see Intermarriage

Overseas relief, 166

Oxford, N. Y., 26

case, 103

PETRIE, FLINDERS, 9 I

Petrikov, Russian Poland; see Piotrkow

Pharisees, 168

PACHECO, MOSES, 41

Philadelphia, Pa., 15-16, 38, 50,83,89,94,

Pacific (ship), 148

103, 132, 136-37, 148

Pacifists, 52

Philanthropy, philanthropists, 14, 44-45,

Pack Peddler, The, z 2-2 3

80, 87-88, 94-95? "8, 132, 134, 152.

Pack peddlers; see Peddlers

164, 166-67, 172

Painters, painting, 7, 13; see also Art, PHILLIPS, BENJAMIN SAMUEL, 8

Artists

PHILLIPS, HARLAN B., 73

Palestine, I I, 87,90-91,96-97; Orchestra PHILLIPS, HENRY M., 5

Fund, 9 I; Palestine Post, 9 I; see also PHILLIPS, NAPHTALI, I 03

Israel (state), Jerusalem

PHILLIPS, ROLLIE T., JR., 92

Palm Springs, Calif., I z 3

Philosophers, philosophy, I 18, 120, I 35,

Papago Indians, Arizona, I 5 z

162, I72

Paramaribo, Surinam, 44, 49-50

Phoenix, Ariz., 93, 135, 159

Paris, France, 95, 123; Peace Conference Photography, photographers, photographs,

(19'9). 967 99

7,9495,997 103, 147-9 169

PARKER, MR., Fort Whipple, Ariz., I 53 Phylacter~es; see Tefillln

Parliament (English), F

Physicians, 4, 3 z, 98

Partition (of ~&sc&j, 97

PICARD (family), loo

Pasquils, I ; see also Satire

PICARD, MORRIS D., 100

Passover, 44

Pierce City, Mo., 6

Patriarchs, I 28-29

Pietism, 107

Patriotism, patriots, 14, 82-83

PILCH, JUDAH, 169

Peace, 5 I-! 2, 64, 67; in names of Jewish Pima County, Arizona Territory, 144-45,

congregations, I 3 3-34

'47, 152, '55

Peace Conference (1919) ; see Paris PIMENTEL, SAMUEL RODRIGUES, 48

PEARLSON, JORDAN, 90

Pinafore, 30

Peasants, 34

PINSKI, DAVID, 82

Pedagogy, zo

Pioneer Brewery, Tucson, Ariz., 142

Peddlers, peddling, 16, 22, 24, 26-34? 38, Pioneers, 41,98, 105, I 59, 169-70

837 '38, 169-70

Piotrkow (Petrikov), Russian Poland, I 36,

PEIXOTTO, BENJAMIN F., 94, 98

147, I59

PEIXOTTO, GEORGE, 94

Pious and Secular America, I 62

Peninsula Temple Sholom, Burlingame, Piqua, Ohio, 87, 98

Calif., I z5

Pirates, 83

Pennsylvania, 5, z z, 3 1-32 ; see also Phila- Pittsburgh, Pa., 27, 39, 91

delphia, Pittsburgh

PLACZECK,BARUCHJACOB, 107

Pennsvlzlania Grit (Williamsport, Pa.), 24 Plantations, lanters, 103

PLAUT, W. ~UNTHER, 98

~ ~. .

Torah

Plays, playwrights, 38, 96, 104; see also

People, Jewish; see Jewry

Drama

People's Epic, A: Highlights of Jewish Plum Street Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio; see

