Download Full Report (PDF, 498 KB) - Reconnecting America

Download Full Report (PDF, 498 KB) - Reconnecting America

Alameda County Congestion Management AgencyTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource GuidebookTODResources to Help AdvanceTransit Oriented Development Projectsin Alameda County, CaliforniaTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

Table of ContentsIntroduction 3What is TOD?TOD ChallengesHow to Use this GuideFunds 5Attaining Funds to Build TODsResourcesAdditional InformationManaging Parking Needs at TODs 9ResourcesMeeting Stormwater Requirements at TODs 14ResourcesPolicy and Design for TODs 21ResourcesAdditional InformationLinking Child Care with TOD 24General Information about TODs 25ResourcesNational State and Regional OrganizationsAdditional InformationTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

IntroductionTo help minimize the effects of future traffic congestion, Alameda County CongestionManagement Agency (CMA) has made a commitment to encourage new developmentto focus around transit hubs and corridors. Through a Transportation and Land Use(or T Plus) Program, funded by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC),Alameda County CMA provides funding and services to Transit Oriented Developments(TODs) throughout the county to strengthen the land use and transportation connection.As part of this effort, this TOD Resource Guide provides information to helpTOD project sponsors resolve issues that have been raised at TODs in Alameda County:funding, parking, stormwater, hazardous materials and policy and design.What is TOD?Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is residential or mixed–use development designedand located to make transit use as attractive and convenient as possible. Mixed land useat the home end of a work commute includes high density housing with neighborhoodserving retail, while the work end of the commute includes a large employment center.By providing easy and convenient transportation choices at a TOD—such as bicycleand walk access and transit connections to a train, bus or ferry hub—TODs increase theshare of trips that can be made by transportation modes other than automobiles. Thisshift in transportation modes results in reduced automotive emissions. By providing astrong link between land use and transit, TODs increase the ability of transit to attractriders, reduce traffic congestion, improve air quality, and offer transportation choices.TOD ChallengesAlthough much research has been documented about the values of TODs in reducingtraffic congestion and providing transportation choices, building them has its challenges.These challenges can lead to costly project delays. Thus, this resource guide is designedto assist TOD project sponsors to overcome the following challenges that AlamedaCounty project sponsors have identified as critical to advancing their TOD projects:1. Funding: attaining funds for transportation improvements at TODs;2. Parking: managing parking needs of residential commercial and transit users;3. Stormwater: meeting stormwater requirements in high density TODs;4. Hazardous Materials: identifying and remediating hazardous materials atTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

TOD, sites, and5. Policies and Design: developing policies and designs that allow innovative,high density TODs.TODs require obtaining funds for transportation access improvements, which can rangefrom sidewalks and bicycle lanes to parking garages. They also require meeting parkingand stormwater regulatory requirements with innovative solutions. In addition, someTODs are located on sites that have been exposed to hazardous materials, which needto be remediated. Furthermore, the high housing density at TODs often requires zoningchanges, which can lengthen the time to attain development approval. All of theseissues, which have been raised at TODs throughout Alameda County, require a range ofexpertise. This Resource Guide, therefore, is designed to provide TOD project sponsorsin Alameda County a convenient reference tool for finding solutions to commonly raisedissues at TODs.How to Use this GuideThis guide is written for TOD project sponsors—whether city or county redevelopment,planning or public works staff, or private or non-profit developers. It is organized byissue and includes references and brief descriptions of publications, websites, local andstate contacts and associations and conferences that provide further information to manageand resolve these issues.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

1. Attaining funds to build TODsIn addition to the residential and commercial development components of TODs—which are not the subject of this resource guide—the transportation elements in a TODare costly. They include parking garages, streetscape, and access improvements for bicyclists,pedestrians, cars and buses. This guide provides resources about the steps to obtainfunds. (See Overview of Steps to Obtain Transportation Funds in Alameda County.)It also provide reference to funds available for the transportation components of TODs.Resources:The following agencies have information and more specific contacts on their websitesabout transportation fund sources for TODs.Alameda County Transportation Funding AgenciesTable 1CountyAlameda County Congestion Broadway, Suite 220Oakland, CA 94612Funds includes County Transportation forLivable Communities grants for capitalTOD projects listed in the CountywideTransportation 8th StreetOakland, CA 94607-4700Funding includes RegionalTransportation for LivableCommunities grants for capitalprojects and Plans at TODs.CountyACTIA (Measure B—local _ cent transportationsales tax)www.actia.2022.com426 17th Street, Suite 100Oakland, CA 94612Funds include matches to MTC’s andACCMA’s TLC grants and bicycle andpedestrian funds at TOD sites in theCountywide Bike or Pedestrian Plans.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

