As a Remedy to Global Warming, As a Remedy to Global Warming

As a Remedy to Global Warming, As a Remedy to Global Warming

Fall 2005School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesEnvironmentTHE JOURNAL OF THE School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesYaleAs a Remedy toGlobal Warming,Do Forests Matter?Inside: F&ES Conference Engages Leaderson Climate Change, page 24

Leaders on the issue of climate change convened in October for an F&ES-sponsored conference, Climate Change: From Science to Action, at the Aspen Meadows Resort(above) to discuss how best to address the barriers that lie between good science and effective policy and action. The story and photo spread begin on page 24.© trekkerphoto.comLETTERSTo the Editor:Many of us involved with the New York City Audubon would like tovoice some concerns about the green commitment to your new facilities[“What Makes a Building Green?,” Spring 2005]. New York City Audubonhas been in the forefront of the issue of birds being killed by collidingwith glass. After habitat loss and fragmentation, collisions with glasspose the single greatest human-related threat to birds. We applaud themeasures being taken to design a climate-neutral building for the Schoolof Forestry & Environmental Studies and trust that the use of glass isbeing carefully considered.E.J. MCADAMSTo the Editor:EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR,NEW YORK CITY AUDUBONI read the F&ES spring magazine and it looks terrific—substantivestories, great news about the building and even better news about theplacement of your students.JIM SALZMANDUKE LAW SCHOOLNICHOLAS SCHOOLOFTHEENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCES,DUKE UNIVERSITYTo the Editor:Great articles, nice overview of the new building and a generally goodshow! It’s great and instills both pride in the institution and some hopethat leadership in environmental affairs continues.HENRY YOUNG ’74To the Editor:PRESIDENT,YOUNG ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCESMANHASSET, N.Y.While attending my 50th reunion earlier this month, I was delighted tobe exposed to Environment: Yale. Involved in the water aspects of “green”building, I looked forward to reading the lead article [“What Makes aBuilding Green?,” Spring 2005]. I was shocked to read the paragraph onpage 8 dealing with the “living machine.” The slighting of the underlyingecological values inherent in the solar aquatic and/or living machineneeds to be corrected. The technology, the ecological treatment on-site ofwaste water—be it black water, gray water or storm water—needs to berecognized and extolled by the likes of the School of Forestry &Environmental Studies.NORMAN ALLENBYYALE COLLEGE CLASS OF 1955SAN DIEGO,CALIF.Due to the volume of correspondence, Environment: Yale regrets that it is unable to respond to or publish all mail received.Letters accepted for publication are subject to editing. Unless correspondents request otherwise, e-mail addresses will be published for letters received electronically.

THE JOURNAL OF THE School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesEnvironmentYalecontents2 The Heart of the Matter3 As a Remedy to GlobalWarming, Do ForestsMatter?14 In This Ecological Undercard,the Forest Understory Isthe Underdog16 In Giving to F&ES,Businessman PrefersPragmatism to Preaching16Environment: YaleThe Journal of the School ofForestry & Environmental StudiesFall 2005 • Vol. 4, No. 2EditorDavid DeFuscoDirector of CommunicationsCopy EditorAnne SommerAlumni/ae Liaison to EditorKathleen SchomakerDirector of Alumni/ae AffairsDesignMargaret HepburnPlazaDesignEditorial Advisory BoardDaniel Abbasi, Alan Brewster,Jane Coppock, Gordon Geballe,Stephen Kellert, Emly McDiarmid,Peter Otis, Frederick ReganDeanJames Gustave SpethEnvironment: Yale is published twice a year(Spring and Fall) by the Yale School of Forestry& Environmental Studies. Editorial officesare located at 205 Prospect Street,New Haven, CT 06511.203-436-4842 • e-mail: on recycled paper with soy-based inks14282418 Honor Roll of Supporters24 F&ES ConferenceGenerates Agenda toAddress Science-Action Gapon Climate Change27 Habitat Conservation Plansa Tonic for an EndangeredEndangered Species Act28 Research Points to LandUse as Likely Culprit ofFrog Deformities30 At the School32 BookShelf33 Class Notes46 Obituaries49 Recent Graduate ReachesOut to Hurricane VictimsFall 2005 1

The Heart of the Matter© Shoot/zefa/Corbis© Peter OtisDean SpethAbout half of the world’s wetlands and a third ofthe mangroves are gone.By Dean James Gustave SpethCentral to the mission of America’s environmental schools is thedevelopment of professional environmental managers. The majority of ourgraduate students at Yale are enrolled in our master of environmentalmanagement program. But what exactly is environmental management?When I am asked this question, I reply that environmental management is the new business ofbringing our human enterprise into harmony with the natural world of which we are a part. And Iadd: it’s the most important thing in the world.I know this may sound exaggerated, but I think the truth of this statement will become clear inthe years ahead. The enormous expansion of the human enterprise in recent decades has brought usto the threshold of a fundamentally new era in which environmental management must quicklyemerge as the top priority of governments and peoples everywhere.Consider first that environmental losses are already great. Half the world’s tropical and temperateforests are gone. About half the wetlands and a third of the mangroves are gone. Ninety percent ofthe large predator fish are gone, and 75 percent of marine fisheries are now overfished or fished tocapacity. Twenty percent of the corals are gone, and another 20 percent severely threatened. Speciesare disappearing at rates 100 to 1,000 times faster than normal. Most agricultural land in drierregions suffers from serious deterioration. Persistent toxic chemicals can now be found by thedozens in essentially each and every one of us.Consider also that human activities are now large relative to natural systems.We severely depletedthe Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer withoutknowing it. We have pushed atmospheric carbondioxide up by one-third, and started thedangerous process of warming the planet anddisrupting climate. Everywhere Earth’s ice fieldsare melting. We are fixing nitrogen at a rate equalto nature’s; one result is the development of atleast 150 dead zones in the oceans due to overfertilization.We already consume or destroy eachyear about 40 percent of nature’s photosyntheticoutput, leaving too little for other species.Freshwater withdrawals doubled globally between1960 and 2000, and are now approaching aquarter of all river flow. The following rivers nolonger reach the oceans in the dry season: theColorado, Yellow, Ganges and Nile, among others.We live in a full world, dramatically unlike theworld of 1900, or even that of 1950.Consider also that all we have to do to destroythe planet’s climate and its biota is to keep doingexactly what we are doing today, even with no growth in the human population or the worldeconomy. But human activities are growing—dramatically. It took all of history to build the $7trillion world economy of 1950, and today we add that amount of economic activity every 5 to 10years. The world economy is poised to double and then double again by mid-century. This economicgrowth cannot resemble the growth of the past; it requires new designs and new technologies.Everything must be different—construction, manufacturing, energy production, transportation,forestry and agriculture—all very different.2ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesCONTINUED on page 12

As a Remedy toGlobal Warming,By Richard ConniffThere was a time, in the 1990s,when forests seemed to offeran almost miraculous remedyto the problem of globalwarming. It’s an idea that has persistedin the public imagination. But for muchof the past decade, until now, forestshave been sidelined in the debate overpublic policy on global warming.Almost everyone, from universityresearchers to rock stars and electric utilityexecutives, accepts the basic premise:Because trees remove carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere through photosynthesis, theyrepresent a part of any serious response toglobal warming. Take away the water, anda tree is about 50 percent carbon by weight.But from this starting point, discussion aboutthe value of forests quickly gets complex,chaotic and, at times, a little surreal.Do Forests Matter?By planting one tree for every 60 fansattending their concerts, for instance, theRolling Stones announced in 2003 that theywould render an entire tour “carbon neutral”—that is, it would contribute no net carbondioxide to the atmosphere. Since the calculationincluded the cost of getting everyone to andfrom the stadium, these were possibly thehardest-working trees in rock-and-roll. The forprofitCarbon Neutral Company, formerly anonprofit called Future Forests, which handledthe Stones effort, also calculated that itsreforestation projects had rendered theproduction of 30 million CDs “carbon neutral,”for groups from Coldplay to the Foo Fighters.That same year, U.S. electric companiesannounced that they would offset 700,000metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions frompower plants, with projects ranging from smallurban plantings to participation in a NatureConservancy effort to protect 153,000 acres ofrainforest in northwestern Belize. The U.S.Energy Information Administration, whichtracks such voluntary efforts, reported that“one large sugar maple is capable of removingmore than 450 pounds of carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere in a year.” Then, with a leap ofthe statistical imagination, it calculated that“preserving approximately 31 trees peroperating automobile in the United Stateswould offset all U.S. automobile-related carbondioxide emissions.”Broad claims like that have elicitedskepticism about the value of forests in theglobal-warming debate. For instance, anotherU.S. government report says sugar maples willdisappear from New England late in thiscentury because of global warming. So would31 loblolly pines suffice instead? What about31 seedlings? And how many trees would it taketo offset a Mercedes-Benz Grand Sports Tourer,which the Rolling Stones are currentlyendorsing as part of their “A Bigger Bang” tour,with no claims to carbon neutrality?Fall 2005 3