History in verse, 83

Bene Yeshurun Congregation, Cincin-

PERELMUTER, HAYIM GOREN, 92, 97 nati, Ohio

Periodicals, 3, 7, I z, 59-61, 69,88,94-95, PLUMMER, MR., Rochester, N. Y., 37


PODET; ALLEN, 87

Poetry, poets, 41-42,83,96, 101, 103, 168,

172

Pogroms, 52

Poland, 22, 51-52, 56,93, 123, 132; Jews

of, 22, 105, 132, 136, 163; seealsoRussian

Poland

Political freedom; see Freedom

Political reform; see Reform, political

Politics, political life, politicians, 5, 19, 2 I,

55, 58, 80, 83, 93, 96, 100, 136, 152

Poor Will's Pocket Almanack, 10 I

Portland, Ore., 6, 15

Portsmouth, N. H., 99

Portugal, 103

Portuguese Congregation, Amsterdam,

Holland, 47

Portuguese Jews, 50

POSTAL, BERNARD, IOZ

Postmasters, 142

Postoffice Exchange, Tucson, Ariz., 146

POTOFSKY, JACOB S., 19, 35

POUND, ROSCOE, 74

Prayer, prayers, 43, 82, 98, 126-27, 136,

149, 161, 180; books, 98, 101, 103, 123,

149; garment, I I 7; in names of Jewish

congregations, I 3 3; special, 86

Prayer caps; see Yarmelkes

Prayer shawls; see Tallis

Prejudice, religious; see Religious prejudice

Prescott, Ariz., 138, 141. 146-47, 149-

50

Press; see Journalism, Newspapers, Period-

icals

Press Club, 7

Press, freedom of; see Freedom

Princeton, N. J., 90

Prisoners of war, 160

PRITZKER (family), too; Pritzker Book, The,

I00

PRITZKER, LEE, 100

Processions, 46

PROCTOR, FREDERICK F., 39

Producers, 38, 40

Professions, professional life, professional

men, 5, I 64

Professors, 3,3~,~2,57,68,73-74,81-83,

I 10, 124, 168, 17071

Progressive Era, too

"Progressive Synagogue" (name of Jewish

congregations), I 24

Progressives, 80

Prohibition, 108

Proletariat, proletarians, 19

Prmised Seed, The, A Sermon Preached to

God's Ancient Israel, the Jews, 102

Proof of Plot, I0 I

Proof of the Jewish Conspiracy to Cmmuniu

America and Rule the World, The, 101

Property, 77

Prophets, 127-28, I 30-3 I

PROSKAUER, JOSEPH M., 2, 52, 55-67, 69-

7 I

Prospectors, I 36

Protestantism, Protestants, 161

Proverbs, Book of, 85

Providence, R. I.,~I, roo, 102, 105, I 16-18

PROVOL, ANNA, 22

PROVOL, FANNY, 2 2

PROVOL, GEORGE J., 2 2-2 3

PROVOL, WILLIAM LEE, 22-23; "Growing

Up in Syracuse," 22-34, 37-40

PROVOLSKY

(family), 2 2

Prussian Jews, 3 I

Psalms, 6, I I 3

Psychoanalysis, I 7 I

Psychology, I 29

Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa,

Canada, 88

Public education; see Education

Public life, public service, 52, 73-74, 80

Public office, 5-6, 3 I, 80, 83, 94, 98, 101,

142, 147, 152, 162; see also Statesmen

Public Records Office, London, England,

87, 89, 102

Public schools, 8, 20-21, 33, 97, 103, 150;

religion in, 97; see also Education, High

schools, Schools

"Public Schools, Jews in," 8

Publications of the American Jewish Histor-

ical Society, I 6

Publishing, I 64

Publix movie houses, 40

Pueblo, Colo., 87

Pulpit, I 19; see also Sermons

Pupils, 8

Purim, I 52

Puritans, Puritanism, 50, 80

"Pursuer of Peace" (name of Jewish

congregation), I 3 3

Q

RAAP (E~PHAEL), DAVID, 89

Rabbinical law; see Halachah

Rabbinical Pension Plan, 98


INDEX I99

Rabbinical seminaries, I 3 2

Religious observance, ++,74, 10 I, I 36, I 59

Rabbis, rabbinate, 3, 15, 47, 82-83, 90, Religious prejudice, 9, 55; see also Anti-

95-98, 103, 107-9, 111-14, 116, 119,

123-26, 129-307 1327 135-369 1499 159,

162-63, 17072; see also Rebbes

RABINOWICZ, OSKAR, 90

Race, 8, 52, 59-60, 62, 66

RACHEL, LISA F~LIX, 6

Racialism, 9, 16; see also Nordicism

Radio, radios, 28, 17 I

RADZINSKI, EVA, 87

Railroads, 3, 7, 16, 28-30, 34, 146

RAMOS, JACOB, 10

RANDOLPH, JENNINGS, 96

RAPHAEL (family), 89

RAPHAEL, ISAAC, 89

Rapid City, S. Dak., I 3 3

Rassenlunde, 3 ; see also Racialism

Rationalism, I z 3

Reactionaries, reactionism, 8 I

Real estate, 32, 43, 102-3, 142, 146, 164;

see also Land

Real Estate Trust Company, 7

Realpolitik, 68

Rebbes (Hasidic rabbis), 164

Recent Americm Poetry, I 68

Recession, 164

Reconstructionist Foundation, 163

Recreation, r 26-27

Redemption, I 62

Redwood Library, Newport, R. I., 46

Reform Judaism, Reform Jews, Reformers,

18, 82-83, 107, 109, 119-to, 123, 165,

I 68 ; see also American Reform Judaism,

Classical Reform, Neo-Reformers

Reform, judicial, 75

Reform Movements in Judaism, 168

Reform, political, 52, 55, 89, too

Reformat~on (European), 16 I

Reformations (in Judaism), I 68

Reformed Society of Israelites, Charleston,

S. C., 88

Reformer and Jewish Times (New York

City), 3

Refugees, I 34

Rehabilitation, 80, I 3 2, 166

Relief, 80, 98, 166

Religio-therapy, I 29

Religion, 44, 66, 74, 76, 119, 123, 125-26,

130, 161

Religion, establishment of; see Establishment

of religion

Religious freedom; see Freedom

Religious life; see Jewish life

Semitism

Religious School Assmbly Handbook, I 7 I

Religious schools, I 7 I ; see also Education,

Schools, Sunday schools

Religious services; see Worship

Reminiscmces of a Lung Life, 99

"Reminiscences of Grandmother Drachman,"

141

"Remnant of Israel" (name of Jewish

congregations), I 34

"Remnant of Judah" (name of Jewish

congregations), r 34

Report oj The Royal Commissiun of Inquiry

Respecting the Arrest and Detentiun of

Rabbi Norbert Leiner by The Metropolitan

Torunto Police Force, The, 90

Report on the Bisbee Deportation, 75

Report on the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, 75

Reporters, 170

Republican Party, Republicans, 6 I, 90

Researchers, I 66

Restaurants, I 38

RESTON, JAMES, 61

Retail trade, retailers, 22, 141; see also

Businessmen, Department stores, Merchants,

Storekeepers, Trade

Revolutionary War (American), 13-14.

