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2 2011Volume VIVysoká škola báňská -Technická univerzita OstravaTRANSACTIONSof the VŠB - Technical Universityof OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesSBORNÍKvědeckých prací Vysoké školy báňské -Technické univerzity OstravaŘada bezpečnostní inženýrství


TRANSACTIONSof the VŠB - Technical University of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesNumber 2, year 2011, Volume VIPublisher: VŠB - Technical University of OstravaPeriodicity: biannuallyLanguage of published articles: EnglishISSN: 1801-1764Editorial BoardEditor-in-Chief:prof. Ing. Pavel Poledňák, PhD. (CZ)Editorial Advisory Board:doc. Dr. Ing. Aleš Bernatík (CZ)prof. Dr. Ing. Aleš Dudáček (CZ)doc. Dr. Ing. Zuzana Giertlová (D)doc. Ing. Josef Janošec, CSc. (CZ)doc. RNDr. Iveta Marková, PhD. (SK)doc. Ing. Imrich Mikolaj, PhD. (SK)doc. Ing. Andrzej Mizerski, Ph.D. (PL)prof. MUDr. Leoš Navrátil, CSc. (CZ)prof. Ing. Milan Oravec, PhD. (SK)Ing. David Řehák, Ph.D. (CZ)Dr. h.c. prof. Ing. Juraj Sinay, DrSc. (SK)doc. Dr. Ing. Michail Šenovský (CZ)prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Zemánek, CSc. (CZ)Executive Editor:Ing. David Řehák, Ph.D.Proofreading:Ing. Míček Dalibor, Ph.D.Current Issue Copy Deadline: 30.9.2011Each paper was reviewed by two reviewers.Editorial Board:sbornik.fbi@vsb.czMore information of the journal can be found on:http://www.fbi.vsb.cz/en/okruhy/veda-a-vyzkum/odborna-cinnost/periodika/


ContentThe Application of Bayes´ Theorem forthe Need of Fire Technical ExpertisesOtto DVOŘÁK1 - 5Calculation of Fire Resistance ofReinforced Concrete Column by theZone MethodLidija MILOŠEVIĆ, Dušica PEŠIĆ6 - 10The use of Modified Clay Materials for theSorption of Various Industrial PollutantsHartmut POLZIN, Jiří PAVLOVSKÝ,Lenka HERECOVÁ, et al.11 - 16Screening of Platinum Group Metalsfrom Automobile Catalysts in Soils ofOstrava CityLucie SIKOROVÁ, MarcelaŠUCMANOVÁ, Pavel DANIHELKA17 - 26Efficiency Evaluation of ProtectionSystems Using Software SimulationJuraj VACULÍK27 - 31The risk of Arsenic Contamination inCzech Urban SoilsMagdalena ZIMOVÁ,Zdeňka WITTLINGEROVÁ,Jan MELICHERČÍK, et al.32 - 38A New Approach to Fire SafetySystem in the Process of AtmosphericRectification of OilSveta CVETANOVIĆ, Danilo POPOVIĆ,Emina MIHAJLOVIĆ, Dušica PEŠIĆ39 - 43Basics of Evaluation of ThermalRadiation Effects on Humans inIndustrial FiresJakub DLABKA, Barbora BAUDIŠOVÁ,Jakub ŘEHÁČEK44 - 51Crisis Management TerminologicalSynonymsJiří DVOŘÁK, Michael DAWSON52 - 55Protection of the National CriticalInfrastructureLibor HADÁČEK, Radomír ŠČUREK,Jaroslav CÍGLER56 - 60Proposal for Unifying the Safety andSecurity Terminology at the Facultyof SAFETY Engineering of the VŠB -Technical University of OstravaDavid ŘEHÁK, Zuzana GIERTLOVÁ61 - 64Mapping the Hazards of Transport ofDangerous Substances by RailIva ŽITNÍKOVÁ, Pavlína PUŽOVÁ,Aleš BERNATÍK65 - 70


PrologueDear Colleagues,You have just received a copy of the second issue of volume 2011 of Transactions of the VŠB - TechnicalUniversity of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series, the professional level of which is guaranteed by the Facultyof Safety Engineering. The academic year 2011/1012 is the tenth year of existence of the Faculty. For more than43 years, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava has been educating students to become university-educatedprofessionals in the area of fire protection and industrial safety.Together with the increasing technological level of industries and with the increasingly wider use of quitea number of dangerous substances, demands on graduates in this field of study gradually grew as well. As priorities,the issue of analysis and prevention of natural and technology risks and risks of occupational safety, problems ofdesign of fire and safety equipment, the question of emergency preparedness, crisis management and other areasassociated especially with industrial accidents and natural disasters and coping with them began to appear. Thisled, step by step, to the development of other fields of study in the framework of the given degree programme.The research and development strategic target of the Faculty is to contribute to an improvement in the level ofhuman safety, security and protection. As key directions for the Faculty’s research and development we considerthe following:• occupational, industrial and environmental safety and security,• crisis management focused on public authorities and the Integrated Emergency System,• fire protection,• safety and security of people, services and property.These issues are discussed also in our Transactions. In addition to research, overview articles and information,we expect your responses to published articles and information too.In October 2012, the Faculty will hold the 3rd Annual Scientific Conference on Safety Engineering which willfocus on research and development results obtained during the last ten years. In this Conference we expect youractive participation as well.In conclusion, I would like to wish you good health and much professional success in the year 2012.Pavel PoledňákEditor-in-Chief


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 1 - 5THE APPLICATION OF BAYES´ THEOREM FOR THE NEED OF FIRETECHNICAL EXPERTISESOtto DVOŘÁK 1Abstract:Key words:Research articleThe article describes literary knowledge briefly and presents an example of the applicationof a statistical, probability approach to the estimations of the uncertainties of the results ofthe qualitative GC/MS chemical analyses of the samples of the fire debris from the seat offire for the content of accelerants.Bayes´ theorem, fire technical expertise, qualitative chemical analyses, GC/MS,uncertainty estimation, fire debris, samples, accelerants.IntroductionČSN EN ISO/IEC 17025 (2005) demandsaccredited testing laboratories to have and useprocedures for the assessment of the measurementsof uncertainties. During their estimation, they mustconsider all the components of the uncertaintieswhile using proper methods of the analysis. Theintroduction of a conception of the assessment ofuncertainties consisting of test data according tomentioned standards is specified, among others, bythe document ILAC No. G 17:2002 (Document,2002). It is perceptible that the judgement associatedto a test result and characterizing the interval of valuesabout which it is claimed that the accurate valuelies inside it (ČSN, 1994) relates to the quantitativemeasurement/test result according to the definitionof the uncertainty. The definitions and proceduresof the estimation of uncertainties are stated bye.g. the so-called GUM (1995), ČSN P ENV 13005standard (1997), and a series of other documents,e.g. (ČSN, 2005; ČSN, 2003; Eurachem, 2000). Theestimation procedure can be characterized by settingthe components of uncertainties: - by the procedureA including the random statistical mistakes, - by theprocedure B expressing components of uncertaintiesfrom their known sources. Consequently, thecombined standard uncertainty of measurementis calculated according to the law of spreadinguncertainties from its particular components andthe so-called extended uncertainty, usually with thecoverage factor, k = 2 estimating the interval arounda measured result of such a size that the correctresult lies in it with the 95 % certainty.The purpose of qualitative fire testdeterminations, e.g. chemical analyses, isprincipally to determine/verify the materialnature of an analysed substance/material by theidentification of one or more components or toassess whether the material product inclines tospontaneous ignition, whether it has pyrophoricproperties, oxidizing abilities and the like witha sufficient result e.g. yes/no, false/true. The abovementioneddocument (Document, 2002) states thatit is always considered how to apply the uncertaintyof the measurement with qualitative tests. One ofthe accesses is the determination of the probabilityof wrongly expressed positive or negative results.An international working group that is to preparea relevant document was established for this purpose.A brief study in this field is the article of S.L.R.Ellison et al. (Dvořák, 1997). It cites, among others:- the qualitative chem. analyses can be understoodas much more important than the quantitative oneswhich work with the presumption of the rightness ofthe identification of substances/materials, which arethe subject of the quantification, - the selectivity, thespecificity, the detection limit, the falsely positiveand the falsely negative assessment are relevantcharacteristics for interpreting qualitative results,- it boots the term „the identification certainty" asa parameter quantifying the degree of the confidenceof the following classification, - it recaps publicizedworks shortly with the conclusion that the Bayes΄theorem provides a fair frame for the assessment ofthe uncertainty of the classification (designation),which is usually done on the basis of a qualitativetest result, - it cites an example of the applicationof this theorem in the forensic science e.g. for theidentification of the type of blood, glass, DNA (Boefand Hulanicki, 1983; Ginneken and Smeulders,1991; Evvet and Gill, 1991).It is evident that these procedures can also beapplied in the fire science and during fire technicalexpertises. For example, chromatographic methodsare used frequently by fire and forensic laboratoriesfor chemical analyses of the samples of the firedebris taken for the content of the accelerants inthe seat of the fire. Arsonists use petrol (gasoline),1MV - GŘ HZS ČR, Fire Technical Institute, Prague, Czech Republic, odvorak@mvcr.cz1


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 1 - 5oil, kerosene, turpentine and oil fractions, furtheracetone, methanol and the like as accelerants mostoften. Their identification consists of recognizingpikes (their number, positions and relative size) inthe chromatogram. Experience is required wheninterpreting the results of mixed samples andsamples changed as to components (compared to theoriginal product) in a smaller or larger degree by theeffect of the fire warmth, namely according to typicalcomponents and their mutual relationship. ASTM(Evvet and Gill, 1991) offers the classification/identification of an accelerant into one of eightclasses of flammable/combustible liquids and intothree subclasses according to the number of carbonsof n-alkanes with the exception of the petrol classaccording to the results of a chemical analysis.Further it mentions the fact that because the methodis qualitative, its accuracy is not stated with it, andneither is the standard deviation of the results.Materials and methodsBayes´ theoremThe author has already described (Dvořák,2005) the possibilities of the statistical evaluationof quantitative results of laboratorial qualitativeparameters of the fire technical equipmentand extinguishing agents for the need of thecertification. The procedure of the decision camefrom the judgement of the confidence interval to themeasured selective (arithmetical) average providingthe standard normal distribution of errors and theselected confidence coefficient. The procedureis also applicable for the results of quantitativechemical analyses. It is possible to derive theprimary relation of Bayes´ theorem according toequations (3) and (4) from known relations, see e.g.(Hebák and Kahounová, 1988), for the conditionalprobability of the H hypothesis considering theE experiment/evidence, (P(H/E), equation (1)and reversely the conditional probability of the Eexperimental evidence regarding the H hypothesis(P(E/H), equation (2).PH EPH ( / E)(1)PEPH EPE ( / H)(2)PHwhere:P(HE) is the probability of thepenetration of the H hypothesisand the E experiment/evidence,P(H) and P(E) are the unconditional so-called„a-priori" probability of the Hhypothesis and the E evidenceand they are different from zero.P(H/E) and P(E/H) are the conditional, so-called„a-posteriori" probabilities.(3)(4)When we express P(E) with the help of the knownrelation (5), it is possible to derive another practicalform of the Bayes΄ theorem by its substitution intothe equation (3), see equation (6).(5)where:_H is the supplement of the H hypothesis/event(opposite _ hypothesis/event) and it is true thatthe P(H) + P(H) = 1PH ( ) PE ( / H)PH ( / E) PH ( ). PE ( / H) PE ( / H). P( H)(6)The odds form of Bayes´ equation is also usedpractically, see equation (7).PH ( / E) PH ( ) PE ( / H) PH ( / E) PH ( ) PE ( / H)(7)Where the fraction on the left side of the equationPH ( / E)PH ( / E)is the a-posteriori odds of the chances/expectations of the H hypothesis regarding the Eexperiment (a-posteriori odds),the fraction PH ( ) is the a-priori odds of the chances/PH ( )expectations of the hypothesis H regarding itsnegation (a-priori odds)PE ( / H)and the termPE ( / H )is the so-called likelihoodratio (LR).ResultsPH ( ) PE ( / H)PH ( / E)PE ( )PE ( ) PH ( / E)PE ( / H)PH ( )PE ( ) PH ( E) P( H E) PE ( / H)PH ( ) PE ( / H ). PH ( )The application of Bayes´ theorem for theneed of fire technical expertises (FTE)The example of frequently occurring chemicalanalyses of samples from the seat of a fire for thecontent of the accelerants (largely motor oil (MO)and automobile petrol (AP) for the confirmation orthe negation of the arson hypothesis is chosen for2


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 1 - 5the application of the above-mentioned relations forthe need of PTE from the illustrative reason. Theprocedure of the assessment of the uncertainty ofthis hypothesis can be expressed by the next stepson the basis of the result of the tests:1 Securing the input data:1.1 Chemical composition of accelerants:- to NM (Regulation EC, 2006):Boiling range, [°C] - (180 - 360)The compositionof hydrocarbons,[% v/v]- Aromates (20 - 30), fromwhich polyaromates max. 8- Saturated hydrocarbons(n+i+cyclo) = the rest up to100, from which n-alkanes(10 - 25)- Characteristic analytes:Pristane, Phytane, FAME(MEŘO): max. 7- The content of sulphur,[mg.kg -1 ]: max. 10Further see Fig. 1 and the Tab. 1. It can generallybe stated that the characteristic sections of both fuelschange by the vaporization of a sample, degradationchanges and the presence of combustion products.Therefore, the interpretation of chromatogramsrequires experience.20,3 - 20,5double peak C18 +Phytane (CAS: 638-36-8)21,3 C19: n-Nonadekane22,4 C20: Eikosane23,3 C21: Heneikosane24,2 C22: Dokosaneetc. (MoNa oil fraction - totally approx.1200 components)- to AP (Regulation EC, 2006):Boiling range,[°C]: - (30 - 210)Thecomposition ofhydrocarbons,[% v/v]:- Olefins: max. 18, typically cca 10- Aromates: max. 35, typically (30 - 35),from which benzene: max. 1, typically 0,7- Saturated hydrocarbons (n+i+cyclo):the rest up to 100- Charakteristické analyty: Ethery(obvykle MTBE):- Characteristic analytes:Ethers (usually MTBE):max. 15, (ETBE canalso be) and Ethanol(bioethanol) max. 5- The general content ofoxygen, [% m.m -1 ]: max. 2,7- The general content ofoxygen, [mg.kg -1 ]: max. 10Further see Fig. 2 and the Tab. 2. It can generallybe stated again that the characteristic sections ofboth fuels change by the vaporization of a sample,by its degradation changes, by the presence ofcombustion products. Therefore, the interpretationof chromatograms requires experience.Fig. 1 An example of a motor oil pattern (TÚPO)Tab. 1 Characteristic components found by theGC- MS method in a motor oil sample (TÚPO)Retentive time [min] Name of Components11,0 C11: n-Undekane12,6 C12: n-Dodekane14,1 C13: n-Tridekane15,0 C14: n-Tetradekane16,7 C15: n-Pentadekane18,1 C16: n-Hexadekane19,1 - 19,2double peak C17 +Pristane (CAS:1921-70-6)Fig. 2 An example of fresh automobile petrolpattern (GC - the straight forward spray of 0.3 μlof the sample (TÚPO)3


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 1 - 5Tab. 2 Characteristic components found in a sampleof fresh automobile petrol by the GC-MS method(TÚPO)1.2 The sensitivity, detection limits for inquiredsubstances, the linearity, the reproducibility,and the selectivity of the applied method ofthe chemical analysisWith the GC/MS SPME technique, see Tab. 3.Tab. 3 The results of the validation measurement(TÚPO)Legend:Sensitivity = the angular coefficient of straight lines.Detection limit = the sum of the average of a blank experiment and thetriple of its standard deviation.Linearity = the correlative coefficient of regression straight lines (TICvalues vers. the substance concentration).x…the numerical formulation of the surface of the pikes in a TICfigure.Selectivity = there is a sufficient distinguishability among individualpikes in the TIC readings.1.3 The introduction of symbols and theirdefinitionsLet us suppose that:HHP(H)ENotation Name of Component1, 3, 4 Group of C5 - C8 saturated alkanesMTBE Tercbutyl-methylether (CAS: 1634-04-4)2 Benzene5 Toluene6 Isomers of xylenes7 Group of C3 alkyl benzenes8 Group of C4 (C5) alkyl benzenes9 Naphthalene10 Isomers of 1Methyl Naphthalenesetc. (AP- totally approx. 300 - 400 components)Parameter VGR DSQanalyteo-xylene 1,2,4-TMB m-p-xylene 1,2,4-TMBSensitivity 0,9922 0,9899 0,9936 0,9609Detection limit x 3801087 8144842 99404691 81662592Linearity 1,253 1,525 3,962 34,924Repeatability r x 66467301 876281118 127900702 105034905_this symbol means the presence of an analytein a sample, the positive result,this symbol means the absence of a searchedanalyte in a test sample,the H a-priori probability (before the testwith the E evidence with regard to H whenthe relation (8) holds true was realized),the result of a test/chemic. analysis(evidence),P(E/H) the probability of the E experimentalevidence with regard to H. If an experimentalresult is positive, this probability gets closerto 1. That's not the case if the measuredconcentration is in the proximity of thedetection limit of an apparatus/an analyticalmethod. In that case it is advantageous tocalculate the probability according to theequation (8):_PE ( / H) 1 PE( / H)(8)When P(E/H) is the probability of a falsely negativeresult with regard to H,_P(E/H) is the probability of a positive experimentalresult in the H absence (the falsely positiveprobability). The result is falsely negative in the caseof the P(E/H)._P(E/H) the a-posteriori probability of the presenceof an analyte in a test sample with regard to anexperimental evidence, the E test result,P(E/H) = 1 if the accelerant was found during anexperiment. The exception is the case when themeasured concentration of an analyte is in theproximity of a detection limit.One can suppose for the interpretation of theequation (3):when P(H/E) = 0.5, the probability of the rightnessof the hypothesis is 50 %,= 0.99, the probability of the rightnessof the hypothesis is certainly 99 %.The next scale of values P(H/E) is designed forthe interpretation of the results according to theequation (6):


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 1 - 5Tab. 4 The calculation of the P(H/E) on the basis of theresult of a chemical analysis of a fire sampleP(H) P(H) P(E/H) P(E/H) P(E/H) P(H/E)0,5 0,5 0,99 0,03 0,01 0,97060,95 0,05 0,99 0,03 0,01 0,9843_Results can be interpreted with the highjustification certainty of the hypothesis of the arsonin both cases. If the probability of the a-priorihypothesis P(H) is increased to 0.95 (e.g. becausethe sample was taken in the place where a trained/certified dog signed it), the certainty of the rightnessof the hypothesis rises, too.2.2 According to the equation (7)After the substitution of data according toTab. 4 the value:PH ( / E)0,5 / 0,50,99 / 0,03133PH ( / E)=33, kdy ž LR 33and in the second case= (0.95/0.5)·(0.99/0.03) = 1.9·33 = 62.7 and LR = 33.__It is possible to interpret the results in the waythat the hypothesis of the arson is relevant/hasbeen confirmed in the first and the second case.This conclusion supposes that a combustible liquididentified as an accelerant was not used or stored inaccordance with the operational regulations and/orthe evidences of responsible persons/witnesses inthe given space.ConclusionBayes´ theorem and its possible forms of theformulation are also usable for the fire scienceand fire technical expertises with the help of thea-posteriori probability of a verified hypothesis/event, the a-posteriori odds, chances/expectations ofthe H hypothesis with regard to the E experiment andthe likelihood ratio which can be estimated on thebasis of the results of the used qualitative validatedtests/measurements/chemical analyses. It can besupposed that they will be exploited expertly in thesame way as with the evaluation of the uncertaintiesof the quantitative results of the tests/measurementseven under the conditions of the Fire Brigades of theCzech Republic.ReferencesRegulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council.BOEF, G., HULANICKI, A. (1983). Pure Appl. Chem., 1983, Vol. 55, pp. 553.ČSN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Všeobecné požadavky na způsobilost zkušebních a kalibračních laboratoří.ČSN ISO 3534-1 až 3:1994. Statistika - Slovník a značky. Část 1: Pravděpodobnost a obecné statistické termíny.ČSN P ISO/TS 21748:2005. Pokyn pro použití odhadů opakovatelnosti, reprodukovatelnosti a správnosti přiodhadování nejistoty měření (Guidance for the use of repeatability, reproducibility a trueness estimates inmeasurement uncertainty estimation).ČSN EN ISO 10012:2003. Systémy managementu měřená - Požadavky na procesy měření a měřicí vybavení.Dokument ILAC-G17:2002. Zavádění koncepce stanovení nejistot zkoušení v návaznosti na aplikaci normy ISO/IEC 17025. Praha: Český institut pro akreditaci, 2004. 5 s.DVOŘÁK, O. (1997). Nejistota požárních testů. Dokument AZL č. 1011.2. Praha: TÚPO, 1997.DVOŘÁK, O. (2005). Možnosti statistického vyhodnocení výsledků laboratorních stanovení jakostních parametrůtechnických prostředků PO a hasiv pro potřeby certifikace. In Požární ochrana 2005. Ostrava: VŠB - TUO,2005, s. 115-119.Eurachem (2000)/CITAC Guide CG 4. Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement. 2000. 120 s.EVVET, I.W.J., GILL, P. (1991). Electrophoresis, 1991, Vol. 12, pp. 226.GINNEKEN, A.M., SMEULDERS, A.W.M. (1991). Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol., 1991.GUM (1995) - Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Švýcarsko: BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO,IUPAC, IUPAP a OIML, 1995. 101 s.HEBÁK, P., KAHOUNOVÁ, J. (1988). Počet pravděpodobnosti v příkladech. Praha: Polytechnická knižnice,1988. 309 s.ISO 5725-1:1997. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results - Part 1: Generalprinciples and defi nitions.5


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 6 - 10CALCULATION OF FIRE RESISTANCE OF REINFORCEDCONCRETE COLUMN BY THE ZONE METHODLidija MILOŠEVIĆ 1 , Dušica PEŠIĆ 2Research articleAbstract:Key words:This paper describes the calculation of the fire resistance of reinforced concrete columnthat is exposed to fire from two sides. Calculation of the temperatures has been madedepending on whether the heat flow within the reinforced concrete column is onedimensionalor two-dimensional. The temperature of concrete and the temperature ofreinforcement are calculated by the Hertz's method. The values of concrete strength andreinforcement, as well as the width of the damage zone of concrete during a certain periodof exposure to fire have been calculated. Resistance to the effects of fire on reinforcedconcrete column has been calculated by the zone method. The time of the resistance ofcolumn to the effects of fire has been determined according to the moment capacity ofreinforced concrete column.Reinforced concrete column, Coefficient of reduced strength, Width of damage zone,Load-carrying capacity.IntroductionModern building design regulations givesignificant prominence to construction fireprotection. The set of standards collectively namedEurocode (EN 1992-1-1, 2004; EN 1992-1-2, 2004;EN 1992-2, 2005; EN 1992-3, 2006) is a Europeancode package for building design.Analysis of a building’s fire resistance isa complex process, as it involves multiple variablessuch as fire development and duration (ISO, 1975),temperature distribution inside the constructionelements, changes in building material properties, orinteraction between construction elements and thebuilding load impact (Milošević and Milutinović,2009; Tomanović, 2005). The process commonlyinvolves three different components:• Fire hazard analysis and designation of fire impacton surrounding building elements;• Thermal analysis for temperature calculation overtime in each building element;• Structural analysis, in order to determine thetension and strength of each construction elementand the probability of local or progressive buildingcollapse during fire.The reinforced concrete column for which wecalculated fire resistance (Fig. 1) has the followingproperties:- height 4000 mm,- cross section 500x300 mm,- thickness of protective concrete layer 30 mm,- number of reinforcements is 6, diameter ø20,- characteristic compressive strength of concretef cc= 50/60 MPa,- characteristic strength of steel reinforcementf ac= 500 MPa.Fig. 1 Reinforced concrete column dimensionsWe calculated the following properties of thereinforced concrete column during fire (Zha, 2003):• cross-section concrete temperature,• reinforcement temperature,• reinforcement strength reduction factor,• concrete strength reduction factor,• width of damaged concrete zone,1University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety, Serbia, lidija.milosevic@znrfak.ni.ac.rs2University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety, Serbia6


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 6 - 10• load-carrying capacity of the reinforced concretecolumn,• equivalent fire duration for given reinforcedconcrete column.Materials and methodsTemperatures Inside the ReinforcedConcrete Column (Hertz’s method)With a one-dimensional heat flow, temperatureas a function of time Δt(x,τ) is expressed as follows(Hertz, 1981a):tx, f1x, f2x, f3x,(1)where f 1(x,τ), f 2(x,τ), and f 3(x,τ) are functions forsolving the heat conduction equation for specificboundary conditions. The functions are expressed asfollows:2 x f1 x, E1- (2) 3,363 awhere:Δt 0temperature increment on the constructionelement surface for the time τ,ξ τ,xdimensionless temperature increment parameteron the x-axis,ξτ,yydimensionless temperature increment parameteron the y-axis,distance on the y-axis, [m].Calculated temperature values inside thereinforced concrete columnWhen calculating temperatures inside thereinforced concrete column, we assumed that thecolumn is exposed to fire on two sides.The reinforced concrete column is divided intozones. We calculated the temperatures in zonesections at the distances of x = 30 mm, x = 90 mm,and x = 150 mm. Temperatures calculated by Hertz’smethod for the period of 0.5 ÷ 4 h are given in Fig. 2.-xuf2 x, De sin - xufor u C 2ac(3)L L-C-xDEa f3 x, 1-eLC(4)2( e -1) where:D,C,E parameters whose values are given in Tab. 1and which depend on the heating mode,L parameter which depends on the cooling flowis calculated according to the expression.For standard fire exposure, f 3is always zero andit should not be included in the calculation.Fig. 2 Temperatures inside the column at x-axisdistancesTemperatures calculated by Hertz’s method forarmatures 1 and 2 are given in Fig. 3.Tab. 1 Parameters valuesTime [h] C [h] D [ºC] E [ºC]0,5 1,0 150 6001,0 2,0 220 6001,5 3,0 310 6002,0 4,0 360 6003,0 6,0 410 6004,0 8,0 460 600For a two-dimensional heat flow, Hertz’s method(Hertz, 1981a; Hertz, 1981b) has to be modified asregards temperature change along the x and y axesΔt(x,y,τ); hence, it can be expressed as:t x, y, t0 , x,y-, x,y (5) Fig. 3 Temperatures of column reinforcements7


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 6 - 10ResultsFire Resistance of the ReinforcedConcrete ColumnThe area of the reinforced concrete column crosssection, A c, is:2Ac 500300 150 000 mm (6)The steel reinforcement area A ais: 2 2Aa 6 20 / 2 3,14 1885 mm (7)The load-carrying capacity of the reinforcedconcrete column under normal conditions N niscalculated as follows:c fcc facNn Ac Aa(8) (9)where:α cload duration factor,γ cpartial safety coefficient of concrete forload-carrying boundary conditions,γ apartial safety coefficient of steel reinforcementfor load-carrying boundary conditions.The load-carrying capacity of the reinforcedconcrete column during fire is calculated as follows:Nr,fi fiNn 0,7 5,07 3,549kN(10)where:η fiN nload level during fire.The Zone Methodc0,8550 500150000 18851, 5 1,155069565,22N 5,07MNThe zone method for calculating fire resistanceof construction elements focuses on the impact offire heat on concrete inside the sections (zones),whereby temperature is determined as its mean valuein the centre of each section (EN 1992-1-2, 2004).Strength reduction factor kc(t) of silica aggregateconcrete is calculated with the following expressions:For 20 ºC ≤ t ≤ 100 ºC kc t 1, 0 (11)105 0,05tFor 100 ºC ≤ t ≤ 200 ºC kc t (12)100230 0,2tFor 200 ºC ≤ t ≤ 400 ºC kc t (13)200540 0,6tFor 400 ºC ≤ t ≤ 800 ºC k (14)ct 400aFor 800 ºC ≤ t ≤ 900 ºC710,07tkc t 100(15)For 900 ºC ≤ t ≤ 1000 ºC44 0,04tkc t 100(16)For 1000 ºC ≤ t ≤ 1100 ºC34 0,03tkc t 100(17)For 1100 ºC ≤ t ≤ 1200 ºC120 0,1tkc t 100(18)The mean value of the strength reduction factork c,mis determined based on the expression:0, 21nkcm,n kctin i1(19)Effective width of a section damaged by tensilestress is determined based on the damaged sectionwidth a z, which, in turn, is calculated with thefollowing expression:1,3 kcm, az1 kctM (20)where:ω half width of sectionk c(t M) strength reduction factor of concrete attemperature t in the center of slice.Calculated fire resistance values for thereinforced concrete columnWe divided the cross section of the reinforcedconcrete column into zones and calculatedtemperatures in the sections of those zones over thedistances x = 30 mm, x = 90 mm, and x = 150 mm.Concrete strength reduction factor in the column’scross section is given in Fig. 4.Fig. 4 Change in concrete strength reduction factorwith temperatureReinforcement 1 is exposed to fire on oneside, whereas reinforcement 2 is exposed to it ontwo sides. Fig. 5 shows temperature values for8