Xuhui Lee, associate professor of forest meteorology and micrometeorology, at his research site in Norfolk, Conn.©“Without understandingepisodicrelease, it’s very hardto get a handle onthe question ofwhether forests canbe used as asequestration tool.”Xuhui LeeThe underlying idea of using trees to offset pollution has also elicited fierce debate, including attimes the odd spectacle of environmentalists angrily protesting reforestation projects andindustrialist tree-huggers ardently advocating them. One critic has accused utilities of selling“a warm, fuzzy feeling” with reforestation projects that are based on faulty carbon accounting.Another has derided such projects as “a morning-after pill for fossil fuel excesses.”The skeptics have at times included countries and companies trying to meet their targets forreducing carbon dioxide emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. The effort to find projects that “lockup” or “sequester” large quantities of carbon, as a way to offset emissions that cannot readily bereduced, has encountered numerous credibility gaps. The Holcim Group, a Swiss cement company,recently pulled out of one non-forest offset scheme, with an executive predicting that looseaccounting standards would produce “other Enrons”among the companies developing such projectsand “other Arthur Andersens” among the auditors. And early this year, a Kyoto certificationcommittee rejected two large-scale reforestation projects in Brazil and Belize. The committee, whichhas yet to accept a single forestry offset, said it could not reliably account for how much carbon theprojects would actually sequester or for how long.What’s going on here? Don’t trees in fact do a lot of our environmental dirty work? Aren’t forestsand forestry projects an indispensable part of the solution to the global-warming crisis? And, if so,can researchers develop a scientific methodology to account for the carbon budgets of differentforest types? That is, can they make the accounting accurate enough that investors and insurancecompanies would be willing to put their money into forest sequestration projects? Or will thebeneficial possibilities of forests get lost even as the painful realities of global warming becomeincreasingly evident?Dean Gus Speth notes that the time for answering such questions is alarmingly brief. He rattles offa list of changes already caused by global warming. Ice sheets and glaciers are melting everywhere.Sea levels have risen 6 inches. Sea temperatures have warmed, fueling more intense hurricanes.A vast area of Siberian permafrost is melting and beginning to release methane, which is 40 times4ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Carbon Emissions (metric tons)● Business as Usual■ Energy Abatement Only▲ Energy and ForestryYearA study co-authored by Robert Mendelsohn and Brent Sohngen shows the level of worldwide carbon emissions if nothing is done to curb greenhouse gas emissions,with energy abatement only, and with energy abatement and a global effort to use forests for carbon sequestration. Source: Brent Sohngen, Ph.D. ’96“By 2010 everybodyin the world is goingto realize that thegoals ... to addressglobal warming aretoo low.”Dean Spethmore potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. A threatened village on the coast of Alaskafaces imminent relocation, at a cost of more than $185 million, with the likelihood that 180 othervillages will soon follow. And the World Health Organization estimates that, in the year 2000 alone,the effects of global warming, including heat waves, flooding, malnutrition and the spread of vectorbornediseases, killed 150,000 people.“And that’s with this little 1 degree Fahrenheit of global warming,” says Speth.“We have anotherdegree in the can,” based on greenhouse gases that have already been released into the atmosphere,and the likelihood of another few degrees beyond that. The concentration of carbon dioxide in theatmosphere is currently higher than at any time in the past 650,000 years, having risen from 280parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 380 ppm today. At the present rate of increase,says Speth, the world will cross the 450-ppm mark, widely regarded as “a point you don’t want to gobeyond,”in another 25 or 35 years.And yet the coal-fired power plants scheduled to be built betweennow and then “could generate as much carbon dioxide as has been put into the atmosphere byhuman activity in all of history.”This dire prospect can make the role of forests seem, at times, like a trivial distraction. In fact,though, forests are now a substantial part of the global-warming problem, with deforestationcontributing about a quarter of the world’s annual carbon dioxide emissions.With corrective action ona global scale, some researchers suggest, forests could instead become 25 to 40 percent of the solution.Carbon CountingThe beauty of forests in a global-warming context is that they are part of a renewable cycle inwhich carbon gets released (via burning or decomposition) and reabsorbed (via photosynthesis)repeatedly over time, at least as long as the forests survive to do the reabsorbing. The trouble withfossil fuels, by contrast, is that they release vast quantities of carbon for which there is no adequatemeans of reabsorption. A single gallon of gasoline contains the compressed energy from 196,000pounds of primordial plant material, equivalent to the total annual plant production from “40 acresworth of wheat—stalks, roots and all,” according to Jeff Dukes, an ecologist at the University ofMassachusetts in Boston. Think of it this way: when you fill up a 15-gallon gas tank, you areCONTINUED on page 8Fall 2005 5

Yale Adopts Bold Climate Strategy in Midst of Major ExpansionBy Richard ConniffOne way to gain perspective on the relative importance of forests in the global warming debate is to considerYale itself. The university owns and manages nearly 11,000 acres of New England forest, the bulk of it in theYale-Myers Forest in northeastern Connecticut. These forests removed the equivalent of 6,300 metric tons ofcarbon dioxide from the atmosphere in 2002, according to a recent study by F&ES students. But the university’stotal emissions that year added up to about 285,000 metric tons. To offset that much pollution, Yale wouldneed a half-million-acre forest. Think of it as a stand of trees 12 miles deep stretching roughly from New Havento New York.In other words, forests will continue to be a part of the carbonportfolio. But for real change to occur, the university will have to pay farmore attention to how it produces, procures and consumes energy.With that in mind, Yale officials led by President Richard Levinannounced in October that over the next 15 years the university willreduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 10 percent below 1990 levels.Citing the work of Dean Gus Speth in his book Red Sky at Morning:America and the Crisis of the Global Environment, the announcementdeclared that “addressing CO2 emissions from fossil fuels must be thebedrock” of a successful climate strategy. The announcement alsocommitted Yale to becoming a “model university” by preparingstudents for the “pressing” environmentalchanges ahead.Speth welcomed the Yale commitment as “abold and very important initiative,” and anexample to other universities. But theannouncement also elicited criticism.“I apologize for raining on the parade here, butI think the university is bringing up therear when it is expected to be a leader,” saidauthor and environmentalist Paul Hawken in ane-mail to Speth. In his reply, Speth said, “Thoseinstitutions taking the lead today to commit to emissions reductionswill almost certainly be adopting more demanding measures beforelong. … It’s the beginning, not the end, or even the middle.”In fact,Yale is one of the first universities in the country to set anygreenhouse gas emissions target. (Among other leaders, Cornell andTufts universities previously committed to reducing greenhouse gasemissions by 7 percent from their 1990 baselines, by 2008 and 2012,respectively.) Moreover,Yale’s initial reduction target is likely to provefar more challenging than it sounds. Since 1990, the university hasactually increased its greenhouse gas emissions by 55 percent.The increase is due largely to rapid growth on campus, particularlyin energy-intensive science buildings, according to JohnBollier, associate vice president for facilities operations. Greaterreliance on air conditioning and high-tech equipment has alsohelped drive up emissions at about double the university’s 1.2percent annual rate of growth in floor space. Moreover, the universityexpects to increase its rate of expansion at least through 2020. (The“I feel like we’rereally stepping upto a big challenge.”plans include a new home for F&ES, which the architects are workingto make a model of low-energy consumption.) “But you can’t justsay, ‘We’re a growth institution and somebody else has to do it,’”says Bollier. The bottom line: to get 10 percent below 1990 emissionsof 163,000 metric tons, the university will have to cut overallemissions by about 44 percent from current levels—in the middle ofa major expansion.How will the university achieve its goals? In announcing thegreenhouse gas initiative, university officials challenged the Yalecommunity to reduce energy use by 15 percent in the residentialcolleges and 10 percent in all other buildings over the next threeyears. For every 5 percent savings in a college,Yale also promised to purchase offsets (orrenewable energy certificates) equal to onethirdof the college’s remaining electricitybudget. Some of the savings will come fromadjusting thermostats, replacing incandescentlight bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs andinstalling sensors to switch off lights inunoccupied areas.But Yale will never achieve the 10 percenttarget “just by technical solutions,” says JulieNewman, director of Yale’s new Office of Sustainability. “You have toget people involved.” She’s helping lead a campaign to educatemembers of the Yale community to buy only Energy Star-labeledhardware, turn on the power-save mode—and shut off computerswhen not in use. Newman says that changing computer use alonecould eliminate 935,000 pounds (424 metric tons) of carbon dioxideemissions a year.The university says it will also tweak its own operating practices.At the suggestion of an hourly worker, for instance, it recentlypurchased a $20,000 thermal camera to improve monitoring of the50,000 or so steam traps on campus. When a trap fails, more or lessat random, it sends steam literally down the drain. Better monitoringcould save about $100,000 in fuel costs annually, according to Bollier,with an equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In sciencebuildings, where inside air was being completely replaced by outsideair 12 to 15 times per hour, well above the recommended safetylevel, the university has cut back to about 10 air changes per hour.Sam Olmstead6ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