Publications with TOD Funding Information:Moving Costs, MTC, January 1999: A layman’s description of federal state and localtransportation fund sources, including a glossary of fund acronyms and the process forobtaining transportation dollars.Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study: Factors for Success in California, CaliforniaDepartment of Transportation, Business Transportation and Housing, 2002.Websites with TOD Funding Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

Additional InformationCreative Financing for TODs:Public & Private PartnershipsMany TODs rely on a mixture of public and private financing.Public Financing: To overcome lenders’ concerns about financing mixed use projectsor those with lower parking ratios than typical developments, California Department ofTransportation Statewide TOD Study (2002) recommends:• have multiple sources of capital with varying investment timelines,• phase projects so that they can begin generating cash flow early while theremaining phases of the TOD are completed, and• develop a solid track record for implementing projects and conduct accuratemarket studies.Public financing can be used to fund transportation improvements at TODs. In additionto federal and state funds, the following are some of the transportation financingtools used in TODs throughout the US:Bonds can be sold for transportation infrastructure improvements at TODs andrepaid through TIFs or PIFs (below):Tax Increment Financing (TIFs) – Funds collected from property tax generatedfrom the new development return to the development.Property Improvement Fee (PIF) – Sales tax generated from the new developmentreturns to the development.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

TWOPARKINGTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook

2. Managing parking needs at TODsIn Alameda County, many proposed TODs are on surface parking lots onSan Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) property. In the past, BARTor the local city or county have typically required a 1:1 parking ratio toreplace removed surface parking spaces with structured parking spaces. Althoughthe replacement structured parking made land available for development,replacement parking structures are expensive to finance. A parkingstructure can cost $25,000 or more per parking space. In recognition of thehigh cost of replacement parking along with the lower rate of automobileownership at TODs, BART adopted flexible parking replacement policy.This has included requiring the provision of other access investments orleasing spaces in the private sector in lieu of the full parking replacementratio.TOD project sponsors throughout the United States have implemented awide array of alternatives to 1:1 parking replacement while still meeting theparking needs of the new TOD development. The resources listed belowprovide information about a variety of parking options that have successfullybeen implemented at other TODs.ResourcesPublicationsParking Spaces / Community Places: Finding the Balance through SmartGrowth Solutions, (EPA publication 231-K-06-001) This report highlightsproven approaches that balance parking with broader community goals.Current codes typically apply minimums that may not meet the needs ofcommunities and developers. An oversupply of parking is costly and createsplaces that adversely impact water quality and encourage excess driving andair emissions. The highlighted solutions cover This publication documentscommunities that have found combinations of parking pricing, shared parking,demand management, and other techniques have helped them createvibrant places while protecting environmental quality and still providingTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook10

for necessary vehicle storage. For hard copies of this publication, send ane-mail to or call (800) 490-9198.Parking Management Best Practices, by VTPI Executive Director ToddLitman and published by Planners Press, describes more than two-dozenstrategies that result in efficient use of parking resources, and explains howto assemble them into an effective parking management program whileallowing flexible building design. It includes descriptions of savings andeconomic, social and environmental benefits, and surface and stormwatermanagement costs. This book identifies problems with current parkingplanning practices, describes specific parking management strategies andhow they can be implemented, discusses methods for parking managementplanning and evaluation, and describes how to develop the optimal parkingmanagement program for a particular situation. For more information,also see the report, “Parking Management: Strategies, Evaluation and Planning”( ), which summarizes the ideas in“Parking Management Best Practices.”“Replacement Parking for Joint Development: An Access Policy Methodology,”Richard Willson, Ph.D. for BART, April 18, 2005, recommends amethod for developing access and replacement parking strategies of BART’sJoint Development Program. It provides station-level solutions based onperformance principles. Considerations include station context, joint developmentstrategy, and BART system objectives.“Turning Small Change into Big Changes,” Douglas Kolozsvari and DonaldShoup, Access, Number 23, Fall 2003, discusses using parking meter revenuefor improvements in the neighborhoods in which they are located.“Walk-and-Ride: Factors Influencing Pedestrian Access to Transit,” RobertCervero, January 2001, reviews how sidewalk and street design influenceconversion of shares of access from driving to transit to walk, bike andbus. An analysis of access trips to San Francisco Bay Area and WashingtonMetrorail is discussed.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook11

