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Conservation Crime - World Wildlife Fund

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<strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Fuller Symposium 2012FULLERSYMPOSIUMScience for Nature


Welcome<strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Welcome to <strong>World</strong> <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Fund</strong>’s 7th Annual Kathryn Fuller Science for NatureSymposium. This year, the Fuller Symposium explores the current crisis arising fromthe criminal exploitation of nature. The illegal killing, capture, and trade of wild specieshas escalated to the point where it could undo decades of conservation efforts. Scientificadvancements, innovative technologies, and strengthened policy initiatives have thepotential to turn the tide against the organized crime syndicates that are pushing manyof our most iconic species toward extinction and placing local communities at risk.Global leaders will share their insights on the shape and scale of the crisis and on themost promising solutions for stemming it.WWF is committed to science-based conservation, incorporating the latest researchand innovation into our work. The annual Fuller Symposium informs the thinking ofthe public, private, and nonprofit sectors about key conservation issues of our time.WWF would like to thank the National Geographic Society for donating the use of their facilitiesfor the 7th Annual Kathryn Fuller Science for Nature Symposium.


WWF’s Kathryn Fuller Science for Nature <strong>Fund</strong>In 2005, WWF established the Kathryn Fuller Science forNature <strong>Fund</strong> in honor of our former president and CEO. In her16 years as president, Kathryn Fuller helped expand the tiesbetween conservation and science. In this tradition, we continueto expand our reach in connecting a range of scientific disciplinesto conservation.The Fuller <strong>Fund</strong> advances the role of science in conservationby bringing together key experts to tackle emerging conservationissues, providing a regular forum in which the conservationcommunity can hear from the world’s most influential scientists,and fostering the next generation of conservation science leaders.The annual Kathryn Fuller Science for Nature Symposiumconvenes leading thinkers in science, policy, business anddevelopment to summarize “what we know, what we don’t know,and what we need to know” to effectively tackle emerging issues.The goals of the annual symposium are to (1) present the state ofthe science for a complex conservation issue; (2) provide a forumfor rigorous debate, leading to an agreed conservation agenda goingforward; and (3) inform leading scientists of what research topicswould most powerfully support conservation work on this issue.The Science for Nature Seminar Series has become a wellknownforum in which distinguished and innovative scientistsfrom around the world present their latest work as it relates toconservation. The seminars provide individuals from NGOs,government and the private sector the opportunity to learn fromand network with one another.The Fuller Fellowships have supported early-career scientistswho are emerging leaders in their fields as they work on issuesof exceptional relevance to conservation. Fellows improve theirunderstanding of conservation by linking their doctoral andpostdoctoral research to on-the-ground work and collaboratingwith the global network of WWF scientists and practitioners.


Kathryn S. FullerKathryn S. Fuller | Smithsonian InstitutionNational Museum of Natural HistoryKathryn S. Fuller is currently chair of the Smithsonian’s NationalMuseum of Natural History and a managing partner in DoyleProperty Partners. She was president and chief executive officerof <strong>World</strong> <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Fund</strong> from 1989 to 2005, and now serves aspresident emerita. Prior to that, she was executive vice president,general counsel and director of WWF’s programs in publicpolicy and wildlife trade monitoring. Before joining WWF, sheworked at the U.S. Department of Justice, first in the Office ofLegal Counsel, then as a trial attorney in the Land and NaturalResources Division, where she helped create and later headedthe <strong>Wildlife</strong> and Marine Resources Section.Fuller received her BA in English and American literature fromBrown University. She earned a law degree with honors fromthe University of Texas and pursued graduate studies in marine,estuarine and environmental science at the University of Maryland.She has conducted field work on wildebeest behavior and coral reefcrustaceans. She serves on a number of boards, including thoseof Alcoa Inc., the Summit Foundation, the Robert Wood JohnsonFoundation, and the Greater Himalayas Foundation.


Agenda Wednesday, November 14, 20129:00 WelcomeMarcia Marsh, WWF-USSession 1 The Big Picture of <strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>9:15 IntroductionMonica Medina, U.S. Department of DefenseKilled, Shipped and Sold:dismantling <strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Crawford Allan, WWF-US/TRAFFIC North America<strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>:The National Security DimensionsDr. Kent Butts, Center for Strategic Leadership,U.S. Army War College10:00 Moderated Discussion10:20 BreakSession 2 Reducing Supply and Demand10:50 IntroductionDr. Meredith Gore, School of Criminal Justice,Michigan State UniversityLives on the Line: Protection on the Groundin Africa’s Oldest ParkInnocent Mburanumwe, Virunga National ParkWhen the Buying Stops, the Killingcan Too: Ending the Demandfor Endangered Species ProductsPeter Knights, WildAidThink Like a Marketer: What Advertisingcan Teach about Changing ConsumerBehavior in AsiaEric Phu, Marketing Consultant12:05 Moderated Discussion12:30 Lunch Break