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 6 - 10a one-dimensional heat flow for reinforcement 1 anda two-dimensional heat flow for reinforcement 2, allby Hertz’s method (Hertz, 1981a; Hertz, 1981b).Fig. 5 Change in strength reduction factor forreinforcements 1 and 2 in the reinforced concretecolumn during fireFig. 6 shows the width values of the damagedconcrete zone and Fig. 7 shows the load-carryingcapacity values for the reinforced concrete columnduring fire, all calculated by the zone method.criterion for determining the character of massexchange of gaseous fractions and the fire point oforigin. Degree of openness is expressed as follows:05 ,Aho oO (21)V0,666where:A oarea of openness,h odepth of openness,V volume of room.As seen in Fig. 8, an increase in the dimensionlessparameter - degree of room openness - causes anincrease in the equivalent fire duration, whichmeans that constructions maintain their stabilitylonger during fire. When the duration of free firedevelopment decreases, so does its equivalentduration.Duration of free fire development can beregulated through changing the quantity of presentmass fire load or through constructive solutionsand active protection, such as extinguishment.Simultaneously, adequate preventive and tacticalmeasures which directly affect the equivalent fireduration have to be used.Fig. 6 Width of damaged concrete zoneFig. 8 Equivalent fire duration for reinforcedconcrete columnsFig. 7 Change in load-carrying capacity of thereinforced concrete column during fireAs shown in Figure 7, the reinforced concretecolumn is resistant to fire for more than 3 hours.Equivalent Fire Duration of theReinforced Concrete ColumnDuring calculation, we used a dimensionlessparameter, degree of room openness, as a generalConclusionAnalysis of reinforced concrete column fireresistance involves a set of procedures for thermaland mechanical analyses. Based on obtained resultsfrom thermal and mechanical analyses and properinput data on construction properties, it is possibleto calculate the reduction of the construction’sload-carrying capacity during analysis of its fireresistance.9


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16THE USE OF MODIFIED CLAY MATERIALS FOR THE SORPTION OFVARIOUS INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTSHartmut POLZIN 1 , Jiří PAVLOVSKÝ 2 , Lenka HERECOVÁ 3 , Dalibor MÍČEK 4 ,Martin MUCHA 5 , Helena DOLEŽALOVÁ WEISSMANNOVÁ 6 , Soňa ŠTUDENTOVÁ 7 ,Iveta VASKOVÁ 8Research articleAbstract:Key words:The Authors dealt with the use of modified clay materials for the removal of dangerousindustrial pollutants. Three modification methods (namely modification by Keggin’spolycation, modification by means of humic substances and pillarization at 450 °C) wereapplied for the creation of modified materials. Clay materials modified by humic substanceswere used for the sorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium in the form of dichromates. Otherways of modification and their combinations were used for the preparation of the sorbents ofdangerous gaseous pollutants (toluene, xylene). It was discovered that some modified claymaterials sorb the gaseous pollutants twice as much as common sorbent (activated carbon).Sorption, montmorillonite, humic substances, pillarization.IntroductionDangerous pollutants escaping as by-products ofindustrial activities pollute the atmosphere, soil, andwater. Contaminated sands, prone to releasing harmfulemissions, are the key to potential environmentalimpacts in foundry industry. Many possibilities ofretaining these pollutants exist, however they are notsufficient for the removal of all the industrial pollutantsout of the natural environment (Gonen and Rytwo,2006). Therefore it is necessary to find new waysof dangerous pollutants disposal, both organic andinorganic. Organic volatile substances rank amongwatched organic industrial pollutants (Shih and Chou,2010; Jarraya et al., 2010). So called BTEX substances(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) belong intothis group. Benzene is surely the most dangerousBTEX substance, since it is neurotoxic at acute actionand has narcotic effect. At chronic action, it hashematotoxic effects, influencing blood formation. Itis considered carcinogen and teratogen. Toluene hasinhalation and transdermal effects. Xylene is stronglynarcotic, it causes headache, nausea, lassitude, andweariness; unconsciousness at higher concentrations(Tichý, 2004). In foundry industry, these substancesoriginate during the casting of metal into the mixturesbound by organic resins and due to their volatility theycan contaminate both water and air. BTEX emissionsare expected especially at the casting and cooling ofcasts, as well as at disconnection of cast-iron castingsfrom the mould material.Heavy metals are often watched inorganicsubstances. Chrome is an interesting element fromthe toxicity and danger point of view, especiallyCr(VI), known by it carcinogenicity. It originatesduring industrial ore treatment by the process ofleaching or is present in sludge pits and sump tanksor in soils impacted by industrial activities. Cr(VI)causes skin pustules, blood forming disorders, evennasal septum, tympanum and jaw perforations,leukemia and death at higher concentrations (Tichý,2004). Cr(VI) does not occur much as a pollutant atfoundry industry but its presence cannot be ruled out.It can cause the contamination of base raw materialsor certain processes, possibly the contamination ofthe concrete mould mixture.Sorption on suitable materials is one possibilityfor eliminating these dangerous substances fromthe environment. Clay materials are often used for1TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gießerei-Institut, Freiberg, Deutschland, polzin@gi.tu-freiberg.de2VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of metallurgy and material engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic,jiri.pavlovsky@vsb.cz3VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, lenka.herecova@vsb.cz4VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, dalibor.micek@vsb.cz5VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of metallurgy and material engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic,martin.mucha@vsb.cz6VUT Brno, Faculty of chemistry, Purkyňova 464/118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic, dolezalova@fch.vutbr.cz7VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of metallurgy and material engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic,sona.studentova@vsb.cz8TU Košice, Faculty of metallurgy, Košice, Slovak Republic, iveta.vaskova@tuke.sk11


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16this purpose, since they can be properly modified toincrease their sorption ability. Modified clay materialscan be used for the sorption both from aqueousmedia, when especially heavy metals (Cu, Ag, Cd,Pb, Zn, Hg etc.) are sorbed (Plee et al. 1985; Weisset al., 1998), and from gaseous media, to removethe dangerous volatile organic substances (benzene,toluene, xylene, naphthalene) (Houari et al, 2007;Ruiz et al., 1998). This approach represents very goodopportunity for practical applications, since 70 % ofmolds used today are bonded by uniform bentonitemixture. Modified bentonite mixtures could servedirectly for the removal of industrial pollutants.Two workplaces of the VŠB - TechnicalUniversity of Ostrava study the problems of claymaterials modification in the long term, namely theCentrum of nanotechnologies and the Departmentof analytical chemistry and testing of materials.The requirements for removing the pollutants fromfoundry process in foundries were defined in thecooperation with the Institute of foundry industry atTU Bergakademie Freiberg. The authors (Plachá, etal., 2008; Plachá, et al., 2011) studied the sorptionof naphthalene on vermiculite that was modifiedby hexadecyltrimethylamonia bromide or by themonohydrate of hexadecylpyridinium chloride - thisstudy was performed in the framework of the researchplan MSM 6198910016 “Synthesis, structure andproperties of nanomaterials based on intercalatedphylosilicates” (2005 - 2011, MSM). The project GP104/08/P274 - “The Study of properties and use ofclay materials after intercalation by inorganic andorganic cations (2008 - 2010, GA0/GP) was anotherresearch project in this field. Its solver deals, amongother things, with the intercalation of clay materialsby Keggin’s cation and with the sorption of organicmolecules (toluene and xylene) on intercalatedclay materials or the sorption of humic substanceson clays (Pavlovský et al., 2009; Pavlovský et al.,2010). The authors of this article relate closely tothis project, studying the sorption of dangerouspollutants from both the aquatic - Cr(VI) andgaseous media - toluene, xylene.Materials and methodsThe standard of the type SWy-2 (Na-richMontmorillonite-MMT, Crook County, Wyoming,USA) was chosen as a feedstock for the assessmentof the sorption abilities of modified clay materials.This sodium form of montmorillonite treatedby sedimentation in order to remove silicon outof the sample, with the following parameters:basal diffraction d 0011,21 nm, specific surfaceS 26,8 m 2 .g -1 , CEC (ion exchange capacity)1,21 meq.g -1 , particle size < 5 μm.The clay material was intercalated by thecommercial solution Chlorhydrol (Reheis company,USA, 50 % solution with the chemical compositionAl 2Cl(OH) 5. (2,5 H 2O), molar ratio OH/Al 2,5)and by humic substance (HS) Humagra ® Liquid10-4-6 (Humintech, GmbH Düsseldorf, Germany,potassium form HS (humic acids content - HA18 %, nitrogen (urea) 10 %, phosphoric oxide 4 %,potassium oxide dissolved 6 %, iron 0,2 %, pH 8 - 9,density 1,23 kg.dm -3 , CEC 300 - 500 meq/100 g).Activated carbon CS type (specific surface S1261,7 m2.g -1 , made from coconut shells, iodinenumber 1050 kg.m -3 , Endler Ltd., Děčín X-Bělá,Czech Republic) was chosen for the comparisonof the sorption of gaseous pollutants with commonsorbent.The following industrial pollutants were rankedamong the watched sorbed substances:- toluene, xylene (p.a., Merci Ltd., Czech Republic)for the gaseous phase sorption on pillarized andinorganically intercalated clay materials,- Cr(VI) for the sorption in the form of dichromates(K 2Cr 2O 7, p.a., Merci Ltd., CR) from the aqueousmedia on organically intercalated clay materials(Pavlovský et al., 2011).Modification of clay materialsMontmorillonite based clay materials are usedabundantly for sorption thanks to their propertiessuch as high specific surface and porosity. Thesematerials are modified for the improvement of theirsorption abilities. The following methods are mostoften used for modification:- pillarization,- inorganic intercalation,- organic intercalation.These modifications can be mutually combined,too (Lahav, et al., 1978; Michot et al., 1993;Kloprogge et al., 1999). Pillarization is a processwhen the clay material is heated to the temperature ofapprox. 450 °C. The structure change occurs at thistemperature (Fig. 1), which results into the increaseof interlaminar distance and of specific surfaceand the improvement of other texture parameters(pore size and distribution etc.). During inorganicintercalation, big inorganic molecules (e.g. Keggin’scation) penetrate into montmorillonite interlayer(Fig. 2) (Lambert et al., 1994). Intercalate preparedin this way again demonstrate increased interlaminardistance and specific surface (Moore et al., 1997).Nevertheless, the selectivity of sorbed substances ortheir subsequent degradation can be influenced by theselection of suitable molecule. Organic intercalation12


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16can proceed, for example, with the help of so calledhumic substances (HS), which tie on clay materialby chelation, van der Waals’ forces, bridges etc. TiedHS can then have positive effect on the sorption ofdangerous industrial pollutants (Feng et al., 2005).The authors used all the above mentionedmodifications, including the combination of inorganicmodification and pillarization, for the assessment ofthe sorption abilities of modified clay materials.The inorganic intercalation of SWy-2 was realized bytwo processes. During the first preparation method, thepH value was adjusted only at the beginning of saturationprocess (procedure I). The second method of intercalatepreparation (procedure II.) was based on the adjusting ofpH value during the whole saturation process (constantpH value was secured during the whole process). Bothprocedures were performed at ordinary laboratoryconditions and at three pH values. Prepared intercalateswere subsequently dried at the temperature of 40 °C orpillarized at the temperature of 450 °C. The process isdescribed in detail in the publications (Pavlovský et al.,2009; Pavlovský et al., 2010).structure of intercalated clay material Al-SWy-2(procedure I, pH 3.8, SEM, enlarged 500 times)is shown in Fig. 3. The intercalation process canbe clearly seen in Fig. 1, which presents itself bythe enlargement of interlayer space (higher valueof d 001). The material is not compact; instead it hasporous structure with relatively developed texture.On the other hand, the SEM picture of original clayin Fig. 4 shows that silicate layers are not so distant(lower value of d 001).Organic intercalation was realized by HS. Itwas discovered (Li et al., 2010) that the presenceof aluminum cations has positive effect on sorption.That is why Al(III) cations in the concentration of3 mmol.g -1 of clay were added into the structure oforiginal clay SWy-2 before intercalation. Thereby,the ability of clay materials to tie Cr(VI) ionsimproved (Koběrská, 2010). Clay materials treatedin this way were subsequently intercalated by thepractice described in (Pavlovský et al., 2011),saturation process B. Organic intercalation wasperformed at pH value 1.Fig. 1 Schematic representation of pillarizationprocess (Moore et al., 1997)Fig. 3 SEM picture of Al-SWy-2 intercalateafter the intercalation of original SWy-2 claywith Al-polycation, enlarged 500 times, pH 3.8,intercalation procedure IFig. 4 SEM picture of original SWy-2 clay,enlarged 1000 timesFig. 2 Schematic representation of intercalationprocess (Lambert et al., 1994)The structure of original clay material SWy-2(SEM, enlarged 1000 times) is shown in Fig. 4. TheSorption of dangerous pollutantsThe sorption of organic vapors was performedgravimetrically in desiccator at the maximumequilibrium vapor concentration of given pollutant.The shots of intercalates were in the amount ofapprox. 30 mg to 40 mg, those of common sorbents13


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16in the amount of approx. 100 mg to 120 mg. Allmaterials were regularly weighed during the sorptionprocess at 60-minute intervals. Most sorbentsincluding intercalates achieved the maximum stateof gaseous pollutants sorption within 4 hours fromthe beginning of the saturation process.The saturation process of Cr(VI) in the form ofdichromates anions was done for two pH values(non-adjusted pH value and pH = 1). Clay materialSWy-2 modified by Al(III) ions was used as sorbent.Total amount of sorbed Cr(VI) was determinedby VIS spectroscopy method according to thestandard ČSN ISO 11083 (75 7424) Determinationof chrome (VI) - Spectrophotometric methodwith 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. Cr(VI) reacts with1,5 diphenylcarbazide and red-violet complexchrome-1,5-diphenylcarbazide occurs. Absorbanceof this complex was then measured at the wave length542 nm against demineralized water in 1 cm silicaglass cuvettes. Saturating solutions were diluted 100 -250 times due to their higher concentrations, becausethe calibration series according to this standard wasprepared up to maximum concentration of 10 μmolCr(VI)/l (0,52 mg Cr(VI)/l), (A = 0,0366.c + 0,0615;correlation coefficient r 2 0,9984).Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm (Langmuir,1918; Hall et al. 1966) was used for the assessmentof Cr(VI) ions sorption on clay materials, that wastheoretically derived on the assumption of balancedadsorption on the whole surface, see equation (1):bcea am(1)1bcewhere:a is an adsorbed amount [mmol.g -1 ],a mis a maximum adsorbed amount [mmol.g -1 ],c eis a balanced concentration[mmol.g -1 ],b is an equilibrious constant characterizing therelation between adsorbent and adsorbate [-].This isotherm type is commonly used inpractice for the sorption of metals on clay materials,because this method proves to be the most accurateaccording to reliability criteria derived by non-linearregression. Multiple correlation coefficient (R) andAkaike’s information criterion (AIC - the smallerits value, the more accurate isotherm) rank amongthe main reliability criteria. The value of the meansquare error of prediction (MEP) is important aswell - the closer to zero, the more accurate isotherm(Li et al., 2010).ResultsSix types of inorganic intercalates were preparedby the above mentioned method and were used forthe sorption of gaseous industrial pollutants vapors(xylene, toluene). Sorbed gas amounts on individualintercalates represented by the mass growth aftersaturation are resumed in Table 1.Tab. 1 The sorption of organic pollutants vaporsrepresented by the mass growth after saturation(Pavlovský et al., 2009; Pavlovský et al., 2010)Sorbing gases Toluene XyleneTemperature atmaterials preparation 40 450 40 450[°C]Samples marking Mass growth [mass %]SWy-2 9,20 12,16 7,32 6,13Al-SWy-2, I., pH 1,5 5,15 9,80 3,25 8,59Al-SWy-2, II., pH 1,5 23,02 21,26 15,13 23,53Al-SWy-2, I., pH 2,0 4,35 11,41 2,10 4,40Al-SWy-2, II., pH 2,5 3,65 11,41 2,04 6,48Al-SWy-2, I., pH 3,8 9,82 37,86 5,77 21,37Al-SWy-2, II., pH 3,8 8,57 31,86 4,20 18,12activated carbon CS 15,16 - 13,29 -For the assessment of the effect of HSintercalation on the sorption of Cr(VI) in the form ofdichromate anions, the sorption was done not onlyon intercalate HS-clay-(Al) but also on clay materialtreated only by aluminum cations, that means byclay-(Al) material.Maximum adsorbed amounts of Cr(VI) onindividual modified materials that were determinedfrom the Langmuir’s isotherm, including theparameters of non-linear regression in QC-ExpertTrilobyte, version 6.1. software, are resumed in Tab. 2.DiscussionMeasured data show that the modification of claymaterials have strong influence on their sorptionabilities. It follows from Table 1 that not only thepH value and the preparation mode of intercalatedmaterial but also subsequent pillarization at thetemperature of 450 °C have considerable effect onthe sorption abilities of given material. The mode ofthe preparation of intercalates marked procedure II(constant pH value during the whole process of thesaturation by Al-polycation) has positive influenceon the sorption abilities of prepared materials, when,in some cases, the sorption ability can increase bymore than 100 % (Al-SWy-2, II, pH 1.5). Subsequentpillarization increases sorption ability of intercalatesas well, in case of Al-SWy-2, prepared by procedureI at pH value 3.8, by 350 %. Maximum sorptionof individual gaseous pollutants are determined at14


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16Tab. 2 Parameters of adsorption isotherm at Cr(VI) sorption on SWy-2 and intercalatesMaterialSWy-2HL-SWy-2,process B(preparation atpH 1)various intercalate types. In case of xylene, it is thepillarized intercalate Al-SWy-2, II, pH 1.5, whereasmaximum amount of toluene was adsorbed bypillarized intercalate Al-SWy-2, II, pH 3.8. In thiscomparison the intercalate Al-SWy-2, II, pH 1.5proved to be the best adsorbent, having sorbed bothsubstances more than activated carbon, in pillarizedstate as well as before pillarization.As far as the sorption of Cr(VI) in the form ofdichromates, the intercalation by humic substances helpsto remove Cr(VI) cations of aqueous solutions. Thepreparation of intercalates plays an important role, aswell as the conditions during Cr(VI) sorption (pH value).Positive influence of the presence of aluminum ions in thestructure of intercalates, helping the sorption of Cr(VI),was proved. Table 2 shows that original SWy-2 clay didnot adsorb Cr(VI) at all. On the other hand, the intercalatewith humic substance and aluminum ions (34.32 ±1.04 mg Cr.g -1 of clay) showed the best sorptionproperties.ConclusionpH value duringsorption Cr(VI)Presence of Al(III)in intercalateCr(VI)Measured data prove that the modification ofclay materials has positive effect on their sorptionabilities. Three modes of modification were applied:by inorganic polycation, by humic substancesand by pillarization process at 450 °C. Preparedintercalates were used for the sorption of dangerousMaximumadsorbed amounta m(mg Cr(VI)/g ofclay)industrial pollutants (toluene, xylene, Cr (VI)). Theeffect of conditions at the preparation of modifiedclay materials was assessed as well. In case ofinorganic modification, pH value has a strongeffect. As far as the organic modification by humicsubstances is concerned, the assumption that thepresence of aluminum cations in the structure of claymaterial improves the sorption of Cr(VI) improvessorption was verified. The pillarization temperatureof 450 °C has positive effect as well. The resultsprovide processes leading to the improvementof environment in a foundry by the adsorptionof polluting substances originating from mouldmixtures. To prevent the occurrence of harmfulsubstances is the best way of the improvement ofthe environmental sustainability of production.However, this is not possible due to the high use ofcore mixtures with organic binders. That is why themethods of the adsorption of polluting substancesby modified bentonites are a valuable contributionto the improvement of situation.AcknowledgementsR AIK MEPpH 1 yes 22,95 ± 1,06 0,9926 -65,6 0,00067no 0 - - -without pHyes 29,12 ± 1,56 0,9934 -72,0 0,00081adjustmentno 0 - - -pH 1 yes 22,11 ± 1,15 0,9936 -60,5 0,00051no 28,60 ± 2,60 0,9833 -64,9 0,00155without pHyes 34,32 ± 1,04 0,9973 -87,9 0,00034adjustmentno 0 - - -R - multiple correlation coefficient, AIK - Akaike’s information criterion, MEP - mean square error of prediction.ReferencesThe authors appreciate the Grant agency of theCzech Republic for the institutional support of theproject 104/08/P274 and the Regional materialtechnologyresearch center (RMTVC) for the financialsupport of the project CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0040.ČSN ISO 11083 (75 7424):1996. Jakost vod - Stanovení chromu (VI) - Spektrofotometrická metodas 1,5-difenylkarbazidem.FENG X., SIMPSON A.J., SIMPSON M.J. (2005) Chemical and mineralogical controls on humic acid sorption toclay mineral surfaces. Organic Geochemistry, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 1553-1566. ISSN 0146-6380.GONEN, Yotam, RYTWO, Giora (2006). Using the dual-mode model to describe adsorption of organic pollutants ontoan organoclay. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, Vol. 299, No. 1, pp. 95-101. ISSN 0021-9797.HALL, K.R., EAGLETON, L.C., ACRIVOS, A., VERMEULEN, T. (1966). Pore- and solid-diffusion kinetics infixed-bed adsorption under constant-pattern conditions. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals,1966, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 212-&. ISSN 0196-4313.15


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 11 - 16HOUARI, M., HAMDI, B., BRENDLE, J., BOURAS, O., BOLLINGER, J.C., BAUDU, M. (2007). Dynamicsorption of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) and xylene from water using geomaterial-modifiedmontmorillonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2007, Vol. 147, No. 3, pp. 738-745. ISSN 0304-3894.JARRAYA, Ikram, FOURMENTIN, Sophie, BENZINA, Mourad, BOUAZIZ, Samir (2010). VOC adsorption onraw and modified clay materials. Chemical Geology, 2010, Vol. 275, No. 1-2, pp. 1-8. ISSN 0009-2541.KLOPROGGE, J.T., FRY, R., FROST, R.L. (1999). An infrared emission spectroscopic study of the thermaltransformation mechanisms in Al-13-pillared clay catalysts with and without tetrahedral substitutions. Journalof Catalysis, 1999, Vol. 184, No. 1, pp. 157-171. ISSN 0021-9517.KOBĚRSKÁ, Z. (2010). Interkalace jílových minerálů huminovými kyselinami, Diplomová práce, 2010, Ostrava, p. 55.LAHAV, N., SHANI, U., SHABTAI, J. (1978). Cross-Linked Smectites .1. Synthesis and Properties of Hydroxy-Aluminum-Montmorillonite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 1978, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 107-115. ISSN 0009-8604.LAMBERT, J.F., CHEVALIER, S., FRANCK, R., SUQUET, H., BARTHOMEUF, D (1994). Al-pillared Saponites.2., NMR studies. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faradyz Transactions, 1994, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 675-682.ISSN 0956-5000.LANGMUIR, I. (1918). The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of theAmerican Chemical Societ, 1918, Vol. 40, pp. 1361-1403. ISSN 0002-7863.LI, Ying, YUE, Qin-Yan, GAO, Bao-Yu (2010). Effect of Humic Acid on the Cr(VI) Adsorption onto Kaolin.Applied Clay Science, 2010, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 481-484. ISSN 0169-1317.MICHOT, L.J., BARRÈS, O., HEFT, E.L., PINNAVAIA, T.J. (1993). Cointercalation of Al13 Polycations andNonionic Surfactants in Montmorillonite Clay. Langmuir, 1993, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 1794-1800. ISSN 0743-7463.MOORE, D.M., REYNOLDS, R.C. (1997). X-Ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals,Oxford, 2 nd . edit., New York, 1997, p. 109.PAVLOVSKÝ, J., HERECOVÁ, L., MÍČEK, D., VĚŽNÍKOVÁ, H., MUCHA, M., ŠTUDENTOVÁ, S.,DOLEŽALOVÁ WEISSMANNOVÁ, H. (2009). Využití nových materiálů na bázi jílových minerálů pro sorpcinebezpečných plynných polutantů. SPEKTRUM, Ostrava, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 68-71. ISSN 1211-6920.PAVLOVSKÝ, J., HERECOVÁ, L., MÍČEK, D., VĚŽNÍKOVÁ, H., MUCHA, M., ŠTUDENTOVÁ, S.,DOLEŽALOVÁ WEISSMANNOVÁ, H. (2010). Modifikované jílové minerály jako sorbenty organickýchplynných polutantů. SPEKTRUM, Ostrava, 2010, Vol. 10., No. 1, pp. 50-54. ISSN 1211-6920.PAVLOVSKÝ, J., HERECOVÁ, L., MÍČEK, D., VĚŽNÍKOVÁ, H., MUCHA, M., ŠTUDENTOVÁ, S.,DOLEŽALOVÁ WEISSMANNOVÁ, H., KOBĚRSKÁ, Z., VASKOVÁ, I. (2011). Sorbenty na bázi jíl-huminoválátka a jejich využití pro sorpci dichromanů. SPEKTRUM, 2011, Vol. 11., No. 1, pp. 54-59. ISSN 1211-6920.PLACHÁ, Daniela, MARTYNKOVÁ SIMHA, Gražyna, RÜMMELI, Mark H. (2008) Preparation oforganovermiculites using HDTMA: Structure and sorptive properties using naphthalene, Journal of Colloidand Interface Science, 2008, Vol. 327, No. 2, pp. 341-347. ISSN 0021-9797.PLACHÁ, Daniela, MARTYNKOVÁ SIMHA, Gražyna, KUKUTSCHOVÁ, Jana (2011). Sorption of NaphthaleneVapor on Organomodified Vermiculite. Chemické listy, Praha, 2011, Vol. 105, No. 3, pp. 186-192. ISSN 0009-2770.PLEE, D., BORG., F., GATINEAU, L., FRIPIAT, J. J. (1985). High-resolution solid-state aluminum-27 andsilicon-29 nuclear magnetic resonance study of pillared clays. Journal of the American Chemical Society,1985, Vol. 107, No. 8, pp. 2362-2369.RUIZ, J., BILBAO, R., MURILLO, M.B. (1998). Adsorption of different VOC onto soil minerals from gas phase:Influence of mineral, type of VOC, and air humidity. Environmental Science & Technology, 1998, Vol. 32, No.8, pp. 1079-1084. ISSN 0013-936X.SHIH, Yang-Hsin, CHOU, Shih-Min (2010). Characterization of Adsorption Mechanisms of Volatile OrganicCompounds with Montmorillonite at Different Levels of Relative Humidity via a Linear Solvation EnergyRelationship Approach. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 2010, Vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 5766-5770.ISSN 0021-9568.TICHÝ, Miloň (2004). Toxikologie pro chemiky - Toxikologie obecná, speciální, analytická a legislativa. 2 nd . edit.Karolinum, Czech Republic: Prague, 2004. 119 p. ISBN 80-246-0566-X.WEISS, Z., KLIKA, Z., ČAPKOVÁ, P., JANEBA, D. (1998). Sodium-cadmium and sodium-zinc exchangeabilityin montmorillonite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 1998, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 534-540. ISSN 0342-1791.16