“Driving Urban Environments: Smart Growth Parking Best Practices,”Governor’s Office of Smart Growth,” Annapolis, MD.The High Cost of Free Parking, Donald Shoup, APA Planners Press, 2005.The author describes the detriments of free parking, including how itmakes our cities sprawl on a scale fit more for cars than for people. He thenproposes new ways for cities to regulate parking, namely, charge fair marketprices for curb parking, use the resulting revenue to pay for services in theneighborhoods that generate it, and remove zoning requirements for offstreetparking. Such measures, according to the Yale-trained economist andUCLA planning professor, will make parking easier and driving less Environmental Protection Agency. Includespublications about parking and smart MetropolitanTransportation Commission (MTC). Includes publications citing case studiesabout parking and Planning and development network; provides resourcesfor applied economics for urban planners. Includes publications aboutparking. State of Maryland Office ofSmart Growth. Website includes electronic versions of parking publications,including Smart Growth Best Management Parking The National Center for Smart GrowthResearch and Education is a non-partisan center for research and leadershiptraining on Smart Growth and related land use issues nationally andinternationally. Located at the University of Maryland in College Park, Md.,Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook12

the National Center for Smart Growth conducts independent, objectiveresearch in four general areas: land use and the environment; transportationand public health; housing and community development; and internationaldevelopment issues. The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independentresearch organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions totransportation problems. The VTPI website (has many resources addressinga wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also providesconsulting services.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook13

THREESTORMWATERMeeting stormwater requirements at TOD sitesStormwater goals and requirements focus on providing maximumpermeable land surfaces to improve water quality. These requirementscan appear to conflict with the goal of TODs to providehigh density development around a transit hub. However, manydevelopers, cities, site planners, landscape architects and regulatorshave designed creative alternatives to meet parking andstormwater needs. .Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook14

ter. The main strategies were reducing the parking footprint, and includinglandscaping and water storage in the project design.WeblinksEPA website: AlamedaCountywide Clean Water Program’s library of resources, including publicationsand outside links. Helpful resources for construction, developmentand Includes articles about Smart Growth,including stormwater references.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook16

FOURHAZARDOUSMATERIALSTransit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook17

Hazardous Materials at TOD SitesMany TOD sites located near rail or transit hubs have been used for previouspurposes. These land uses may have generated hazardous materialson or off the TOD site. Such former land uses may have included a gasstation, automotive repair, plating shop, dry cleaners or office. These usesoften include the presence of cleaning products, lead based paint, asbestosor pesticides. Prior to developing or redeveloping a TOD site, the propertyowner or responsible party needs to assess whether and to what extent hazardousmaterials are found on site. If hazardous materials have been foundon site, the owner may be responsible for remediating them.For more information about how to address hazardous materials that maybe present at TOD sites in Alameda County, see the resources listed below.ResourcesAgenciesDepartment of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Berkeley Regional Office700 Heinz Avenue, Suite 200CBerkeley, California 94710Alameda County Department of Environmental Health1131 Harbor Bay Parkway, 2nd floorAlameda, CA 94502-6577Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook18

WebsitesAlameda County Department of Environmental of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Water Quality Control Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)www.epa.govAdditional InformationHazardous Materials on Site—Who is Responsible?The current property owner or operator or owner or operator at the timeof release of the materials or the transporter of materials is responsible forpreparing an Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) to characterize whatcontaminants are present on the site and to prepare and implement aremediation plan.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook19

