ong>Costong> ong>Effectiveong> ong>Managementong> ong>ofong> ong>Waterong> ong>Erodedong> ong>Areasong> onSustainable Basis and Insitu Rain ong>Waterong> ConservationMuhammad RashidUniversity ong>ofong> Agriculture, Faisalabad
Area (m. ha)Extent ong>ofong> Land Degradation (m.ha)1413.051210866.17 6.28421.570ong>Waterong> Erosion Wind Erosion Salinity/Sodicity ong>Waterong>logging
ong>Waterong> Erosion13.05 m. ha.4.58, 35%1.90, 15%0.06, 0%PunjabSindhKh.P.KNWFPBaloch.6.50, 50%Source: Shah and Arshad (2006)
Present Practices for Controlling Plantation ong>ofong> treesong>Waterong> Erosion Development ong>ofong> waterresources such as smalldam, min dams, ponds anddug wells. Use ong>ofong> earth movingmachinery for land levellingand terracing.Piece meal effortsLack systemapproach-[IWM]Sustainable,Economical andaffordabletechnologies requiredto implement systemapproach. Construction ong>ofong> masonrystructures
Barani Zone-PothwarTechnologies being developed/standardized by SAWCRI1. Farm ong>Waterong>/Runong>ofong>f Control Structures forimprovement ong>ofong> rainfed terraced systems.2. Green manuring and gypsum for insitu moistureconservation & crop productivity enhancement.3. Prong>ofong>itable use ong>ofong> gullied areas without levelling.4. Prong>ofong>itable use ong>ofong> stored rainwater for high valuecrops.5. Grasses screened under rainfed conditions.6. Evaluation ong>ofong> the integrated effect ong>ofong> all abovetechnologies at sub-water scale.
Barani Zone-Pothwar1. Farm ong>Waterong>/Runong>ofong>f ControlStructures for improvement ong>ofong>rainfed terraced systems.
Farm ong>Waterong>/Runong>ofong>f Control StructuresISSUES Damage to terraces with highintensity rainstorms Loss ong>ofong> soil and water• CONSEQUENCES– Reduced moisture for crops.– Reduced soil productivity.– Additional expenses to repairembankments & minorleveling (Av. Repair cost Rs.1500-2500/acre)– Gully development atdownstream
Existing technologyConcernsMasonry structures Borrowed technology Highly expensive due to use ong>ofong>concrete, bricks etcRs.25,000 to 2 Lac/structure No input-output rationale Rodent damage requires repairby skilled masons so repair costhigh.• CONSEQUENCES– Not affordable by end users.– Little adoption.
SAWCRI technologyFarm water/runong>ofong>f control structures Indigenous knowledge integratedwith latest scientific development. Involvement ong>ofong> stakeholdersensured at planning & evaluationstages. International collaboration withICARDA Long-term meteorological data usedin designing on scientific basis. Different types evaluated at farmers’fields with their participationunder different rainfall zones andvariable land forms. More than 150 structuresperfectly given output at farmers’fields in different agro-ecologies.Location ong>ofong> Farm ong>Waterong> Control StructuresAttockDamal7#5Fatehjhang#HafizabadRawalpindiMurreeKahotaNJand5Pindi GhebKhalabatGujar Khan#7#Jarmote#12Nansukh Dk. Ber KhabalTalagang4#5 # 7 SohawaMengun#7#Balkasar5#BhounFarm water control structures.shJhelumTehsil boundaries.shp#Potoharregion.shpChakwal ChoasydenshahP D KhanScale = 1:15,00,00060 0 60 KilometersGIS Cell SAWCRI
ong>Costong> & Benefits Simplified designing procedure. Extremely Low-cost (90%. Insitu rainwater conservation. Crop productivity increase 20-25%. Pay back period 3-5 years. More than 150 structures evaluated onfarmers’ fields.Farm water/runong>ofong>f control structures
Barani Zone-Pothwar2. Green manuring andgypsum for insitu rainwaterconservation
Monthly Rainfall (mm)Moisture Conservation & CropProductivity Enhancement• Main Issue• Minimum soil moisture at sowing ong>ofong> Wheat.160140120100806040200265712114367Mean Monthly Rainfall(last 30 years)Drought period(Oct-Dec)21May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April71527395643
Wheat grain yield (t/ha) Vs RabiRainfall (Research Farm)54.543.532.521.510.50PSUM T/Acre3.272.511.52(10%)3.59(37%)3.44(25%)1.90(19%)3.89(46%)3.67(46%)2.22(31%)4.29(38%)2.1(33%)4.36(46%)3.66 (29%)3.24(34%)2.03Cont 0.5 1 1.5 2 32001-02(98mm) 2002-03(235mm) 2003-04(120mm)
Economic benefit ong>ofong> use ong>ofong> gypsum on wheat Rs-ha -1 at farmers’fields (at fixed price ong>ofong> wheat) on one year impact basisGypsumDoset-ha -1Number ong>ofong>farmersNet benefit over no gypsumRs-ha -111 17 102002-03 2003-04 2004-051.25 - 2780 27282.50 2865 5305 94155.00 3488 1405 48007.50 - -3010 698Wheat Grain price @ Rs 415/40 kg; Wheat straw price @ Rs 50/40kg; Gypsum @ Rs40/50 kg bag
Gypsum Technology-Summary Standardized dose for fallow-wheat system i.e. @1 Tone/acre application before monsoon. On average, 22% percent increase in wheat yieldat farmers field study under various cropping patterns inprogress. Initial results show about 10-15% increase invarious crops at farmers’ fields i.e. Groundnut,Brassica, Mung, Sorghum fodder. Beneficial impact ong>ofong> gypsum application availablefor at least three years.