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26SCREENING OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS FROM AUTOMOBILECATALYSTS IN SOILS OF OSTRAVA CITYLucie SIKOROVÁ 1 , Marcela ŠUCMANOVÁ 2 , Pavel DANIHELKA 3Research articleAbstract:Key words:Automobile catalysts are sources of platinum group metals (PGM) emissions into theenvironment. Since their introduction, the increase of PGM concentrations in differentenvironmental matrices has been observed. This, together with the information abouttoxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh, raises concerns about possible health risks. To obtain input dataon potential exposure to PGM, soil sampling methodology was developed and screeningof PGM in soils was provided in the city of Ostrava at locations with different trafficload, including sites with potential exposure of children. The screening indicates that inimmediate proximity to high traffic, increased Pt, Pd and Rh concentrations are observed.Soil contamination, Platinum group metals, Automobile catalysts, Ostrava.IntroductionIn the Czech Republic, automobile catalysts withplatinum group metals (PGM) were introduced asa compulsory component of every new passengercar due to stricter emission limits EURO in 1993. In2009, the number of vehicles equipped with catalystscomprised around 4 million of the total 6 millioncars, with passenger cars and vans representing 90 %of all vehicles equipped with catalysts (CDV, 2010).An automobile catalyst is a unit installed intothe exhaust system of a car to reduce the productionof gaseous pollutants, such as carbon monoxide,hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, by theirtransformation into harmless components - carbondioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen gas. The exhaustgases purification takes place as a consequence ofoxidation-reduction reactions, which are facilitatedby the combination of heat with the platinum metals- platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh)- contained in this device. (Bliefert, 1994; AECC,2011).Currently, three way catalysts (TWCs) are mostlyused (see Fig. 1). TWCs consist of a steel or ceramiccarrier with a honeycomb structure, which is coatedwith a highly porous layer, the so called washcoat,made of aluminium oxide, which is resistant to hightemperatures and to repeated temperature changes aswell. A catalytic layer, consisting of finely dispersedplatinum metals, is fixed on the washcoat surface.(Bliefert, 1994; AECC, 2011).Fig. 1 Automobile catalyst (BOSAL CR, 2009)There is no dispute that the application ofautomobile catalysts has an enormous contributionto environmental protection. However, the catalystspresent the main source of environmental pollutionby platinum metals. During the car operation, thecatalyst surface is chemically and physically stressedby fast changing oxidative-reductive conditions,high temperature and mechanical abrasion, thus,producing the emission of PGM primarily tothe air with consequent contamination of otherenvironmental matrices (Ravindra et al., 2004).Apart from automobile catalysts, additionalmajor uses of PGM are in the glass, chemical,electrical, electronics and petroleum industries,the manufacture of jewelry, in medicine as cancertreatment drugs, and in dentistry as alloys. However,automobile catalysts are considered the mostimportant source of environmental burden by PGM.(Ravindra et al., 2004; Wiseman and Zereini, 2009).1VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering and Energy Research Center, Ostrava,Czech Republic, lucie.sikorova@vsb.cz2TraceLab, spol. s. r. o., Kroměříž, Czech Republic, TraceLab@seznam.cz3VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, pavel.danihelka@vsb.cz17


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26Platinum group elements are released by catalyststogether with exhaust gases mostly in the formof finely dispersed metal nanoparticles adsorbedon larger aluminium dioxide particles from the“washcoat” with emission rates of ng.km -1 (König etal., 1992; Moldovan et al. 1999; Artelt et al., 1999;Palacios et al., 2000; Moldovan et al., 2002). Theamount and rate of PGM emission depend on manyfactors, such as driving conditions (i.e. the speed ofa car, and the exhaust gases temperature), the type ofthe engine, the type and age of the catalyst (Artelt etal., 1999; Moldovan et al., 2002).Great attention has been paid to the researchof accumulation and distribution of PGM in theenvironment during the last 10 years. Many studies(e.g. Zereini et al., 2001; Cinti et al., 2002; Gómezet al., 2002; Leśniewska et al., 2004; Pan et al.,2009) have pointed out the significant increase ofthese precious metals in various environmentalcompartments. Cinti et al. (2002), for example,recorded 6-fold enhancement in the Pt levels ofsoil in 2001 in comparison with 1992. Zereini et al.(2001) observed an enhancement in the Pt and Pdlevels in air over a 10-year period - Pt concentrationshave increased 46-times and concentrations of Pdwere 27-fold higher in 1998 than in 1988. Withrespect to the monitoring of PGM accumulationduring the automobile catalyst usage, soil is themost commonly monitored matrice. A review ofselected studies focused on PGM determinationin soils is presented in Tab. 1. A comparison ofresults obtained in presented studies is not possibledue to different locations, sampling conditions andanalytical methods. However, following conclusionscan be deduced:• At sites exposed to traffic, PGM concentrationsexceed the natural background levels,• PGM concentrations decrease with the increasingdistance from the road and with the increasingdepth of sampling,• PGM concentrations are in a strong correlationwith traffic intensities.The increase of PGM concentrations inthe environment raises concerns over possiblehealth risks. Platinum metals, especially solublePt compounds, are well known from workingenvironment as substances with the ability to causesensitization (Marhold, 1980; Nordberg et al., 2007).Certain Pt compounds exhibit toxic, carcinogenicand mutagenic effects (Nordberg et al., 2007).Metallic Pd is a dermal sensitizer causing contactdermatitis (Kielhorn et al., 2002). Since there isa little knowledge in the area of transformation,behavior, speciation and bioavailability of PGM inthe environment and living organisms, it is difficultto make any conclusions with regard to health risksfrom environmental exposure to these metals. Thus,substances with uncertain hazards are released intothe environment.A review of recent knowledge with regard to theissue of environmental burden by the platinum groupmetals from transportation and related health riskswas discussed in detail in Chemické listy journal(Sikorová et al., 2011).A screening of PGM concentrations in soils iscurrently provided in the area of Ostrava city. Theattention is focused on urban sites with traffic loadand on urban sites with traffic load and the presenceof child population. The reason why sites withchildren are considered is that child population isat high risk of exposure to harmful substances fromcontaminated soils (SZÚ, 2000 - 2007).The aims of this contribution are to present a soilsampling methodology to determine platinum metalsfrom automobile catalysts in the area of Ostrava cityincluding the partial results, and to discuss someproblematic aspects of environmental monitoring ofthese ultratrace elements.Materials and methodsSampling sitesSampling sites were divided into three groups -sites with traffic load and the presence of children,locations with traffic load and without the presenceof children, and finally sampling sites without trafficload and with the presence of children, so calledbackground sites.Kindergarten playgrounds, sports grounds andother playgrounds in residential areas and parks(their lists are not maintained) were considered siteswith traffic load and the presence of child population.Lists of kindergartens and sports grounds andcartograms of traffic load from 2009 were obtainedfrom the Ostrava City Authority. Traffic intensitiesgained from the cartograms were supplementedwith nation-wide traffic census data from 2011.Kindergartens and sports grounds were reflected to anOstrava city map with a road and motorway networkin the program ArcGIS. For a field reconnaissance,kindergartens and sports grounds up to 200 m awayfrom roads with traffic intensities ≥ 5 001 vehiclesper day (vpd) were chosen - see Fig. 2. In total, 30kindergartens and 18 sports grounds were selected.During field reconnaissance, other playgrounds inresidential areas and parks were seeked out.18


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26Fig. 2 Kindergartens and sports grounds in the area of Ostrava city chosen for the field reconnaissanceTab. 1 Review of studies focused on monitoring of PGM in soils - methods and resultsCity - country(year ofsampling)Sampling siteSamplingůAnalyticalmethodsPGM concentrations[ng.g -1 ]Ref.Beijing,Guangzhou,Hong Kong -China (2007)Sites close to main roads incities50-100 g of soilscraped witha plastic trowel closeto main roads (moreinformation notavailable)Nickel sulphidefire assay;ICP-MSBeijing:Pt: 39.8 (7.6 - 126)Pd: 20.8 (3.38 - 57.5)Rh: 10.1 (0.97 - 31.4)Guangzhou:Pt: 35.1 (6.56 - 90.9)Pd: 39.9 (6.68 - 120)Rh: 12.1 (1.99 - 31.7)Hong Kong:Pt: 62.2 (15.4 - 160)Pd: 38.7 (6.93 - 107)Rh: 10.8 (1.61 - 34.5)Pan et al.,2009Mumbai,Kolkata - India(2007)Sites close to main roads incities50 - 100 g of soilscraped witha plastic trowel closeto main roads (moreinformation notavailable)Nickel sulphidefire assay;ICP-MSMumbai:Pt: 6.24 (3.20 - 9.40)Pd: 15.5 (1.32 - 42.4)Rh: 0.64 (0.24 - 1.36)Kolkata:Pt: 5.59 (2.59 - 9.43)Pd: 2.83 (1.31 - 4.07)Rh: 1.03 (0.40 - 2.27)Pan et al.,2009Sheffield- UnitedKingdom(2000-2006)Sites close to roundabout andnearby woodland1 sample downthe slope of theroundabout (1 m awayfrom the road),1 sample in woodland10 m away from theroundabout; depth of5 cmLead fire assaycollection;ICP-MSRoundabout:Pt: 606Pd: 1050Rh: 210Woodland:Pt: 8Pd: 9Rh: 2Prichard etal., 200719


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26Braunschweig- Germany(2005)Motorway B 248: two-lanemotorway, speed limit of80 km.h -1 , 16 000 vpd;Gifhorner street: four-lane road,constant speed of about50 km.h -1 , 230 000 vpd;Hagenring: four-lane road,average speed 40 - 60 km.h -1 ,35 000 vpd, traffic lights nearby(stop&go traffic);City park: local backgroundMotorway B 248:distances from theroad: 0.1 m, 2.5 m,5 m, 7.5 m, 10 m,20 m, 50 m, depths:0 - 2 cm, 2 - 5 cm,5 - 10 cm;Gifhorner street: 0.1 mfrom the roadside andfrom the middle of thenarrow center strip,depth 0 - 2 cm;Hagenring: 0.1 mfrom the roadside andfrom the middle ofthe center strip, depth0 - 2 cm;City park: central partof the area, > 70 maway from a roadDistances: 0, 1, 2 a 5m away from the roadedge, from a singleside (left) of the road;10 cm wide and 5 mlong strip of top soil -depth: 2 cm;Sampling equipment:stainless steel trowelNickel sulphidefire assay;ICP-MSMotorway B 248:Pt max: 50.4Pd max: 43.3Rh max: 10.7Gifhorner street:Pt max:88.9Pd max: 77.8Rh max: 17.6Hagenring:Pt max:261Pd max: 124Rh max: 38.9City park:Pt: 1.10Pd: 1.02Rh: 0.10Wichmannet al., 2007Oxfordshire,London - UnitedKingdom (2000)4 locations in Oxforshire:a main road to a busyroundabout; an intersection of aslip road with a main trunk roadwith heavy traffic (80 km.h -1 );a road from a busy roundabout;a dual carriageway 400 m awayfrom an intersection;1 location in London: a junctionof the slip road with a busy dualcarriageway with heavy and fastmoving traffic20 locations in urban areas -factors considered: potencialrisk of anthropogenic burden,morphology, microclimaticconditions and character ofvegetationMicrowavedigestion withHNO 3and H 2O 2;ICP-MSAll locations:0 m:Pt: 15.9 ± 7.5Pd: 120.8 ± 12.0Rh: 22.4 ± 4.7 (1.7)5 m:Pt: 2.04 ± 7.5Pd: 84.2 ± 10.9Rh: 3.5 ± 1.9Hooda et al.,2007Brno - CzechRepublic (-)Depths: 0 - 2, 0 - 5a 0 - 20 cm;Composite samplesfrom 5 subsamples,area of 10 m 2 ;Sampling equipment:soil probeCentral green-belts/green-belts at the sidesof the roads;4 samples from eachsampling site - 2 kgeach;Depth: 0 - 5 cm;Sampling equipment:an acid washed plastictrowelDepth: 0-5 cm;Distances: 0.4 m,1.4 m, 2.4 m, 3.4 m,4.4 m a 5.4 m;Composite samplesfrom 5 subsamples -area of 20 m 2Depth: 0 - 1 cm;Area of 1 m 2 ;Sampling equipment:an acid washed plastictrowelNickel sulphidefire assay;ICP-MSAll locations:Pt: 0.4-39.6Pd: 0.5-18.2Rh: 0.05-4.89Adamec etal., 2007Athens -Greece (2003)The Athens-Thessalonikihighway: very high traffic flow(48 756 vpd);The Iera Odos street: urbanstreet with high-density trafficflow (36 510 vpd);A suburban street in Filotheisuburb: very low traffic flow;A rural road in Marathonas ruralarea: low traffic flow4 locations (31 km, 39 km,45 km, 53 km) adjacent toa major road (SP348) withhigh-density traffic flow (ca.30 000 vpd); Different drivingconditions (constant speed vs.stop&go)4 locations near roads (moreinformation not available)Lead fire assay;GF-AASRural areas and suburbs:Pt: 2.0 (


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26Perth -Australia (-)5 locations with different trafficintensities (30 500 -100 000 vpd) and drivingconditions (stop&go, constantspeed, mixed style) aroundPerth;Kings Park in the citry center(approx. 750 m away from anymajor road and 500 m awayfrom the nearest park road) -a local backgroundUrban (city center - flower beds)and suburban locationsDepth: 0 - 1 cm;Area of 1 m 2 ;Sampling equipment:an acid washed plastictrowelMicrowavedigestion withaqua regia;Separation ofPGE from thematrix using ionexchange;ICP-MS5 locations:Pt: 30.96 - 153.20Pd: 13.79 - 108.45Rh: 3.47 - 26.55Background:Pt: 1.21 ± 0.71Pd: 1.62 ± 0.96Rh: 0.31 ± 0.08Whiteleyand Murray,2003Napoli - Italy(2000)195 samples over anarea of 120 km 2 , gridof 0,5 x 0,5 km in thecity and a grid of 1 x1 km in the suburbanareas;3 sub-sites at distanceof 10 m from eachother at each site;Depth: 0 - 15 cm; 3 kgof soil1 kg of soil at eachsite;Depth: 0 - 5 cm;Sampling equipment:plastic trowelDigestion withaqua regia;ICP-MSAll locations:Pt:


10 mTransactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26Sampling was carried out in two time stages.According to results from the first stage, furthersampling strategy was specified. Locations,which were chosen in the first sampling stage,are highlighted in bold italic in Tab. 2. Their briefcharacteristics are presented in Tab. 3.Tab. 2 Overview of sampling sitesKindergartensŠpálova Petřkovice BíloveckáPolanecká Kokešova KeramickáFrýdecká P. Lumumby VýškovickáPoděbradova VolgogradskáBackground kindergartensDružební Kalinová SládečkovaSports groundsSwimming pool Waterland Sareza -Sareza - Poruba Mor. OstravaOther playgroundsJan Hus Park Playground DubinaIntersectionsOpavská/17. listopaduOpavská/MariánskohorskáRudná/FrýdeckáRudná/FryštáckáSampling and sample preparationFirst 10 soil samples were taken in June 2011and analysed in July and August. The second roundof sampling, when the rest of locations from Tab. 2were sampled, was carried out in September 2011.Fig. 3 Sampling schemeČeskobratrská/BohumínskáBohumínská/Těšínská28. října/Místecká Plzeňská/Výškovická Horní/Dr. MartínkaRudná/D1Rudná/VýškovickáRudná/PlzeňskáRudná/MísteckáMariánskohorská/GrmelovaMariánskohorská/Sokolská třídaMuglinovská/BohumínskáHlučínská/Slovenská10 mMístecká/Dr. MartínkaPlzeňská/HorníSamples were taken as composite samples from9 subsamples from the area of about 100 m 2 - usuallysquare area of 10 x 10 m (see Fig. 3). The samplingdepth was 5 cm.Sampling was performed using a soil probeEijkelkamp. The probe was hammered to the depthof ca. 10 cm, a monolith of sample was obtainedafter pulling out the probe with rotary motion andfinally, a subsample of 5 cm length was cut off fromthe monolith on a clean plastic tray. Nine subsamplestaken from each sampling site were put intopolyethylene bags and transported to a laboratory atthe Faculty of Safety Engineering.In the laboratory, obtained composed sampleswere air-dried on filter papers at laboratorytemperature, broken up using a mortar and a pestleand then sieved through a mesh screen of 2 mm and1 mm. Homogenization and reduction to a sampleweight of 100 g was carried out and finally, adjustedsamples were handed over to laboratories of theCzech Geological Survey (CGS).Analytical methodsAt CGS, nickel sulphide fire assay techniquewas applied to preconcentration of PGM. Withrespect to ultratrace concentrations of PGM in theenvironment, this preconcentration step is veryimportant. The principle of the technique is asfollows: Samples are melted in a schamotte fireclay crucible with a mixture of sodium carbonateand anhydrous borax with addition of nickel andsulphur at 1100 °C. Present platinoids and gold areextracted into nickel sulphide, which is accumulatedat the bottom of the crucible in a form of button.Afterwards, the crucible is cooled down and the NiSbutton is mechanically separated from the silica slag.Finally, the button is crushed and dissolved in HCl.Solid phase containing insoluble PGM sulphides isfiltered off and dissolved in a mixture of HCl andH 2O 2. The resulting solutions are analysed.The analyses were performed by ICP-MSin laboratories of the Institute of Geochemistry,Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science,Charles University in Prague. The instrumentaldetection limits were as follows: 2 ng.g -1 , 2 ng.g -1 ,and 0.5 ng.g -1 for Pt, Pd, and Rh, respectively. Theseisotopes were measured: 103 Rh, 105 Pd, 195 Pt.Quality of analytical data was verified with theuse of internal standards, since the certified referencematerial BCR 723 - Road dust was not available atthe time of the analysis of the first samples.Results and DiscussionConcentrations of platinum metals (Pt, Pd andRh) measured in soil samples taken at locationswith and without traffic load in Ostrava in June2011 are listed in Tab. 3. Due to higher detectionlimits (following detection limits were considered:22


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 260.5 ng.g -1 for Pt and Pd, 0.05 ng.g -1 for Rh), thePGM concentrations were not determined in mostsamples. Detection limits of the whole analyticalprocess are highly influenced by limits of blank fromthe preconcentration step. If optimal low values ofanalysed elements in blanks are not achieved (due toinsufficient purity of chemicals, contamination of theenvironment and the apparatus from previous serieswith high PGM concentrations, etc.), low analytecontents can be covered and these is no possibility todetermine particular concentrations in a real sample.Since determined concentrations in most sampleswere not significantly higher that blank values andany reference material with certified PGM contentwas not analysed as well, only a few values ofanalysed elements were obtained. Platinum andpalladium were determined in 3 samples (data arehighlighted in bold - see Tab. 3), rhodium was notfound in any of the samples. The measured valuesare in the range of 1.71 - 4.89 ng.g -1 and 1.61 -2.99 ng.g -1 for Pt and Pd, respectively.Local background levels of PGM are notknown for Ostrava. Initially suggested backgroundlocation “Kindergarten Sládečkova” probably doesnot represent the natural background, since valuesmeasured at this site are higher than concentrationsmeasured near the busy intersection Rudná/Místecká.From the air quality maps of PM10 and PM 2.5, it wasfound out that this location is influenced by industryand it belongs to contaminated areas. Catalystsbased on platinum with Pd content are commonlyused in chemical industry, which is widespread inthe Ostrava region. This can be the explanation ofhigh PGM values at location without traffic load. Itcan be assumed that the second background location- Kindergarten Kalinová - could better represent thenatural background. However, because of the highdetection limits, there is not obvious differencebetween this location and sites with traffic load.Tab. 3 Concentrations of platinum group metals in soil samples (Ostrava, June 2011)Sampling siteK 1 VýškovickáK ŠpálovaK PolaneckáK KalinováK SládečkovaSwimming poolSarezaJan Hus ParkPlaygroundDubinaD1/RudnáRudná/Místecká1K - kindergartenSite characterizationA central sampling point 230 m away from the communication“Výškovická” with traffic intensity 17 363 vph; playground partlyopened - barriers: church building, deciduous treesA central sampling point 40 m away from the communication“Sokolská třída” with traffic intensity 15 212 vph; close to theintersection “Mariánskohorská/Sokolská třída” (stop&go);playground almost fully opened - barriers: low growing shrubA central sampling point 23 m away from the communication“Polanecká” with traffic intensity 8 628 vph; playground almost fullyopened - single barrier: lime treeBackground location with partial industry load; kindergarten inresidential neighbourhood, forest parkBackground location with industry load; kindergarten in residentialneighbourhood, forest parkA central sampling point 157 m away from the communication“Opavská” with traffic intensity 14 267 vph; playground opened,situated in a valleyA central sampling point 44 m away from the communication“Českobratrská” with traffic intensity 13 987 vph; close to theintersection “Českobratrská / Sokolská třída” (stop&go); playgroundalmost fully opened - barriers: low growing shrub, deciduous treesA central sampling point 54 m away from the communication“Horní” with traffic intensity 19 365 vph; playground in housingestates, fully opened from “Horní”A central sampling point 22 m away from the communication“D1” with traffic intensity 11 382 vph and 33 m away from thecommunication “Rudná” with traffic intensity 23 864; new section ofa highway, opened in 2007 - 2008A central sampling point 165 m away from the communication“Rudná” with traffic intensity 25 040 vph and 13 m away from thecommunication “Místecká” with traffic intensity 26 605 vphPGM concentrations [ng.g -1 ]Pt Pd Rh


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26The comparison of measured results with globalaverage PGM abundances in the continental crust,which are generally less than 1 ng.g -1 (Wadepohl,1995), can point out the increase of PGMconcentrations in Ostrava environment. However,the increase is not as high as it had been expected,especially at the intersection “Rudná/Místecká”. Thisintersection shows the highest traffic intensities inOstrava and so the levels higher than 10 ng.g -1 couldbe anticipated. Landscaping, which was probablyperformed at the location due to the reconstructionof tram tracks, could be the possible explanation forlow measured concentrations. For now, informationabout particular terrain disruption was not definitelyconfirmed. It is considered a general problem to findout information about construction works and otherchanges at intersections and near communications,which could disrupt a terrain in the past. Concentrationsof PGM measured at location “Jan Hus Park” are, withrespect to the distance from the road and the trafficintensity, in good correlation with the values obtainedin other countries (see Tab. 2).Considering kindergarten playgrounds andtheir distances from communications (usually>50 m), PGM concentrations around 2 ng.g -1 canbe expected, which is in agreement with measuredresults. Nonetheless, particular values are notavailable due to high blank levels again, thus anyclear conclusions cannot be drawn.The most of foreign studies were focused onthe determination of PGM in immediate proximityof communications with high traffic volumes.These studies showed that in a distance of >10 m,the PGE concentrations rapidly decrease. It wasdemonstrated, however, that PGM are released bycatalysts also in the ultrafine fraction (Artelt et al.,1999) and so the air transport over longer distancesfrom the source can not be excluded. The attempt ofpresented screening of PGM in Ostrava at locationswith traffic load and the presence of children was,among other things, to point out the possible transportof fine PGM particles further away from the source.Unfortunately, results obtained so far do not enableto neither prove nor disprove this hypothesis.The above results should have served to make adecision on further sampling strategy (2 nd phase ofthe study). Owing to small amount of obtained resultsand unclear conclusions, a strategy of the worst-casescenario was finally adopted, i.e. only intersectionswith the highest traffic intensities and kindergartensclose to communications with higher trafficintensities (>10 000 vpd), opened as much as possibleagainst roads were chosen. Sports grounds and otherplaygrounds were left out due to impossibility ofexposure characteristics, such as number of exposedsubjects and the time of exposure, determination.ConclusionUp to now, there in not unanimous opinionon whether or not platinum metals released byautomobile catalysts can cause health risks, sinceinformation about their emissions, transport,deposition and transformations in the environmentand human body is still at the beginning. Consideringthe precautionary principle, PGM should be regularlymonitored in the environment in order to accepteffective precautions if some adverse health effectsarise. Special attention should be paid to children, asthey are most vulnerable to environmental exposuresto toxic substances.The aim of the conducted screening of PGMin soils of Ostrava city, methods and partial resultsof which are presented in this contribution, is toprovide the first overview of PGM concentrations insoils of the third largest city of the Czech Republic,which is highly influenced not only by traffic butalso by industry. The study is concentrated onchildren as potentially exposed subjects of highsensitivity, since they are the part of the population,which can be highly influenced by contaminatedsoil. The foreign studies and previous Czech studies(see Tab. 2) were focused especially onimmediate proximity of communicationsand only very rarely dealt witha potential exposure of the population to thesemetals. The screening conducted in Ostrava isthe first of its kind solving the contamination ofkindergarten playgrounds soils by PGM with respectto the potential exposure of children to these metals.Only the first partial results of the conductedscreening are presented in this contribution.A complete overview of results from the wholescreening study will be published in professionalliterature as soon as data from the second samplinground will be available.AcknowledgmentsThe contribution was prepared within the supportof the following projects and subsidy:• Project of Student Grant Competition of VŠB- Technical University of Ostrava “Studiumznečištění půdy platinovými kovy z dopravy naúzemí města Ostravy”, No. SP2011/184,• The project of the Ministry of Education, Youthand Sports “Innovation for Efficiency andEnvironment”, No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0036,• Support for science and research in Moravian-Silesian Region - subsidy title No. 5, agreementNo. 01737/2010/RRC.24