Session 3 Innovations1:45 IntroductionDr. Jon Hoekstra, WWF-US<strong>Wildlife</strong> Forensics: An Evolving Toolfor Combating <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Ken Goddard, National Fish & <strong>Wildlife</strong> Forensics LaboratoryTrack, Identify and Control: New Technologiesto Combat Illegal Trade of Forest ProductsAdam Grant, <strong>World</strong> Resources InstituteA New Frontier in Tracking <strong>Conservation</strong>crime: The Promise of <strong>Conservation</strong> Dronesand Applications on the GroundDr. Lian Pin Koh, Department of Environmental SystemsScience, ETH ZurichSession 4 Policy Solutions4:20 IntroductionGinette Hemley, WWF-USBoots, Science, and Policy:The Essential Trinity to Combat <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Dr. Elizabeth Bennett, <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Conservation</strong> Society<strong>Wildlife</strong> Diplomacy in ActionUnder Secretary of State Robert Hormats,U.S. Department of State5:20 Closing RemarksKathryn Fuller, Smithsonian Institution National Museumof Natural History and Immediate Past President and CEO ofWWF-USGeospatial Technologies forTracking and Reducing <strong>Conservation</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>Rebecca Moore, Google Earth Outreach3:25 Moderated Discussion3:50 Break


Symposium SpeakersCrawford AllanElizabeth BennettKent ButtsCrawford Allan | WWF-US/TRAFFIC North AmericaCrawford Allan is regional director of Traffic, the wildlife tradenetwork and strategic alliance between WWF and IUCN, whichhas a mission to ensure that the trade in animals, plants, timberand fisheries is beneficial for conservation and people. Based withWWF-US in Washington, D.C., since 2005, he oversees efforts toleverage North American assets to protect wildlife globally fromthe negative aspects of wildlife trade. He has led TRAFFIC oninternational black market investigations and pushed for strongenforcement actions for more than a decade, during which timesome of the largest seizures, major arrests and prosecutionshave occurred. From 1995 to 2005, he was chairman of theUnited Kingdom’s government Forensics Working Group of thePartnership for Action Against <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Crime</strong>.Elizabeth Bennett | <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Conservation</strong> SocietyDr. Elizabeth Bennett is vice president for species conservationat the <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Conservation</strong> Society, where she oversees globalspecies conservation programs. Born in the UK, she attendedNottingham University and earned her PhD for research onthe ecology of primates in Peninsular Malaysia from CambridgeUniversity. She has been recognized for her service to conservationand has earned several awards, including the Golden Arkpresented by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and the Memberof the Order of the British Empire (MBE) presented by Her MajestyQueen Elizabeth II in 2005.Kent Butts | Center for Strategic Leadership,U.S. Army War CollegeDr. Kent Butts is professor of political military strategy and thedirector of the National Security Issues Group at the Center forStrategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. His research focuseson the role of natural resources in national security. He headed theU.S. delegation and cochaired the NATO Environmental SecurityPilot Study Meetings in Warsaw and Prague, and was a memberof the U.S. delegation to the OSCE Economic Forum. Dr. Buttsparticipated in the 2011 Defense Science Board Climate Change andSecurity Study and is an author or editor of numerous publications,including the 2012 book, Sustainability and National Security.A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, he holds an MA and PhDin geography from the University of Washington, and was a JohnM. Olin Post-Doctoral Fellow in National Security at the Center forInternational Affairs at Harvard University.


Ken GoddardMeredith GoreAdam GrantKen Goddard | National Fish & <strong>Wildlife</strong> Forensics LaboratoryKen Goddard is director of the National Fish & <strong>Wildlife</strong> ForensicsLaboratory. He began his law enforcement career as a deputysheriff/criminalist working in <strong>Crime</strong> Science Identification (CSI)analyzing evidence for the Riverside and San Bernardino Countycrime labs in California. Goddard then moved to the HuntingtonBeach Police Department to establish a Scientific InvestigationBureau. In 1979, he joined the U.S. Fish & <strong>Wildlife</strong> Service to directthe first and only wildlife crime lab in the world. He has writtenmany books, fiction and nonfiction, and advised for the televisionseries CSI. He earned his BS in biochemistry at the University ofCalifornia, Riverside, and his MS in criminalistics at CaliforniaState University in Los Angeles.Meredith Gore | Michigan State UniversityDr. Meredith Gore is assistant professor in the School of CriminalJustice at Michigan State University. Her research interestsinclude public perceptions of risk to and from wildlife. She alsoexplores the sociocultural phenomena—such as mass media andconservation governance—that affect criminal human behaviorsin conservation. Her work on conservation criminology aims tosynergize collaborations among conservation, criminology anddecision science using mixed scientific methods. To date, her workhas focused on Madagascar, Namibia, global white shark habitats,and the Great Lakes Basin. She received a BA in anthropologyand environmental studies from Brandeis University, an MA inenvironment and resource policy from The George WashingtonUniversity, and a PhD in natural resource policy and managementfrom Cornell University.Adam Grant | <strong>World</strong> Resources InstituteAdam Grant, a senior associate at <strong>World</strong> Resources Institute,manages WRI’s Forest Legality Project, a new initiative tocombat illegal logging through the creation of the Forest LegalityAlliance. Before joining WRI, Grant worked in Southeast Asiato improve tropical forest management and responsible supplychain management. Based in Indonesia, he worked initially forthe Rainforest Alliance’s FSC SmartWood program and then as aconsultant for major forest product producers trading throughoutAsia and Europe. Prior to his work in Indonesia, Grant worked asa forest contractor and timber importer in Sweden, Finland and theUK. In China, he worked on projects related to poverty alleviationcentered on natural resource management in Sichuan Provinceand in the Tibetan Autonomous Region.


Ginette HemleyJon HoekstraRobert HormatsGinette Hemley | WWF-USGinette Hemley is senior vice president for conservation strategyand science at WWF-US. She oversees WWF’s programs onconservation science, conservation finance, climate change,conservation leadership, campaigns, and program operations.She tracks execution of WWF-US’s local-to-global strategyto conserve ecologically important places and leads advocacycampaigns to advance WWF’s conservation agenda and protectendangered and threatened species. Her previous roles at WWFinclude managing vice president for conservation, vice presidentfor species conservation, and director of TRAFFIC North America.Prior to joining WWF, Hemley worked for the U.S. Fish and<strong>Wildlife</strong> Service. She holds a BS in biology from the College ofWilliam and Mary, studied history and philosophy at OxfordUniversity, and is an ELIAS Fellow at the Massachusetts Instituteof Technology.Jon Hoekstra | WWF-USAs chief scientist and vice president, Jon Hoekstra leads WWF’s<strong>Conservation</strong> Science Program and works with more than 400WWF scientists to provide innovative research and technicalassistance to conservation projects around the world. Sincethe beginning of his career as an endangered species biologist,Hoekstra has been committed to using science to craft practicaland effective conservation solutions. As a global science leader,he used science to reveal the biome crisis in the world’s grasslands,revamped conservation strategies to adapt to climate change, andrevealed how habitat protection and restoration can help peopleas well as nature.Under Secretary of State Robert Hormats |U.S. Department of StateDr. Robert Hormats is the under secretary of economic growth,energy, and the environment. Under Secretary Hormats wasformerly vice chairman of Goldman Sachs (International). Heserved as assistant secretary of state for economic and businessaffairs from 1981 to 1982, ambassador and deputy U.S. traderepresentative from 1979 to 1981, and senior deputy assistantsecretary for economic and business affairs from 1977 to 1979.He earned his PhD in international economics from the FletcherSchool of Law and Diplomacy and his publications include ThePrice of Liberty: Paying for America’s Wars from the Revolutionto the War on Terror; Abraham Lincoln and the Global Economy;American Albatross: The Foreign Debt Dilemma; and Reformingthe International Monetary System.


Peter KnightsLian Pin KohMarcia MarshPeter Knights | WildAidPeter Knights was formerly a program director working onillegal wildlife trade with Global Survival Network and a seniorinvestigator for the Environmental Investigation Agency. Hespecialized in conducting global on-site investigations andcampaigned against the trade in wild birds for pets and theconsumption of endangered species in traditional Chinesemedicine. In 1996 he created the Active <strong>Conservation</strong> AwarenessProgram, the first international program aimed at reducingdemand for endangered species products. The program usedsophisticated advertising techniques, and donated airtime andcelebrity spokespeople with the message, “When the buying stops,the killing can, too.” This work earned him an Associate Laureateof the Rolex Award for Enterprise. Knights holds a BSc ineconomics from the London School of Economics.Lian Pin Koh | Department of Environmental SystemsScience, ETH ZurichDr. Lian Pin Koh is assistant professor of applied ecologyand conservation at the ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Instituteof Technology). He researches emerging environmental andsocioeconomic challenges facing tropical developing nations,including intensifying land-use conflicts, carbon emissionsfrom land-use change and forestry, and threats to naturalecosystems and wildlife. He employs a variety of scientificapproaches to his work, including field surveys and experiments,and theoretical and computer simulation models. He alsodevelops and implements innovative approaches to datacollection and developing science-based decision-support toolsfor land-use decision makers, including <strong>Conservation</strong>Drones.org, REDDCalculator.com, SpeciesExtinctionCalculator.com,LandUseCalculator.com, and DeforLeaks.org.Marcia Marsh | WWF-USAs chief operating officer, Marcia Marsh oversees the executionof WWF’s strategy, guiding the organization’s work in policy,markets and field conservation and resolving complex businessproblems. She is also WWF’s executive lead for the CARE-WWFAlliance, a partnership addressing the linkages between povertyand environmental degradation. Marsh serves on the GoverningCommittee of the Natural Capital Project, a partnership amongStanford University, The Nature Conservancy and WWF totransform institutional and market decision-making usingecosystem services. She is also responsible for the performanceof critical operating systems, including human resources, financeand IT, which support the work of more than 800 employees in