82, 132, I72

Rhode Island, r,q1,43,45,49,172; see also

Newport, Providence

RHODES, IRWIN S., 102-3

RHODES, MRS. IRWIN S., 101, 103

RICHMOND, HARRY R., 88

Richmond, Va., I 2, 98

RIESEL, VICTOR, 63

Righteousness (in names of Jewish congregations),

I 3 3

Rights, human, 51-52. 55-70

Rights, political; see Equality, ~olitical

Rip Van Winkle, 30

Rites; see Religious observance, Ritual

Ritual, rituals, ++, 129, I 36, 168

RIVERA, JACOB RODRIGUEZ, 43,48

Roads, 27, 3 I

ROBERTS, B., I 37

ROBERTSON, MRS. PHIL; see Drachman,

Minnie

Rochester, N. Y., IS, 3 I

Rockville Centre, N. Y., I 25

RODELL, FRED, 73

Roman Catholicism, Roman Catholics; see

Catholicism


RONSTADT, ARMAND V., 147

Sabbatarians, 90

ROONEY, PAT, 3 8

Sabbath, 29, I 10, "5, 117

ROOSEVELT, ELEANOR, 9 1,95

Sacco-Vanzetti case, 75

ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN D., 51, 55, 58, Sachs School, 80

60-61, 73-75, 80,95

SACKS, B., Phoenix, Ariz., 135, 148

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE, 73, 75

Sacramento, Calif., 98, rot; City Council,

ROSE, MRS. NISSEL A., 86

r o I ; Historic Landmarks Commission,

ROSEMAN, NATHAN, 103

101

ROSENBAUM (family), 98

Sacrifices, sacrificial system, I zo, r 30

ROSENBAUM (director of Real Estate Trust St. Benedict's College Library, Atchison,

Company), 7

Kans., IOI

ROSENBAUM, BELLA WERETINKOW, 98 St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies, IOO

ROSENBERG, BENJAWN B., review Of A St. John's College Library, Collegeville,

Hcritagc Affirmed, r 66-67

Minn., 101

ROSENGARTEN, ISAAC, 169

St. Louis, Mo., 87

ROSENTHAL, ROBERT, 98

ST. MATTHEW, JOHN H., I 3 7

ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL, 99

St. Paul, Minn., 15, 172

ROSENWALD, JULIUS, 3 z

St. Petersburg, Fla., 87

ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ, 108

St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 89

Rosh Hashanah; scc New Year

St. Xavier, Arizona Territory, I 5 z

ROSVALLY, MAX L., 4

SALINGER, JEROME DAVID, 84; Salingcr:

ROSWALD, JACOB, 99

A Critical and Pcrsonal Portrait, 84

ROSWALD, SIMON, 99

SALOMON, HAYM, 14, I 3 2

ROTH, PHILIP, 96

SALOMONS, DAVID, 8

ROTHENBERG, MRS. ROBERT, 88

Saloonkeepers, saloons, 30, 146; scc also

ROTHENHEIM, WOLF, I03

"Jewish saloons"

ROTHSCHILD (family), 8

Salt Lake City, Utah, 22

ROTHSCHILD, CAROLA WARBURG, 99 Salvation of Israel Congregation, Newport,

ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M., 86

R. I.; scc Yeshuat Yisrael Congregation,

ROTHSCHILD, JAMES DE, 6-7

Newport, R. I.

ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER, 5 SAMPSON & CO., 146

ROTHSCHILD, WALTER, 90

Sa~nsun Bmdc~ly, I 69

Roumania, 8, 98; Jews of, 98

SAMUEL, I. N., New York City, 87

ROWE, JOHN J., 93

SAMUEL, MAURICE, I I I

RUBENSTEIN, ANTON, 6

San Bernardino, Calif., I 37, 147-48

RUBIN, ALVAN D., and BENJAMIN EFRON, San Diego, Calif., 142

Yovr Bar Mitzvah, 83

San Francisco, Calif., z, zz, 55, 61, 67-68,

RUBIN, BOB, 40

70, 87. 97, 141, 148, 150, 153; Opera

RUSSELL BROTHERS, 38

House, 63

RUSSELL, LILLIAN, 38-39

San Pedro, Calif., 148

Russia, 5, 52, 58, 62, 75, 102, 113. 123, San Pedro Valley, Arizona, 143

169; Jews of, 11, 15-16, 19, 32,85, 170; Sanburgh (ship), 93

scc also Russian Poland, Soviet Russia SANCHEZ, GABRIEL, 9-10

Russian Poland, r 36

SANDMEL, SAMUEL, 9 ~ ~ 9 5

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, Sandusky, Ohio, 87

N. J., 17 I; Library, IOI

Sandwich, Mass., 43

RUTLEDGE, WILEY BLOUNT, 77

Santa Ana, Calif., I z5

RYNERSON, W. L., Las Cruces, N. Mex., Santa Barbara, Calif., 148

156

Santa Fe, N. Mex., I 35

SANTANGEL, LOUIS, 9-10

S

SANZER REBBE, I07

Saar haSamayim Congregation, London, SAPHIRE, SAUL, and DONOVAN FITZ-

England; scc Bwis Marks Synagogue, PATRICK, Navy Maverick: Uriah Phillips

London, England

Levy, 8 3


SAPIRO, AARON, 95

Secondary schools; see High schools,

Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 3-4

Public schools, Schools

SARGENT, CHRISTOPHER S., 90

Secular education, I 65

SARONY (photographer), 7

Secularism, secular movements, 19

SASPORTAS, HANNAH, 48

Security, 5 1-52; see also World security

SASSOON, ALBERT, 8

SEEBACHER (New York State Assembly-

Satire, I ; see also Pasquils

man), 6

Saturday, 24, 29-30

Segregation, 93, 102

Saved from the Storm, 30

SEIGEL, ROBERT ALAN, 89

SAWYER, COMMANDER F. L., 95

Self-determination, 5 I

Scattered of Israel Congregation, Newport, SELIGMAN (family), 7, 80

R. I.; see NefutsC Yisrael Congregation,

Newport, R. I.