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 17 - 26ReferencesIntroduction to the technology for emissions control [online]. AECC Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst[cit. 2011-10-1]. Available at: http://www.aecc.eu/en/Technology/Introduction.html.ADAMEC, V., SÁŇKA, M., ŠUCMANOVÁ, M., SCHWARZOVÁ, M., HUZLÍK, J., LIČBINSKÝ, R.,EFFENBERGER, K. (2007). Obsahy kovů ze skupiny platiny v půdách intravilánu města Brna. In: Sborníkz konference Mikroelementy 2007. Kouty, 3.-5.9.2007, pp. 67.ARTELT, S., KOCK, H., KÖNIG, H. P., LEVSEN, K., ROSNER, G. (1999). Engine dynamometer experiments:platinum emissions from differently aged three-way catalytic converters. Atmospheric Environment. 1999, Vol.33, pp. 3559-3567. ISSN 1352-2310.BAREFOOT, R. R. (1997). Determination of platinum at trace levels in environmental and biological materials.Environmental Science & Technology. 1997, Vol. 31, pp. 309-314. ISSN 0013-936X.BLIEFERT, C. (1994). Umweltchemie. VCH, Weinheim, New York, Basel, Cambridge, Tokio, 1994. ISBN 3-527-28692-6.CICCHELLA, D., DE VIVO, B., LIMA, A. (2003). Palladium and platinum concentration in soils from the Napolimetropolitan area, Italy: possible effects of catalytic exhaust. Science of the Total Environment. 2003, Vol. 308,pp. 121-131. ISSN 0048-9697.CINTI, D., ANGELONE, M., MASI, U., CREMISINI, C. (2002). Platinum levels in natural and urban soils fromRome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter. Science of the TotalEnvironment. 2002, Vol. 293, pp. 47-57. ISSN 0048-9697.GÓMEZ, B., PALACIOS, M.A., GÓMEZ, M., SANCHEZ, J.L., MORRISON, G., RAUCH, S., MCLEOD,C., MA, R., CAROLI, S., ALIMONTI, A., PETRUCCI, F., BOCCA, B., SCHRAMEL, P., ZISCHKA, M.,PETTERSON, C., WASS, U. (2002). Levels and risk assessment for humans and ecosystems of platinum-groupelements in the airborne particles and road dust of some European cities. Science of the Total Environment.2002, Vol. 299, pp. 1-19. ISSN 0048-9697.HOODA, P. S., MILLER, A., EDWARDS, A. C. (2007). The distribution of automobile catalysts-cast platinum,palladium and rhodium in soils adjacent to roads and their uptake by grass. Science of the Total Environment.2007, Vol. 384, pp. 384-392. ISSN 0048-9697.Internal Documents of the Company BOSAL CR, 2009.KIELHORN, J., MELBER, C., KELLER, D., MANGELSDORF, I. (2002). Palladium - A review of exposure andeffects to human health. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. October 2002, Vol. 205,pp. 417-432. ISSN 1438-4639.KÖNIG, H. P., HERTEL, R. F., KOCH, W., ROSNER, G. (1992). Determination of platinum emissions froma three-way catalyst-equipped gasoline engine. Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics. 1992, Vol.26, pp. 741-745. ISSN 0960-1686.LEŚNIEWSKA, B. A., GODLEWSKA-ŻYŁKIEWICZ, B., BOCCA, B., CAIMI, S., CAROLI, S., HULANICKI,A. (2004). Platinum, palladium and rhodium content in road dust, tunnel dust and common grass in Białistokarea (Poland): a pilot study. Science of the Total Environment. 2004, Vol. 321, pp. 93-104. ISSN 0048-9697.MARHOLD, J. (1980). Přehled průmyslové toxikologie: anorganické látky. 2. vyd. Praha: Avicenum, 1980.MOLDOVAN, M., GÓMEZ, M. M., PALACIOS, M. A. (1999). Determination of platinum, rhodium and palladiumin car exhaust fumes. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 1999, Vol. 14, pp. 1163-1169. ISSN (printed)0267-9477. ISSN (electronic) 1364-5544.MOLDOVAN, M., PALACIOS, M. A., GÓMEZ, M. M., MORISSON, G., RAUCH, S., MCLEOD, C., MA, R.,CAROLI, S., ALIMONTI, A., PETRUCCI, F., BOCCA, B., SCHRAMEL, P., ZISCHKA, M., PETTERSSON,C., WASS, U., LUNA, M., SAENZ, J.C., SANTAMARÍA, J. (2002). Environmental risk of particulate andsoluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters. Science of theTotal Environment. 2002, Vol. 296, pp. 199-208. ISSN 0048-9697.MORCELLI, C. P. R., FIGUEIREDO, A. M. G., SARKIS, J. E. S., ENZWEILER, J., KAKAZU, M., SIGOLO,J.B. (2005). PGEs and other traffic-related elements in roadside soils from São Paulo, Brazil. Science of theTotal Environment. 2005, Vol. 345, pp. 81-91. ISSN 0048-9697.MORTON, O., PUCHELT, H., HERNÁNDEZ, E., LOUNEJEVA, E. (2001). Traffic-related platinum groupelements (PGE) in soils from Mexico City. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2001, Vol. 72, pp. 223-227.ISSN 0375-6742.25


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Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 27 - 31EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS USINGSOFTWARE SIMULATIONJuraj VACULÍK 1Abstract:Key words:Research articleArticle describes the most common methods for evaluation of physical protection systems.It analyzes various software simulations and describes how mathematical model can beused for evaluation and designing of physical protection systems and how it can providea basis for software simulation that could upgrade possibilities and extend the scope ofprevious software. Author is focusing on the selection of the best approaches from theevaluation of physical protection systems designed for nuclear facilities and how theseapproaches can be used in evaluation of physical protection systems designed for theprotection of property, persons and tangible assets.Efficiency of protection system, physical protection system, index of security measures,probability of interruption, protection system design.IntroductionProtection system is a tool for the enforcement ofa security policy (Reitšpís, 2004). One of the mainresponsibilities of protection system is to secure thesystem from violation of intruder. It is necessary tomaximize the probability of intruder's detection invital area and delay the intruder in the vital area aslong as possible, so response force can move to theobject and make intervention.This article focuses on physical security, so weuse the term physical protection system. This term isclosely related to the protection of nuclear facilities(Loveček, 2004). Most of software simulation wasmade for evaluation of nuclear facilities.However, we want to find the best developedapproaches that can be used for the evaluating ofsystems that protect property, persons and tangibleassets. Compared to nuclear facilities, theseprotection systems have different composition ofsecurity zones, so other techniques are necessary tofulfill the objectives.The motivation for writing this article is to findthe best approaches from existing mathematicalmodels that can suit the modeling of systems usedfor the protection of various assets.Materials and methodsMany studies have been carried out aboutthe most often used methods, such as SAVI andASSESS. In other cases we had to use limitedsources, particularly for methods that are still inthe development stage. For example, in the case ofSATANO software, we used only the source codeof application and one doctoral thesis related to thistopic.Because we based our research on existingparticular solutions, the basic scientific method weused is the inductive generalization. We generalizedvarious conclusions based on our particular findings.Many times we also used method of comparisonfor comparing various approaches or we had toanalyze various aspects in depth. Very commontechnique for the analyzing of security system issensitivity analysis, because the exclusive usage ofoutput parameters is very often difficult to interpret.ResultsDuring research, we analyzed various practicalsolutions that have been implemented in the past. Asa review of our findings, we provide the analysis ofvarious parameters and software simulations.The most often used parameters for evaluation are:• probability of interruption,• probability of intruders elimination,• index of security measures.Basically, the index of security measures isa ratio between the shortest time of intruder'sadvance through vital area and the time of tacticalunit intervention (Loveček, 2009). Probability ofinterruption is the probability that a response forcewill interrupt adversary before intruder’s task iscompleted (Jang, 2009) Probability of intruder’selimination is the probability, that an intruder willbe successfully eliminated by response force (Rybár,2000).1University of Žilina, Faculty of Special Engineering, Žilina, Slovakia, juraj.vaculik@fsi.uniza.sk27


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 27 - 31SATANO (Faculty of SpecialEngineering, University of Žilina)Software SATANO implements four closelyrelated models that were created together:• Pragmatic model,• Optimistic model,• Pessimistic model,• Realistic model.The output of these models is the efficiency ofprotection system based on calculations of the indexof security measures. Some of these models use theshortest path; others use the most probable path.Dijkstra algorithm is used for the calculation of theshortest path (Loveček, 2005).These models are suitable for the calculation ofthe most probable time of physical protection systemovercoming with the simulation of various types ofsituations, such as:• Intruder has/doesn’t have information about theshortest path,• Background (visibility, traffic) is/isn’t favorable.Fig. 1 Input matrix of GUI in SATANOInput values can be defined as fixed values,normal distribution of probability can be used(Loveček, 2005). The matrix type of graphical userinterface was used, so two different security zonescould be connected only with a single join.Such approach can be sometimes insufficient.For example, two rooms can be connected by severalelements (wall, doors) and the selection of elementwith the lowest breaching endurance time can betricky, because result can depend on the chosen setof intruder’s tools.EASI, ASD, SAVI (Sandia NationalLaboratories)These three methods are based on the probabilityof interruption and they are intended for the evaluationof protection system security in nuclear facilities.They use central distribution of security zones. Theintruder has all the information about security system(Phillips, 2004). The detection before critical point ofdetection is known as early detection.EASI method (Estimation of Adversary SequenceInterruption) is used for the calculation of theprobability of interruption on one (predefined) path.In the graphical method called ASD, variouslayers are used for simulating the barriers thatseparate the intruder from his aim in the central zone.SAVI method combines EASI and ASD methodsand calculates the probability of interruption forall the paths to central zone and selects 10 mostvulnerable zones. (SAVI, 1994) One component ofSAVI is the database of the most often used barriersand detectors.SAVI method implements also the analysisof sensitivity. RFT time is used as a basis for thisanalysis, because it is the most critical factor. Theoutput is the probability of interruption. Figure 4exhibits the sensitivity analysis for a path with thelowest probability of interruption.Drawback of SAVI is the absence of probabilityof intruder’s elimination.ASSESS (Sandia National Laboratories)Fig. 2 GUI of SATANOASSESS method (Analytic System andSoftware for Evaluating Safeguards and Security)is an enhanced method based on SAVI. Additionalmodules for the calculation of probability of externaland internal intruder’s elimination are used.ASSESS also uses the probability of interruptionand ASD method as basic methods (Phillips, 2004).ASSESS has also a new structure that consist of sixindependent modules.28


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 27 - 31OffsiteOFFSITEPER VEH ISOProtected AreaLIMITED AREA(UNUSED)DORDORISOVEHPER SURSURControlled Building AreaControlled RoomTargetEnclosureSURTargetDOR (OPEN)SUNDORPROTECTEDAREACONTROLLEDBUILDING AREACONTROLLEDROOMTARGETENCLOSURETARGETTSKDORDOR DOR SURDOR SURSURSample Facility Adversary Sequence DiagramSURDABCD?Fig. 3 Vital area (left) and application of ASD (right) (Analýza, 1991)1.00.90.80.70.6P (I) 0.50.40.30.20.10.0Sensitivity of Worst Case P (I) to RFT10 RFTs from 60 to 120 seconds60 67 73 80 87 93 100 107 113 120RFT (seconds)Fig. 4 Analysis of interruption (Analýza, 1991)SAPE (Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferationand Control)SAPE (Systematic Analysis Of PhysicalProtection Effectiveness) is based on SAVI andASSESS methods, but it has additional features.SAPE doesn’t use ASD method, but 2D map instead.Since ASD model is too simple to describe anarrangement of buildings, a facility map is requiredto imagine an adversary’s path. This insufficientdescription also causes inaccuracies. The ASDcannot show at what point along a fence it has beenpenetrated, and the distance needed to cross an areais considered equal when using the ASD, regardlessof the particular route (Jang, 2009).2D map has the following advantages comparedto an ASD:• It provides intuitive bird’s eye views of a physicalprotection system,• It realistically represents the relative positions ofprotection elements (Jang, 2009).SAPE uses another technique for sensitivityanalysis. It is noted that SAVI shows a sensitivitygraph of the probability of interruption according toresponse force time, while SAPE shows the sensitivityvalues to all protection elements located on a path.This sensitivity represents relative upgradeefficiency, and hence higher sensitivity elementsshould be considered first forupgrade (Jang, 2009).DiscussionWe found out that the mostoften used output parameterscan be used also for the purposesof property, tangible assets andpersonal protection systems.However underlying modelingtechniques and the composition ofsecurity zones has to be changed,because centralistic distribution isnot suitable.Fig. 5 2D maps used in SAPE (Jang, 2009)29


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 27 - 31Fig. 6 Analysis of sensitivity in SAPE (Jang, 2009)Main drawbacks of current methods can bedivided into two groups:• Problems with the model itself,• Lack of input data.Problems with the model depend on concretemodel, but it is possible to formulate one commonfeature and that is the centralistic composition ofmodels that is suitable for the evaluation of nuclearfacilities but not suitable for property, persons andtangible assets protection systems.Specific problem is the lack of input data thatcomplicates the implementation of models. Insystems for protection of property, persons andtangible assets, very wide group of detectors andbarriers are used that enhance this problem.Now we can define two main objectives of themodeling of physical protection system:• to effectively design physical protection system(the most vulnerable paths through vital area willbe effectively protected),• to optimize financial costs spent on security, sovarious paths through vital area will be equallysecured as long as there is the same amount ofassets on various paths.Method for evaluation can be fully-mathematical(method that will use path with the lowest probabilityof interruption) or can use virtual simulation with3D model of object for finding the most probableintruder’s path. Because both approaches haveadvantages and disadvantages, choosing the bestapproach should be based on additional scientificresearch on this topic.Current methods prefer fully-mathematicalmodeling, but perhaps only because of limitedopportunities of realistic modeling using virtualreality in times when the methods were created(some methods are dating back to the 70s and 80s).Finding of the most probable path through vitalarea could be the preferred way because the securingof the most probable path is crucial. On the otherhand, other (less probable paths) could remaindeficiently secured.ConclusionBased on analysis, we can conclude someimportant points. Above all, the existing modelsare not suitable for protection systems, that arenot designed for protecting of nuclear facilities orsimilar objects (that use one central zone). Methodthat can evaluate systems with many security zoneswith protected assets is needed, but this method canbe based on existing techniques, such as probabilityof interruption or index of security measures.Important step in the usage of method in practiceis to fill databases of breaching endurance timesof various barriers from different vendors. Thecomplexity of this problem is the main obstacle forfurther development and specialized studies needto be carried out. The method for the estimation ofdetection probability needs to be created.30


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 27 - 31ReferencesA Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) for Physical Security. (2005). Sandia Corporation, White Paper.Analýza účinnosti systému bezpečnostní ochrany jaderných zařízení a jadrných materiálu. (1991). Ústav jadernýchinformácí.JANG, S. (2009). Development of a Vulnerability Assessment Code for a Physical Protection System : SystematicAnalysis of Physical Protection (SAPE). Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2009.LOVEČEK, T. (2005). Hodnotenie kvality bezpečnostných systémov. [Dizertačná práca]. Žilina.LOVEČEK, T. (2009). Systémy ochrany majetku a možnosti ich kvalitatívneho a kvantitatívneho ohodnotenia.[Habilitačná práca]. Žilina.PHILLIPS, G. (2004). New Vulnerability Assessment Technologies vs the Old VA Tools. New Meets Old. NationalSecurity Program Office.Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.REITŠPÍS, J. (2004). Manžérstvo bezpečnostných rizík. Žilina: Edis, 2004. 296 s. ISBN 80-8070-328-0.RYBÁR, M. (2000). Modelovanie a simulácia vo vojenstve. Bratislava: Vydavateľská a informačná agentúra,Ministerstvo obrany Slovenskej republiky, 2000. ISBN 80-88842-34-4.SAVI 4.0 (1994). Reference manual, internal document, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994.31


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38THE RISK OF ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN CZECH URBAN SOILSMagdalena ZIMOVÁ 1 , Zdeňka WITTLINGEROVÁ 2 , Jan MELICHERČÍK 3 ,Anita ZÁVODSKÁ 4 , Anna CIDLINOVÁ 5 , Vladimíra NĚMCOVÁ 6 and Pavel DANIHELKA 7Research articleAbstract:Key words:Arsenic (As) contamination was investigated in urban soil agglomerates in the CzechRepublic. The aim of studying surface urban soil layers was to assess the degree of healthrisk resulting from the exposure to toxic substances through unintended consumptionof soil and soil dust. Given that the greatest risk of increased exposure is for thepopulation of preschool-aged children, the project focused on kindergarten playgrounds.Measurements were carried out in a total of 413 kindergartens in 38 towns between 2002and 2007. Selected metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in thesurface soil layer samples of the playgrounds. This study presents the results of the soilAs contamination and evaluates the health risks faced by children through exposure tothese soils. Based on the results of the soil analysis and on the use of residential exposurescenarios for preschool-aged children, the oral and dermal exposures to As in childrenwithin the 1 to 6 year age group were estimated. At all monitored sites the risk was foundto be higher than 1x10 -6 . When the overall risk of cumulative exposure to As duringchildhood and adulthood was evaluated, the risk of 1x10 -6 was exceeded in about 99 % ofthe cases and the risk of 1x10 -5 was exceeded in about 54 % of the cases.Soil, Arsenic, Health risk evaluation, Czech Republic, Children, Playgrounds.IntroductionAccording to previous investigation (Beneš etFabiánová, 1986), the average concentration ofAs in Czech agricultural soils ranges from 1.8 to18.4 mg.kg -1 . Apart from mining and industrialactivities, a very important source of As are dust andash that are produced from the burning of brown coalin thermal power stations and local furnaces whichmay subsequently increase As levels to hundreds ofmg.kg -1 (Bencko et al., 1995). Contaminated soilmay be an important source of human exposure toAs, especially with unintentional ingestion of soiland soil dust.Concentrations of As were monitored from 2002to 2007 in samples of surface soil at kindergartenplaygrounds in selected towns in the Czech Republic.Monitoring the soil in urban agglomerations is a partof the Czech system of monitoring population healthas it relates to the environment. The monitoringfocused on the assessment of health risks for oral anddermal exposure to As from urban soils (Zimová etal., 2007; Zimová et al., 2008). An increased exposureto harmful elements from contaminated soil as wellas potential health risk for young preschool-agedchildren aged 1 to 6 years have been demonstrated(Calabrese et Stanek, 1994; Calabrese et al., 1997;Paustenbach, 2000; Weaver et al., 1998). The authorsnoted a higher exposure to metals in small childrenas a result of unintended ingestion of soil particleswhen a) playing on outdoor playgrounds, b) lickingtheir fingers, hands and various objects such astoys, and c) eating soil. According to some authors(Armstrong et al., 2000), exposure of children totoxic elements from the soil is many times higherthan similar exposure for adults.1Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic,mzimova@szu.cz2Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic3National Public Health Institute, Prague, Czech Republic4School of Adult and Continuing Education, Barry University, Davie, Florida, USA5Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic6Institute of Public Health in Ostrava, Center of Hygienic Laboratories, Ostrava, Czech Republic7VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic32


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38Materials and methodsEvaluation of the health risks from As exposurein kindergarten playground soil included thefollowing steps: sampling and chemically analyzingthe soil samples, selecting the exposure model, andcalculating the exposure and characterizing thehealth risk.Sampling and Chemical analysisDuring the 2002 - 2007 period soil sampling wascarried out at the playgrounds of 413 kindergartensin 38 towns in the Czech Republic. Surface soilsamples were collected and processed accordingto Standard Operating Procedures that had beendeveloped within the framework of the study. Thesoil samples were collected down to a depth of10 cm from five sampling sites at each outdoorplayground. The sampling sites were selectedtaking into account the most frequent locations ofthe children’s stay on the playground. After removalof extraneous material (e.g. stones, glass fragments,roots, etc.), all five samples were homogenized ina plastic container of adequate size. Contents of thecontainer were emptied onto a PE sheet and thena circle (pie) was created with a thickness of 1 - 2 cm,which was subsequently divided into four quadrants.Two opposite quadrants were amalgamated (theother two were removed) in a clean PE containerand re-homogenized. By additional quartering thesample mass was reduced to 1 kg. The resultingsample was taken to an accredited laboratory foranalysis. Determination of As in the soil samplewas performed by a hybrid technique using X-rayspectrometry with secondary emission and an energydispersive semiconductor detector.Exposure modelTo assess the health risks in children exposed toAs in playground soil, a residential exposure scenariofor ingestion of soil and soil dust, and for the dermalcontact with the soil were selected in accordancewith previously established methodologies (EPA,1997; EPA, 1999; EPA, 2001; EPA, 2004; EPA,2005). Deterministic and probabilistic methodswere used for the health risk assessment. Due toa relatively regular distribution of the kindergartensacross the areas of the monitored towns, it wasassumed that the level of contamination of surfacesoils in the urban agglomerates was homogeneousand corresponded to a set of identified values. Inassessing the risk of cancer, it was also assumed thatthe concentration of As in the soil for the duration ofexposure was constant.Parameter values and calculation of theexposureOral exposure - the average daily non-carcinogenicoral dose of As (CDI n) for ingestion of soil and soil dustwas calculated according to as follows: CDI n[mg.kg -1 .day -1 ] = (CS x CF x EF x B x IR x ED)/(BW x AT)The average daily carcinogenic oral dose of As (CDI n)for ingestion of soil and soil dust was calculated asfollows: CDI c[mg.kg -1 .day -1 ] = (CS x EF)/AT x [(ED cx IR c)/BW c) + (ED ax IR a)/BW a)]. The values ofthe parameters used for the calculation of the dailyoral non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic doses of Asfrom the contaminated soil were determined froma literary background (Ministry of the Environment,2005; EPA, 1991; EPA, 1997; EPA, 2004).Dermal exposure - the average daily dermalnon-carcinogenic doses of As and the daily dermalcarcinogenic doses of As for the dermal contactwith the soil were determined as follows: CDI d[mg.kg -1 .day -1 ] = (CS x FI x AF. ABS x SA x ED xEF)/(BW x AT). The values of the parameters usedfor the calculation of the dermal non-carcinogenicand carcinogenic doses of As from the contaminatedsoil were determined from a literary background(EPA, 2004).Characterization of the risk - the deterministicmethod of evaluation of the health riskThe level of non-carcinogenic risk is expressedas a coefficient of hazard (hazard index - HI). Itis calculated as: HI = CDI n/RfD where RfD is thereference dose measured in mg.kg -1 .day -1 . Thethreshold value equals 1. To calculate the oralexposure to As, an RfD of 0.0003 mg.kg -1 .day -1 wasused and for the dermal exposure, an RfD value of0.000123 mg.kg -1 .day -1 was used. An overall riskof toxicity was expressed by the sum of the valuesof the risk of oral and dermal exposures (EPA,2005). The rate of individual lifelong cancer riskis expressed by: ILCR = CDI c·CSF, where ILCR isan individual lifetime cancer risk. CDI c, measuredin mg.kg -1 .day -1 , is the average daily carcinogenicdose and CSF, measured in mg.kg -1 .day -1 , is a risk ofcancer indication (cancer slope factor). The value ofCSF for oral exposure to As is 1.5 mg.kg -1 .day -1 andfor the dermal exposure to As is 3.66 mg.kg -1 .day -1 .An overall risk of cancer from exposure to As fromsoil is determined by the sum of the values of risksarising from oral and dermal exposures (EPA, 2005).The threshold value of ILCR ranged from 1x10 -4 to1x10 -6 depending on the size of the study subjects.33


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38ResultsConcentration of As in soilsThe chemical analyses of the soil samples fromthe monitored kindergarten playgrounds showedthe lowest concentration of As in the soil in ČeskéBudějovice at 0.3 mg.kg -1 . The concentration of Asin the soil of the city ranged from 0.3 to 27.3 mg.kg -1 .The highest concentration was measured in the townof Ostrov in the Karlovy Vary Region with a valueof 414 mg.kg -1 . The concentration of As in the soilhere ranged from 6.63 mg.kg -1 to 414 mg.kg -1 . Thevalue of 10 mg.kg -1 of As in the soil, which is thelimit recommended by the Ministry of Health, wasexceeded in a total of 175 cases, representing 49 %of the total number of monitored kindergartens.Chronic daily intake and lifetime averagedaily intakeThe oral exposure pathway represents animportant exposure to As. Intake via the oralexposure pathway is about ten times greater thanvia the dermal exposure pathway. With a chronicdaily oral intake of 3x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 an increasedhealth risk can be noted. This value was exceeded atfour localities (median estimate): Teplice, Benešov,Příbram and the Karlovy Vary region. In theKarlovy Vary region it was exceeded twofold. Forthe upper estimate of exposure, the reference dose(1.23x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 ) was exceeded six timesaltogether (in Plzeň, Liberec, Teplice, Benešov,Příbram and the Karlovy Vary region). The elevatedlevels of daily doses are directly related to themeasured As concentrations in the soil of the listedtowns.After adding up the values for bothexposure pathways, the highest chronic dailyintake occurred in the Karlovy Vary region:5.84x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (median estimate) and1.61x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (upper estimate). The lowestchronic daily intake was measured in Šumperk:9.05x10 -5 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (median estimate) or1.40x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (upper estimate) and inOlomouc: 9.14x10 -5 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (median estimate)or 1.36x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (upper estimate). Thevalues for the dermal exposure are about 10 timeslower than for the oral exposure. The lowest overallexposure was 7.76x10 -6 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (medianestimate) or 1.19x10 -5 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (upper estimate)in Šumperk and the highest overall exposurewas 5.01x10 -5 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (median estimate) or1.36x10 -4 mg.kg -1 .day -1 (upper estimate) in theKarlovy Vary region.Fig. 1 shows the values of central and upperestimates of the lifetime average daily intake ofAs (LADD, or more precisely CDIc) calculated fororal exposure pathway of the children in individualtowns. Fig. 2 shows the values of central andupper estimates of the lifetime average daily intake(LADD) of As calculated for dermal exposurepathway of the children in individual towns.LADD [mg/kg/day]CDI [mg/kg/day]1,40E-041,20E-041,00E-048,00E-056,00E-054,00E-052,00E-050,00E+00Fig. 1 Oral exposure to arsenic in childrenexpressed as an average lifetime daily intakeLADDo [mg.kg -1 .day -1 ]1,40E-041,20E-041,00E-048,00E-056,00E-054,00E-052,00E-050,00E+00Fig. 2 Dermal exposure to arsenic in childrenexpressed as an average lifetime daily intakeLADDd [mg.kg -1 .day -1 ]Hazard index (HI)Oral exposure to arsenic in childrencentral estimateupper estimateŠumperkOlomoucČ.BudějoviceHr.KrálovéKarvináBrnoOstravaJablonec n/NÚstí n/LPlzeňLiberecDermal exposure to arsenic in childrencentral estimateupper estimateŠumperkOlomoucČ.BudějoviceHr.KrálovéKarvináBrnoOstravaJablonec n/NÚstí n/LPlzeňLiberecTepliceBenešovPříbramKarlovarský k.TepliceBenešovPříbramKarlovarský k.The results of the evaluation of the toxic(non-carcinogenic) health risks have confirmed theingestion of soil as the more important exposurepathway. The level of the toxicity risk expressedby means of HI is limited by the value of 1. Thisvalue was exceeded for the oral exposure in Teplice,Benešov, Příbram and the Karlovy Vary regionwith respect to the median estimates, and in Plzeň,Liberec, as well as the four afore-mentioned towns,with respect to the upper estimates.34


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38Risk of cancer occurrence (IndividualLifetime Cancer Risk)For oral exposure to As, the median estimate ofIndividual Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) exceeds1x10 -5 , the commonly accepted level of cancer riskused for the evaluation of carcinogenesis incidenceat the local level. For dermal exposure to As, thelevel of acceptable risk has been exceeded in threetowns (median estimate) or four towns (upperestimate). In the Karlovy Vary region, the totalexposure exceeded the level of acceptable risk morethan eight-fold and in the case of the upper estimateas much as twenty-fold.The median estimate for the exposure in childrenin both the oral and dermal exposure pathwaysexceeded 1x10 -6 , the acceptable level of cancer riskused for the evaluation of carcinogenesis incidence atthe regional level. In children, it was shown that thecancer risk level for the oral exposure pathway wasabout five times higher than for the dermal exposurepathway. The total direct exposure of children to Asfrom urban soil indicates a possible cancer risk at1.87x10 -5 (median estimate) and 6.31x10 -5 (upperestimate). In the adult population, this risk is aboutthree times lower when exceeding the acceptablelevel of 1x10 -6 . When evaluating the cumulative riskfrom soil As exposure in childhood and in adulthood,the ILCR value equals 2.40x10 -5 (median estimate)and 8.09x10 -5 (upper estimate).Analysis of sensitivityFig. 3 illustrates the results of the sensitivityanalysis for the calculation of the toxicity risk and therisk of tumor diseases from total exposure to As inurban soils in children and adults. The most importantvariables from the view of the risk calculation areranked according to the size of relative contributionsto the variance of the final value of the risk. In termsof the calculation of the toxicity risk and the risk ofcarcinogenicity, the individual contributions do notdiffer from each other significantly.time averagingfrequency of exposureweightingestion of soilexposure timeconcentrationchildren0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70Fig. 3 Analysis of sensitivity for the risk estimate ofthe total As exposure in urban soils to children andadults [%]adultIt is clear that the key variables for the calculationsof toxicity and carcinogenicity in children and adultsare the As concentrations in the soil and the durationof exposure. The significance of the effect of Asconcentration in the soil for children is associated witha higher intensity in the contact with the soil (a higherintake by means of ingestion and dermal contact). Theexposure in adults can be explained by a much longerduration of exposure which is four times longer than inchildren. According to the probabilistic assignment thequantity of ingested earth in children ranges from 5 to500 mg.day -1 and in adults from 0.1 to 50 mg.day -1 ,which is a tenfold difference between the childrenand adults, respectively. The other, considerably lesssignificant variables, do not exceed the limit of a 3 %relative contribution.DiscussionGiven that As is a proven human carcinogenit is not possible, due to its thresholdless action, todetermine a safe exposure concentration or exposurelimit. It is only possible to provide a socially acceptablethreshold level of health risk (Provazník et al., 2000).Children’s playgrounds in the Czech Republic havea prescribed hygienic limit for soil As levels of10 mg.kg -1 in dry matter (Ministry of the Environment,2005). That limit has been exceeded in many partsof the Czech Republic, mostly in the Karlovy Varyregion, Teplice, Příbram and Benešov. The higherconcentrations identified may have been caused byresidues of mining activities. In the Czech Republicthere are many brown coal seams that can contain upto 1.5 g of As per 1 kg of coal. In the Karlovy Varyregion, and also around Teplice, there are, accordingto (Integrated Pollution Register, 2009), brown coalthermal power stations, the emissions of whichcontain As in the form of condensed As 2O 3that formsa coating of fine light ash particles on chimneys.Another source of As in the Czech Republic is homeheating that requires the burning of As-containingbrown coal which is an example of small localpollution sources. Contamination of the soil is thencaused by a high number of small local sourcesin a given region. Past mining of rare metals in theneighborhoods of the towns of Příbram and Benešovare now also affected by the so-called “old ballast.”Arsenic used to escape into the environment evenduring mining operations and following weathering ofmineral material and was thus able to contaminate soil,water and the biosphere (Skřivan, 1996). However,our results indicate that the As-contaminated soil isa greater health risk compared to the risk of eatingAs-contaminated seafood. The risk observed inchildren and adults was significantly below the valueof 104 (Chen et al., 2010).35