Innocent MburanumweMonica MedinaRebecca Moorethe U.S. and abroad. She has 26 years of general business andhuman capital consulting experience focusing on helping complexorganizations achieve their business strategies.Innocent Mburanumwe | Virunga National ParkInnocent Mburanumwe is the warden in charge of the SouthernSector of Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic ofCongo. The Southern Sector includes the Mikeno Sector andis home to about 200 mountain gorillas. As the sector warden,Mburanumwe is responsible for identifying, tracking, andprotecting the gorillas, as well as the sector borders. Mburanumweis the son of a ranger. Since 1997, he has been a ranger at Virunga,where he pursued paramilitary training. He conducted wildlifepatrol assignments at several posts, and later was made thewarden in charge of identification of gorillas in the Mikeno Sector.Mburanumwe knows the habituated mountain gorillas well andcan identify most by their noses and faces.Monica Medina | U.S. Department of DefenseMonica Medina was appointed to the Senior Executive Service ofthe Department of Defense in May. She advises the secretary on keypriorities, including energy efficiency and environmental policy,women in the military, and the transition of veterans into civilianlife. Medina joined DOD from the Department of Commerce, whereshe served as the principal deputy undersecretary for oceans andatmosphere of NOAA. She also served as the U.S. Commissionerto the International Whaling Commission. Prior to joining theObama administration, Medina served as a senior officer in thePew Environment Group, and as a partner at the law firm of HellerEhrman White & McAuliffe. She held a number of positions in theClinton administration and on Capitol Hill, and began her legalcareer as a captain in the Army.The opinions shared today by Monica Medina are her own.Rebecca Moore | Google Earth OutreachRebecca Moore is a computer scientist and longtime softwareprofessional. At Google, she conceived and leads the Google EarthOutreach program, which supports nonprofits, communitiesand indigenous peoples around the world in applying Google’smapping tools to the world’s pressing problems in areas suchas environmental conservation, human rights and culturalpreservation. Moore also initiated and leads the development ofGoogle Earth Engine, a new technology platform that supportsglobal-scale monitoring and protection of the Earth’s environment.She received a bachelor’s degree with honors from BrownUniversity in artificial intelligence and a master’s degree from


Eric PhuStanford University. Her personal work using Google Earth wasinstrumental in stopping the logging of more than a thousand acresof redwoods in her Santa Cruz Mountain community.Eric Phu | Marketing ConsultantEric Phu has worked in the marketing field since 1996, mostrecently as vice president for Tribal DDB Greater China. He hasadvised companies including Sony, IBM, Intel, Procter & Gamble,Unilever, Tourism Australia, McDonald’s and Volkswagen ontheir advertising and communications strategies across the AsiaPacific. As a digital marketing specialist, Phu has won numerousinternational awards for his advertising campaigns combiningtechnology, data-driven insights, and creativity to drive businesssolutions. He has also been an active member of the advertisingcommunity, having served as vice chairman of the Hong Kongindustry’s Digital Committee and as head lecturer for theAdvertising Federation of Australia’s AdSchool Course at theUniversity of Technology, Sydney.Photo credits | Cover: Gabon’s President Ali Bongo Ondimba made history by ordering the burningof Gabon’s entire stockpile of illegal poached ivory on June 27, 2012 © James Morgan/WWF-Canon | Inside front cover: African elephants, Gabon © James Morgan/WWF-Canon | page 2:Parcs Gabon Eco-Guards on patrol © James Morgan/WWF-Canon | page 3: Tiger, India © VivekR. Sinha/WWF-Canon | page 6: Rhinos, South Africa © Brent Stirton/Getty Images/WWF-UK |Opposite: Tiger pair, India © Vivek R. Sinha/WWF-Canon | Back cover: Unmanned aerial vehiclescan record still or video images of wildlife and poachers © WWF Nepal/Mreedu Gyawali


WWF is in the midst of aglobal campaign to stopwildlife crime. To learn aboutwhat we are doing, visitworldwildlife.org/wildlifecrime


<strong>World</strong> <strong>Wildlife</strong> <strong>Fund</strong>1250 24th Street, NWWashington, DC 20037-1193worldwildlife.org/fullerFPO

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