FIVEPOLICY&DESIGNSince TODs are typically higher density development and useless parking than typical residential development, they oftenrequire changes to zoning regulations prior to being built. Thefollowing information provides examples of TOD policy and zoning,as well as creative designs successfully used in TODs.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook20

TOD Policy and DesignResourcesPolicy PublicationsGetting to Smart Growth II: 100 More Policies for ImplementationThis primer describes concrete techniques of putting smart growth principlesinto practice. For a copy, or call 202-566-2878.For FREE HARD COPIES of any of these publication, e-mail to ncepimal@one.netor call (800) 490-9198. Electronic versions of these publicationsare available at:“Planning and Design for Transit,” Tri-County Metropolitan TransportationDistrict of Oregon (TRI-MET), March 1993, a study that definesTOD, describes why it is needed, design elements, and how to use planningand zoning to produce it.“Transit Villages in California: Progress, Prospects, and Policy Reforms,”Working Paper 98-08, Robert Cervero, October 1998 University of Californiaat Berkeley. This study of the Transit Village movement in Californiadetails its legislative history, its impact to date, recent transit-orienteddevelopments around the state, the results of past research on the variousimpacts of TOD and the barriers that still exist to further such TOD, variouspotential state initiatives and the preferences of stakeholder groups, andconcludes with recommended state actions.Transit Oriented Development Best Practices Handbook, The City of Calgary,Land Use Planning and Policy, January 2004. This handbook highlights thehistory of the light rail transit (LRT), the policies that focused on utilizingtransit infrastructure, and the best practices of TOD throughout NorthAmerica.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook21

TOD PolicyLocal TOD Policy“Marin TOD/PeD Toolkit, TOD and Pedestrian Oriented Design,” CommunityDesign + Architecture, Strategic Economics, Nelson/NygaardConsulting Associates and ARUP for the Transportation Authority of Marin(TAM), December 2004, rationale, policy and resources.“San Francisco Bay Area Transit-Oriented Development Study, Task 2:Review of Existing Transit-Oriented Development Policies,” MTC, October2004.“Union City Land Use Element,” Station District, City of Union City,February 2002, calls for mixed use development around the BART stationand intermodal facility.Weblinks Caltrans TOD website. Itincludes lessons learned.Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG):, IncludesResources and links to regional, state and national planning, policy, advocacyand smart growth organizations and Includes publications, scorecards and othersmart growth MTC’s website includes helpful and practical publicationsand resources about smart growth.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook22

Additional InformationBART TOD Policy, adopted July 14, 2005 by BART Board.BART TOD Policy directs BART staff to:1) Look for opportunities to coordinate and participate in TODbeyond the BART property, especially where this may lead to abetter physical solution or phasing of development;2) Consider forming a joint power authority, or similar arrangements,as appropriate, in order to allow for value-capture, attainthe best physical design, and enhance project staging;3) As appropriate, consider selling BART land for development incases where (a) the land uses will remain transit-oriented, and (b)a value capture mechanism is in place that allows some portionof funds to come to BART;4) Consider, as appropriate, reducing the 1:1 replacement of commuterparking, especially in cases where funding replacementparking is a barrier, high-densities are allowed, the city/communitysupports the reduction, there are opportunities to makesound investments in other modes of access (in lieu of parking)to the station (pedestrian walkways, bicycle paths, or feedertransit), and a substantial portion of future growth in the stationcatchment area is expected to be located near the station;5) Emphasize placemaking that enhances the development and thecommunity in the station area.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook23

TOD Design“Designing with Transit, Making Transit Integral to East Bay Communities,A Handbook for Elected Officials, Local Staff, and Other CommunityBuilders,” AC Transit, January 2005. This handbook illustrates elementsof making community more transit-friendly through land use, pedestriannetwork and the street/sidewalk system.“BART Transit-Oriented Development Guidelines,” San Francisco Bay AreaRapid Transit District, June 2003. Guidelines clarify BART’s priorities forTOD on and near BART property.“Transit Friendly Design Guide,” Calgary Transit, 1995, provides urbandesign principles and policies to encourage the utility and vibrancy of LRTstations.Linking Child Care with TODsTODs can further reduce single occupancy vehicle trips by including childcare at the TOD site. Such facilities can serve TOD residents and commutersusing transit. They also provide a valuable amenity to the TOD. Theopportunity for including child care at TOD sites requires coordinationwith developers, cities and transit operators early in the design phase.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook24