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38Data from studies involving trace elements supportthe preliminary estimate of the average ingestion ofdirt by children most frequently as being within therange of 100 - 200 mg.day -1 . The maximum uppervalues for children eating dirt are estimated at around800 mg.day -1 or even more. At this point it shouldbe noted that these studies had worked with limitedsamples of persons, and that none of them was focusedspecifically on children with geophagy. Unintendedingestion of soil occurs in both children and adults.Since the actual measurements of the soil ingestionby adults have not yet been implemented (Hawley,1985), estimates of 61 mg.day -1 seem appropriate.This is based on unverified assumptions regardingthe patterns of activities and related quantities ofingested dirt (Skřivan, 1996). The authors (Calabreseat Stanek, 1994) propose the range of 1 - 100 mg.day -1 .The greatest problem in the selection and assignmentof exposure parameters is the non-existence of thedatabase of key parameters for the Czech population.Most of the data used for the creation of parameterscome from abroad. If there were such a database, theselected parameters could have been adapted to theconditions of the Czech Republic and the results wouldhave had greater accuracy and informative value.We include the bioavailability of the As boundto soil particles in the digestive tract amongst theimportant parameters which have not been assignedprobabilistic functions. According to some (Ng et al.,2009) the bioavailability of As in the gastrointestinaltract ranges from 28 % to 92 %. The U.S. EPA (1996)indicates the values of 42 % -78 %. Apart from thephysico-chemical properties of the contaminant andthe characteristics of the appropriate matrix, thebioavailability of As in the dermal contact is alsoaffected by the size of exposed areas of skin, skindiffusivity, the length of contact and the adhesivityof the matrix to the skin (EPA, 2004). The dermalbioavailability factor for As is given a value of 0.03.Important are the parameters that are specific tothe dermal exposure, indices of carcinogenic riskand the reference doses. Disregard for the parametersof dermal exposure has most likely resulted in anincrease in the results of estimating the exposurethrough dermal contact in adults.In terms of acceptable risk, the target range ofrisk from 1x10 -6 to 1x10 -4 is usually used due touncertainties associated with estimating the risksfrom exposure to carcinogens in the environment.It should also be pointed out that the acquired riskestimates contain certain conservatism, whichis mainly due to assuming a 100 % biologicaleffectiveness of the As absorption in the digestivetract and assuming a constant concentration of Asin the soil for the entire length of the referenceperiod of exposure (European Commision, 2009).The results of the completed sensitivity analysisconfirm the importance of regular monitoring of thepolluted urban environment and obtaining accurateand timely information about the soil contaminationsuch as origin and age. Obtaining more informationon the bioavailability of As bound to soil particles inthe human gastrointestinal tract would also reducethe uncertainty in the final risk estimate. A lack ofdata on the spread of geophagy and the pica behaviorin the Czech Republic (Šmerhovský et al., 2006) isalso a major deficiency in the exposure assessmentof the soil contamination of small children.ConclusionThe results of the study have confirmed therelevance of the health risks from exposure to Asin Czech urban soil agglomerates. The calculationshave confirmed that the level of the As exposurewith carcinogenic properties has been exceeded,particularly in the population of children.The obtained results also show significantdifferences in the extent of exposure in childrenand adults. Although the children are, within theframework of the selected residential scenarios,subjected to As exposure from contaminated soilfor a considerably shorter time, their health risk oftumor diseases was six times higher compared to theadult population. This confirms the higher sensitivityof the population of children and the importanceof preventive measures that would lead towardsa decreased exposure for this group.The calculations have not determined increasedhealth risks in terms of non-carcinogenic effects(HI) of As for children in any of the studiedexposure pathways at any of the monitored sites.In the evaluation of the cancer risks (ILCR) of thetotal exposure to carcinogenic As, a risk greaterthan 1x10 -5 was found at 8 monitored sites at whicheven the As limit concentration in the soil had beenexceeded.A risk higher than 1x10 -6 was found at all sites.When the risk of the total exposure to the carcinogenicAs within the framework of the whole country isevaluated, the acceptable level of risk at 1x10 -6 isexceeded in 99 % of the population of children andin 64 % of the adult population. A risk exceeding1x10 -5 was found in 47 % of the population ofchildren and in 4 % of the adult population. Whenthe risk of cumulative As exposure during childhoodand adulthood is evaluated, the risk of 1x10 -6 isexceeded in approximately 99 % of the monitoredpopulation and the risk of 1x10 -5 is exceeded inapproximately 54 % of the monitored population.36


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38ReferencesARMSTRONG, T.W., HUSHKA, L.J., TELL, J.G., ZALESKI, R.T. (2000). A Tiered Approach for AssessingChildren's Exposure, Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (2000) 469-474.BENCKO, V., CIKRT, M., LENER, J. (1995). Toxické kovy v pracovním a životním prostředí člověka. GradaAviceum, Praha 1995.BENEŠ, S., FABIÁNOVÁ, J. (1986). Přirozené obsahy, distribuce a klasifikace prvků v půdách. VŠZ, Praha 1986.CALABRESE, E.J., STANEK, E.J. (1994). Soil ingestion issues and recommendations. Journal EnvironmentalScience Health 29 (1994) 517-530.CALABRESE, E.J., STANEK, E.J., JAMES, R.C., ROBERTS, S.M. (1997). Soil ingestion: a concern for acutetoxicity in children. Environmental Heatlh Perspectives 105 (1997) 1354-1358.CHEN, B.C., CHOU, W.C., CHEN, W.Y., LIAO, C.M. (2010). Assessing the cancer risk associated with arseniccontaminatedseafood. Journal of Hazardous Materials 4 (2010).EUROPEAN COMMISION (2009). Technical Guidance Document in support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on Risk Assessment for new notified substances, Commision Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 on RiskAssessment for existing substances and Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Councilconcerning the placing of biocidal products on the market (2009). Available at: .HAWLEY, J.K. (1985). Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil. Risk Analysis 5 (1985)289-302.INTEGROVANÝ REGISTR ZNEČIŠŤOVÁNÍ (2009). Available at: .Ministerstvo životního prostředí (2005), Metodický pokyn pro analýzu rizik kontaminovaného území, VěstníkMŽP, ročník 15, 2005.NG, J.C., NOLLER, B., BRUCE, S., MOORE, M.R. (2009). Bioavailability of metals and arsenic at contaminatedsites from cattle dips, mined land and naturally occurring mineralisation origins. Fifth National Workshop onthe Assessment of Site Contamination (2009). Available at: .PAUSTENBACH, D.J. (2000). The practise of exposure assessment: a state of the art review. Journal of Toxicologyand Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews 3 (2000) 179-291.PROVAZNÍK, K., CIKRT, M., KOMÁREK, L. (2000). Manuál prevence v lékařské praxi VIII: Základy hodnocenízdravotních rizik, Fortuna Praha 2000.SKŘIVAN, P. (1996). Koloběh arzenu v přírodním prostředí. Vesmír 75 (1996) 247-248.ŠMERHOVSKÝ, Z., LANDA, K., VAVŘINOVÁ, J. (2006). Systém monitorování zdravotního stavu obyvatelstvaČeské republiky ve vztahu k životnímu prostředí: Souhrnná zpráva za rok 2005. SZŮ Praha 2006.U.S. EPA (1991). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B,Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1991). Available at: .U.S. EPA (1996). Soil Screening Guidance. Technical Background Document. EPA/540/R-96/018. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1996). Available at: .U.S. EPA (1997). Exposure Factors Handbook. Volume I - General factors. Office of Research and DevelopmentNational. Center for Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/P-95/002Fa (1997). Available at: .U.S. EPA (1997). Guiding Principles for Monte Carlo Analysis. Office of Research and Development,EPA/630/R-97/001 (1997). Available at: .U.S. EPA (1999). Guidance for Conducting Risk Assessments and Related Risk Activities for the DOE-OROEnvironmental Management Program. Prepared by The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee forU.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management under subcontract 11K-FYT71C. AppendixF. Program BJC/OR-271 (1999). Available at: .U.S. EPA (2001). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume III - Part A, Process for ConductingProbabilistic Risk Assessment. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Washington. EPA/540/R-02/002(2001). Available at: .U.S. EPA (2004). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E,Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment). Final version. EPA/540/R/99/005 (2004). Available at:.37


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 32 - 38U.S. EPA (2005). Risk-Based Concentration Table (2005). Available at: .WEAVER, V.M., BUCKLEY, T.J., GROOPMAN, J.D. (1998). Approaches to environmantal exposure assessmentin children. Environmental Health Perspect 106 (1998) 827-832.ZIMOVÁ, M., MELICHERČÍK, J., BÍBROVÁ, Z., PODOLSKÁ, Z., VEDRALOVÁ, E., JEŽOVÁ, M. (2006).Zdravotní rizika kontaminace půdy městských aglomerací. Odborná zpráva za rok 2006. Systém monitorovánízdravotního stavu obyvatelstva ve vztahu k životnímu prostředí. SZÚ Praha 2007.ZIMOVÁ, M., MELICHERČÍK, J., PODOLSKÁ, Z., VEDRALOVÁ, E., VENCÁLEK, E., JEŽOVÁ, M. (2008).Zdravotní rizika kontaminace půdy městských aglomerací. Odborná zpráva za rok 2007. Systém monitorovánízdravotního stavu obyvatelstva ve vztahu k životnímu prostředí. SZÚ Praha 2008.38


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 39 - 43A NEW APPROACH TO FIRE SAFETY SYSTEM IN THE PROCESS OFATMOSPHERIC RECTIFICATION OF OILSveta CVETANOVIĆ 1 , Danilo POPOVIĆ 1 , Emina MIHAJLOVIĆ 1 , Dušica PEŠIĆ 1Review articleAbstract:Key words:This paper presents the methods of detection and diagnosis of failures, that is, detectingthe existence and causes of failure that can be applied in systems that operate in realtime. The proposed system allows automatic and semi-automatic security management,and provides general average or minimizes the consequences of disasters. In addition, itdefines the conditions, i.e. the intervals of parameter values, under which causes of failureare created. Based on these parameters, optimal design of protection is possible and itenables the efficient management of the system.Suggested fire safety system in the process of atmospheric rectification of oil offers thepossibility to choose an optimal diagnostic algorithm and its practical and economic usage.A new approach should be applied in order to reduce fire hazards in the process ofatmospheric rectification of oil. Fire safety system should be inseparable from thetechnological process, and vise versa.The procedure recommended for fault detection and diagnosis consists of two phases.The first phase involves the assessment of the process state, while the second involves theidentification of the values of processing parameters and their correlation with the processmodel parameters.Fire safety system, atmospheric rectification of oil, failures detection, diagnosis offailures, security management.IntroductionAdministration of any technological systemrequires current information about the parametervalues that are important for a system of fire protection.Thus, measurement of process parameters and theirimmediate availability is essential for the system torun a technological process. The development andimprovement of the methods of the evaluation ofthe technological process is a continuous interest ofscience and technological experts. With the degreeof complexity of the technological process arise theneed to implement systems able to detect failures inthe process of diagnosing their causes.For optimization and design of the protectionsystem, methods to detect and diagnose failures areof special interest. That is, detecting the existenceand causes of failure that can be applied in systemsthat operate in real time. There are cases whenthe cause of failure cannot be removed until thetermination of operation, or the impact of failureson safety is insignificant but the early warningsystem can at least provide the information for betterdecision making about the management of care.By using proposed fire protection system thelikelihood of sudden accidents will be reduced, aswell as achieving more efficient management, andoperating under such conditions will be adequate.The procedure recommended for the detectionand diagnosis of failures consists of two phases.The first assesses the state of the process, and thesecond identifies the values of process parametersand compares them with the parameters of the modelprocess.Materials and methodsProcess of Atmospheric Oil RectificationBefore the rectification of crude oil is prepared,water and impurities that could hinder the processmust be separated. Water evaporates and the steamwould be too discouraged and kept, increasingpressure rectification, and salt and ingredients willbe caught on the walls of the furnace, thus theheating will be less efficient, and the amount of ashin the distillation residue will increase. The simplestway is that the oil is left to stand, possibly a slightheating (40 - 60 °C), at the same time the water shrugat the bottom with solid impurities (salt, sand, silt)but it takes a long time. Water and impurities canbe removed in various ways: centrifugation, using1University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety, Čarnojevića 10 a, 18 000 Niš, Serbia39


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 39 - 43a variety of chemical agents to break the emulsion,by using dismulgators or by electricity (15,000 to30,000 V) with the strong electric field of chargeddroplets gather in larger drops and shrug. Methodsof water separation could be combined. Maximumremaining of water in oil should be 0.2 % with0.02 % salt. Oil is often cleaned with the springsthat would save money in transportation. Oil , freeof mineral impurities, is heated to 350 to 400 °Cand under pressure introduced into the atmosphericdistillation column. In this refraction column, freeof pressure, lighter fractions evaporate immediately,and harder fractions that do not evaporate moveto the bottom of the column. The evaporated gasphase is going to the top of the column in contactwith the liquid phase, leaving on each floor heavierfractions that it still carries. The temperature in thecolumn decreases from bottom to top, making theseparation easier. To improve the flow and reducethe partial pressure of hydrocarbon in the column forrectification, heated vaporous water is introduced,which mostly comes out of top of the column witha gasoline vapor, condenses with them, and thenseparates into a water separator.From distillation columns with different floors,at least four products are collected - gasoline fromthe top of the column, jet fuel, easy gas oil and heavygas oil. Any faction that leaves the main column isstill a mixture of larger number of hydrocarbons.That is why some fractions are further processedin additional columns. As the end productsof atmospheric distillation, fuel gas, liquefiedpetroleum gas, gasoline (light, primary and feederstream for platforming), jet fuel and kerosene, lightand heavy gas oil are obtained.The waste streams from atmospheric distillationare gases from the furnace for heating crude oil(CO, SOx, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and solidparticles), volatile emissions of hydrocarbons, theemissions from the ejector and oily acidic water,which is separated by condensation in the separatorsof gasoline, and refinery sour gas containinghydrogen sulfide, ammonia, chlorides, mercaptans,phenol and hydrocarbons from petroleum. There isusually no or very little solid waste in this process.Gas oil is the heaviest fraction, which is obtainedfrom atmospheric distillation. Heavier fractions donot stand out in this process, but they stay in theatmosphere or as a slight residual, which is isolatedat the bottom of the column and which makes up35 to 50 % of the quantity of crude oil that hasentered the column. Atmospheric residue is usuallyprocessed in the second stage of primary productionin the vacuum distillation.Fig. 1 shows the simplified technologicalscheme of the crude distillation unit, indicating thewastewater flows.Fig. 1 Simplified technological scheme of theatmospheric distillationPart of the condensate can be returned into thecolumn as reflux (to push fractions down). Fractionsare obtained as condensates in some column floors.By combining the condensate with a number of floors,fractions with the desired composition can be obtained.Each of the factions is still a mix of high numberof hydrocarbons. Fractions can be rectified inadditional columns that are close to the main column.If a sharper rectification is needed, two or morerectification columns may be used.Distillation can be done in two phases: crudeoil is first heated to a slightly lower temperature to300 - 340 °C, where it receives only lower fraction,and the rest from the bottom of the column is heatedin a furnace to a higher temperature 360 - 420 °C,and then rectified in the second column, possibly ina vacuum.The rest of the plant consists of the extra column(stripper), heat exchangers, condensers and storagetanks, associated with pipe lines.ResultsDefinition and Classification of FailuresFrom the standpoint of security analysis system,canceling is the change outside certain limits of atleast one of the characteristics of the system thatcause injury to people or damage material or naturalresources.40


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 39 - 43To facilitate the analysis of security system,failures are classified based on different criteria,making it possible to access the followingclassification (Tab. 1).Tab. 1 Classification system failureThe criterion forclassification1. Kind of changesof the state2. Links to otherdismissals3. The usability ofthe system afterfailure4. Naturalelimination5. External events6. Cause of failure7. Nature of failure8. Time of failure9. Failure intensity10. Accordingto the impact onsafetyTypes of failureunexpected failuregradual failureindependent failuredependent failurecomplete cancellationpartial cancellationpermanent cancellationcancellation transientthat cancellationeliminatesreturn failureautomaticlyobvious failurecovert failurestructuralfailuretechnologicalfailureconstructor error,imperfect methodof constructionerror inproduction,imperfecttechnologyerrors inexploatationexploitationfailurenatural terminationartificial terminationfailure during testingfailure in the period of preparationfailure at the end of servicerandom failuresystematic failuresafe failuredangerous failureUnexpected (sudden) failures are caused bysudden changes of at least one element of the systemparameters. Such changes are caused by hiddendefects in materials and system components, or byincorrect use.Gradual failures are caused by gradual changesof at least one element of the system parameters.Changes often occur due to the disturbance of inputsystem characteristics.Independent failures occur without the influenceof another failure and are usually caused by only oneelement of the system.Complete failures are failures when the systemcan be repaired. Partial failures will result indeterioration of some characteristics of the system.Transient failures are failures that repair on theirown intervention. Return failures are failures due tovarious disturbances to the side and follow quicklyone after another.Systematic failures are failures where the failureintensity is constant, and are caused by manyinfluences that come independently on each other.They may be early and cancellations due to aging.Early failures are characterized by a high decreasein the intensity of the process parameters over timeand are caused by the lack of rough elements ofthe system. Failures due to aging have increasingintensity with time, due to the wear of elements ofthe system.Random failures are those whose failure intensityis changing in time.Harmless failures do not affect the reduction inthe level of system security.Dangerous failures will result in endangering thesecurity and may cause injury or damage to materialor natural resources.Methods of Assessment, Identificationand Diagnosis FailureSimultaneous identification of three elementsin the process model includes: (1) state variables,(2) the output state, and (3) parameters. One of themost common approach for the determination ofthese three elements is to seek optimal solutionsfor the nonlinear model of the direct minimization(or maximization) of functions. Solving procedurerequires a long calculation, shows the numericaluncertainty and can produce locally optimalsolutions for any or all three elements.Another approach to the simultaneous assessmentof these three elements is the use of hierarchicalidentification strategy, a method which in principleis nothing but an alternative approach to nonlinearoptimization, and it can also produce local optimalestimates and long-term calculations.Among the commonly used criteria are theminimum error square function or the minimumprobability function. Selecting the least squarefunction leads to a simple and fast calculationalgorithms than when using the probability function.However, the likelihood function involves higherordernonlinearities of quadratic functions that requiremore computing to reach a satisfactory solution aswell as in the case of choosing the minimum of thequadratic function. Kalman filter (Watanabe andHimmelblau, 1984; Giles and Schuler, 1982) alsopresents a method for solving nonlinear problemsof identification. Kalman filter is a nonlinear filter41


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 39 - 43suitable for the evaluation of the category approachand the maximum likelihood function. Goldmannand Sargent (1971) applied the Kalman filter forcosmic spacecraft, Himmelblau used it to identifythe parameters in nonlinear chemical processes, andWels (1971) and Seinfeld (1970) and others applyit to the linear discrete model with abrupt or trendychanges in the parameters. All these researchers haveachieved satisfactory results through simulation.To detect and diagnose errors, it is important toknow the constant value of process conditions andparameters as compared to the same values thatare achieved under normal operating conditions.Otherwise, there is a confusion in determining theactual cause of error.Strategy that Watanabe and Himmelblau(Watanabe and Himmelblau, 1984) suggested intheir paper avoids expensive implementation dueto: measuring the minimum number of conditions,reconstruction of the remaining inaccessible statevariables using the reduced linear, consideringthe nonlinear process (module is known, but hasunknown parameters and inputs).On the basis of interest, the examiner can usethe estimated state variables to make decisions inrelation to the failure, if the lower and upper limitsfor each stage are pre-arranged.Watanabe and Himmelblau take the view thatthe failure causes the changes of different processparameters. By the measurement of processparameters it is possible to determine the momentwhen it begins to take unwanted shares. Watanabeand Himmelblau state that better results thanestimates of unknown parameters can be achievedby a combination of identifiers and filters.Assessment of Rectification ColumnsIn the area of chemical process control, regulationand optimal management of the rectification columnis rather treated (Koehne et al., 1977; Retzbach,1972). The reason is the enormous energy savingsopportunity. Given the fact that very often largeprocessing units are analyzed and the savings arelarge, it could be easy to convince decision makersabout the non-academic importance of the relativelycomplex algorithms. The following sequence ofprocedures for optimization has been developed: (1)mathematical modeling of processes, (2) validatethe pilot column or computer simulations, (3) designa column with given performance and (4) algorithmof regulation that ensures consistency of all sizes thatcould cause the removal of pre-specified conditions(e.g. feeder control flow, pressure drop, flow andtemperature etc.).As measured parameters are taken the temperaturechanges in the floors where the separation of easilyvolatile components are conducted.Simulation analysis showed that the approachproposed by Watanabe and Himmelblau is optimal.Fig. 2 shows the comparison of performancewhen the process is regulated by PID controllerand by using optimally managing the evaluationof the condition. Disorder caused by fluctuationson the floor when the control exercised with PIDtemperature regulator, regulation and assessment ofstate is hardly noticeable. The authors do not specifythe details, but it is obvious that the oscillation in thefirst case is likely to seek termination of the columnand was undoubtedly the performance of the aboveapproaches.151050-5-100S[2]Legend:[1] - PID controller[2] - Optimal regulation control for evaluation of the identifierS - Deviation of places matter changes in rectification column from thesteady-stateFig. 2 Oscillation parameters of rectificationcolumnsConclusion[1]1 2 3 4 5Based on preliminary examination andconsideration we can conclude:Because of present danger, protective systemsshould prevent the failing or to minimize theconsequences of possibly disaster. Installation of theprotection system provides the option of automaticand semi-automatic protection, which has a directimpact on reducing fire hazards.Reduce the risk of fire in the atmosphericrectification of oil should be handled well with newapproach to the protection system that should beinseparable part of the technological process.Thereafter we should strive to implement themethods of evaluation and identification for thedetection and diagnosis of failures, which mayprovide before-failure assessment of the technologicalprocess of atmospheric rectification of oil.t42


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 39 - 43The proposed system of fire protection in theprocess of atmospheric rectification of oil enablesthe selection of optimal diagnostic algorithms, aswell as its economical application.Also, the system defines the conditions under whichfailure causes may be involved in the process model.ReferencesOptimal design of fire protection in the process ofatmospheric rectification, its management and diagnosisof failure allows only the specified parameters.GILES, E. D., SCHULER, H. (1982). Early Detection of Hazardous States in Chemical Reactors, Ger. Chem. Eng.1982, 5, pp. 69.GOLDMANN, S.F., SARGENT, R.V. (1971). Applications of Linear Estimation Theorv to Chemical Processes,Chem.Eng. Sci. 1971, 26, pp. 1535.KOEHNE, M., SCHULER, H., ZEITZ, M. (1977). Applications of Observers for the Measurement of UnknovvnState Variables of Industrial Processes, Interkama- Kongr., 1977.RETZBACH, B. (1972). Einsatz von Svstem technischen Methoden am Beispeil einer Mehrostoffdestilation.Jahrestriffen der Verfahrensiigenieure, Baser, 1972.SEINFELD, J.H. (1970). Optimal Stohastic Control of Nonlinear Svstems, AlChE J1. 1970, 19, pp. 1016.WATANABE, K., HIMMELBLAU, D.M. (1984). Incipient Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear processes with MultipleCauses of Faults, Chem. Eng. Sci. 1984, 39, pp. 491.WELS, G.N. (1971). Application of Modern Estimation, and dentification Techniquesto Chemical Processes,AlChEJ 1. 1971, 17, pp. 966.43


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51BASICS OF EVALUATION OF THERMAL RADIATION EFFECTS ONHUMANS IN INDUSTRIAL FIRESJakub DLABKA 1 , Barbora BAUDIŠOVÁ 2 , Jakub ŘEHÁČEK 3Review articleAbstract:Key words:The issues in evaluating the effects of industrial fires on humans are very complex. Oneof the major factors posing a danger to humans in a fire is heat flux. There are multipleways to evaluate these effects and each has its own specifics and drawbacks. The aimof this contribution is to analyze the basic parameters for various types of industrialfires, radiative heat transfer characteristics and the way the heat flux transferred byradiation affects human organism. Further discussed are basic means (models) to describerelationship of heat flux and its effects on exposed individuals.Probit function, analysis and evaluation of risks, model, heat flux, exposure time.IntroductionFor the elaboration of the " Risk analysis and itsevaluation " document (hereinafter referred to as"RAE"), which is a compulsory component of theemergency documentation, according to the the MajorAccident Prevention (hereinafter referred to as "MAP")Act No. 59/2006 Coll., the effects of fires in industrialplants on human lives and health must be evaluated.Several types of models are used for determiningthese effects. A model is a simplified representationof reality; in this case, the models are simplifiedrepresentations of the relationship between heatflux and its effects on humans. Most of the modelsdescribed below are represented by a definedmathematical function, or simply by a discrete value.Evaluation of the heat flux effects on humans isa complex issue. Therefore, simplification of the realityfor the purposes of RAE can lead to certain simplificationsin the process of modeling the effects on humans. Someof the models employed therefore take into account onlythe heat flux critical value without regard to the exposuretime, or with regard to only predetermined exposuretime. Other models, such as the models based on probitfunctions, apply a far more comprehensive approachbased on the dose-effect relationship.In the introductory section of this contribution,basic types of fires that may occur in plantsstoring dangerous flammable substances will bementioned. Subsequently, a short description ofradiative heat transfer principles will be given forbetter understanding of the nature of the heat fluxphenomenon. Next follows a theoretical analysisof the factors influencing the effects of thermalradiation exposure on human lives and health. In thefinal section, models that can be applied in RAE todetermine the effects will be categorized and theirbrief description will be given.Materials and methodsTypes of Industrial FiresIndustrial fires involving dangerous flammablesubstances often have very specific characteristics.Physicochemical events resulting from the initiationof flammable substances employed in industry areoften different from those known in common firesand they, by their nature, endanger greatly humanlives and health. Basic types of fires are presentedin Tab. 1 below.Radiative Heat TransferAlthough heat transfer can have diverse effects,this contribution focuses solely on thermal radiation.The term "radiation" is used to describe manydifferent phenomena. Among them are visible lightor ionizing radiation, such as X-ray and gamma rayradiation.Thermal radiation is an electromagneticradiation emitted from the surface of an objectoccurring due to the object's temperature. Anymaterial that has a temperature greater than absolutezero emits a certain amount of radiative energy.Thermal radiation is generated when heat causedby the movement of charged particles withinatoms is transformed into electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic waves propagate independentlyof the environment, which means they can travel1VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, jakub.dlabka@vsb.cz2VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, barbora.baudisova@vsb.cz3VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic44


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51through empty space and air. Radiation can also,depending on the characteristics of the materialand the radiation energy, penetrate through othermaterials. In some cases, radiation manifests itselfrather in form of particles, but this phenomenonis not relevant for the basic understanding of heattransfer from fire (Hartin, 2010).of a fire depends on the size and shape of the flamesurface; the heat formed during combustion; thefraction of radiated heat; the quantities of soot that isproduced during combustion and forms the luminouspart of the flame; water vapor present; carbonmonoxide contained in the air; and the position ofthe object (Casal, 2008).Tab. 1 Summary of types of fire events in industry involving dangerous substancesHeat flux level[kW.m -2 ](O´Sullivan 2004)Thermal radiation combines with a wide range offrequencies, as shown in Fig. 1. The electromagneticspectrum includes radiation in broad range ofwavelengths; a large portion of the electromagneticspectrum cannot be observed by the human eye. Inthe study of fire behavior, the infrared portion of thespectrum is of crucial importance. The energy emittedat each wavelength is dependent on temperature.Frequency and energy of emitted radiation increaseas temperature increases. This is reflected by thecolor changes from red to yellow and then to white,depending on how much the object is heated. If thecolor change is visible, most of the radiative energyis in the infrared spectrum.Fig. 1 Electromagnetic spectrum (Hartin, 2010)Anticipatedduration ofexposure to heatfluxPool Fire 50 - 150 Minutes to hoursJet Fire 100 - 250 Minutes to hoursFireball 270 SecondsFlash Fire 170 SecondsElectromagnetic waves of any frequency heatobjects' surfaces and are absorbed by them. Theamount of heat emitted onto objects in the vicinityOther adverseeffectsCombustionproducts,convective heattransferConvective heattransferOverpressure,dispersion offlashing liquidOverpressure,unbreathableatmosphereSubsequencesFrequent initiation by a flashfire or a vapor cloud explosion.A boilover and a fireball mayeventually occur.May precede BLEVE.Occurs during boilover orBLEVE.May proceed at various rates, oftenup to the rate of detonation, in aconfined environment manifestedrather as a vapor cloud explosion.May lead to a pool fire.It is important to specify the nature of heat flux,which is defined as the rate of heat transfer per unitcross-sectional area. In Czech, the term "tepelnýtok" (tepelný = heat, tok = flux) is defined as the rateof heat transfer per cross-sectional area, whereasrate of heat transfer per unit cross-sectional area(heat flux) is referred to as "hustota tepelného toku"(hustota = density), thus the term "density of heatflux" in verbatim translation. In risk analysis theterm "tepelný tok" is often used instead of "hustotatepelného toku". The reason is the adoption of datafrom English written literature, when the Englishterms "heat flux" or "thermal flux" are translated as"tepelný tok". Linguistically, the two terms matchbut from a physical point of view, the correct termfor "heat flux" is "hustota tepelného toku". In riskanalysis, such a designation will probably continueto be used for its simplicity.Various models are used to calculate heat fluxat certain distance from a fire. Although severalmodels (such as Solid Flame Model, Field Model,Point Source Model) exist, in this contribution wedescribe only the simplest way to determine heatflux at a given distance from fire source. For itssimplicity, the Point Source Model was chosen.(Hartin, 2010).45


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51Point Source ModelThe point source model is the simplest modelto determine the heat flux intensity. This modelconsiders fire and flame surface as a point sourcelocated in the geometric center of the flames.Radiated energy is then considered as a ratio of thetotal energy produced from a fire. It is assumed thatenergy is radiated in all directions (Hartin, 2010).For point sources, the radiation intensity variesreciprocally with the square of the distance fromsource, which is illustrated in Fig. 2. Doubling thedistance reduces the radiation intensity four times,that is to 1/4 of its original value.When radiation is emitted from other than a pointsource, as it is under fire conditions, dependence ofthe decrease in radiation intensity is more complex.If the area of the source is large compared to thedistance, heat flux decrease does not correspond tothe reciprocal of the square of the distance. Thereis a simple rule: if the distance from source isgreater than 5 times the dimensions of the source,the reciprocal square of the distance can be used tocalculate the heat flux (Hartin, 2010).Fig. 2 Heat flux decrease with distance(Hartin, 2010)Another parameter influencing the heat fluxintensity at a certain distance from source is theabsorption of thermal radiation by atmosphereand the position of the surface hit by thermalradiation. Particles of water and carbon dioxide inthe atmosphere can partially absorb heat transferredby thermal radiation. The thermal radiation intensitymay therefore vary depending on the distancefrom source and on the amount of absorbed heat.The amount of carbon dioxide contained in theatmosphere is basically constant, but the numberof molecules of water can vary depending on thetemperature and humidity (Casal, 2008).The physicochemical nature of the heat flux iscommon to all industrial fires and for the purposesof RAE it is necessary to know the effects ofthis phenomenon on humans, particularly froma biological point of view.ResultsEffects of Thermal Radiation on HumansIn this contribution, we focus solely on theeffects of thermal radiation, therefore other factors,such as effects caused by combustion products,thermal convection or others, are not taken intoconsideration. The response of an organism to theenergy transfer is affected by many factors, such asconductivity of tissues, peripheral blood perfusionaffecting the degree of absorption or dissipation ofheat in tissues, pigmentation, hairiness, thicknessof the keratin layer of skin (stratum corneum) orwater content in the tissues of the affected area. Thesurface temperature of the skin can also vary withinthe extreme limits of human exposure to an energysource (Pokorný, 2004).The main effect of heat flux in humans is theskin burn. The severity of burns depends on heatflux intensity (kW.m -2 ) and received dose. Burns arebasically classified into three categories:• First degree burns. They manifest with erythemaand pain.• Second degree burns. They are deeper wounds(0.1 mm); the skin reddens and blisters form.• Third degree burns. They are deep injuries (1 -2 mm); the victims lose sensitivity in the affectedarea; the skin is damaged and destroyed to its fulldepth and its color is yellow or black.The probability of death can be determinedonly for the second and third degree burns. In theseburn degrees, the skin layers protecting the bodyagainst external influences are severely damagedor destroyed on a large body surface area. Asa result, water loss in the human body occurs andthe probability of infection or death increases. Theprobability of survival in such a situation can beexpressed as a function of the percentage of bodyarea affected and the age of victim. Moreover, ifa large portion of the body surface is affected, thevictim may fall into a state of shock (Casal, 2008).Burn mortality is influenced by a large number offactors that include age, inhalation injuries, existingmedical complications, medical complicationsresulting from burns, quantity and type of clothing,rapidness and methods of health care, and the bodypart that has been burned. Age is one of importantfactors determining severity of thermal trauma.Apart from the early prognosis, it influences thelong-term/lifetime prognosis. It has been repeatedly46


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51demonstrated that individuals younger than twoand older than sixty years of age have a higherburn mortality rate than other age groups (Pokorný,2004).An important factor in determining thepotential mortality rate is the burn wound depth. Itcorresponds not only to the intensity of heat flux,but also to its duration. For example, temperaturesof even several thousand degrees Celsius applied fora fraction of a second produce superficial scorcheswhereas temperature of 43 degrees Celsius appliedfor more than 60 minutes destroys skin to its fulldepth (Pokorný, 2004).If we focus on accidents caused by fires, weencounter not only physical, but also psychicdamages. Many victims may die not due to theextent and severity of their somatic injuries, but asa result of severe psychological stress and mentalbreakdown. The victims are prone to "blind action",when they are blinded and respond to stimuli ina confused manner, and to chaotic behavior. Theyusually do not realize that their life is in danger.This condition is referred to as "trauma agnosis"and it was, for example, the cause of death of manyHiroshima thermally injured victims (Pokorný,2004).When evaluating the effects of thermal radiationon humans, clothing is also an important factorto consider. Clothing provides certain protectionagainst burns, but only until it catches fire. Theoverall trauma of an individual depends on the bodysurface covered by clothing and his capability toprotect himself from thermal radiation. However, itis important to realize that when ignited, the burningclothing causes more severe damage than the onethat would have been caused by the action of heatflux itself. The Dutch approach (TNO, 1999) definesthe threshold for the ignition of clothing. For theheat flux intensity exceeding this threshold, 100 %probability of death of the exposed individuals isassumed.When considering the protective propertiesof clothing, regard must be taken of whether theclothing undergoes spontaneous or piloted ignition.Piloted ignition is considered when clothing ignitesdue to direct contact with a flame. If piloted ignitionis involved, we can assume that after removal ofthe flame the burning clothes can be ripped offand the danger eliminated. If the clothing ignitesspontaneously, i.e. as a result of thermal radiation, itcannot be assumed that the danger will be eliminatedafter the removal of clothing, because the person willbe still exposed to the source of radiation (Mannan,2005).Another factor that needs to be considered isthe behavior of the affected individuals. In Mannan(2005), it is quoted that it takes 5 sec. until a personis able to respond adequately. After this period oftime the person will most likely turn his back to thesource of thermal radiation and will seek to escapeor hide. Some models consider this behavior too.Known cases show that some of the victims haveburns both on the front and the back side of the body.At the moment the event occurred, the victim wasfacing the event and after initiation turned his backin an attempt to escape.For the purposes of RAE elaboration, it isnecessary to consider all residents, including thosewho are found in buildings. Buildings are supposedto provide comprehensive protection against thermalradiation effects. However, just as with clothing, it isassumed that they provide protection only until theycatch fire. The Dutch approach (TNO, 1999) usesfor building ignition (and thus for the increase in theprobability of death to 100 %) the same heat fluxlevel as for the ignition of clothing.In this chapter, the heat flux effects on humansand principal factors influencing characteristicsand degree of these effects have been described.Basic types of industrial fires involving dangerousflammable substances, physicochemical nature ofthermal radiation, and its effects on human healthhave been explained. Now, the basic types of modelsdetermining the effects of fires in industry are to bespecified.Models for Determining the Effects ofFires in IndustryFor elaboration of the RAE document, severalapproaches to determine the impact on thepopulation can be opted for. Functions and discretevalues published in internationally recognizedmethodologies and scientific publications concerningMAP risk analysis process are the bases for theapplication of various approaches: Purple Book(TNO, 1999); Lees' Loss Prevention in the ProcessIndustries (Mannan 2005); ARAMIS methodology(Casal et al., 2001); CPQRA (AIChE, 2003); RiskManual Bevi (RIVM, 2009).In conducting risk analysis, it is usually possibleto calculate only heat flux at a given location or, as thecase may be, duration of its effects. Unfortunately,other important information such as the age of theaffected people or the percentage of body affectedby burns, cannot be foreseen in risk assessment inindustrial plants. The models used must take intoaccount the limited possibilities for determining theimpacts.47


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51According to the principles of impact evaluation,the models and the approaches to determine theeffects of heat flux caused by fire can be divided intofollowing categories:• Models based on heat flux threshold level,• Models based on thermal dose,• Probit functions and other probability models,• Models based on the percentage body burn.Models Based on Heat Flux ThresholdLevelTo calculate the range of impact or safe distance froma facility where a fire may occur, the heat flux value alonecan be used, with a unit of kW.m -2 (or W.m -2 ). Thesevalues can be derived from experimental data, realcases, or deduced from other models. Many heat fluxvalues related to various factors have been publishedand applied worldwide. The biggest drawback of thisapproach is the limited ability to include exposuretime in the calculation. Within the approaches, thevalues of heat flux related to a specific exposure timeare quoted in some cases, but if the values cannot beextrapolated, their application is very limited.However, during industrial accidents, individualsare exposed to heat flux only for a certain period oftime. It can be assumed that this period will be short.In the event of a flash fire or a fireball, the exposuretime is limited by the duration of the event itself,amounting to seconds. For pool fire or jet fire, it canbe assumed that in case of exposure to heat flux theaffected individuals will seek a hiding place or willbe able to escape. High level heat fluxes may causedeath within a short period of time. In general, itcan be stated that the exposure of a person to heatflux continuing for, for example, several minutes ishardly imaginable in industrial accidents.The method of setting limits based on heat fluxthreshold values is chosen in the U.S. EPA ALOHA5.4.1.2 modeling program. It uses heat flux valuescausing specific effects within one minute (see Tab. 2).Tab. 2 Heat flux values used in ALOHA 5.4.1.2program (NOAA, 2007)Heat flux valueEffect[kW.m -2 ]10 Potential of death within 60 secondsSecond-degree burns within 605seconds2 Pain within 60 secondsModels Based on Thermal DoseThe dependence of severity of thermal radiationeffects upon the relationship between the heat fluxintensity and the exposure time can be expressed invarious manners. The simplest way is to introducea factor determining the severity of damage; in thiscase, it is the thermal dose, which is the result ofa heat flux of a certain value lasting for a specificperiod of time. Furthermore, it was found out thatthe impact of high thermal radiation values is moresignificant than the influence of exposure time;therefore, an empirical expression of this relationshipwas introduced as:ntIc(1)where:t exposure time [s],I heat flux [W.m -2 ],n parameter,c constant.Eisenberg et al. (1975) introduces in this equationthe parameter n = 4/3 = 1.33, based on data correlationfrom burn cases. For non-lethal effect he introducesthe parameter n = 1.15. Hymes (1996), however,proposes the same value of the exponent n = 4/3 forboth lethal and non-lethal effects. Daydcock (2000)states that the value of 4/3 is based on relatively olddata, and does not relate to the infrared radiation.It is, however, considered acceptable and currentlythe best available. He also mentions the value of1.15 stating that if more accurate data are availablein the future, it may be used in calculating non-lethalthresholds. So the thermal dose value and its unithave been established:(Thermal Dose Unit) - TDU = 1 (kW.m -2 ) 4/3·sThe principle of determining the impacts offire using the thermal dose is used mainly forthe purposes of evaluating fire risks on offshoreplatforms in Great Britain (Daydcock, 2000; HSE,2006). As an example, the proposed limits arelisted in Tab. 3. This approach is convenient mainlybecause it counts with exposure time.Tab. 3 Proposed thermal dose limits for offshoreworkers (Daydcock, 2000)Thermal dose [(kW.m -2 ) 4/3·s] Effect1000 1 % lethality2000 50 % lethality3200 100 % lethality48


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51Probit Functions and Other ProbabilityModelsProbit functions determine the dose - effectrelationship by mathematical and statistical methods.For exposure evaluation, the dose - effect relationshipis taken as a relation of the impact degree of a giveninducement, the exposure time, and the effect. Itdoes not count with the form, nor with the degreeof the effect. The term "effect" is defined here as anestimation of population that manifests determinedresponse to the impact. Probit functions are mostcommonly defined for lethality, but functions forother types of effects (first or second degree burns)are also established. Probit functions show how theincrease in concentration or in exposure time affectsthe overall effect. The probit function for heat fluxeffects is given by:43Pr a b ln I t(2) where:a, b regression constants (see Tab. 4),t exposure time [s],I heat flux [W.m -2 ] or [kW.m -2 ].In risk analysis, the probit function is mostoften used for the evaluation of toxic effects,because the data obtained from toxicologicaltests on animals can be extrapolated. For thermalradiation effects, adequate experiments on animalscannot be performed (except for some cases), sincethe character of human and animal skin differsubstantially. If experiments are performed, theyare conducted to observe response of the animal(e.g. pig) skin as such. It is not possible to performexperiments in which a certain number of individualsis exposed to heat flux, as it is common in inhalationtoxicology tests, to obtain data on mortality rate forextrapolation to probits. It is therefore possible onlyto draw on limited data obtained from historicalexperience.Eisenberg et al. (1975) uses results publishedin White (1971), where the effects on humansexposed to ultraviolet radiation in nuclear attacks inNagasaki and Hiroshima are discussed in detail. Thismodel is still widely used because it is, for obviousreasons, impossible to conduct further experimentson humans or animals. Experimental data, however,show that models based on ultraviolet radiationmay overestimate the thermal dose obtained froma source emitting infrared light up to twofold. Theoriginal model has been modified several times byvarious authors (see Tab. 4).Models using the probit function make possibleto determine the percentage response of affectedindividuals for any value of heat flux and exposuretime. Its disadvantage is how it is established as it isbased on data that are considered obsolete and onlylimitedly verifiable.Models Based on the Percentage Body BurnModels based on the percentage body burn canbe based somewhat better on empirically deriveddata. Mortality of individuals in relation to thepercentage of body burn can easily be determinedfrom the cases of burned people treated in hospitals.Many studies investigate survival rate from actualcases and establish models for calculating mortalitydepending on age and percentage body burn. The keyissue in this case is to determine the surface area ofTab. 4 Probit functions for heat flux (a and b are regression constants used in equation 2)Effect a [W.m -3 ] a [kW.m -3 ] b Author Note Key publicationsLethality -38,48 -14,9 2,56Eisenberg,Lynch,BreedingBased on nuclear explosion dataMannan, 2005VROM, 2005AlChE, 2003TNO, 1999Lethality -36,38 -12,8 2,56 Tsao a PerryRIVM, 2009Modified Eisenberg model (includes Mannan, 2005infrared radiation)VROM, 2005Lethality -37,23 -13,65 2,56 TNOModified Eisenberg model (for Mannan, 2005individuals protected by clothing) Casal et al., 2004Lethality -29,02 -10,69 1,99 LeesBased on pig skin experiments and Mannan, 2005Eisenberg modelVROM, 20051 st DegreeMannan, 2005-39,83 -12,03 3,018 TNO Developed by TNOBurnsVROM, 20052 nd DegreeMannan, 2005-43,14 -15,34 3,018 TNO Developed by TNOBurnsVROM, 200549


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51the body exposed to heat flux if a person is exposedto a fire. Estimation of the percentage of affectedbody surface depending on clothing is one of theapproaches. VROM (2005) assumes that in a clothedadult the bare skin makes 20 % of the body surface,while in a child it is 30 %. In such cases, protectiveproperties of clothing are to be also included.These models are convenient because empiricaldata can be used for their establishment. However,their applicability for AER is limited because thepercentage of affected body surface cannot beassumed from the mere heat flux value. Still, theymay serve as a basis for determining other modelsestablished on the basis of heat flux as such.ConclusionIn prevention of major accidents, differenttypes of fires with transfer of danger throughthermal radiation are considered. Thermal radiationis dangerous because the transfer is practicallyinstantaneous (the speed of light). To assess theeffects of emergency events in which the danger istransferred by thermal radiation, many factors mustbe taken into account - from the characteristics ofindividuals (age, amount of clothing) to externalfactors (transmissivity of atmosphere). Only few ofthese factors can be taken into account in the processof elaborating RAE.In RAE elaboration and in determination ofthreshold effects it is necessary to use some of thepublished models. The simplest ones are based onlyon a specific discrete value of heat flux which isconsidered to cause a given effect. This approachcan be regarded as satisfactory as it can be assumedthat the exposure of an individual to heat flux willlast for a short time only. A more accurate approachuses thermal dose, value of which includes effectsof the impact lasting for a certain period of time.Even more comprehensive approach is representedby probit function that reflects the dose - effectrelationship and determines the correspondingdegree of the impact, usually lethality. The drawbackof probit functions that are used to determine theeffects of heat flux, is that most of the world'spublished documents are based on modifications ofthe model published by Eisenberg et al. (1975). Thismodel is based on data obtained from nuclear attackson Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and today many expertsconsider it outdated and inaccurate.However, due to the absence of more recentdata and impossibility to perform another tests, atthe current state of knowledge, it is (in modifiedversions) accepted as sufficient. Another option isthe application of models depicting the relationshipbetween lethality and affected body surface area,which can be based on empirical data obtainedfrom medical practice. However, this approachis very difficult to apply in conditions of MAP asthe percentage of the body affected is difficultto estimate in risk analysis in enterprises withdangerous substances.AcknowledgementsThis contribution is supported by SGS 023/2101/SV0231121 project; "Support for Science andResearch in Moravian-Silesian Region - subsidytitle No. 5" project, contract number 01737/2010/RRC; and Security Research Programme inthe Czech Republic for 2010 - 2015 within theVG20112013069 project.ReferencesCASAL, J., PLANAS, E., DELVOSALLE, C., FIÉVEZ, C., PIPART, A., LEBECKI, K., ROSMUS, P., VALLEE,A. (2004). Accidental risk assessment methodology for industriesin the context of the Seveso II directive, Therisk severity index. EVG1 - CT - 2001 - 00036.CASAL, J. (2008). Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants. IndustrialSafety Series, Elsevier, 2008, Volume 8, Pages 61-117. ISSN 0921-9110, ISBN 9780444530813.EISENBERG, N.A., LYNCH, C.J., BREEDING, R.J. (1975). Vulnerability Model: A Simulation System forAssessing Damage Resulting from marine Spills (VM1). US Coast Guard, AD/A-015 245, NTIS rapport no.CG-D-137-75, 1975.CPQRA (2003). Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis. USA: Center for Chemical ProcessSafety/AIChE, 2003. ISBN 0-8169-0720-X. 800p.TNO (1999). Guidelines for Quantitative Risk Assessment “Purple Book” CPR 18E. 1 st Edition. Hague,Netherlands: Committee for the Prevention of Disasters, 1999. 237 p.HARTIN, E. (2010). Everyday Concepts-Part 4: Radiation [online]. CFBT-US, 2010 [cit. 2011-04-14]. Availableat: http://cfbt-us.com/wordpress/?paged=350


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 44 - 51VROM (2005). Hazardous Substances Publication series 1. Methods for determining possible damage (‘Greenbook’). Ministry of VROM [Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment], 2005.Health and safety executive. Methods of Approximation and Determination of Human Vulnerability for OffshoreMajor Accident Hazard Assessment. Health and Safety Executive, January 2006. SPC/Tech/OSD/30.HYMES, I, BOYDELL, W., PRESCOTT, B. (1996). Major Hazards Monograph: Thermal Radiation: Physiologicaland Pathological Effects, IChemE, Rugby, UK.DAYDCOCK, J.H., REW, P.J. (2000). Thermal radiation criteria for vulnerable populations. Report by WSAtkins Consultants # 285/2000 to Health and Safety Executive, England, 2000.MANNAN, S. (2005). Lee’s Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 3 rd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.NOAA (2007). Thermal Levels of Concern [online]. Office of Response and Restoration, 2007 [cit. 2011-06-13].Available at: http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/O’SULLIVAN, S., HAGGER, S. (2004). Science and exposure Group. Human vulnerability to thermal radiationoffshore. 2004, HSL/2004/04.POKORNÝ, J. (2004). Urgentní medicína. 1. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2004. 547 s. ISBN 8072622595.RIVM (2009). Reference Manual Bevi Risk Assessments version 3.2. Netherlands: National Institute of PublicHealth and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for External Safety, 2009. 189 p.WHITE, C.S. (1971). The nature of problems involved in estimating the immediate casualties from nuclearexplosions. Civil effects study. US Atomic Energy Commission, 1971.51


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 52 - 55CRISIS MANAGEMENT TERMINOLOGICAL SYNONYMSJiří DVOŘÁK 1 , Michael DAWSON 2Review articleAbstract:Key words:Linguistic risks must not affect negatively the quality of risk communication. It isadvisable to know synonyms of the terms belonging to crisis management lexicon togetherwith the differences in their denotations. Seemingly synonymous terms have to be furtherinterpreted and classified according to their occurrences and combinations. The analysisof terminological synonyms may result in the need to reassign a lexical entry, which isgiven inappropriate prominence in the current dictionaries and terminological glossaries.Crisis management, terminology, synonyms, risk, collocation.IntroductionAlthough English has a large number of synonymsdue to a high number of borrowings of French andLatin origin, absolute synonyms are rare. Words aremostly synonymous only in some of their meaningsor contexts and are differentiated stylistically, withthe words of French and Latin origin typically usedfor creating a more formal style.Materials and methodsThe analysis of crisis management terminologicalsynonyms is based on the selected corpus of crisismanagement, which includes glossaries related torisk management, an online dictionary, a collectionof reliable authentic texts (including NATO and EUDirectives), and academic papers. The distributions oflemmas and their combinations have been identifiedand the frequent collocations being used in a corpushave been compared with some dictionary definitions.An empirical approach and frequency-based analysishave been applied in an effort to find evidence ofpossible misconceptions about language use and toelicit the need for reassigning a lexical entry.As the research is still in progress, it is beyondthe scope of this paper to provide the readers withthe final overview of synonyms and the differencesamong terminological synonyms in different areasof crisis management.There are different concepts and classifications ofsynonymy. Synonymy is a horizontal paradigmaticrelation of semantic similarity among lexemes of variousforms, which are called synonyms (Čermák, 2010).According to Klégr (Klégr, 2004) three factorsare usually considered, i.e. 1) congruence betweenmeanings (i.e. denotative and cognitive contentsas well as connotational and pragmatic sememes),which includes the expressive, attitudinal, evaluative,intensification and associative characteristics; 2)congruence between distributions, i.e. the typesof texts, in which the expression may occur (itincludes the level of formality, genre, specialization,social status, standardization, frequency, etc.); 3)congruence between extensions, or the ranges ofmeanings, which determine collocability.Synonyms are intuitively grouped into classes,or paradigms, in which dominant components arethose which have the most commonalities withother components and the highest frequency and aretherefore, the most familiar (Čermák, 2010).Filipec mentions the following types ofclassifications: subject and conceptual, wordforming,contextual, stylistic and word class. Thesesynonymic lines are mutually related through basicconceptual synonyms, the meanings of which areincluded and specified in the meanings of theirconstituents (Filipec, 1961).John Lyons´ and Alan Cruse´s concept ofsynonymy includes absolute synonymy, partialsynonymy, near synonymy, false synonymy and nonsynonymy(Lyons, 1995; Cruse, 1986). Absolutesynonymy, denied by some linguists, has to meetthree conditions, i.e. being identical in all theirmeanings, in all the dimensions of each meaning,and in all contexts (Lyons, 1995). If one of the threeabove mentioned conditions is not met, then thereis partial synonymy. Partial synonyms (sometimescalled cognitive or referential synonyms) differonly in non-conceptual or distributional elementsof meaning, and their exchange does not changethe true value of the proposition. These synonyms,1Language Training Centre, University of Defence, Czech Republic, jiri.dvorak@unob.cz2Directorate of Environmental Stewardship, Ottawa, Canada, dawson.mt@forces.gc.ca52


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 52 - 55sometimes called propositional synonyms, mostlydo not overlap in the range of their meanings. Nearsynonyms are partially non-identical in conceptualcomponents, but not necessarily in the distributionalones. False synonyms have meanings that are similar,analogical, but can be hierarchically superordinate,subordinate, possibly coordinate and, if exchanged,shift the meaning of proposition.On the one hand, terminological synonymsare created in order to reflect reality from a certainperspective in a given area of expertise and experts tryto select the most suitable ones from the given linguisticinstruments. Such a process is caused by an efforteither to create one´s own cultural equivalents to theterms of foreign origin, or the necessity to incorporateinternational terminology into the system of one´smother tongue. There also seems to be a trend in theCzech language to shorten too long terminologicalcollocations (e.g. impact analysis = impaktová analýzavs. analýza dopadu (na životní prostředí, na organizaci,…); environmental management = environmentálnímanagement vs. management životního prostředí)etc. On the other hand, the differentiation within theterminological system reduces the excessive creationof synonyms in the area of terminology (Filipec, 1961).Through this process of differentiation, synonyms losetheir identical meanings. They lose the character ofsynonyms and become words which are coordinate orsubordinate. Such a trend is more evident in the case ofabstract terms.ResultsThe Oxford Thesaurus of Current Englishpresents damage as a synonym to destruction(Waite, 2006). Cambridge International Dictionaryof English describes one of the meanings of the verb“to destroy” as “to cause damage to” (Procter, 2001).Military environmentalists (NATO, 2005) havedefined the above mentioned terms in the followingway a) damage = any negative impact. Damage tothe environment means aggravating the state of theenvironment by pollution or other types of militaryactivity above the limits determined by specialregulations; b) destruction = activities by personnel,vehicles, or equipment that are directly or indirectlyresponsible for the death or eradication of animalsor fish. It is obvious from the above mentioneddefinitions that despite the fact the terms damage anddestruction are often presented as synonyms, theyare rather on some intensity scale. Damage (škoda,poškození) reflects a lower negative impact frommilitary activities on the environment than destruction(zničení, zkáza). It is interesting that some militaryenvironmentalists proposed the term death to be leftout of the definition of destruction, because the deathof one or a few animals does not necessarily mean theextinction of animal species (Rimmer, 2003).Similarly, the terms pollution (mj. znečištění,zkalení, zašpinění,) and contamination (znečištění,zamoření, nakažení, narušení, kontaminace) areconsidered to be stylistic synonyms. Although at firstsight, some substantive collocations can be identifiedas synonymous, such as environmental pollution/contamination; soil ~/~; groundwater ~/~; air ~/~;there is a difference between the terms contaminateand pollute (descriptions of substantives are notmentioned): contaminate implies the presence or theinfluence of something external which by enteringinto or by coming in contact with a thing destroysthe latter´s purity; pollute implies that the processwhich begins with contamination is complete andmanifest that what was literally or figuratively pureand clean has lost its clearness or fairness and hasbecome muddy, or filthy, or poisoned. Pollutionmay therefore be understood as a consequence ofcontamination, (air pollution vs. the contaminationof air by gases). Atmospheric Pollution is e.g.defined as the contamination of the atmosphereby large quantities of gases, solids and radiationproduced by the burning of natural and artificialfuels, chemicals and other industrial processes andnuclear explosions (UNDHA, 1992).The military environmental protectionterminology includes the following definitionsof the above mentioned terms: a) pollution = theintroduction of physical, chemical or biologicalagents into the environment through military activitywhich by their nature or their quantity are foreignto the environment; b) contamination = the deposit,absorption or adsorption of radioactive material orof biological or chemical agents on or by structures,areas, personnel or objects (AAP-6, 2008). Thereare also definitions of contamination caused byindividual contaminants, e.g. contamination by POL= the accidental or purposeful spilling or disposalof petroleum, oils, and lubricants on the land fromvehicles, equipment, or aircraft operations such asrefuelling, maintenance, and storage (Rimmer, 2002).The synonyms of the term impact are, besidesothers, influence, effect, impression, results,consequences, repercussions, force, shock, brunt,impetus, and pressure.The term effect occurs as a synonym of impactquite often, (e.g. secondary environmental effects,adverse environmental ~, long-term contamination~, negative ~, direct ~, medical ~).The term consequence, also presented asa synonym of impact, has a shifted meaning in thefollowing example: ... activity may have significantimpact or consequences. It follows from the above53