SELIGMAN & CO., 7

SELIGMAN, EDWIN R. A., 95

SCHAFER (family), 103

SELIGMAN, JOSEPH, 3, 7

SCHECHTER, SOLOMON, I 20

Seminaries, I 07 ; see also Rabbinical

SCHEIDEMAN, B., San Francisco, Calif., 87

Schenk v. U. S. (lawsuit), 77

seminaries

Senate (of the United States), senators,

SCHIFF (family), 99

5, 22, 61, 67, 81, 96; see also Congress

SCHIFF, JACOB H., 91-95

(of the United States)

SCHIFF, JOHN M., 93

SENDERS, ALBERT G., 98-99

SCHIFF, MORTIMER L., 94-95

SENDERS, MRS. ALBERT G., 98

SCHILLER, M., LOS Angeles County, SENDERS, JACOB G., 99

Calif., I 37

SCHLAGER, MILTON I., 99

Senior Cir~zens Congregation, Miami

Beach, Fla., I 25

SCHNEIDER (actor), 6

SENIOR, EMMA K., 95

SCHOEN, MYRON E., 84; Successful Syna- SENIOR, JAMES KUHN, 95-96

gogue Administration, 84-85

SENIOR, MARY, 95

Scholars, scholarship, 19-20, 73, 107, 129, SENIOR, MAX, 95-96

131, 172

SCHONBACH, MORRIS, 100

SENIOR, ROSE, 95

Separation of church and state; see Church

Schools, 7, 20, 33, 7879; see also Allday and state

schools, Education, Hebrew schools, Separatism, 50

High schools, Public schools, Reli- Sephardim, 10,43,45, 50, 96, 149; see also

gious schools, Sunday schools, Yeshivot Anglo-Sephardic Jewry, Spanish-Porn-

SCHWAB, JULIAN G., 94

guese Jews

SCHWARZ, JACOB D., 95; Adventures in Sermons, sermonettes, 82, 86, 92-93,

Synagogue Administration, 95; The Life 95-98, 100, 102, 118, 17071; see also

and Letters of Montgomery Prun juice, 95 Addresses, Lecturers, Speeches

SCHWEITZER, BERNARD, 6

Science, 10, 165

"Science of Judaism"; see Wissenschaft des

Service (in names of Jewish congregations).

- -

'3!