Green ManuringTwo green manures i.e.cowpeas & guar (from 12)crops found most effective forinsitu rainfall conservationand increasing wheat yield.Cowpeas for medium and highrainfall areas.Guar for low rainfall areas.Wheat productivity increase atfarmers fields 20%GuarCowpeas
Incorporation ong>ofong> Green ManuresRotavator is notavailable in area.Results ong>ofong> three yearsstudy proved thatMouldboard plough isequally good forincorporation in rainfedareas.
Barani Zone-Pothwar3. Prong>ofong>itable use ong>ofong> gulliedareas without leveling.
Land levelingEconomical if around ten hours•Rate ong>ofong> soil formation:•Soil prong>ofong>ile development0.1 mm/yrtakes centuries• Top fertile soil buried• More prone to erosion• Huge expenditure
450 plants ong>ofong> blood red variety ong>ofong>citrus were planted in 1996-97
Eyebrow terraces with plantation instaggered arrangementMULCH
Stop wash barriers
Cucurbits were grown with same water and nutrients
200 peach & Apple plants were planted in 1998-99
Soil & water losses monitoring
WATER LOSSES (m 3 /ha)CTRUSPEACHEUCALYPYUSCONTROLIMPACT OF INTERVENTIONS ON WATER LOSS INDIFFERENT CATCHMENTS80007000600050004000300020001000019972003CATCHMENTS
• Soil erosion minimized and gullies formation averted.• Standardized the technology for control ong>ofong> soil and waterlosses from small catchments through stop washbarriers, staggered plantation and providing groundcover etc.• The research studies proved that gullied lands can be madeproductive on sustainable basis without theintervention ong>ofong> leveling by bulldozer through growingong>ofong> fruit plants using stored rainwater.• However, survival rate differed amongst various fruitspecies in relation to water stress, temperature,rodent attack and other soil factors.• Ensures proper utilization ong>ofong> marginal lands, wheregrowing ong>ofong> other fruit crops not only provides sustainedeconomy but help in improving the environment.
Barani Zone-Pothwar6. Evaluating the performanceong>ofong> technologies/measures atsub-water scale.
Total area = 19600 ha; Gullied/Waste land = 36%Grazing land = 31% ; Built-in area = 3%Irrigated area = 5%; Wetlands = 5%Rainfed agriculture = 20% Natural LakeNThe ong>Waterong>shedMain partners:ICARDA,SAWCRI,BARI,Arid Univ,NRSP,Vienna Univ.Non perrnial streams1.shpRsw sialws.shpRsw2.shpRsw3.shpRsw5.shpRsw6.shpRsw-7.shpRsw-8.shpLsw1.shpLsw2.shpLsw3.shpLsw4.shpRsw5.shpLsw6.shpLsw7.shpLsw8.shpPernial streams.shpong>Waterong> bodies.shpChakwal khushab road.shpTalagang chakwal road.shpLahore islamabad motorway.shpong>Waterong>shedbd.shpChak khushi.shpNikka dam watershed.shpDharabiwsbdtheme1.shpBarani area1Villages = 13; Town = 1Small dams = 2; Mini dams = 13Population = 27,000; Rainfall = 575 mm
WATERSHED ACTIVITIESDhoke MohriCommunity• Rainfedterraced sub-ong>Waterong>sheds.• Gypsum• StructuresRehna Sadaat Community• Soil loss monitoring system• Six catchments with wiers• Rainfed terraced sub-watershed systems• Gyspum for Wheat• Runong>ofong>f harvesting Structures.• Rehabilitation ong>ofong> wastelland/ gullied areas• Mot Grass in gulliesRattaCommunity• Weather station• Runong>ofong>f and waterquality monitoringChak Khushi Community•Rainfed terraced sub-watershed syste• Runong>ofong>f harvesting Structures.• Rehabilitation ong>ofong> wasteland• Mot grass in gulliesKhokharbala Community• Gully Farming• Rehabilitation ong>ofong> wasteland• Mot grass in gullies