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 52 - 55example that impact results in consequences.The two-way collocability of these terms is notpossible either. While the term consequence maysubstitute the term impact in almost all Adjective+ Substantive collocations (e.g. training impacts/consequences; operational ~/~; environmental~/~, etc.) the substitution is not possible in Noun+ Noun collocations (e.g. groundwater impact ≠ ~consequence; impact area ≠ consequence ~).Some of the synonyms of the term risk are asfollows: chance, possibility, danger, peril, jeopardy,hazard, uncertainty, speculation, and venture.Hazard is the most frequently used term for risk,but differences in their meanings are obvious. Riskis the possibility of suffering harm from a hazard.If they were synonyms, we would not find theexpressions such as radiation hazards and risksand environmental hazards - assessing risk ... Wemay define hazard (or cause) as a potential threat tohumans and their welfare and risk (or consequence)as the probability of a specific hazard occurrence.The distinction was illustrated by Okrent (Okrent,1980) who considered two people crossing an ocean,one in a liner and the other in a rowing boat. The mainhazard (deep water and large waves) is the same inboth cases but the risk (probability of drowning) isvery much greater for the person in the rowing boat.Thus while an earthquake hazard can exist in anuninhabited region, an earthquake risk can occur onlyin an area where people and their possessions exist.People, and what they value, are the essential point ofreference for all risk assessment and for all disasters(Smith, 1996). Similarly, peril is the cause of risk.It is obvious that the lexemes labelled as synonymsare usually partial synonyms and their meaningsoverlap only partially and differ in their other variants.In other words, they may be words which are mutuallyeither superordinate or subordinate.ConclusionThe lexemes labelled as synonyms are usuallypartial, not absolute synonyms. Seemingly synonymouswords have their own preferred collocates and differentpreferred senses. They are close synonyms (Cruse,1986) and differ in their distributions, connotations and,to various degrees, also in denotations. The lessonslearned in this area may consequently lead to thechanges in the area of terminology and the improvedquality of specialized training.AcknowledgmentsThe outcomes presented in this contributionhave been acquired as part of the Security ResearchProject of the Czech Republic on the Methodologyof Assessing the Emergency Water Supply onthe Basis of Risk Analysis filed under the codeVG20102013066.ReferencesAAP-6 (2010). NATO Glossary of Terms and Defi nitions. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Standardization Agency.2010.CPNI (2005). Risk Management and Accreditation of Information Systems [online]. Centre for theProtection of National Infrastructure [cit. 2011-10-28]. Available at: http://www.cpni.gov.uk/documents/publications/2005/2005003-risk_management.pdf.CRUSE, D. Alan (1986). Lexical Semantics. Cambridge University Press, 1986. 309 p. ISBN 0-521-27643-8.ČERMÁK, František (2010). Lexikon a sémantika. 1. vyd. Praha : Lidové noviny, 2010. 357 s. ISBN 978-80-7422-020-3.FILIPEC, Josef (1961). Česká synonyma z hlediska stylistiky a lexikologie. Praha, 1961.Glossary and Acronyms of Emergency Management Terms. Available at http://orise.orau.gov/emi/trainingproducts/files/glossary-emt.pdfKLÉGR, Aleš (2004). Intralingual and Interlingual Synonymy. [online]. An Online Journal of Modern Philology, Opava,2004. ISSN 1214-5505 [cit. 2011-09-25]. Available at: http://philologica.net/studia/20040113000002.htm.Lexicon of UK Civil Protection Terminology [online]. United Kingdom : Cabinet Office, 2011. [cit. 2011-10-23].Available at: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/cplexiconLYONS, John (1995). Linguistic semantics. An introduction. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1995.376 p. ISBN 0-521-43877-2.MILITELLO, Laura, PATTERSON, Emily, BOWMAN, Lynn, WEARS, Robert Lynn (2006). Information Flowduring Crisis Management: Challenges to Coordination in the Emergency Operations Center. Springer,London, 2006.NATO (2005). Environmental Protection Glossary. 2005. Available at CD.54


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 52 - 55OKRENT, David (1980). Comments on Societal Risk. Science, 1980. pp. 372-375.PEARCE, Laurie (2002). Disaster Management and Community Planning, and Public Participation: How toAchieve Sustainable Hazard Mitigation. University of British Columbia, 2002.PROCTER, Paul (2001). Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 1792p. ISBN 0521009855.RIMMER, Richard (2002). Record of Proceedings. NATO Training Group, Army Subgroup, EnvironmentalTraining Working Group. Madrid, 2002.RIMMER, Richard (2003). Record of Proceedings. NATO Training Group, Army Subgroup, EnvironmentalTraining Working Group. Washington, 2003.SMITH, Keith (1996). Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. 2 nd ed. New York :Routledge, 1996. 389 p. ISBN 978-0415122047.UNDHA (1992). International Agreed Glossary of Basic Terms Related to Disaster Management. United NationsDepartment of Humanitarian Affairs. 1992.WAITE, Maurice (2006). Oxford Thesaurus of Current English. Oxford University Press, 2006. 504 p. ISBN0199202877.55


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 56 - 60PROTECTION OF THE NATIONAL CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURELibor HADÁČEK 1 , Radomír ŠČUREK 2 , Jaroslav CÍGLER 3Review articleAbstract:Key words:Several critical infrastructures have been identified in the Czech Republic that whendisturbed or destroyed, they would impact on the performance of the state’s functions.Failure of any such infrastructure could cause a failure of critical infrastructure in anotherMember State or Member States. Considering this international proportion, an integratedapproach of the whole EU has been chosen to identify weaknesses, vulnerable points andgaps in protective measures. The goal of every EU member state is to protect entitiesand elements of critical infrastructure, prevent their disruption or their destruction, andminimize the impacts of possible failures of such infrastructures on the national andregional levels (Explanatory Memorandum, 2000).Infrastructure, management, plan, critical, protection.IntroductionThe issue of critical infrastructure has been onceagain greatly discussed in recent years. Nevertheless,the topic is not completely new. The term itself, inthe least, has been used in the vocabulary of securitytheories and practices for more than 10 years. Thefact, however, is that its substance was and to someextent still is understood quite loosely.Not even the European Union Council Directive(Council Directive, 2008) (hereinafter the Directive)has succeeded in bringing a clear order into this field.Critical infrastructure is defined as - assets, systemsand parts thereof located in Member States whichare essential for the maintenance of vital societalfunctions, health, safety, security or economic orsocial well-being of people, and the disruptionor destruction of which would have a significantimpact in a Member State as a result of the failure tomaintain those functions.European critical infrastructures (hereinafterECIs) is defined as - CI located in Member States,the disruption or destruction of which would havea significant impact on at least two Member States.The significance of the impact shall be assessed interms of cross-cutting criteria. This includes effectsresulting from cross-sector dependencies on othertypes of infrastructure (Council Directive, 2008).Materials and methodsThe study materials used were obtained frompublic sources. Then, through analysis of suchsecondary documents, an answer was sought tothe question of how to protect regional criticalinfrastructures. In order to do so, critical infrastructure(hereinafter CI), required terminology and definedplanning documentation to implement measures toprotect the critical infrastructure had to be identified.For the sake of clarity and simplicity, relationsbetween the infrastructure and the documentationhave been expressed in a graphic way.Cross-cutting and sectoral criteria shall be definedthrough application of general methodologies of thesecurity theory, i.e. analysis and classification ofrisks and treatment of risks (Government Regulation,2010). A level of criticality as the fundamentalcomponent of risk (in addition to probability andvulnerability) is the key concept. Criticality expressesthe severity of damage incurred by protected assets,impact of such damage on our ability to maintaincontinuity of societal functions, severity of deviationsfrom society’s functioning in standard situations, inparticular in quality of governance and quality of lifeand cost of restoring the standard situation.Criticality of damage incurred is established bythe following cross-cutting criteria:• criterion of casualties (assessed according to thepotential number of dead or wounded);• criterion of economic impact (assessed accordingto the severity of economic losses or impairedquality of products or services, including potentialenvironmental impacts;• criterion of public impact (assessed according tothe impact on public trust, physical suffering and1Czech Association of Security Managers, Prague, Czech Republic, hadacekl@fsc-ov.cz2VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, radomir.scurek@vsb.cz3Czech Association of Security Managers, Prague, Czech Republic, ciglerj@fsc-ov.cz56


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 56 - 60impairment of daily life, including loss of essentialservices.The system approach towards security froman all-society point of view (in this case from thepoint of view of a supranational community) isbased on understanding the society as a structure ofelements (in this case of subsystems) with a networkof relations (cooperation; hierarchy; cumulativesynergies) among them and developing in time. CIand ECI sectoral criteria are the representation ofthis understanding. It should be noted here that thereare partial differences between sectoral criteria asapplied by the EU and by the Czech Republic.The law includes the critical infrastructureprotection into the system of crisis managementdefined as a complex of management activitiesby responsible authorities analyzing andassessing security risks, planning, organization,implementation and control of activities executed inconnection to crisis situation resolution. (Act, 2000)(hereinafter the Crisis Act). The Crisis Act furtherdefines the following basic terms and concepts:a) critical infrastructure as a system of elements,the disruption or failure of which would havea serious impact on the state’s security, provisionof necessities to its population or on its economy;b) European critical infrastructure as a criticalinfrastructure on the territory of the CzechRepublic, the disruption or failure of which wouldhave a serious impact on another EU memberstate;c) critical infrastructure element means in particulara building, facility, asset or technical infrastructure,the disruption of which would cause the criticalinfrastructure to fail;d) critical infrastructure entity means a legal personor self-employed individual operating the elementor otherwise responsible for functionality ofcritical infrastructure; if the element does nothave an operator, the owner of the elementbecomes the critical infrastructure entity; incase of the European critical infrastructure,such entity is considered an European criticalinfrastructure entity, this includes authorities ofstate administration or government departments(organizational components of state) operating theelement or otherwise responsible for functionalityof critical infrastructure;e) critical infrastructure protection pursuant to theCrisis Act means activities aiming to reducethe risk of disruption or failure of a criticalinfrastructure element.ResultsIf the protection of state’s critical infrastructurefalls under the Crisis Act and becomes part ofthe crisis management system that includesregional authorities and other authorities withterritorial competencies among entities of the crisismanagement system, then it would be logical,based on the above, to define critical infrastructurealso on these levels, in particular on the level ofregions, taking into account potential synergies andcumulative effects should the elements be disruptedfrom the point of view of regions (Říha, 2007).The following Fig. 1 shows concentratedintersections of sets of CI categories and planningand security documents of CI protection.Fig. 1 The Crisis Preparedness Plan for CriticalInfrastructure (hereinafter referred to as CPP CI)Pursuant to the Crisis Act, in particular pursuantto § 29 (a) and (b), legal entities and self-employedindividuals shall prepare a defined planningdocumentation and provide for implementation ofCI protection measures (Act, 2000).The entities identified are obliged to adopt allessential measures to prevent major accidents causedby dangerous chemical substances or chemicalpreparations (Act, 2006). In addition, the entitieshave certain obligations when it comes to providingsome services (e.g. supply of energy, gas, urgenthealth care etc.).A simple representation of the most significantrelations in crisis planning is provided in the Fig. 2.Data forregion’s CPOtherentitiesinquired bythe regionECIEU InfrastructureData fromregions’s CPCI entityCI entitycrisis planCI EntityCPPCP / CPPData forregion’s CP 1)CI entity(entity “B“under Act59/2006 Coll. (3)RegionCR InfrastructureImplementationcooperCR CICM FDCP ofregionCP ofmunicipalityLegend:CM FD = Crisis Management of the Fire DepartmentCP = Crisis PlanFig. 2 The region crisis plan development57


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 56 - 60Crisis plan structure has been defined in the Actand regulations to implement the Act as follows:a) General section, containing in particular thefollowing:• Specification of the scope of activities by a legalperson or self-employed individual, and thetasks and measures that are subject to crisispreparedness plan;• Specification of crisis management;• Overview and assessment of possible risksources in the risk analysis, and possible impactof such risks on the activities by a legal personor self-employed individual;• List of critical infrastructure elements;• Identification of possible threats to operation ofcritical infrastructure elements.b) Operational part, containing in particular thefollowing:• Overview of measures pursuant to the crisis planof a responsible crisis management authority,and methods of implementation;• Ways to provide for ability and capability oflegal entities or self-employed individualsto implement crisis measures and protectits operations, including defined protectivemeasures - this part regarding the ability andcapability to implement crisis measures is ananalogy to preparation of an Operator securityplan (Council Directive, 2008). It includes inparticular the following:i. Conclusions of the threat and risk analysis;ii. Permanent (regular) security measures:- Technical security systems (Mechanicalbarriers, Alarm, security and emergencysystems, Closed-circuit television, Accesscontrol systems);- Physical security guards;- Communications security;- Cybernetic security;- Administrative security;- Personnel security;- Critical infrastructure protectionmanagement;iii. Graduated (enhanced) security measurescorresponding to the security situationdevelopments;iv. Description of the system the for verificationof security measures and their functionality,and training:- Procedures to solve crisis situationsidentified in the risk analysis;- Planned measures of economic mobilizationfor the suppliers of mobilization deliveries;- Contacts of responsible crisis managementauthorities;- Overview of plans prepared according tospecial legal rules and regulations that canbe used in crisis resolution.c) auxiliary part, containing in particular thefollowing:• List of legal rules and regulations that can beused when preparing for an emergency or crisisand their resolution;• List of treaties and agreements signed toimplement measures pursuant to the crisispreparedness plan;• Principles of manipulation with the crisispreparedness plan;• Maps and other graphics;• Other documents related to an emergency orcrisis preparedness and resolution (GovernmentRegulation, 2000).The operative part of the Crisis PreparednessPlan for Critical Infrastructure Facilities, whichis a potential part of the operator’s Security Plan(Guideline, 2008), is directed at protection of health,lives, property and natural environment of the legalor physical entity (Act 2006). The optimum approachfor ensuring protection of critical infrastructure is toconsider both the current security of technologiesand the way of protecting them (Genserik, 2010).The primary steps for implementing an appropriatelevel of security measures for a facility is essentialto establish the current level of measures in placeand to compile an analysis of threats to security andrisks of physical protection. An independent part ofthe security analysis is an analysis according to theISO ČSN 27000 standards.For the effective management of security risks itis essential to analyse the security threats and riskswhich could have a negative impact on the protectedassets. Various qualitative and quantitative methodsof technical reliability analysis can be used tocompile an analysis, such as the methods specified inČSN IEC 60300-3-1 Reliability Management - Part3-1: Instructions for Use of a Technical ReliabilityAnalysis - Systematic Instructions. In securityanalyses, technical analyses thereby take the place ofan as yet not issued single methodology for analysis ofthreats and risks. The European Commission expectsthat this will be created. Evaluation the threats to andvulnerable aspects of the critical infrastructure canbe made using descriptive methods or else softwareapplications for verifying their function as part of58


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 56 - 60risk management (Yusta, 2011). This will be basedon evaluation of serious threat scenarios, the typesof vulnerability of the separate facilities and possibleimpacts (Guideline, 2008).These scenarios can include the place and methodof attack, a description of the type of attacker,possible consequences of such an attack etc. Theseverity of separate scenarios must be evaluatedin connection with the risk map for the asset inquestion. The conclusions of the security analysisare used for categorising the assets, security zoningand plans for the physical protection of separatesecurity zones.The aim of physical protection system is toprevent access of unauthorised persons to a protectedasset inside the security zone. This is achieved byintroduction of a physical protection system, whichis a combination of systems of technical security,regime measures and physical protection, whichare divided into permanent and graduated securitymeasures.The permanent security measures are thosemeasures whose use is justifiable at all times.Depending on the type of security zone, it may bepossible to install some type of technical securitysystem (TSS) on the perimeter:a) mechanical barrier equipment (MBE),b) security and emergency alarm system (SEAS),c) entry check system,d) CCTV system,e) Security lighting,f) Electric fire alarm (EFA).The physical protection system of the facilityincludes physical security. Physical protection meansthe system of organisational, regime and technicalmeasures and physical security preventing access ofunauthorised persons to the protected asset.The interrelations between elements of physicalprotection are specified in regime measures, whichare laid down by facility owner’s managementregulations and documents, comprising regimes formovement of persons and vehicles in the facility,manipulation with assets, use and manipulation ofidentification features and maintenance activities,checking systems, training and measures forexceptional events and crisis situations.Interrelations between separate measures, theirlevels and security zones can be illustrated in the“Physical Protection Standard”. Specific measuresare suitable for each security zone. Their type andtechnical specification reflect the level of measure,i.e. its quality. An example of this standard appearsin Fig. 3.PHYSICAL PROTECTION STANDARDSBrief overview of all physical protection measuresSecurity ZonesMeasure Type Technical Specification I. II. III. IV.type 2 P Ptype 1 P Ptype 3type 2type 1 P Ptype 3type 2Key: Especially Secure Zone Secure Zone Protected Zone Checking ZoneFig. 3 Example for compilation of PhysicalProtection Standard - Permanent MeasuresVarying grades of security measures can beactivated according to various degrees and risks.These are the measures gradually graded in time,which can be implemented at the specific asset forensuring protection. In view of the short reactionperiod, their implementation is possible in the areasof physical protection and technical protectionsystems.The graded measures are applied to the currentsystem of technical and physical protection accordingto developments in the security situation. A sampleof an overview of graded security measures appearsin Fig. 4.Physical Protection StandardFig. 4 Example for compilation of PhysicalProtection Standard - Graded MeasuresCompiling a physical protection standard fora facility and implementing it is a precondition forbuilding an effective physical protection systemwhich will satisfy requirements for protection ofhealth, life, property and environment laid downby valid legislation and technical standards. Thestandard optimises protection management and linkspreventative measures with crisis measures in onepackage (Loveček, 2010).PPPPSecurity ZonesS.no. Graded Physical Protection Measures I. II. III. IV.123…Graded TPS Measures……Security ZonesS.no. Location I. II. III. IV.perimeter- MBEWirelessSEASMobile fencingSurface or spatial retardersportable barriers restricting free vehicle entryKey: Normal situation Increased risk situation High-risk situation Actual risk situation59


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 56 - 60ConclusionIn general, the framework of critical infrastructureprotection, based from a legal perspective onthe amended Crisis Act and related rules andregulations, including regulations to implement suchrules and regulations, is a step ahead. At the sametime it should be noted that in many aspects thissolution is a compromise and does not fully meetthe needs of all stakeholders (regional authoritiesin particular). In addition, the relations betweenthe lines of preparation for resolution of militarycrises and lines of civilian crisis management havenot been fully resolved in a satisfactory manner (inparticular when it comes to process intersections,as expressed by the terms “facilities important forprotection of the state” and “facilities targeted bya potential attack”). Security specifics of the globalenvironment, including anticipated possible forms ofmilitary attack (micro battlegrounds), have been atleast blurring the interface between these traditionallines of crisis management.The resulting situation can be seen as an essentialqualitative advance but needs to be developedfurther. The “regional critical infrastructure” isamong the issues to be contemplated from the pointsof view of the state, as well as of crisis management.On a regional level, it is a source of unanswered andin essence unanswerable practical questions.The first steps to resolve such issues are toconsistently meet all the requirements resulting fromthe current legal framework, to detect unclarities andgaps when it comes to issues raised and regulated,and to formulate requirements as to the furtherdevelopment of legal rules and regulations in thisarea.AcknowledgementsThe article is connected to a research, developmentand innovation project called “Objectification ofThreats and Risks of Equipments for the Productionand Transmission of Electricity”, identification codeVF20112013019. Project funding has been providedby the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic aspart of its program “Security Research for the Needsof the State 2010-2015”.ReferencesAct No. 59/2006 Coll., concerning prevention of major accidents caused by selected dangerous chemical substancesor chemical preparations.Act No. 240/2000 Coll., on crisis management and on amendment to certain Acts (the Crisis Act).Council Directive 2008/114/EC - on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and theassessment of the need to improve their protection.Explanatory Memorandum (2000) to the Draft Act No. 240/2000 Coll., on crisis management and on amendmentto certain Acts (the Crisis Act), as amended.GENSERIK, R., INGE, D. A. (2010). Framework for the Integration of Safety and Security in case of CriticalInfrastructure Protection. Disaster Advances, 2010, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 4-12. ISSN 0974-262X.Government Regulation No. 432/2010 Coll., on the criteria for determining the element of critical infrastructure.Government Regulation No. 462/2000 Coll., for implementation of Section 27(8) and Section 28(5) of Act No.240/2000 Coll., on crisis management and amendments to certain acts.LOVECEK, T., RISTVEJ, J., SIMAK, L. (2010). Critical Infrastructure Protection Systems EffectivenessEvaluation. Journal Of Homeland Security And Emergency Management, 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1, ArticleNumber 34. ISSN 1547-7355.ŘÍHA, Josef (2007). Kritická infrastruktura a riziko mimořádné události [online]. Urbanismus a územní rozvoj,Brno, 2007, Volume X, Issue 4, Pages 44-51 [cit. 2011-09-30]. Available from: http://www.uur.cz/images/publikace/uur/2007/2007-04/08_kriticka.pdf.YUSTA, J.M., CORREA, G.J., LACAL-ARANTEGUI, R. (2011). Methodologies and applications for criticalinfrastructure protection: State-of-the-art. Energy Policy, 2011, Volume 39, Issue 10, Pages 6100-6119. ISSN0301-4215. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.010.60


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 61 - 64PROPOSAL FOR UNIFYING THE SAFETY AND SECURITYTERMINOLOGY AT THE FACULTY OF SAFETY ENGINEERING OFTHE VŠB - TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF OSTRAVADavid ŘEHÁK 1 , Zuzana GIERTLOVÁ 2Review articleAbstract:Key words:The proposal for unifying the topical safety and security terminology at the Facultyof Safety Engineering of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava is presented inthe paper. The paper deals with the descriptions of key terms from the area of safety/security engineering, which reflect all the specialized areas emerging from the priorityspecializations of this faculty and makes their comprehension and interconnection easier.Safety; Hazard; Threat; Vulnerability; Risk.IntroductionThe Faculty of Safety Engineering is theyoungest faculty of the VŠB - Technical Universityof Ostrava. The priority directions of scientific -research activities, covering both the areas of Safetyand Security, include fire protection, industrialsafety, work safety, population protection, protectionof critical infrastructure, prevention of seriousaccidents, environmental security and safety ofnanomaterials and nanotechnologies.Materials and methodsIt follows from the above presented prioritydirections that there are areas of specialization, whichare developed within individual faculty departmentsand workplaces. The areas of specialization are fireprotection, population protection, industrial safetyand technical security of personnel and property.The fire protection specialization deals withmaterial behaviour during fire heat stress, predictingthe formation of products of fire and a toxic riskduring fire, passive and active systems of fireprotection, fire safety devices, fire prevention, firedynamics, modelling the fire development in closedspace, evacuation of personnel, etc. (Activities ofDepartments, 2011).Within the population protection, the attentionis paid to the management and tactics of getting theemergencies under control, integrated rescue system,crisis management, logistics during crisis states,emergency planning, civil emergency planning andpopulation protection, constructions and facilities ofcivil protection, etc. (Activities of Departments, 2011).The area of industrial safety deals with the issuesof risk analysis, methodology and application ofrisk analysis, work and environment safety, analysisof work risks, ergonomics, safety of processes andtechnologies, counter-explosive protection, riskmanagement in industry, chemical security (inthe context of REACH, ATECH, and the abuse ofchemical substances), serious accidents includingthe combined risks and the impacts of accidents onenvironment, reliability of human factor, the systemsof risk management in industry and the techniquesof risk reduction, safety in energetics, traffic safety,physical-chemical processes in atmosphere, etc.(Activities of Departments, 2011).Within the technical security of personnel andproperty, the attention is paid to the protection ofpersonnel and facilities, security management,protection of buildings of special significance, protectionof research organizations, symmetric and asymmetricthreats, etc. (Activities of Departments, 2011).Particular terminology is used in each of theabove mentioned areas. However, all these areasare parts of security engineering and thereforethey should share common general terminology.The reason is mainly the necessity of mutualcommunication and cooperation among individualareas. Therefore it has been proposed to define basicterms from the area of security engineering, whichwould reflect all the above mentioned subareas andmake it easier to understand and interconnect them.A number of relevant materials have been used forelaborating the proposed unified safety terminologyof the Faculty of Safety Engineering at the VŠB -Technical University of Ostrava. The materialsmay be classified in two groups. The first groupof materials includes technical standards and legalamendments. The Czech National Standard calledRisk Management (ČSN, 2010) and the Dictionaryof Risk Management (Instruction, 2010) may be1VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, david.rehak@vsb.cz2Technische Universität München, München, Deutschland, zuzana@giertlova.de61