It is also investigating improved technologiesto recover thermal energy before air goes outthe exhaust.Among other initiatives in Yale’s carbonneutralportfolio:❑ A 40-kilowatt solar photovoltaic arraywill go into operation this year on a residentialrooftop at the Divinity School.❑ The Central Power Plant is testingbiodiesel, a soy methyl ester, to fire one of itsboilers, as a potential substitute for heating oil.(The university’s two power plants currentlyburn about 80 percent natural gas and 20percent oil.)❑ Newman’s sustainability office isexploring use of biomass digesters toturn about 1,100 metric tons a year ofmaterial—food waste, animal bedding fromresearch facilities and leaves—into fuel andlandscaping material.Much of the early work to develop agreenhouse gas emissions scorecard for theuniversity came from a team of nine F&ES andYale School of Management students, known atfirst as “the energy mafia” and later as The YaleClimate Initiative (YCI). All of them had beenthrough a class in energy systems analysistaught by Arnulf Grübler, a professor in thefield of energy and technology at F&ES, whoalso shepherded the YCI team as they tookEmissions per 1,000 metric tons of carbon equivalentSOURCES OF EMISSIONS AT YALETotal EmissionsEmissions if no action takenwhat they had learned and applied it to the entire university. Members of the team served as interns in Yale’s facilities office over the past twosummers, doing what Bollier calls “the grunt work of buildings assessment,” down to such mundane details as estimating the energy budgets(from the outside dimensions) of the tombs of Yale’s secret societies. Before then,Yale had no reliable method of determining its greenhouse gasemissions, nor of saying whether it was doing better or worse from one period to the next.The bad news in the final YCI report, released early in 2005, is its detailed depiction of the university as a profligate energy consumer. Thereport describes Yale’s emissions from energy use as larger than those of 30 developing countries. Or as Grübler puts it, “This is a singleinstitution, one university and not the biggest university—20,000 people, including students, faculty and staff. And still the total greenhousegas footprint is comparable to that of millions of people in a country like the Central African Republic.”In addition, the YCI report details emissions from commuting, work-related travel, operation of university buses and other sources that are notbeing included in Yale’s initial reductions target. The 1990 baseline data don’t exist for most of these emissions, according to Tom Downing, seniorenergy engineer at Yale. Still, he says, the areas now being targeted—power plants, purchased electricity and buildings—account for about 80 to85 percent of Yale’s total emissions, or 263,000 metric tons in fiscal 2004.And the good news? Yale has already demonstrated that it can, in fact, reduce its emissions even as it expands, according to Sam Olmstead,associate director of utilities compliance and projects. In fiscal 2005, when two new buildings came online, annual emissions dropped by 3,000metric tons.And that leaves … a bit more than 100,000 tons of reductions to go.“A lot of people make a commitment that they know they can meet easily by doing simple things in conservation,” says Olmstead. “But thesimple things already got done here in the 1990s. I feel like we’re really stepping up to a big challenge.” EYYearPOTENTIAL FUTURE EMISSIONS LEVELS AT YALEEmissions after conservation(predictable in near years butnot in later years)Emissions after conservationand use of renewablesYear{from new buildingsfrom renovated buildingsfrom unrenovated buildings{ {Source: Yale University Office of SustainabilityFall 2005 7

Do Forests Matter?Peter Raymond, assistant professor of ecosystem ecology©“The complexitiesare so big that wedon’t really have thepredictive power tosay how muchsequestration isgoing to happen in50, 100, 150 years.”Peter RaymondCONTINUED from page 5consuming the output from 600 acres of land. In 1997 alone, fossil fuels enabled humans to burn theequivalent of more than 400 times the total plant matter grown that year throughout the world,including oceanic plankton.But the living, renewable character of forests, which makes them so attractive as a globalwarmingremedy, is also what makes them such a challenge for the purposes of accounting. Gettingthe debits and credits of the carbon balance right is far more difficult than it sounds. In September1999, for instance, Xuhui Lee, associate professor of forest meteorology and micrometeorology atF&ES, had his monitoring equipment set up in a mixed hardwood/softwood forest in Norfolk, Conn.Using intake tubes at 20 and 30 meters above the forest floor, he was measuring isotopes and eddycovariants, the flow of carbon dioxide between plants and the atmosphere.“A typical New England forest of that type sequesters 2 metric tons of carbon per hectare peryear,” says Lee. What was happening at Norfolk looked reasonably stable, with two-thirds of thecarbon going into the trees and a third into the soil. Rain might change the dynamic, because itcauses carbon to leach out of the soil. But it rains only about 10 percent of the time in New England.So that seemed like a minor factor in the carbon budget calculation.Then Hurricane Floyd hit, dumping 17 centimeters of rain on the site.“Over a day and a half, theforest lost 20 percent of its annual sequestration,” says Lee, and brief, episodic events like thatsuddenly took on new importance. “Without understanding episodic release,” says Lee, “it’s veryhard to get a handle on the question of whether forests can be used as a sequestration tool.”The list of factors affecting how much carbon a particular forest will sequester over time turnsout to be long and dauntingly complex. The variables, says Lee, include species, terrain,microclimate, management practices, droughts, disease, hurricanes, forest fires and a host of otherfactors. Accounting for the role of forests in a global-warming context is particularly tricky, becauseglobal warming itself can drastically change the numbers—and in different ways at different sites.Peter Raymond, assistant professor of ecosystem ecology at F&ES, uses alkalinity in streams andrivers to measure the export of carbon from a watershed. It’s a way of detecting changes that might8ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