General Information About TODsResourcesPublicationsThe New Transit Town, Hank Ditmar, Gloria Ohland, Island Press, 2003The New Transit Town explores the key challenges to transit-oriented development,examines the lessons learned from the first generation of projects,and analyzes a broad spectrum of projects to set standards for the nextgeneration. It discusses key issues such as financing, traffic and parking andperformance measures to evaluate outcomes. It is designed for anyone interestedin urban and regional planning and development, including planners,developers, community groups, transit agency staff, and finance professionals.Case Studies include Arlington, Virginia (Roslyn-Ballston corridor);Dallas (Mockingbird Station and Addison Circle); historic transit-orientedneighborhoods in Chicago; Atlanta (Lindbergh Center and BellSouth); SanJose (Ohlone-Chynoweth); and San Diego (Barrio Logan).“Travel Characteristics of Transit-Oriented Development in California,”Hollie M. Lund, Ph.D., Robert Cervero, Ph.D., Richard. W. Willson,Ph.D., AICP, January 2004. Provides a measurement of travel behaviorin California TODs and compares current to earlier data to see how travelbehavior changes over time.Marketing Transit Oriented Development, Phase III: Final Report, PrimaryFactors in Marketing TODs as Successful Real Estate Ventures, The MarketingInstitute, December American PublicTransportation Association, Transit Resource Guide, Transit-OrientedDevelopment. Includes references to overviews, tools, strategies, lessonslearned, example TODs, and TOD news.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook25 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s websiteinclude smart growth California Transit-OrientedDevelopment Searchable Database. Includes sample stations, projects, dataand resources.National, State and Regional TOD OrganizationsReconnecting America, ReconnectingAmerica is working to redefine national policies for intercity travelin order to integrate our separately functioning aviation, passenger rail andintercity bus systems into a more convenient, secure, financially viable andsustainable network.Smart Growth America,, Non-profitnational organization, a coalition of national, state and local organizationsworking to improve the ways towns, cities and metropolitan areasare planned and built. The coalition includes national organizations advocatingon behalf of historic preservation, the environment, farmland andopen space preservation, neighborhood revitalization and more. State- andregional-level members are community-based organizations working topreserve landscapes while making towns and cities more livable., Smart Growth Network includes resources,tools, success stories, and more. The Network is a conglomerate of theUS EPA and non-profit and government organizations. The Network wasformed in response to increasing community concerns about the need fornew ways to grow that boost the economy, protect the environment, andenhance community vitality. The Network’s partners include environmentalgroups, historic preservation organizations, professional organizations,developers, real estate interests; local and state government entities.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook26

Transportation Growth Management Program, Publications available include “Mixed Use and DevelopmentCode Handbook,”, Tools of the Trade Handbook,” “Infill and RedevelopmentCode Handbook,” and “Model Development Code and User’sGuide for Small Cities,” TGM, 635 Capital Street N.E. Suite 150, Salem,OR 97301, 503-373-0050.ResourcesPublicationsLinking Child Care, Transportation & Land Use: Local State and NationalObstacles, Opportunities and Next Steps, Alameda County Local Investmentin Child Care (LINCC), January 2006. A model for communities interestedin developing and strengthening planning, funding and policy workbetween the child care and transportation fields.Child Care, Land Use and Transportation: A Literature Review for the LocalInvestment in Child Care Project, LINCC, 2005.WeblinksThe following link is from a national conference call that addressed manychild care and transportation - See “2006 EarlyChildhood Finance Learning Community March 5 - 6, 2006”Fact sheet on child care and transportation: Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook27

Additional InformationChild Care at TODs as Traffic Mitigation Measure: Child care has beenused as one of the traffic mitigation measures in theCity/County Associationof Governments in San Mateo County Guidelines for the Implementationof Land Use Component of the Congestion Management Program.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Resource Guidebook28

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines