Inelastic X-Ray Scattering - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Inelastic X-Ray Scattering - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Inelastic X-Ray Scattering - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Comparison to other techniquesInelastic Neutron Scattering• Low energy probe ( i = 25 meV)• Better energy resolution• Couples only to nuclei and spins• Not sensitive to charge excitations(e.g. plasmons)• Large samples requiredInelastic Electron Scattering• Can focus beam ~ 1Å• Decent energy resolution (0.5 eV)• Sample damage• Multiple scattering• Does not work in H 0• Requires UHVLight (Raman) Scattering• q=0 probe• Super high energy resolution (0.1 meV)• Super high flux (10 22 photons/sec on sample)• Polarization selection rules• cheap

Instrumentation: Overviewkk 2Requirements / Challenges• Cross section small: only 1 in 10 8 photons are inelasticallyscattered –high flux needed2 • Very high resolving power needed. 2 meV / 20 keV = 10 ‐7k ik kq = k 1 – k 2• Must be able to tune energy; both 1 and 2 for RIXS• Broad angular acceptance required for enough signalBackscatteringanalyzerMonochromaticbeamWhite beam from APS undulatorscattering angleSpecimen

Instrumentation: SourceSpring‐8 (Hyogo, Japan)ESRF (Grenoble, France)Advanced Photon Source(Chicago, IL, USA)

Instrumentation: SourceSector 9Electronicexcitations / RIXSSector 30BothSector 3Phonons

Instrumentation: Sector 30 XOR‐IXS SpectrometersMERIXE = 10‐100 meVElectronic excitations:ti• plasmons• excitons• Mott‐gap excitations• two‐magnonsHERIXE = < 1 meVVibration modes:• acoustic phonons (sound)• optical phonons

Instrumentation: MonochromatorBragg’s law:2d sin = bandpassDarwinwidthDumonddiagramTunable byrotating crystalsin a coordinatedfashion.

Instrumentation: AnalyzerBackscattering• Need “curved” crystal to acceptlarge Mosaic of ~10 4 aligned blocksGlued on spherical surfaceUsed near backscattering• Slightly tunable by rotating angle

IXS Example 1: ExcitonsB. C. Larson, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,B. C. Larson, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,026401 (2007)

IXS Example 2: Plasmons in graphite and grapheneA. H. Castro‐ Neto, et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2008)

IXS Example 2: Plasmons in graphite and graphenei( x, ) nˆ( x, t), nˆ(0,0) ( t)(0,0)(x,t)J. P. Reed, et al., submitted

RIXS Example 1: Crystal field excitations in SrCuO 2A. Higashiya et. al., J. Elect. Spect. Rel. Phen. 144‐147, 147 685 (2005)

RIXS Example 2: Magnons in La 2 CuO 4J. P. Hill, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 097001 (2008)

The Future• Join mainstream of experimental probes (with STEM, ARPES, etc.)• Imaging• Strip detectors (no more analyzers?)• Surface dynamics [B. Murphy, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 256104(2005)]• High pressure (fluctuations near quantum phase transitions)• ??? New ideas from new people.

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