© hshapiro8@aol.comThe thinking amongKyoto participantsabout protectingexisting forests has“come full circle.”Lisa CurranLisa Curran, associate professor of tropical resourcesnot be evident just by looking at what’s happening on land. Raymond studied measurements for theMississippi River from 1950 to 2000, a period when precipitation in the watershed went up by about10 percent. No one knows for sure whether this increase was a result of global warming. But thesurprise was that carbon export shot up by 40 percent over the same period.“It was not a one-to-onerelationship,” says Raymond. In the Yukon River, on the other hand, Raymond and his co-authorsfound that carbon export had dropped over the past 25 years—apparently, they theorized, becauseglobal warming is causing increased vegetative decomposition and release of carbon dioxide on land.“The point I was making,” says Raymond, “is that this is something that terrestrial folks don’talways take into their accounting.” It isn’t so much that they are missing the ways different regionsmight respond to global warming. Rather, the whole story of how rivers interact with the terrestrialcarbon cycle seldom even enters into the equation.“These are very complex systems,” says Raymond, “and to give out sequestration credits forsystems that we don’t fully understand yet … The complexities are so big that we don’t really havethe predictive power to say how much sequestration is going to happen in 50, 100, 150 years. Andwe’re working with a moving target because the climate, which is one of the major drivers, ischanging in the midst of this attempt at sequestration.”Beyond the scientific complexities, the idea of using forestry to mitigate global warming also facesmajor political and economic obstacles.Among the first forestry projects to seek accreditation underthe Kyoto Protocol was a eucalyptus plantation in Brazil’s Minas Gerais state. The plan was to harvestthe wood on a seven-year rotation, turn it into charcoal and use it to fire pig-iron smelters for a steelfactory. The company involved, Vallourec & Mannesmann do Brasil, clearly was not trying to sellanybody a warm, fuzzy feeling about forests. It just wanted to sell “carbon-neutral” steel tubes.V&Margued that by using charcoal, which is part of the renewable cycle of carbonrelease and reabsorption, it could avoid using a nonrenewable fossil fuel—coke—and thus prevent 21 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions over the next21 years. But V&M also said that the only way it could afford to stick with charcoalwas by selling 5 million metric tons of carbon reduction credits for about 15million euros ($18 million). Toyota, the car manufacturer, had committed to buythe credits.To environmentalists, the project sounded like a parody of the idea of usingforests to remedy global warming. The plantation would be “a green desert, andthat’s doing a disservice to the word ‘desert,’” says Jutta Kill of Fern, a nonprofitgroup monitoring environmental and human rights issues in the EuropeanUnion. “There’s no undergrowth, no diversity, and it’s very temporary storage,because after seven years the carbon will be released. It also needs inputs ofchemicals and fertilizers, often petrochemical-based and often not considered asrelevant to the carbon accounting.”In early 2005, the executive board of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) rejected the project. Under the concept it calls “additionality,”the CDM awards offset credits only to projects that actually reduce the amount ofgreenhouse gases going into the atmosphere—and only if this is in addition towhat would have happened in a “business-as-usual” context.V&M’s “avoided fuelswitch” argument flunked the additionality test. But other plantation forestryprojects appear likely to win approval soon.Kyoto participants opted for the additionality rule as a way to create a crediblecarbon market and avoid dubious accounting. But it means that there is noincentive for countries to preserve existing forests or reduce deforestation. TheKyoto rules may even work against the interests of natural forests. Because carbonpayments accrue only when degraded timberland gets reforested or agriculturalland gets afforested, additionality can seem like a mandate for plantation forestry,with nonnative trees grown in orderly rows and harvested on short rotations.Fall 2005 9

© hshapiro8@aol.comRobert Mendelsohn, the Edwin Weyerhaeuser DavisProfessor of Forest PolicyForest sequestrationis only part ofthe solution.Robert MendelsohnIt’s difficult for companies to justify investing in the slower, messier business ofrestoring and protecting standing forests, according to Bill Stanley ’97, director ofThe Nature Conservancy’s Global Climate Change Initiative. The upfront costs arelarge, it can be years before the trees grow fast enough to sequester significantamounts of carbon, and the additionality rule means such projects might neverqualify for carbon payments. The Kyoto nations had what originally seemed like agood reason for denying credits to existing forests, says Stanley. They worried that“cheap forestry credits” would swamp the market, diverting efforts away from fossilfuel reduction and renewable-energy investment.But the painful reality, says Lisa Curran, associate professor of tropical resourcesat F&ES, is that deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia alone will wipe out 80 percentof the gains the industrialized nations are now scheduled to achieve under the KyotoProtocol. The numbers are even worse if you count emissions from forest fires.“There have been massive changes in the tropics, especially in the last decade,”saysCurran, who has spent much of her career bushwhacking through the tropics seekingground truth about the forest carbon cycle.“The Amazon and Indonesia now have thetwo largest deforestation rates in the world; 21,000 square kilometers are deforestedevery year in Indonesia, and 25,000 to 26,000 in the Amazon. So part of our work is tofigure out how much carbon is stored in standing forests, how much is sequesteredannually and what happens when you clear-cut it or turn it into plantations.”Curran works with NASA to develop accurate data for quick-and-dirty satellitemonitoring of how much carbon is being either sequestered or emitted at a givensite. Indonesia’s vast peat swamp forests, for instance, hold more than 10,000 years ofcarbon in a peat layer down to 20 meters deep. Logging operations have strippedmuch of the forest cover in these swamps, says Curran, leaving the peat exposed toincreasingly intense droughts and wildfires. In 1997-1998, the biggest El Niño yearon record, carbon emissions from burning Indonesian peat exceeded all man-madecarbon emissions from the entire North American continent. From the localperspective, she says, the peat is wasteland.“You can’t farm it, you can’t live on it.” Sothere’s no incentive for people to protect Indonesia’s 300,000 square kilometers of peat swamp forestfrom going up in flames.But satellite monitoring could soon make it relatively easy to monitor the status of a remoteparcel.And Curran argues that, with this system of verification in place, it could make good sense topay locals for every year they keep a peat parcel intact by, for instance, building firebreaks. Curranand other scientists also recently proposed a system to reward countries for merely reducing theannual rate of deforestation below recent levels.“Compensated reduction” would be a way to enlistdeveloping nations into the Kyoto process, and ultimately minimize the global-warming damagefrom fires and deforestation.Who would pay? What would the return on investment be? How could a company getstockholders to swallow the idea of paying Indonesian peasants to stand guard over 10,000-year-oldpeat swamps?Credits for keeping forests intact will eventually be just another product on the carbon tradingmarket, says Curran. The industrialized nations participating in the Kyoto Protocol already facesteady, mandatory reductions in their greenhouse gas emissions. A European Union cap-and-trademarket system, which opened for business last February, allows companies that exceed their targetsto sell carbon offset credits, at a current price of about 20 euros ($24) a metric ton. Companies thatcan’t afford to cut actual fossil fuel emissions can buy offsets instead, giving everyone the flexibilityto hit their targets at the least possible cost. (The theory is that the offsets will become moreexpensive as the mandatory reductions become more stringent, making investment in efficienttechnologies steadily more attractive.)10ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

© hshapiro8@aol.comInjecting carbondioxide undergroundfaces unresolvedThe impetus to develop economic incentives for keeping forests intact already exists, according toCurran and other observers of the Kyoto process. Rather than being swamped by “cheap forestrycredits,”global-warming strategists have awakened to the reality that they are being swamped insteadby unimaginably vast quantities of carbon being released by tropical deforestation. The thinkingamong Kyoto participants about protecting existing forests, says Curran, has “come full circle.”Compensation for SequestrationFifty or 100 years hence, the world’s forests will no doubt look dramatically different. They nowcover about 3.5 billion hectares of the Earth’s surface. If we do nothing, we will probably lose 430problems of scale million hectares of forest over this century, according to a recent paper by Robert Mendelsohn, theEdwin Weyerhaeuser Davis Professor of Forest Policy at F&ES, and co-author Brent Sohngen, Ph.D.’96. That deforestation will release an additional 64 billion metric tons of carbon—equivalent to 10and safety, andyears of greenhouse gas emissions from all human sources worldwide—at current rates.On the other hand, Mendelsohn and Sohngen suggest that a global program of monetaryit cannot matchincentives could increase forestation by as much as 800 million hectares, locking up an extra 126billion metric tons of carbon. Those bland numbers include the likely reforestation of the Rockythe benefits ofMountains and large areas of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Forests could return to thegreen hills of England, with carbon subsidies replacing the subsidies that now keep the landscapeopen for agriculture.forestry projects.“We only looked at the sequestration that was cheaper than what it would cost to do it withenergy,” says Mendelsohn. They concluded that the least-cost strategy would be to devote onequarterof the total global-warming effort to forest sequestration.“It’s not enough to take care of thisFlorencia Montagniniproblem by itself. It’s only a part of the solution. But it should be part of the solution. We shouldn’ttry to do it without it.”The Mendelsohn-Sohngen proposal, titled “A Sensitivity Analysis of Forest CarbonSequestration,”bypasses the problem of additionality by compensating people for allforms of sequestration in forests. It addresses the impermanence of forestry sequestrationby proposing to pay landowners who maintain their forests an annual “rent”for the carbon thereby kept out of the atmosphere. The proposed system ofincentives would have to be global, the two authors argue, to get around anotherKyoto problem called “leakage”—fixing the problem in one place, but in a way thatmakes it worse somewhere else. Thus manufacturers or timber companies can nowrespond to the Kyoto Protocol by simply shifting production from developedcountries to Third World countries that are not subject to restrictions. Since a metricton of carbon released in one place is just as bad for global warming as a metric tonreleased someplace else, no piecemeal solution can remedy the problem.Where to put the forests? Stopping tropical deforestation is the obvious first step.But Mendelsohn and Sohngen also found unexpected geographical areas wherecarbon sequestration in forests could be attractive. “The cheapest are the borealforests, because they’re remote and slow-growing,” says Mendelsohn. “We’re talkingabout a couple of hundred miles into Canada, above the agricultural zone, and alsoRussia, and a little bit in Scandinavia.“There are some pretty inexpensive options to extend the rotation length of thetrees. In temperate zones, some 15- to 18-year rotations might be extended to 20years. In the Pacific Northwest, where the rotation for Douglas fir is 55 years, youmight push it to 60 or 70 years. That means you would be storing more carbon in therotation on average.” In theory, carbon rental income would make longer rotationseconomically attractive for landowners.Reforestation would spread gradually, Mendelsohn suggests,“walking up that costcurve, from very inexpensive places to more expensive ones. But eventually you aregoing to have to replace valuable farmlands or push cities so they shrink, and it getsvery expensive.”Florencia Montagnini, professor in the practice of tropical forestryFall 2005 11