Serv~ces, religious; see Worship

Judenthumr

Settlers, 4 I

Scientific merhod, I 29

Setuket, Long Island, N. Y., 38

Scottsdale, Ariz., 87

Sex, 66

Scrap iron industry, 3 I

Shaar Hashamayim Congregation, Kings-

Scriptures; see Bible, New Tesrament, ton, Jamaica, qq

Penrateuch, Torah

SHAINES (family), 99

Scrolls of the Law, 46-47, 54, 87

SEARS, ROEBUCK Co., Chicago, Ill., 32

Shakespeare Hall, Syracuse, N. Y., 30

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, 37

SEASONGOOD, LEWIS, 6, 103

Shah (in names of Jewish congregations),

SEASONGOOD, MRS. LEWIS, I03

Secession (Civil War), 97

I34

SHANE, MRS. GERTRUDE SIEGEL, 87

Second World War, I I, 16, 51-52, 56, 59, SHANK, MRS. FLOYD C.; see Drachman,

68, 92, 100, 167-68

Lucille


SHAPIRO, EVELYN KATZ, 96

SHAPIRO, KARL, 96

SHAPIRO, MANHEIM S., IOZ

SHAW, ABRAHAM D., 100

SHEARER, NORMA, 40

Shearith Israel Congregation, New York

City, 10,4.4-45, 87

Shearith Jacob Congregation, New York

City, 87

SHER, ARNOLD, 87

Sheriffs, 5

Sherith Israel Congregation, San Francisco,

Calif., 87

SHIMBERG, Syracuse, N. Y., 27, 30

SHINEDLING, ABRAHAM I., 87,99, 103

SHINEDLING, MOSES, 99

SHIPERO, Syracuse, N. Y., 29

SHIPERO, MAX, 3 I

Shippers, 3 I, 89

Ships, 89, 91-93, 95, 108, 148

Shipwright (ship), 9 I

Sholom of East Gabriel Valley (congregation),

Covina, Calif., I z 5

Short stories, 85; see also Novels

SHOSTECK, ROBERT, 88,98

SHOTWELL, JAMES T., 52, 57, 62-63, 65,

Skullcap; see Yarmelkes

Slave trade, 172

Slaveholding, 97

Slavery, slaves, 10, 16, 80

Slavs, 16

SLOAN, ELEANOR B., 147

SMALL, IRWIN L., 96

SMITH, ALFRED E., 55, 80

SOBEL, SAMUEL, 100

SOBERKROP, HENRY, I 37

Sobriety, 8

Social gospel, 161

Social justice, 19, 67

Social Justice, I o I

Social life, 4, 7-8, 21, 51, 58, 66, 75-76,

78-79, 161, 163-64, 167

Social welfare, 20

Social workers, 21, 166

Socialism, Socialists, 19

Society; see Social life

Society for Jewish Culture (Fairfax

Temple), Los Angeles, Calif., 108

Society of Arizona Pioneers, Tucson,

Ariz., 147

Society of Biblical Literature, 95

Society of Concord, Syracuse, N. Y.,

67, 69

Show business; see Theatre

SHUBERT (family), 33, 37-38, 40

SHUBERT, JACK, 40

SHUBERT, LEE, 40

Shubert Men's Store, Syracuse, N. Y., 36

SHUBERT, SAM (SAMMY), 3 3-34, 37-40

SHUCHAT, JOSEPH J., 87

SHWAYDER, NELLIE WEITZ (MRS. JESSE),

Five Stories, 85

SIEGEL, BENJAMIN M., 103

Silver King, 3 o

SILVER, SAMUEL M., 96

SILVERMAN, Syracuse, N. Y., 27, 30

SILVERMAN, MARTIN I., 88

SIMON, ERASMUS H., 94

SIMON, JOHN, 5

SIMON, JULES FRAN~OIS, 5

SIMSON, JOSEPH, 45

SIMSON, NATHAN, 87

Sin, 161

"Sinai" (name of Jewish congregations),

129

Sinai (Mount) ; see Mount Sinai

Since Yesterday, I 68

SINCLAIR, UPTON, 96

Singers, 38

Sisterhoods, 92

I34

Sociology, sociologists, 16, 19, 21, 163,

166, 171

SOKOLOFF, BENJAMIN A., 96

Soldiers, 89,97,gg-100, 108, 143, 147-48,

160; see also Military service, Militia

SOLINS, SAMUEL, 96

SOLOMON (family), I 35

SOLOMON, ADOLPH, 13 5

SOLOMON, EVA, I 3 5

SOLOMON, EZEKIEL, 89

SOLOMON, HANNAH G., 94

SOLOMON, ISIDOR ELKAN, I 3 5

SOLOMON, ROSA A., I 3 5

Solomonville, Ariz., I 35

Some Burning Questions, 97

SONDERLING, EGMONT, 107

SONDERLING, FRED, I 07

SONDERLING, JACOB, 105, I z I ; "Five

Gates -Casual Notes for an Autobiography,"

107-20, I 23

SONDERLING, MRS. JACOB, 107, I I 7

SONDERLING, JOHANNA LEBOWITSCH, I07

SONDERLING, PAUL, 107

SONDERLING, WILHELM, 107

Song writers, 99

"Sons of Aaron" (name of Jewish congregation),

I 3 3


"Sons of Abraham" (name of Jewish

congregation), I 3 3

"Sons of David" (name of Jewish congregation),

1 3 3

"Sons of Isaac" (name of Jewish congregation),

I 3 3

"Sons of Jacob" (name of Jewish congregation),

I 3 3

"Sons of Joshua" (name of Jewish congregation),

1 3 3

"Sons of Judah" (name of Jewish congregation),

I 3 3

SOTHERN, EDWARD HUGH, 38

South (United States), Southerners, I 6, 3 2,

Stephen S. Wise Free Synagogue, New

York City, 84

STERN, MALCOLM H., 94, 100

STERN, MYER, 6

STERNBERGER (family), 7

STETTINIUS, EDWARD R., JR., 60-67, 69

Stewardship, 80

STILES, EZRA, 42, 46-47

STIMSON, HENRY L., 7 3-75

Stock companies, 39

Stock raising, I 37

STOLZ, JOSEPH H., 96-97

STOLZ, MRS. JOSEPH H., 96

STONE, HARLAN F., 7778

949 137, 170

South Amenca, 49-50, 85, 162

South Carolina, 10, 94, 99; see also

Charleston, S. C.

Southampton, N. Y., 38

Southern Democrats, 80

Southwest, I 35-36, I 59

Soviet Russia, Soviets, 62; see also Russia

Spain; set New Spain

Spanish (language), 48

Spanish-American War, 96, 147

Spanish-Portuguese Jews, 10; set also

. Portuguese Jews, Sephardim

SPARKS, Q. S., San Bernardino, Calif., I 37

Speech, freedom of; see Freedom

Speeches, 95, 102-3; see also Addresses,

Lecturers, Sermons

SPINGARN, JOEL ELIAS, 100

STAAB, A., Santa Fe, N. Mex., 156

Stage; see Theatre

Standard (Syracuse, N. Y.), 24, 34

STARKOFF, BERNARD, 2, 106

STASSEN, HAROLD E., 62

State Department (United States), 56, 59,

62, 65

State rights, states, 58, 60, 68, 79

Statesmen, 5-6, 32; see also Public office

Statistics, 43-44, 47-48? 50, 100, I 37-38,

142-46, 15 1-56, 166,

Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, 7,

Storekeepers, 32, 138, 141-42, 175; see

also Businessmen, Department stores,

Merchants, Retail trade, Trade

STRAKOSCH, MORITZ, 6

STRAUS, NATHAN, 32

STRAUS, OSCAR S., 9-10

Straus Store, New York City, 3 2

STRAUSS, JOHANN, 6

STRAUSS, LEVI, I70

Strike Me Pink, 40

STROUSE, SAMUEL S., 89

Students, 13, 52, 102

Study; see Learning, Jewish

Suburbs, suburbia, 21, 163, 165

Successful Synagogue Administration, 84-85

SUGARMAN, JOAN G., and GRACE R. FREE-

MAN, Inside tht Synagogue-, I 69

Sukkoth (Feast of Tabernacles), 149

SULZBERGER, MRS. ARTHUR HAYS, 89, 98

Sun (New York City), 8

Sunday, 30, 34, I 18; Closing Law bill,

Kansas, 90; Closing Law cases, Minnesota,

103

Sunday schools, I 17-18, I 28-29, I 3 I

Sunday Times (Syracuse, N. Y.); see Times

(Syracuse. N. Y.)

suppliers, 1s4 '

Supreme Court (of the United States), 2 3,

74-75? 77-79? 102

Supreme Court of the State of New York,

172

STEIN, GERTRUDE, I 70

Steinberg Shul, Syracuse, N. Y., 2 2

STEINERT (New York State Assemblyman),

6

STEINFELD, ALBERT, 142

STEINFELD, FREDA, 142

STEINFELD, HAROLD, 142

"Stella" (niece of Edwin R. A. Seligman's

brother), 95

j5, 92

Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts,

7 5

Sur Israel mebrew Fraternal Order),

Philadelphia, Pa., 94

Sureties (bonds), 153-54, I 56

Surinam, 49-50

Survival, I 59

SUSSKIND, DAVID J., 87

Sweden, 22, 27, 34


204 AMERIC

Swedish (language), 34

Temple Emanuel, Curafao, Netherlands

Symbolism, symbols, 79

Antilles, 86; Honolulu, Hawaii, roo;