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 61 - 64considered the key materials. Other, more specificmaterials, include the Czech National Standardcalled Management Systems of Safety and HealthProtection at Work (ČSN, 2008), Act on IntegratedRescue system (Act, 2000a), Act on CrisisManagement (Act, 2000b) and Act on the Preventionof Serious Accidents Caused by Selected HazardousChemical Substances or Chemical Preparations(Act, 2006). The second group of materials includesmainly specialized publications dealing with thesubject matter (Řehák, 2010; Smejkal and Rais,2009; Danihelka and Poledňák, 2008; Mikolajet al., 2000; Mikolaj et al., 2004; TerminologicalDictionary, 2009).ResultsThe following selected terms and their syntheticdefinitions from the area of security engineeringare presented in the next part of the paper: security,protected interest, hazard, source of hazard,hazardousness, threat, endangerment, vulnerability,security measures, emergency, accident, seriousnessof consequences, probability, risk, source of risk,residual risk, and risk management.Security is the state in which a particular subjector an object is without being threatened as far as itsexistence, interests and values are concerned.Protected interest represents everything, whichhas some value for a society. The value may bereduced due to the effect of hazard, i.e. life, health,property, and the environment.Hazard represents the property, force, event,activity, or a person, which have an impact eitherdirectly on the protected interest, or on the securitymeasures with the aim to gain the access to theprotected interest. It is also an element, which haspotential internal capability of causing risk, eitheron its own, or in combination with other elements.The prerequisite for the hazard to be effective isits activation, affected by hazard source. The termthreat is rather used in the area of state internal andexternal security.The source of hazard is a factor, which mayactivate a given hazard. It is either an externalelement (e.g. the environment), or an internal systemelement (e.g. processes, employees, immovableassets), which activate particular hazard and thedevelopment and symptoms of which are thecauses of possible undesirable impacts on protectedinterests.Hazard may be classified into two categories withregard to the impact, which the sources of hazardhave on an organization (object or subject as the casemay be). The first category includes external hazards.Such hazards are not susceptible to influence andwe can only mitigate their consequences. Externalhazards may further be subdivided into six areas,i.e. the hazards of political, economic, social,technological, legislative and ecologic nature. Suchan analysis is made according to the factors ofPESTLE analysis (Grasseová et al., 2010), which isused for the analysis of external environment. Thesecond category includes internal hazards. Suchhazards are affectable and we can either minimize orfully eliminate the causes of their impacts. Internalhazards may further be subdivided into three areas,i.e. the hazards of procedural (project), personneland material nature. The classification into thecategories and areas is shown in Fig. 1.Categoriesof HazardAreas ofHazardExternalHazardPoliticalEconomicSocialTechnologicalLegislativeEcologicHAZARDInternalHazardProcedural (project)PersonnelMaterialFig. 1 The Recommended Classification of Hazardsinto Categories and AreasHazardousness represents the internal propertyor the capability of hazard to cause damage.Endangerment is the state when hazard has animpact on a protected interest, i.e. when a dangeroussituation occurs.Vulnerability represents deficiency, weak pointor the state of protected interest, on which hazardmay have an undesirable impact. Vulnerability mayalso be defined as the level to which the protectedinterests are prone to damage caused by a particularemergency. The opposite of vulnerability isresistance, which is increased by implementing thesecurity measures.Security measures are the process or meansproposed with the aim to reduce the vulnerabilityof protected interest or to minimize the impact ofhazard. The implementation of security measuresincreases the resistance of protected interests, ordetects the impacts of hazards and mitigates or fullyeliminates these impacts on protected interests.Emergency is a serious, hard to predict andspatially limited event caused by anthropogenicactivities, natural impacts and processes threatening62


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 61 - 64life, health, property and environment. The termaccident is used for the same concept in the area oftechnological risks.Seriousness of consequences represents theextent of reduced value or level of protected interest.Probability is the value expressing the level towhich the occurrence of emergency is anticipated.Risk emerges from mutual interaction of hazardand protected interest and is expressed by thecombination (or product) of emergency occurrenceprobability and its impact on a given protectedinterest. Risk is also perceived as a quantificationlevel of threat for the protected interest through theimpact of hazard.Risk may be classified into various typesaccording to particular types of hazard, which haveimpacts on protected interests. It is e.g. political risk,economic risk, social risk, etc. Some specializedpublications (Božek and Urban, 2008; Smejkaland Rais, 2009) classify risks according to otherclassification criteria, such as e.g.:• predictability, i.e. the predictable and unpredictablerisks;• influence susceptibility, i.e. risks susceptible andnon-susceptible to influence;• origin, i.e. primary and secondary risks; theprimary risks are original and the secondary risksare caused by taking the measures to mitigate theprimary risks;• assessment objectivity, i.e. subjective andobjective risks;• emergency development dynamics, i.e. slow andfast risks;• probability of emergency origin, i.e. probable andimprobable risks;• emergency impact, i.e. risks with low, higher andfatal impacts.Residual risk is the risk remaining afterrisk treatment, i.e. after introducing the securitymeasures. The residual risk should be so low thatit would not exceed the referential level of risk andbe acceptable for the organization to such an extentthat it would not be necessary to take further securitymeasures for its reduction.The relations among the above mentioned termsare shown in Fig. 2.Risk management represents a continualand systematic process for effective dealing withrisks. The risk management consists of five basicsubprocesses (see Fig. 3) as it follows:• communication and consultation;• establishing the context;• risk assessment (it includes risk identification,analysis and evaluation),• risk treatment;• monitoring and review.Hazard SourceFig. 2 Relations among Basic Terms in the Area ofSafety EngineeringCommunicationand consultationHazardForceEventActivityPersonFig. 3 Process of Risk Management (ČSN ISO31000:2010)ConclusionRiskRiskSecurity terminology at the Faculty of SafetyEngineering of the VŠB - Technical University ofOstrava includes a number of terms related to basicareas of specialization, such as fire protection,population protection, industrial safety and technicalsecurity of personnel and property. Despite the factthat the areas are specific and differ from each other,it is possible to find identical definitions of basicterms in their centres, which clearly makes it easierfor us to comprehend and interconnect them andstart necessary co-operation.Finally, I would like to express my thanks to mycolleagues from the Faculty of Safety Engineering,who actively participated in compiling the proposedsafety and security terminology and whose commentscontributed to the objective definition of terms.AcknowledgementsSecurityMeasuresRiskVulnerabilityEstablishing the contextRisk assessmentRisk identificationRisk analysisRisk evaluationRisk treatmentResidualRiskProtectedInterestsLifeHealthPropertyEnvironmentMonitoring andreviewThe paper has been written as part of the Grant Projecton the “Security of Citizens - Crisis Management”sponsored by the Ministry of Interior of the CzechRepublic and filed under the code VF20112015018.63


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 61 - 64ReferencesAct No 59/2006 Col. on the Prevention of Serious Accidents Caused by Selected Hazardous Chemical Substancesor Chemical Preparations as Amended by Later Regulations. (in Czech).Act No 239/2000 Col. (2000a), on Integrated Rescue System as Amended by Later Regulations. (in Czech).Act No 240/2000 Col. (2000b) on Crisis Management as Amended by Later Regulations. (in Czech).Activities of Departments (2011) [online]. Ostrava: Faculty of Safety Engineering, 2011 [cit. 2011-09-23]. Availableat: http://www.fbi.vsb.cz/cs/okruhy/veda-a-vyzkum/odborna-cinnost/cinnost-kateder/ (in Czech).BOŽEK, František, URBAN, Rudolf (2008). Risk Management - General Part. 1 st ed. Brno: University of Defence,2008. 145 s. ISBN 978-80-7231-259-7. (in Czech).ČSN ISO 31000:2010. Risk Management - Principles and Regulations. (in Czech).ČSN OHSAS 18001:2008. Management Systems of Safety and Health Protection at Work - Requirements.(in Czech).DANIHELKA, Pavel, POLEDŇÁK, Pavel (2008). Risk Analysis - General Approach. Communications - Scientifi cLetters of the Universtiy of Zilina, 2008, No. 1, pp. 20-23. ISSN 1335-4205.GRASSEOVÁ, Monika, DUBEC, Radek, ŘEHÁK, David (2010). Enterprise Analysis in Manager´s Hands: 33the Most Commonly Used Methods of Strategic Management. 1 st ed. Brno: Computer Press, 2010. 325 p. ISBN978-80-251-2621-9. (in Czech).Instruction 73:2010. Management of Risks - Dictionary. (in Czech).MIKOLAJ, Jan, HERŠIC, Ladislav, HITTMÁR, Štefan, HORÁČEK, Jiří, MÍKA, Vladimír, ŠIMÁK, Ladislav(2000). Crisis Management as a Social Science Problem. Žilina: Faculty of Special Engineering of ZilinaUniversity, 2000, 139 p. ISBN 80-88829-54-2. (in Slovak).MIKOLAJ, Ján, HOFREITER, Ladislav, MACH, Vlastimil, MIHÓK, Jozef, SELINGER, Petr (2004). Terminologyof Security Management: Monolingual Dictionary. 1 st ed. Košice: Multiprint, 2004. 191 p. ISBN 80-969148-1-2. (in Slovak).ŘEHÁK, David (2010). Management of Risks as a Part of Strategic Management. p. 139-176. In GRASSEOVÁ,Monika, DUBEC, Radek, ŘEHÁK, David. Enterprise Analysis in Manager´s Hands: 33 the Most CommonlyUsed Methods of Strategic Management. 1 st ed. Brno: Computer Press, 2010. 325 p. ISBN 978-80-251-2621-9.(in Czech).SMEJKAL, Vladimír, RAIS, Karel (2009). Risk Management in Companies and Other Organizations. 3 rd ed.Prague: Grada Publishing, 2009. 360 p. ISBN 978-80-247-3051-6. (in Czech).Terminological Dictionary of Terms from the Area of Crisis Management and State Defence Planning. 2 nd ed.Prague: Ministry of Interior, 2009. 64 p. (in Czech).64


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70MAPPING THE HAZARDS OF TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUSSUBSTANCES BY RAILIva ŽITNÍKOVÁ 1 , Pavlína PUŽOVÁ 2 , Aleš BERNATÍK 3Review articleAbstract:Key words:The aim of the following contribution is the mapping of hazards of transport of dangeroussubstances on a chosen railway stretch in the Moravian-Silesian Region. The mapping willbe used for the preparation of a new module “Railway” for the prototype software systemFLOREON + . The mapping focuses on railway critical points, such as level crossings,underpasses, bridges, where an increased risk of accidents exists. The contribution alsodeals with the issue of the most common causes of more or less severe railway accidentsleading to injury and/or loss of human life and property damage.Mapping, Hazard, Dangerous substances, Risk, Rail transport.IntroductionMaterials and methodsAt present, the significance of rail transportgenerally grows because the issue of substitution ofrail transport for tank truck transport on highways(roads, motorways) has been increasingly debatedrecently. From the general point of view, almostall the modes of transport can be characterised bya growing accident rate at which human health isendangered or harmed and a loss of human life andmaterial damage and, last but not least, endangermentor pollution of the environment may occur.In the framework of cooperation betweenthe Faculty of Safety Engineering (FSE) and theFaculty of Electrical Engineering and ComputerScience (FEECS) of VŠB - Technical University ofOstrava, preparation of an extension to the systemFLOREON + by a new module - “Railway” wasagreed. FLOREON + is a prototype software systembeing prepared by FEECS. This system is designedfor the modelling and simulation of situationscaused by unfavourable natural events with usingadvanced calculation and internet technologies. Forthe preparation of the module “Railway”, mobilesources of threat (of the rail transport of dangeroussubstances) will be mapped in the area of theMoravian-Silesian Region. This module is intendedabove all for the services of the Integrated RescueSystem (mainly the Fire and Rescue System of theMoravian-Silesian Region).This contribution deals with the creation ofa basic overview of sources of threat on a chosenrailway stretch in the Moravian-Silesian Region forthe module “Railway” being prepared.Transport of Dangerous Substances by RailIn our country, dangerous substances aretransported and substances designated in compliancewith valid legal regulations as dangerous substancesare handled very often. From this, an increased threatof release of them into individual components of theenvironment, especially soil, water and atmosphere,during railway accidents, operating troubles andstandard manipulation results.In the area of transport, a general term “dangerousgoods” is used. Dangerous goods include bothsubstances and articles the transport of which is,according to the regulations concerning the internationalcarriage of dangerous goods by rail - RID, excludedor allowed only under conditions determined in theregulations. RID is the part of the IntergovernmentalConvention for International Carriage by Rail - COTIF,which brings together more than 40 contracting parties,as Member States, to constitute the IntergovernmentalOrganisation for International Carriage by Rail - OTIF.The Czech Republic signed this protocol, whichcomplies with the legislation of the European Union,at the meeting at Lithuanian Vilnius in the year 1999(Ministerstvo dopravy ČR, 2011).The fundamental law for the area of rail transportin the Czech Republic is the Act No. 266/1994 Coll.,on railways, as subsequently amended. Withinthe meaning of this Act, the release of dangeroussubstances, which will occur during railwayoperation or rail transport and which will endangerthe environment, is an extraordinary event.1VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, iva.zitnikova.st@vsb.cz2VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, pavlina.puzova.st@vsb.cz3VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Ostrava, Czech Republic, ales.bernatik@vsb.cz65


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70Within the meaning of the Act No. 17/1992 Coll.,on the environment, as subsequently amended, andthe Act No. 254/2001 Coll., on water, as subsequentlyamended, releases of dangerous substances into theenvironment are qualified as accidental releases,the consequence of which is the exceeding of theallowable carrying capacity of the land - in otherwords it is a case of environmental accident.The significance of individual modes of transportis evident every year not only in the number ofcolumns of cars on roads and generally in the extentof utilization of traffic channels, but also in statisticaldata. The extent of utilization of individual modes oftransport in past years can be seen in Tab. 1.Tab. 1 Comparison of transport performance ofgoods transport (Ročenka dopravy, 2010)Goods transportin total (10 3 t)Rail transport is the second after road transport inthe extent of utilization. This is not the only reasonwhy it is necessary to pay an increased attention torail transport and to deal with its safety.Risk Mapping2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009523 249 560 037 554 994 565 708 540 731 458 328Rail transport 98 255 85 613 97 491 99 777 95 073 76 715Road transport 414 725 461 144 444 574 453 537 431 855 370 115Inland watertransport1 907 1 956 2 032 2 242 1 905 1 647Air transport 16 20 22 22 20 14Oil pipelines 8 346 11 305 10 875 10 131 11877 9 837Risk mapping is used for the representation ofrisks in a map. It is a process during which territorieswith different levels of risk are identified andresults of risk assessment are represented in specialmaps (so-called risk maps). A risk map makes itpossible to identify risk composition and level foreach part of the territory. A risk is considered herecomprehensively a summary of risks for individualtypes of extraordinary events.When mapping the risks, we use results of analysesof manifestations of possible extraordinary events inthe territory as a basis; the results can be processedon the basis of numerical model calculations(e.g. release of dangerous substances, break wave incase of dam failure), long-term meteorological andhydrological statistical observations, observation ofnatural events, etc.The results of risk mapping can be representedin maps, e.g. by colour visualization - colour-codedscale of risk level. A boundary between individualrisk levels can be sometimes disputable, because itdepends on the approach of a person determining theboundary. (Krömer et al., 2010).R ( e, n, p , t)(1)i i i iRisk is the combination pi of the probability ofa certain event ei and its averse consequences n i(Oravec, 2009). The probability represents credibilityor degree of various phenomena in a given periodof time. (JANOTA et al., 2008). The consequencesis expressed quantitatively or qualitatively as theresult of an event which may be, for example loss ofhuman life or property.Risk is a tool for quantifying the causaldependence. Solution prevention in the causaldependence is shown in the following Fig. 1.Hazard hides object property,which may under certaincircumstances cause events withpotentially adverse consequences.It represents the conditions for thethreat of unwanted phenomenon.Threat means the hazard ofexposure, a condition wherehazard can be activated (JANOTAet al., 2008). The threat is naturalor man-conditional processthat poses a potential threat to human society.Vulnerability is a complex property that reflectsweaknesses in the system, its reduced resistance tothe possible disruption of its function, damage ordestruction. Vulnerability expresses the degree ofdamage in the event of a dangerous phenomenon.(ŠIMÁK et al., 2006).Fig. 1 The solution to prevent the causaldependence (according ROUDNÝ, 2008)We can take advantage of the proposed categoriesaccording to the severity of the Ministry of Defenseof the United States of America to evaluate theconsequences of the interpretation of adverse events,which is intended for environmental managementand health and safety at work (see Tab. 2).66


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70Tab. 2 Suggested mishap severity categories (MILSTD 882D)CategoryIIIIIIIVDescriptionCatastrophicCriticalMarginalNegligibleHazard MappingEnvironmental, Safety, andHealth Result CriteriaCould result in death, permanenttotal disability, loss exceeding$1M, or irreversible severeenvironmental damage thatviolates law or regulation.Could result in permanentpartial disability, injuries oroccupation illness that may resultin hospitalization of at least threepersonnel, loss exceeding $200Kbut less than $1M, or reversibleenvironmental damage causinga violation of law or regulationwhere restoration activities can beaccomplished.Could result in injury oroccupation illness resulting inone or more lost work days(s),loss exceeding $10K but lessthan $200K, or mitigatibleenvironmental damage withoutviolation of law or regulationwhere restoration activities can beaccomplished.Could result in injury or illnessnot resulting in a lost work day,loss exceeding $2K but less than$10K, or minimal environmentaldamage not violating law orregulation.The importance of mapping of hazards(danger/critical points) consists especially in thedetermination of total load of a territorial unit or itspart. Subsequently, it consists in the determinationof parameters for adequate preparedness ofthe given territory/part of territory for copingwith extraordinary events of both natural andanthropogenic character. The objective of riskmapping is the identification of areas vulnerable tocertain risks. Information provided by risk mappingrepresents a significant tool for planning bodies oflocal and state governments.The mapping of hazards (sources of risks) isthe fundamental step for risk mapping. The basis isformed by maps of individual types of threats.For the needs of risk mapping, it is suitable todivide the types of hazards into two basic categories:a) without a specifi c risk source - to this category, weclassify area hazards without a territorially definedsource. Nevertheless, a range of consequencesof an extraordinary event can be expressede.g. statistically (windy areas, snowy areas);in other words, the vulnerability of the territoryto extraordinary event occurrence can also beexpressed statistically. Examples of the hazardsare stated in Tab. 3.b) with a specifi c risk source - to this category, weinclude such hazards for which we can determinespecific risk sources (e.g. watercourse, hydraulicstructure, chemical plant, etc.) and a relateddefined territory for which the consequences of anextraordinary event can be expressed using GISs(floodplain, break wave, etc.). Examples of thesehazards are stated in Tab. 4 and 5. (Krömer et al.,2010).Tab. 3 Types of hazards of natural character - withouta specific risk source (according to Krömer et al.,2010)ThreatPossible consequencesLong-term heatand droughtLong-term inversesituationVast forest firesHeavy snowfall,snow storm, glazeand back iceStorm, strong gale,hurricaneLightningFire.Track distortion.Interruption of transport.Damage of electrical power,gas and centralized heat supplysystems - lines, tractions.Interruption of transport.Decrease in transportperformance.Damage of overhead power linesand switching systems.Covering the track with snow.Fall of a foreign body onto thetrack (tree, line, pole, etc.).Damage of overhead power linesand switching systems.Fall of a foreign body onto thetrack (tree, line, pole, etc.).Damage of overhead powersystems and switching systems.Tab. 4 Types of hazards of natural character - witha specific risk source (according to Krömer et al.,2010)Source Hazard Possible consequencesHydraulicstructure,river,streamFloods,flooding,stormrainfallFlooding, subsurfaceerosion, subgradetransport, damage to thetrack.Interruption of transport.Decrease in transportperformance.67


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70Tab. 5 Types of hazards on the track - with a specific risk source (according to Krömer et al., 2010)Source Hazard Possible consequencesTrack failure,railwayman’s errorDerailing of a rail vehicleDamage to life and health of persons.Loss of property.Leakage of dangerous liquids andenvironmental damage.Interruption of transport.Rail vehicle,railwayman’s errorObstacle on the trackRoad vehicle, pedestrianRoad vehiclesRail failureRail vehicle failureMan on the trackRail vehicle,railwayman’s errorRail vehicle, technicalfailureTechnical failureof a rail vehicle,railwayman’s errorResultsCrash between rail vehiclesVehicle hitting an obstacle on the trackCollisions between rail vehicles and road vehicles,including collisions between rail vehicles andpedestrians at level crossingCollisions between rail vehicles and road vehiclesoutside the level crossingRail break, buckling of the trackWheel rupture, rail vehicle axle failureCollision between a moving rail vehicle anda person outside the level crossingUnsecured run of a rail vehicle, rail vehiclerunaway, train uncouplingRail vehicle firesRelease of dangerous goods during theirtransportMapping of Hazards on a ChosenRailway Stretch in the Moravian-SilesianRegionDerailing of a rail vehicle.Damage to life and health of persons.Loss of property.Leakage of dangerous liquids andenvironmental damage.Interruption of transport.Damage to life and health of persons.Interruption of transport.Damage to life and health of persons.Loss of property.Damage to life and health of persons.Loss of property.Threat to the environment.Interruption of transport.Damage to life and health of persons.Threat to the environment.Interruption of transport.In the territory of the Moravian-Silesian Region(see Fig. 2), the total track length is about 672 km,of which about 392 km belong to the state and about280 km to the regional railways.For the mapping of hazards, a stretch of therailway route No. 270 (Česká Třebová - Přerov- Bohumín), namely the stretch between Ostrava -Svinov and Jistebník was chosen. This railway routeconnects Prague with Northern Moravia, Silesia,Poland and Slovakia. The whole railway is electrifiedand double tracked. To a considerable extent, bothpassenger and goods transport take place here. Therailway forms a boundary of the Poodří ProtectedLandscape Area in which a large number of protectedand endangered species of fauna and flora occur.From the above-mentioned characteristics, it isclear that any accident in this territory would haveserious consequences influencing human life andhealth and causing damage to property, traffic flowinterruption and environmental threats.Fig. 2 Map of railway system of Moravian-SilesianRegion (České dráhy, 2010)Hazard MapIn the above-presented tables, threats that canmanifest themselves, under certain conditions,almost in the whole railway track length arepresented. In the following map (see Fig. 3), specificplaces on the track, at which an accident may occurin case of extraordinary event, are marked.68


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70Locations of at-grade and grade separatedintersections (level crossings, bridges, underpasses)of railway tracks and roads and culverts are marked.crashed into the structure of a road bridge beingrepaired, which had fallen on the railway trackseveral seconds ago (see Fig. 4).Fig. 4 Photo of Studénka train accidentlevel crossingroad bridgerailway bridgeculvertFig. 3 Map of selected hazards on the railway routewith marked critical pointsOn the Česká Třebová - Přerov - Bohumínrailway route, on the Ostrava-Svinov - Jistebníkstretch, altogether 14 danger points, at which anaccident may occur, were identified. They are 3 levelcrossings, 4 road bridges, 6 culverts and 1 railwaybridge.Level crossings are places where a highway isintersected with a railway or another track lyingon a separate bed, and have relevant traffic signsand markings (Zákon, 2000). At level crossings,collisions between trains and road vehicles(i.e. automobile, lorry, bus, etc.) occur most frequently.A common cause of these collisions is above all notrespecting markings and signs and safety devices,placed in front of level crossings, by drivers of roadvehicles who thus generally gamble with their lives,with the lives of fellow travellers and of other roadusers. One of the causes of collisions between a trainand a car can also be an unfortunate coincidence, whena road vehicle remains standing due to mechanicalfailure at the level crossing/on the track.Another way of intersecting railway tracks withroads and motorways is represented by road bridgesleading over railway tracks. A typical example ofwhat can happen is a rail accident that took placeat Studénka on the 8 th August 2008, where a trainRailway bridges are structures that are part oftransport infrastructure. These structures serve aslinking elements of the railway, e.g. over watercoursesand roads. Thus they can compensate for differencein terrain height (i.e. viaducts). One of the causes offrequent traffic accidents is a bad estimation of theheight of the bridge itself (especially in the case oflorries) and subsequent trapping the vehicle underthe bridge structure. Railway bridges can also bedamaged by floods harming the structures of thebridges.Culverts are tunnel-type structures witha diameter of less than 2 m, which are used to allowwater to pass underneath embankments or to allowsmaller animals to migrate underneath railwaytracks, roads and other structures. These structuresare becoming increasingly important above all infloodplains where, however, failures of culverts andsubsequently damage to the railway track may occurowing to an increased discharge of water.A significant factor is the presence ofwatercourses and hydraulic structures in the vicinityof the railway track. In the immediate vicinity ofthe chosen railway route (Česká Třebová - Přerov -Bohumín, Ostrava-Svinov - Jistebník stretch), thereare both several watercourses crossing the railwaytrack (e.g. Porubka, Polančice, Bílovka, Mlýnka,and others) and hydraulic structures (e.g. poolsNádražní rybník, Polárkový rybník, Křivý rybník,Průtočný rybník, and others).On the chosen railway stretch, a whole series ofother accidents able to affect the course of travel mayoccur; they can involve the release of transporteddangerous substances. To these accidents belongaccidents caused by rail tank wagon failures (e.g.69


Transactions of the VŠB - Technical university of OstravaSafety Engineering SeriesVol. VI, No. 2, 2011p. 65 - 70technical failures, mechanical failures of rail tankwagons), accidents due to human factor failuresand accidents caused by natural infl uences (e.g.a fallen tree on the track as a result of unfavourableatmospheric conditions, sliding the land below thetrack or to the track, snow fallen on the track, etc.).ConclusionThis contribution focuses, in the framework ofthe Moravian-Silesian Region, on the identificationof danger points on the specific stretch of a railwayroute (Česká Třebová - Přerov - Bohumín, Ostrava-Svinov - Jistebník stretch) for the transport ofdangerous substances. To the identified criticalpoints on the selected railway stretch, levelcrossings, road and railway bridges and culvertsbelong. All these structures were plotted on a map.Subsequently, causes of accidents that could occurat the designated danger points were determined. Asa part of the mapping of hazards on any stretch ofthe railway route, it is also necessary to deal withhazards indirectly associated with the danger points(e.g. failures, errors, human factor, etc.).The mapping of risks associated with the railtransport of dangerous substances will be furtherused for the preparation of the module “Railway”being just created for the prototype software systemFLOREON + .AcknowledgementsThis contribution was prepared as a part of theproject of Student Grant Competition - projectNo. SP 2011/142 titled “Preparation of Module“Railway” for the FLOREON + System“.ReferencesJANOTA, Aleš, et al. (2008). Analýza a řízení rizik v dopravě: Pozemní komunikace a železnice. BEN - technickáliteratura, 2008. 528 s. ISBN 978-80-7300-214-5.KRÖMER, Antonín, MUSIAL, Petr, FOLWARCZNY, Libor (2010). Mapování rizik. 1. vyd. Ostrava: Sdruženípožárního a bezpečnostního inženýrství, 2010. 126 s. ISBN 978-80-7385-086-9.ORAVEC, Milan (2009). Posudzovanie rizík. Ostrava: SPBI Ostrava, 2009. 106 s. ISBN 978-80-7385-043-2.ŠIMÁK, Ladislav, et al. (2006). Terminologický slovník krízového riadenia. Žilina: Fakulta špeciálného inžinierstvaŽilinskej univerzity v Žilině, 2006. 44 s. ISBN 80-88829-75-5.ROUDNÝ, Radim (2008). Rozhodování a analýza rizik. In Sborník příspěvků z mezinárodní konference Ochranaobyvatel 2008. Ostrava: Vysoká škola báňská-Technická univerzita Ostrava, 2008. s. 347-354. ISBN 978-80-7385-034-0.Ministerstvo dopravy. Ročenka dopravy České republiky 2009 (2010). Praha: Centrum dopravního výzkumu,v. v. i., 2010. 165 s. ISSN 1801-3090.United States of America. Standard practice for system safety: MIL-STD-882D. 2000, s. 31.Zákon č. 361/2000 Sb., o provozu na pozemních komunikacích a o změnách některých zákonů (zákon o silničnímprovozu) ve znění pozdějších předpisů.České dráhy, a.s. Mapa tratí s vyznačením hranic krajů. [online]. 2010 [cit. 2011-10-06]. Available at WWW:Ministerstvo dopravy ČR [online]. 2011 [cit. 2011-10-01]. Available at WWW: .70


Scope of the JournalTransactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series, is a printedpublication of the Faculty of Safety Engineering issued on a long-term basis. The Transactions providesa space for publishing original research articles especially in the following areas:• fire protection,• civil protection,• crisis management,• safety and security management,• safety and security planning,• risk management,• environmental safety.In the Transactions, research articles and review articles are published preferentially. However, visionpapers and short communications, such as reports on results of grant projects being dealt with, reviewson books, information on forthcoming conferences, and others can also be published. The journal ispublished twice a year; editorial deadlines are March 31 and September 30.Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series figures on the listof reviewed non-impact factor journals (periodicals) issued in the Czech Republic.


Sborník vědeckých pracíVysoké školy báňské - Technické univerzity OstravaRecenzované periodikumřada bezpečnostní inženýrství, roč. 6 - 2011© Vydala Vysoká škola báňská - Technická univerzita OstravaVytisklTribun EU, s.r.o.Cejl 892/32602 00 Brnopublikace č. 2 - 2011 / FBInáklad: 200 ksOdpovědný redaktor:prof. Ing. Pavel Poledňák, PhD.Vydání IZa obsah článků odpovídají jednotliví autoři


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