‘Hell of a Problem on Our Hands’Reforestation proposals will face considerable competition in themarketplace. Florencia Montagnini, director of the Program in TropicalForestry at F&ES, serves on a Department of Energy committee fundingsequestration research, and she laments the committee’s preference fortechnological solutions. At the moment, injecting carbon dioxide deepunderground, already in practice at some oil-drilling sites, looks like thecheapest sequestration methodology. But it faces unresolved problems ofscale and safety, says Montagnini, and it cannot match the biodiversityand other collateral benefits of forestry projects.Technological fixes could also become cheaper than forestry projects,at least in the short term. At a recent global-warming conference at Yale,Ken Newcombe, manager for the World Bank’s Prototype Carbon Fund,predicted that a company seeking offsets could upgrade an inefficient,old coal-fired power plant in China on a 10-year contract at a cost of $6 ametric ton. By the time China becomes available as a source of offsets, headded, it will offer enough such opportunities to drive the worldwideprice of offsets “almost to zero.”The Heart of the MatterCONTINUED from page 2Finally, consider that political, technological and social changes taketime.We are now in the most important race in human history—the raceto change our politics, our technology and our personal consumptionchoices much faster than the world economy grows. Only unprecedentedaction taken with a profound sense of urgency can forestall an appallingdeterioration of our natural assets. This is the challenge of environmentalmanagement.To prepare for this race, we are building a new academic field, aninterdiscipline called “environment.” It is the rigorous scientific study ofthe interactions between human societies and the natural world of thebiosphere. Knowledge generated in this new field becomes the basis forenvironmental management. We need a new generation of professionalstrained in environmental management, and we also need the knowledgeof environment to infuse the traditional professions—business, law,science and engineering, medicine and so on—and to motivate arevolution in personal choice as each of us carries out daily life asconsumer, family member, investor, activist, worshipper, worker andvoter. Environmental management thus becomes a civic responsibility ofthe first order.It is good that we are now in the midst of a necessary and timelyparadigm shift in our thinking about environmental management. In1970, when the modern era of environmental concern was born, theenvironmental style was confrontational; business was the enemy. Today,we must try to put collaboration ahead of confrontation. Business mustbe on board, not overboard.We must all be environmentalists now.In 1970, we created a separate environmental sector; today, we mustmake every economic sector an environmental sector. Every governmentagency must be an environmental protection agency.The accounting will also inevitably be easier for such “hard offsets”—that is, for paying someone else to reduce fossil-fuel emissions—than for“soft offsets,” like forestry. Moreover, even environmentalists are likely toconsider actual reductions philosophically preferable to reforestation asa remedy for global warming. On the other hand, global-warmingstrategists suggest that the scale of the problem is so large and soimminent that we can hardly afford to overlook a remedy, like forestry,with such vast potential to be either part of the problem or part ofthe solution.“My guess,” says Dean Speth,“is that by 2010 everybody in the world isgoing to realize that the goals set by these first efforts to address globalwarming are too low. People are going to see that we have a hell of aproblem on our hands.”But if we wait until something truly alarming captures the publicimagination—a rapid climate shift or runaway global warming—totake action, it could be too late for forests, or anything else, to do usmuch good. EYIn 1970, it was “put the polluters in a straightjacket.” Today, it is letthem out of the regulatory tangle if they can show they have a solutionthat is better. Then, our approach was command and control; today, itmust also be goals and incentives.In 1970, we were against; today,we must be for. Then, we definedproblems; today, we must design solutions. Then, we responded; todaywe must anticipate.In 1970, technology was the devil that got us into this mess. Today, weknow that technology—soft and hard—must get us out of this mess. In1970 it was end-of-pipe; today we must end the pipe.In 1970, we saw an unguided market taking us over the cliff. Now, weknow that the market can be guided for environmental as well aseconomic goals. But that guidance requires government action to get theprices right—environmentally honest prices. Antigovernmentideologues would rob us of the power of collective action for ourcommon future.In 1970, it was environmental protection; today, it is sustainabledevelopment—sustainable development in the poorer countries, for wewill never sustain the biosphere unless the poorer countries are realizingtheir development and antipoverty objectives, and sustainabledevelopment for the rich, for success at the triple bottom line ofenvironment-economy-society is a more worthy goal than achievinganother 3 percent growth in GDP.In 1970, it was national; today, it is “global.” Pollution has gone global,species have gone global—and so must environmental management.Global governance must come to the environment. We need a WEO asstrong as the WTO. Environmental diplomacy is not a sideshow; it’s themain event. But, in the end, we know that all action is local. Our lives arelocal lives. The struggle begins locally.12ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

© Lester Lefkowitz/CorbisWe have pushed atmospheric carbon dioxide upby one-third, says Dean Speth, and started thedangerous process of warming the planet anddisrupting climate.“Despite thedaunting projectionsof environmentaldecline, we affirmthat we will winthis struggle forthe future.”Dean SpethIn 1970, we took a top-down approach; now, we must encourage innovative bottom-up, grassrootsapproaches—green jazz that is unscripted, improvisational and creative.In 1970, we were too elitist. Now we must stress justice and equity: equity among nations, equitywithin nations, equity between the sexes, all in addition to equity for future generations. We havecreated wonderful protected areas but sometimes neglected the poor, the minorities, the victims, theindigenous peoples. Let their environmental rights now be asserted.In 1970, it was species; today it is ecosystems.We should have always known this: human societiesare utterly dependent on provisioning by nature’s ecosystems. But we forgot it.We must at long last take Aldo Leopold and his land ethic seriously. “A thing is right,” he said,“when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community.” Just as wehave rights, the land community does also.In 1970, we looked for government leadership. Today, we must often do it ourselves, with orwithout government. Business is often ahead of government; scientists are often ahead ofgovernment; consumers and environmentalists are often ahead of government. We should not waitfor government. We must push it forward with us. Politicians ride the waves, as everyone knows.Citizens make waves.In 1970, we were from Mars; today, we must be from Venus. Then, we broke things down to thecomponent parts and laid out rational plans of attack. Now we know the most important resource ishuman motivation—hope, caring, our feelings about nature and our fellow humans. Today we needthe preachers, the philosophers, the psychologists and the poets! In one poem, W.S. Merwin said:“On the last day of the world / I would want to plant a tree.”And in another: “I want to tell you whatthe forests were like / I will have to speak a forgotten language.”“After the final no,” Wallace Stevens wrote, “there comes a yes / And on that yes the future worlddepends.”Despite the daunting projections of environmental decline, we affirm that we will win thisstruggle for the future.Yes.And here we come full circle, for there is something vital from 1970 that we need to rekindle andrebuild, rather than move beyond, and that is the extraordinary spirit of that moment and thewidespread popular demand for far-reaching change. One can hear that demand plainly in thewords that citizens of Santa Barbara sent to the U.S. Congress in 1970 shortly after the devastatingoil spill there: “We, therefore, resolve to act. We propose a revolution in conduct toward theenvironment. … Today is the first day of the rest of our life on this planet.We will begin anew.”It can seem that we are now a long way from the prosaic subject of environmental management,but we are actually at the heart of the matter. EYFall 2005 13

In This Ecological Undercard,the Forest Understory Is the UnderdogBy Hannah FairfieldDave Ellum reached into the dense grass, ripping atthe tangled mats as the sun beat down on a field ofgrasses and asters in Yale-Myers Forest that hadbeen shaded by a canopy of sugar maples andoaks two years earlier.When his hand felt earth, he parted thematted green stalks, exposing a tiny wild sarsaparilla plant.“The forest undergrowth is still here in some places,” said Ellum, adoctoral student and the forest’s coordinator of research anddemonstration.“But the cards are stacked against it.”Ellum’s research focuses on the ecology of forests, below the trees. Thespecies that live in the understory are ecologically sensitive and exhibitthe highest plant biodiversity in the forest, but they are also the mostvulnerable to change. Common uses of a forest, such as timberproduction, watershed management and recreation, often result in majorchanges in the forest canopy. Because of the abrupt ecological shifts thatoccur when the trees are removed, Ellum believes that the conservationethic should extend to the nonwoody species—plants that have beenpreviously overlooked in forest management practices.When a forest stand is logged, the groundcover plants immediately switchfrom living in deep shade to constant bright sunlight, and most are not ableto survive. Sun-loving plants, such as grasses, asters and fireweed, sweep in14 ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studiesand crowd out the shade-lovers—ecological underdogs like wildsarsaparilla, Jack in the Pulpit, wild orchids and starflowers.Keeping the understory plants alive, Ellum said, is an important partof managing a multiuse and sustainable forest. The shade lovers havebeen shown to be important links in nutrient cycling, helping to keep thetrees healthy; this in turn allows a forest to prevent erosion, purifydrinking water and sequester greenhouse gases, among other functions.Understory plants also tell the story of the land itself, because theirgrowth patterns can indicate land-use history. And some plants, likeAmerican ginseng, wild sarsaparilla’s cousin, can be cultivated in theforest understory and harvested to sell.But in the shadow of the trees, the understory plants have been largelyignored. “We do not yet understand the full role of these plants inmaintaining the viable function of forested ecosystems, or the many moretangible benefits they will provide to society in the future,”Ellum said.Efforts toward sustainability have, for the most part, been focused ontimber. Regulatory standards for sustainable forestry, as set by the ForestStewardship Council and the Sustainable Forestry Initiative, recommendthat biodiversity be protected, but specific techniques for doing so arenot widely available. Ellum’s research seeks to change that, to find waysthat timber managers can increase the survival rate of many ecologicallyvaluable species, rendering the whole forest more valuable. There is agrowing interest in “multitasking” forestland by finding medicinal andhorticultural uses for understory plants, likeginseng. Because the Yale-Myers Forest,which covers 7,840 acres in northeasternConnecticut, has earned certification assustainably managed and is logged periodically,it is the perfect laboratory.“Timber is an important resource,”Ellum said. “But in many instances it ispossible to take the timber, as well asconserve plants of interest. We don’t have tochoose between them.”A forest’s biodiversity riches are found inthe understory; the Yale-Myers Forest hasmore than 200 species of nonwoody groundplants, but just 28 species of trees. InConnecticut, 40 percent of all plants listed bythe state as endangered or of specialconcern, including all listed wild orchids,live in the forest understory.Understory plants are vulnerable toecological stress because they are unable toadapt quickly to changes in exposure tosunlight. They are long-lived—a Jack in thePulpit may live 25 years—but they grow

David Ellum tends to a downy rattlesnake orchid (Goodyera pubescens), one of several understory plantsthat he is studying at Yale-Myers Forest. In the foreground, at left, is partridge berry (Mitchella repens).“In many instancesit is possible to takethe timber, as wellas conserve plantsof interest. We don’thave to choosebetween them.”David Ellum© Gabriel Amadeus Cooneyslowly and reproduce even more slowly. A downy rattlesnake orchid creates one clone a few inchesaway from itself every three years. A patch of orchids that covers 1 square foot represents manydecades of growth.So when an area of the Yale-Myers Forest is logged, the understory plants are metabolically suckerpunched because their exposure to sunlight soars to 100 percent, with no canopy, from about the1 to 5 percent they have adapted to. Their leaves begin to look burned and desiccated. Theirrespiration races ahead of their photosynthesis, and they struggle to stay alive. While they arefoundering, sun-loving plants parade in, reproducing quickly and choking off the already stressedshade plants. Grasses, asters and fireweed can cover wide swaths of logged land in a few weeks.Because of the increasing pressure for timber resources, Ellum knows that forest managersneed better techniques for preserving biodiversity and conserving rare plant species in areas thatare logged.“I’m not looking for really complex answers,” he said. “I want to develop forest managementtechniques that can be readily applied in the field.”To that end, one of Ellum’s experiments focused on the seasonal timing of timber harvests and itseffect on nonwoody plants. Nearly half of all the timber harvests at the Yale-Myers Forest between1978 and 1993 occurred in the summer. But many of the understory plants are dormant in thewinter and leaf out in the spring, so their low-sunlight metabolic processes are set by the summer.Ellum wondered whether, if canopy removal took place in the winter, the plants’ metabolismmight have time to adapt during leaf development, leading to higher survival rates.CONTINUED on page 17Fall 2005 15

In Giving to F&ES,Businessman Prefers Pragmatism to PreachingJoe Williams, Yale College Class of 1956.“I had no interest inbeing a radicalenvironmentalist, butI came to realize thatI could not sit onthe sidelines andwatch our naturalworld degrade.”Joe WilliamsBy Stacey StoweJoe Williams has little patience with polemicists. True, the manwho recently pledged $1 million to the Yale School of Forestry& Environmental Studies is an avowed conservationist, buthe’s also a businessman and a pragmatist who’d rather findsolutions to environmental problems in the middle thanretreat, empty-handed, to philosophical corners.“I had no interest in being a radical environmentalist, but I came to realize thatI could not sit on the sidelines and watch our natural world degrade,” Williamssaid, as he reflected recently on bridging the divide between his two worlds, hiscareer in a major natural gas company and his environmental stewardship.“But Ideveloped an acute interest in trying to open dialogues on both sides. We hadeverything to gain by talking to each other and trying to work out solutions thatwere constructive and sustaining, not just window dressing.”Four years ago, during a meeting with Dean Gus Speth, Williams said helearned that F&ES wanted to expand environmental course offerings in YaleCollege. The two also discussed how the graduate school could answer a need,witnessed by Williams in his volunteer conservation efforts, for more and bettertrainedprofessionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).“What if a student with an interest in research management or a number ofdifferent things spent three months in the field with an NGO working on aproblem?” Williams asked. “It would expand the student’s capabilities and alsogive the NGO the opportunity to have an additional bright, young person workingthere.” Even better, Williams asked, what if the student returned there to work after graduatingfrom F&ES?His pledge will be split between support for the undergraduate program in environmental studiesand funding of internships for F&ES students interested in working with nongovernmental conservationgroups.“Joe’s gift will also help us provide a very strong environmental program for Yale College students.It’s wonderful to have this new support,”Dean Speth said.Williams,Yale College Class of 1956, has long been a supporter of the university. He was a memberof the Yale Corporation from 1977 to 1989 and a member of the Yale Development Board until 1999.In 1984, he with other family members contributed a gift to establish the Williams Brothers Chair atthe School of Management. He has been a member of several of his reunion gift committees, andwas awarded the Yale Medal for Service to Yale. In 2002, he accepted an invitation to join the Schoolof Forestry & Environmental Studies’ Leadership Council.After graduating from Yale, Williams performed two years of military service in Germany as aplatoon leader in a tank battalion.When he returned to the States, he was reluctant to join the familybusiness until a persuasive cousin changed his mind. The Williams Companies (formerly WilliamsBrothers), headquartered in Oklahoma, produce, gather, process and transport natural gas. The jobinitially took Williams abroad for almost a decade, including seven years in Iran, where he wasinvolved in building pipelines and installing oilfield facilities.Early on, he said he believed that industry had the best resources to address large-scale environmentalproblems, but for one obstacle—the yawning divide between environmentalists and thosein the business community.16ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