"Synagogue in Newport, A," 41-50 Newton, Mass., 163

Synagogue of the Hills, Rapid City, S. Temple Emanu-El, New York City, 93,

Dak., 133

109, 125; San Francisco, Calif., 97;

Synagogues, the synagogue, I, I I, 29-30, Scottsdale, Ariz., 87

41-50, 53-54, 74, 84-85, 93, 105, 110,

113, 115, 124-34, 164, 169; see &so

Congregations, Temples

Temple Isaiah, Forest Hills, New York

City, 130; Lexington, Mass., 130; Los

Angeles, Calif., I 30

"Synagogues, American, The Lessons of Temple Isaiah Israel, Chicago, Ill., 92

the Names," I 24-34

Temple Israel, Boston, Mass., 140; Mem-

Syracuse, N. Y., r, 22-34, 36-40, 92, I 34 phis, Tenn., 87

Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, N. Y.), 24, 34 Temple Miriam; see Temple Beth Miriam

SZOLD (family), 96

Temple Mizpah, Chattanooga, Tenn., r 33

SZOLD, HENRIETTA, 96

Temple Mount Sinai, El Paso, Tex., 135

Temple on the Heights, Cleveland Heights,

Ohio, 133

Temple Sinai, Brookline, Mass., 82; Summit,

N. J., 82; Washington, D. C., 171

Tabernacles, Feast of; see Sukkoth Temples; see Congregations, Synagogues

TAFT, WILLIAM HOWARD, 73-74

Tallis, Taleisim, Tallesim (prayer shawls),

Ten Commandments, 8

"Ten Year Chronological Sketch of

109, .. I 26, . 164; .. Tallis Karm, I 17

Talmud, I 3 r

Isidor Cohen, Leading Jewish Pioneer of

Early Miami, Florida," 98

Talmud Torah, Duluth. Mim.. 103

Tammany, amm man^ 'Hall, ~ e York w

Tennessee, 99; see also

Memphis, Nashville

Chattanooga,

City, 80-8 I

TAVEL, HENRY, 96

Tenth Legislative Assembly, Arizona, I 50

Tercentenary (of Jewish settlement in

Taxation, 79

Teachers, 22, 73, 118, 166; see also

America), 12, 15

Territorial integrity, 5 I

Instructors, Professors, Rabbis

Terrorism, 97

Tebah; see Lectern

Texas, 82-83; see also Dallas, El Paso,

Technology, I 70

Fort Worth, Galveston, Houston

Tefllin (phylacteries), I I 7, I 26, I 64 Texas Western College, El Paso, Tex., r 35

Tel Aviv, Israel, 93

Thalheimer's Wholesale Grocery, Syra-

Telephones, 28

cuse, N. Y., 32-34

TEMKIN, SEFTON D., IOZ

THALMESSINGER, MEYER, 7

THAYER, JAMES BRADLEY, 75

Theatre, theatres, 5-6, 30, 37-40, 126;

Yiddish theatre, 104; see also Drama,

Musical comedy

Theatrical managers, 37-39

Theatrical producers; see Producers

Theological seminaries; see

seminaries

Rabbinical

Theology, theologians, 93, 96, 161, 172

THOMAS, HELEN SHIRLEY, Felix Frdfurt~r:

Scholar m the Bmch (review),

7879

Thom~sm, 161

Three Rivers, Canada, 88

Through Morocco to Minnesota, Sketches of

Life in Three Cmtinmts, 102

Timra Wda: Episodios de la Colmimcih

Tempe, Ariz., 143

Temple (of Jerusalem), I 20

Temple Aaron, Trinidad, Colo., I 3 2

Temple Akiba, Culver City, Calif., 13 I

Temple Albert, Albuquerque, N. Mex.,

132

Temple Beth El, Akron, Ohio, 139;

Detroit, Mich., 84, I 7 3 ; Elizabeth,

N. J., 178; Odessa, Tex., 87

Temple Beth-El, St. Petersburg, Fla., 87

Temple Beth Israel, New York City, 103

Temple Beth Miriam, Elberon, N. J., I 3 2

Temple Beth Sholom, Ish~eming, Mich.,

125; of Orange County, Santa Ana,

Calif., I z 5

Temple B'nai Israel, Columbus, Miss., 86

Temple Concord, Bingharnton, N. Y., I 34


INDEX 205

Agraria Judfa en la Argentina, 1889-1959,

85

TiIim; see Psalms

TILLICH, PAUL, 161, 172

TILLY, VESTA,.~~ .

Times, Sunday Times (Syracuse, N. Y.),

24, 34

Tinplate industry, 27

To Judrrt Iscariot, I o I

Tobacco trade, 3 I, 146

TOBIAS, THOMAS J., 103

Toledo, Ohio, 90

Tombstone, Ariz., 142

Tombstones, 87

TOPEL, JOSEPH, 103-4

Torah, I 7 2 ; see also Bible, Pentateuch

Torah scrolls; see Scrolls of the Law

Torat Ha-Olah, I 2 o

Tories, I-j

Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 90, I 3 3

TORQUEMADA, TOMAS DE, 8

Tortillas, r 36

TOURO, ISAAC, 47

TOURO, JUDAH, 7, I 32

Touro Synagogue, Newport, R. I., 1,

5 3-54

Trade, traders, trading, 4, 13, 3 I, 48,

I 5 I -53 ; see also Economic life

Tradition, I 20, 166

Traditional Judaism; see Orthodox Judaism

Trans-Jordan, 9 r

Translations, translators, 104, 169

Transportation, I 54

Travel, travelers, 91, 95, 108

Treaty of Berlin; see Berlin, Treaty of

"Tree of Life" (name of Jewish congregation),

I33

Trcffa (non-kosher food), r 14

Trinidad, Colo., I 04

TROTSKY, LEON, 75

TRUMAN, HARRY S., 89-90, 96-97; Library,

Independence, Mo., 90

Tucson, Ariz., 135, 141, 143, 145-53;

Masonic Order, I 52

Tudescos; see Ashkenazim

TULLY, OCHOA CO., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I

Turkey, 56

TURNER, JUSTIN G., 94

Tuscaloosa, Ala., 93

Tweed Ring, New York City, 3

Union (American), 50; see also America,

United States

Union Club, 7

Union, congregational (proposed), 10 I

Union League Club, 7

Union of American Hebrew Congregations,

84, 89, 92-93, 95, 97-98, 132

Unions, 19

United Booking Office, 40

United Hebrew Congregation, St. Louis,

Mo., 87

United Jewish Appeal, I 67

United Nations, United Nations Charter,

United Nations Organization, United

Nations Conference on International

Organization, 2, 56, 58, 60-62, 64,

66-69, 97; Commission on Human

lb hts, 56; Conference, San Francisco,

Cafif., 55; Relief and Rehabilitation

Administration (UNRRA) , 8 I

United Palestine Appeal, 97

United States, 5, 7, 12, 19, 27, 3 I, 409

50-52, 55-56, 58, 66-67? 74, 909 93-94,

roo-101,113,137-38,141, 144-45, 147,

154-56, 162, 166; Army, 92, 143;

Atlant~c Fleet, United States Navy,

94-95; Bill of Rights, 56; Navy, 5, 83,

94-95; see also America, North (United

States), South (United States), West

(United States)

Universalism, 19, I 62

Universities, 13, 51,81-82,86-87,97, 107,

r 10, r 18, 129, 165, 170; seealso Colleges

University of Breslau, 107

University of California, Riverside, Calif.,

170

University of California Library, 97;

Jacob Voorsanger Memorial Collection,

97

Umversity of Cincinnati, 81 ; of Mississippi,

86; of Nebraska, 82; of North

Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, N. C.,

102; of Oregon, 87; of Tiibingen, 107;

of Vienna, 107; of Washington, 98

Upper class, 9

Urban areas, 13, 21, 31-32, 163-64

U. S. v. Carolene Prodwts CO. (lawsuit),

77-78

Utah, 34

Utica, N. Y., 15, 94

Utica Saturday Globe (Utica, N. Y.), 24

Vaad Hakashruth, New York City, I 14

Valley Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio, r 3 3

VAN DEUSEN, L. MARSHALL, JR., 100


206 AMERICA

VAN STRAATEN, MINNIE (MRS. JACOB S.) , WARBURG, EDWARD M. M., 93, 99

87

WARBURG, FELIX M., 94-96,99

VANBRUGH, JOHN, 46

WARBURG, FRIEDA SCHIFF, 99; Reminis-

VANDENBERG, ARTHUR H., 61, 66-67 cences of a Long Life, 99

VANDERBILT, CORNELIUS, 95

WARBURG, R. D., CO., 89

VELASCO, D., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I

WARD (of Ward & Volkes), 38

Vendome Hotel, El Paso, Tex., I 35 Warehouses, 3 I

Ventura, Calif., I 25

Warsaw, Mo., 88

Ventura County Jewish Council, Ventura, Washington, D. C., 12, 87, 89-90, 93-97,

Calif., I 25

I 7 I ; Washington Hebrew Congregation,

Vermont, 3 I

87

VERVEER, ELCHANON, 7

washington Heights, New York City,

VERVEER, SALOMON, 7

114-15

Victorianism, Victorians, 10-1 I

WASSERMAN, MRS. SIDNEY, 87

Vienna, Austria, 107, I 32

WATSON, BILLY, 3 8

VIERECK, GEORGE SYLVESTER, 70 WATERMAN, A., 160

Village Temple, New York City, I 3 3 WATSON, HENRY (alias Henry Benjamin),

Virginia, 32, 94; see also Norfolk, Rich- 90

mond

WAX, JAMES A., 87,99

Vistula River, 19

"Way of Pleasantness" (name of Jewish

VOGEL, JULIUS, 8

congregation), I 3 3

VOLKES (of Ward & Volkes), 38 Wealth, 80

VOLKMAN, SAMUEL, 89

WEBER, JOSEPH M., 37-38

VOORSANGER, ELKAN C., 97

WECHSLER, JAMES, 162

VOORSANGER, JACOB, 97, 99; Memorial Weddings; see Marriage

Collection, University of California Weekly Ariwna Citizen (Tucson, Ariz.),

Library, 97

'47, '5'

VOSBURGH, LEONARD, I 70

Weekly Arizonian (Tucson, Ariz.) , 142,

Voss, CARL HERMANN, review of Courage

to Change, I 6 1-62

'53

WEHLE, BERTHA (MRS. ELKAN), 99

WEIGEL, GUSTAVE, 162

WEIL, JOSIAH, 97

Wabash River, 3 2

WACHOLDER, BEN ZION, 9 I

WAGNER, RICHARD, I 2 3

WAISMAN, F., 95

WALETZKY, CECILIA G., 168

WALKER, JAMES J., I 16

WALLACH (director of Real Estate Trust

Company), 7

WALLACK, LESTER, 6

Wallack's Theatre, New York City, 6

WALSH, JOE, 38

WALTER, BRUNO, 108

War, 43, ?9-81; see also Black Hawk

War, Civd War (United States), First

World War, French and Indian War,

Mexican Cam aign (19162, Second

World War, lPanish-~merlcan War,

War of 1812

War Department (United States), 80

War of 181~,94

WARBURG (family), 99

WEIL, LEOPOLD JACOB, 97

Weimar, Germany, ror

WEINSTEIN, JACOB J., 90

WEISS, LOUIS, 97; Some Burning Questions,

97

WEISS, LOUIS R., 87

Weiss, State [Minnesota] v., Sunday Closing

Law case (lawsuit), 103

WEIZMANN, CHAIM, 7374

Welch, W. Va., 96

Welfare, 80

WELISCH, THEODORE, I 5 I

Welsh, the, 27

WERETINKOW (family), 98

WERETINKOW, BELLA, 98

West (United States), I 37

West Shore Railroad, 34

West Virginia State Board of Education V.