He cites resource allocation as something “right at the core of thekinds of curriculum Yale is working on.”“You can’t just lock up land, but you also can’t turn developers loose,”he said.“I come out as a centrist here.”During the summer, Williams lives 4,000 feet up a mountain in NorthCarolina in Southern Appalachia, and it is there that he beganvolunteering with a local environmental group on land preservation. Inthe early 1980s, he joined The Nature Conservancy, which he greatlyadmires and whose board of governors he would later chair.He was further engaged with the conservancy when living andworking in Oklahoma, where he led the effort to raise $15 million tobuy 30,000 acres and establish the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve innortheastern Oklahoma. He was the first chair of the Oklahoma chapterof The Nature Conservancy.“At the end of summer, if you ride a horse through it, you’re right up toyour chest in the tall grass,” he said, in a soft drawl, as he sat in a hotellobby, far from the rippling fields, during a recent visit to Manhattan withhis wife, Terry.His own environmental streak surfaced as a boy, bird and duckhunting in and around his family’s land near Camden, S.C. He laughedabout being lured to St. Paul’s School in Concord, N.H., by the promise ofwoods and ponds, only to discover that the water began freezing at theend of October and stayed that way through part of April.When it came time to raising his boys, the woods, the fields and thewater largely defined family life.“The entire recreational side of our life as a family was spent hunting,fishing, camping and hiking in the outdoors,” he said. “There wasn’t awhole lot of preaching about it; it just naturally occurred.”These outdoor pursuits were the foundation for the careers of all threeof Williams’ sons: Joe Jr. is an evolutionary biologist on the faculty of theUniversity of Tennessee; Peter, a former wildlife biologist at theUniversity of Vermont, is an environmental consultant; and Jamie ’89,Yale College Class of 1985, is executive director of the Montana programof The Nature Conservancy.Williams’ pledge to F&ES is aimed at those who are launchingenvironmental careers. But he is mindful of the value of broadcastingthe message of conservation early on. At his home on Spring Island, S.C.,north of Savannah, Ga., Williams is involved with a land trustthat does water pollution studies, runs educational programs andconducts a natural history program for every fifth grader in Jasper andBeaufort counties.“I won’t be around to see the harvest, if there is one, but I just have tofeel if these kids in fifth grade are exposed to environmental thinkingand nature’s beauty, hopefully they’ll develop an interest in protecting thenatural world,” he said, adding,“That’s pretty idealistic stuff, but imagineif it works out?” EYIn This Ecological Undercard, the Forest UnderstoryIs the UnderdogCONTINUED from page 15He devised an experiment for four nonwoody forest plants—wildsarsaparilla, Jack in the Pulpit, starflower and Canada mayflower—grown in pots. After a year of being grown in the shade, the plants weredivided into three groups: one group was moved to full sunlight inFebruary before the plants had grown leaves; a second group was movedto full sun in June after the plants had grown leaves; and a third group,the control, remained in the shade.He expected that the plants grown under the full canopy wouldprosper and that the ones exposed to full sun in June would wither, butthe big question was how the plants exposed to full sunlight in Februarywould react. Ellum predicted that they would show a greater ability toadapt to the sun—and he was right. The plants exposed to full sunlightin February—three months before the plant produced leaves—grewextraordinarily well. Their leaves were thicker and smaller and, therefore,less likely to dry out in the bright sun than the shaded control group.Andthey were healthy and fully able to photosynthesize, unlike the plants thatwere moved to sunlight in June, which died.Ellum’s conclusion: if forest owners shifted more harvest operations tothe winter, the exposed understory might be able to compete with theasters and grasses.“Can most small, private landowners wait six months to log? Probably,said Ellum.”Changing the timing of logging is one technique that forestlandowners can use to wisely manage the timber while preservingbiodiversity. Another proposal to promote the survival of native speciesis modifying the shape of the harvested area. Forest understory plantshave a higher survival rate near the edges of a timber cut, where they arestill shaded by trees. So oval- or rectangle-shaped timber cuts, whichhave longer perimeters than a circular one of the same area, couldprovide increased refuge at the edges, where forest understory plants canset the stage for recolonization of a future forest stand.Ellum’s holistic view of forest management grew out of his deepinvolvement with the forest. In addition to his doctoral research, hecoordinates faculty and student research projects in the forest, and livesthere for several months of the year. He also hosts about 100 incomingmaster’s students every summer, demonstrating for them the principlesof field ecology and his love for the forest.“I think it’s important to become part of the place you study and to seeit through many seasons,” he said. “I’ve been lucky to have thisopportunity, and I hope to do this for the rest of my life.” EYFall 2005 17

Honor Rollof SupportersThe School of Forestry & Environmental Studies gratefully acknowledges and honors the following contributors fortheir support in the fiscal year July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005.Class of 1938Mr.William Eastman A Mr. Frederick E. StablerProfessor William A. SylvesterClass of 1939Rev. Lester Nickless Professor John H. NoyesClass of 1940Mr. Robert BulchisMr. Richard D. GriffithMr. Morten J. Lauridsen Jr.Mr. Tudor RichardsMr. Richard C. RoseMr. Jack Tibbetts SlocombMr.Armin A.WehrleClass of 1941Mr. Ralph A.ArnoldMr. J.Willcox Brown Mr.C.Robert BingerProfessor Henry S. KernanDr. Carl E. Ostrom Mr. Frederick H. SchuettClass of 1942Mr. Melvin H. ChalfenDr. John L. GrayMr. J. Sidney McKnightProfessor Richard F.WestMr. Hamlin L.Williston AClass of 1944Professor Earl H. TryonClass of 1946Professor Paul Y. BurnsMr. Howard H. Coe AMr. Calvin D. MausProfessor David M. Smith AClass of 1947Mr. Everett L. BeanProfessor Richard J. Campana Mr. Ian C.M. Place, Ph.D.Dr. Richard F.WattMr. Henry A.WilsonClass of 1948Mr. Harold J. BelcherMr. Francis H. CliftonMr. Francis H. Dillon Jr.Richard A. HaleDr. Otis F. HallMr. George M. HindmarshProfessor William MacConnellMr. Howard F. R. MasonMr. John E. O’Donnell Jr.Mr. Darwin B. PalmerMr. Stephen D. PryceDr. Joseph A. Tosi Jr.Class of 1949Mr. John N. BallantyneMr. James B. CarlawMr. Herbert S. DamonMr. Robert E. Hollowell Jr.Mr. Hurlon C. RayClass of 1950Mr. Gordon T. BamfordMr. John O. BatsonMr. Robert O. BrandenbergerProfessor Kenneth L. CarvellMr.William F. Cowen Jr.Mr. Theodore NattiMr.Albert L.C. NelsonMr. Myles D. RussellMr. John C.WattClass of 1951Dr. Lester E. BradfordDr. Charles Baird Jr.Benjamin S. Bryant, D.F.Mr. John L. Christie ARobert O. Curtis, Ph.D.Robert W. Eisenmenger, Ph.D.Mr. Gerald D. FitzgeraldProfessor Walter P. GouldMr. John W. KerMr. Donald S. PageMr. Lewis C. PetersClass of 1952Professor Robert S. Bond, Ph.D.Mr. Eugene M. CarpenterMr. Harlan P. FitchMr. John L. HallMr. Milton E. Hartley Jr. AMr. Gordon LoeryMr.Alfred PleasontonMr. John R. SkeeleMr.William I. Stein, Ph.D.Class of 1953Mr. Eric L. Ellwood, Ph.D.Perry R. Hagenstein, Ph.D.Mr. John F. MillerMr. Thomas W. NortonMr. Earl W. RaymondProfessor William StambaughMr. John W. Swilley Jr.Professor George TsoumisClass of 1954Mr. Harry B. Bailey Jr.Dr. James H. BrownMr. Gordon Hall IIIMr. Robert F. KrohnProfessor Harold McNabb Jr.Mr. Donald J. MillerMr. Jack R. MulhollandProfessor William E. ReifsnyderDr. Roy D.WhitneyDr. Robert L.YoungsClass of 1955Mr.Warren T. Doolittle, Ph.D.Mr. Benjamin W. Fenton Jr.Dr. David R. HoustonProfessor Kenneth Knoerr, Ph.D.Mr. George R. LambProfessor Daniel P. LoucksMr.Wee Yuey PongMr. Robert G. SteinhoffMr. Lawrence B. SunderlandMr. Donald K.WhittemoreClass of 1956Mr. Gerardo BudowskiMr. Fields W. Cobb Jr., Ph.D.Dr. Patrick J.B. DuffyProfessor Richard K. HermannMr.W. Glenn MabeMr. Ralph R. RobertsonMr. Jack A. RoseMr. Kirk P. Rodgers AMr. Philip B. NoyceMr. Joseph E. PetersClass of 1957Mr. Sheldon GreeneMr.D.Gordon MottMr. Charles Davis RobertsMr. George W.WendelMr. Christopher W.YeatmanClass of 1958Dr. Herster Barres Jr.Professor Rolf W. BenselerMr. Evar L. KnudtsonProfessor Ernest A. KurmesMr.William G. Rogers, 2dRev. Friedrich Schilling Jr.Mr. Richard B. Smith, Ph.D.Mr. George R. Stephens Jr.Mr. Selmer C. UhrProfessor John P.VimmerstedtMr.William E.Waters, Ph.D.Professor Gordon F.WeetmanClass of 1959Mr. Richard H.ArpsMr. Hans T. BergeyDr. Robert C. BrookeMr. David ChallinorMr. Donald S. GirtonMr. Monico N. NastorMr. Bobby NeillAClass of 1960Mr. Evangelos J. BiblisProfessor Gregory Neil BrownMr. John G. HamnerMr. Peter Robert HannahProfessor Lee Herrington, Ph.D.Mr. Peter M. HuberthMr. Robert James La Bar Mr. Jon P. LilesProfessor Richard E. MarkMr. Robert D. McReynoldsMr. Kennard G. NelsonMr. Robert Charles NowackMr. Robert G. SladeMr. Seijuro UrakiClass of 1961Mr.William W.AlcornMr. Paul M. HaackMr. Laurens K. LarsonLee N. Miller, Ph.D.Professor Robert C. PetersMr. James A. RollinsMr. Karl W. SpaltMr.R.Scott Wallinger ADr. Malcolm John ZwolinskiClass of 1962Mr. Roger P. BelangerProfessor Jeffery Burley AGordon M. Heisler, Ph.D.Mr. C.H.Anthony LittleMr. Charles N. Lowrie IIIMr. Lawrence O. SaffordMr. Roland K. TiedemannMr. Robert C.Van AkenMr. Carel L.H.Van Vredenburch AMr. John C. Zasada18ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies deceased A Sand County Society (gifts of $1,000 to $4,999)