Barnette (lawsuit), 76

WESTERMANN, EMMA, 95

WETZLER, JULIUS, I 35

What Cants Most in Lije?, I 70


INDEX

WHEATON, GENERAL, Ft. Whipple, Ariz.,

I54

White collar class, 2 I

White House, Washington, D. C., 95

WHITEMAN, PAUL, 40

Wholesalers, 27, 3 1-32, 141

Wichita, Kans., 6, 88, 90

WIENIAWSKI, HENRI, 6

Willemstad, Cura@o, 44

WILLIAMS (of Lord & Williams), Tucson,

Ariz., 151

Williams College, 80

WILLIAMS, WHEELER W., 143

Williamsburg (Brooklyn), N. Y., I 63-66;

Williamsburg: A Jewish Community in

Tmitiun, I 63-66

Williamsport, Pa., 24

WILLISTON, SAMUEL, 7 3

Wills, 90

Wilmington, Del., 96

Wilmington, N. C., 6

WILSON, WOODROW, 51,73-74,83

Wine, I I 3

Winnetka, Ill., 130

WINSTON, JOHN C., COMPANY, zz

WINTER, M. M., Gary, Ind., IOI

Wisconsin, 3 I; see also Madison, Milwaukee

WISE, CARRIE, 95

WISE, IPHIGENE, 89

WISE, ISAAC MAYER, 3, 89, 97, 103, 132,

I 60; Memorial Fund, 92

WISE, JONAH B., 96

WISE, STEPHEN S., 83, 96-97, 105, I I I,

114, 124-28, 132

Wissenschaft des Judenthums, I 07, I 29

Wizard of Oz, The, 37

WOLF, FREDERICK, 99

WOLF, LUCIEN, 99

WOLF, MORRIS, I 37

WOLF, SIMON, 97-98

Women, 4, 13, 95, 109, 115, 152, 174,

'77

Women's clothing industry; see Garment

industry

WOOD BROS., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I

Woodbine, N. J., 134; Woodbine Brotherhood

Synagogue, I 34

Wool trade, 3 I

WOOLF, MICHAEL A., 7

Work Projects Administration (WPA),

11

Workers, 19, 27, 34; semiskilled, 164;

skilled, I 64; see also Labor

WORKUM (family), 99

World Affairs, 60, 69

World Jewish Congress, 56

World security, 52; see also Security

World War I; see First World War

World War 11; see Second World War

Worship, 10, 24, 29-30, 46-47, 86, I 17,

125-27, 130-31, 134, 162

Worship, freedom of; see Freedom

WPA; see Work Projects Administration

Writers, 84, 96, 98; see also Authors

Yale College, Yale University, New

Haven, Conn., 46, I 10; Yale Law

School, 73

Yarmelkes (prayer caps), 109, I 26

Yeshivot, I 64

Yeshuat Yisrael Congregation, Newport,

R. I., 42-50; see also NehtsC Yisrael

Congregation, Newport, R. I.

Yiddish, Yiddish literature, 19, 82, 108

Yiddish Marionette Theatre, New York

97,

104

Ylddlsh Scientific Institute (YIVO), New

York City; see YIVO Institute for

Jewish Research

Yiddish theatre; see Theatre

YISMACH MOSHEH, I07

Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Scirnce, I z

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New

York City, 11-12, 88, 92

Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), 43, 149

York, Pa., 103

Young Men's Hebrew Association, Cincinnati,

Ohio, 88; Literary Circle, 88

Young Men's-Young Women's Hebrew

Association, New York City! 55

Young People's Branch Committee of the

Educational Alliance, New York City,

8 8

Your Bar Mitzvah, 83

Youth, 83, 95, 123, 133

YULEE, DAVID S., error for David Levy

Yulee, 5

Yuma, Ariz., 146

Yuma County, Ariz., I 37

ZECKENDORF BROS., Tucson, Ariz., I 5 I

ZEISLER, ERNEST B., 90-9 I

ZEPIN, GEORGE, 9 I, 98


ZIELO~, MARTIN, 98

"Zionism and the Future of Palestine,"

"Zion" (name of Jewish congregations), 95

131

Zionist Organization of America, I I I

Zionism, Zionists, Zionist movement, Zurnhraga and th Mexican Inquisition, 84

19-20,90,95,111,132, 162 ZUM~RAGA, JUAN DE, 84

The editors of the American Jewish Archives have learned, and believe

others will wish to be informed, that individual issues and volumes, along

with a few complete sets, of Th Menorah Journal (191 5-1961 ) are avail-

able for purchase by institutions and private collectors. Inquiries may be

addressed to Kraus Periodicals, Inc,, 16 East 46th Street, New York,

N. Y., 10017.

The American Jewish Archives is eager to secure for its collection,

letters, papers, and other material dealing with the late American Jewish

writer, Ludwig Lewisohn. The Archives will gladly accept originals, but

if holders of Lewisohniana wish to retain the originals in their own posses-

sion, the Archives is able to photoduplicate such items for its collection

and return the original to their owners.


Pllt:!TE.KI 15 'PI1F. U?IlTEU S7h'FPS LIV AMERICA

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