Class of 1963Mr. Henry F. BarbourDr. Julian R. Beckwith IIIMr. Philip O. FrazerMr. Joseph W. GorrellMr. Edward M. JagerMr. G.Andrew LarsenMr.Yan Bohumil LinhartMr. Robert N. MowbrayMr. John K. PrescottMr. Guy E. SabinProfessor William Hulse SmithMr.G.Paris Sykes Jr.Class of 1964Mr. Frank G. Bock Jr.Professor Stephen J. HanoverMr.M.Noble Holmes Jr.Mr. Robert F. KruckebergProfessor Douglas A. MacKinnonProfessor Kenneth J. MitchellGeorge S. Nagle, Ph.D.Mr.H.Phillip SasnettMr. G.Wade StaniarClass of 1965Mr. Hollis W. Barber Jr.Mr.William Blankenship Jr.Mr. Donald E. FosterMr. Michael S. GreenwoodMr. James E. HowardMr. Robert Philip KreitlerMr. Roger W. MerrittMr. Richard C. SchlesingerProfessor Guy L. Steucek AClass of 1966Mr. Edward A.Arens AMr.S.Gene DayMr. Howard C. Dickinson Jr.Mr.William G. Horn Jr.Dr. David K. LewisMr.William J. ShirleyMr.Alden M. TownsendClass of 1967Mr. Reginald B. Elwell Jr.Dr. Gordon A. EnkMr. Robert W. HintzeMr. Peter W. LudwigClass of 1968Dr. Richard R. BuechMr. Lawrence K. ForcierMr.Andrew L. JohnsonMr. Raymond J. KordishMr. Martin LugusDr. Peter L. MarksMr. Claude H. O’GwynnMr. Hardy L. PearceMr. Donald G. SchallClass of 1969Mr. Mark W.AllisonProfessor Henry Warren ArtMr. Earle D. Bessey IIIMr. Roger W. CarlsonMr. Davis CheringtonMs. Diana Starr Cooper AMr. David T. HarveyMr. Gregory Alan Sharp AMr. Johannes G.Von Trapp AClass of 1970Mr.Whitney A. BealsDr. John A. BissonetteMr. Chung-Muh ChenMr. Donn E. CritchellMr. Douglas M.H. FerngJoseph L. Horowitz, Ph.D.Mr. Donald C. HubertMr. Mack H. Jenkins AMr.William A. LansingMr. Steven C. MauriceDr.William H. ParkerMs. Patricia Freund RiggsProfessor James H. ShawMr. Thomas L. SmithMr. John F. TinkerClass of 1971Mr. Joseph L. DeschenesMs. Katharine B. GranthamMr. Coleman HoltMr. Donald R. KorboboMr. David L. ParsonsMr. Krishna P. Rustagi, Ph.D.Mr. James A. SharpDr. Mary L. StandaertMr. Joseph P. StandaertClass of 1972Dr. Ruth Hamilton Allen &Dr. George R.Allen AMr. Hedley W. BondMr. John M. BrinkMr. Gary W. Drobnack AMr. Robert A. HartDr. Helen KimMs. Jacqueline Bruns LansingRev. Carole J. McGowanMr. Jerry M. MelilloMr. David P. MillerAMs. Priscilla P. NewburyMr. Philip E. NemirMr.William K. NewburyMr. Richard PorterfieldMr. Thomas G. RobinsonMr. Matthew S. RosenSally E. Rosen, M.D.Mr.J.Gary TaylorMr. Stephen R.WellsClass of 1973Dr. John D.AberMs. Lauren E. BrownMr. John C. CannonMr. Robert H. CashelMr. Clyde H. CremerMr. Roy W. DeitchmanMr. Thomas J. Dunn Jr.William H. Gauger, Ph.D.Mr. Samuel G. HopkinsMr. Milos Krnajski-JovicMs. Dorothy S. McCluskeyMr. James E. MurphyMr. Dennis R. PerhamMr.A. Mark RasmussenMs. Ruth M. ShaneMs. Kathryn Snider StockwellMr. Mark E. TriebwasserClass of 1974Mr. Spencer B. BeebeMs. Frances Beinecke AMr.William G. Constable AMr. Charles H. Dauchy Jr.Ms. Nancy F. EhornProfessor Andrew W. EzellMs. Daralynn E. GordonMs. Leah K. Hair AMr. Gerard J. HennesseyMr. Leonard A. Lankford Jr.Ms. Elizabeth H. Mikols AMrs. Deborah W. NewbornMr. Norman A. NoyesMs. Helen Sussmann ParkerMs. Katharine M. PrestonMs. Judith M. Stockdale AMr. Kenneth G. SuperDr. Gordon G.WhitneyMr. Paul S.WilsonMr. Bradford W.WycheMr. Henry A. F.YoungClass of 1975Mr. Stark AckermanMs. Jennifer Slade BelovskyMr. Richard A. BrownMr. Larry E. BurdAlyn Robinson Caulk, M.D.Dr. See C. ChinMr. Leslie N. Corey Jr.Mr. Phillip C. DibnerDr.Anne S. FegeMr. Evan S. GriswoldAMs. Carol Stevenson HarlowMr. Michael G. HarlowMs. Libby O. HopkinsMs. Suzanne M. KilnerMr. Patrick T. LeeMr. Stephen M. LevyMs. Hallie R. MetzgerChristopher W. Murdoch, Ph.D.Ms. Carol C. PillsburyMs. Diane L. RenshawMs. Jacqueline S. RussellDouglas F. RyanMr. George B.WeirMr.Arthur B.WeissmanClass of 1976Mr. Taber D.AllisonMr. Thomas BarounisAAAMs. Susan D. CooleyMr. Bruce A. FernaldProfessor Joel S. FlaglerMs.Alexandra C. Goelet AMs. Kathleen M. LigareDr. John E. LundquistMr. Thomas M. MarinoMs. Kathleen McNamaraJohn P. McTague, Ph.D.Dr. Paul R. PerreaultMs. M.Anne PetersMr.Alan F. PooleMs.Virginia M. ReillyMr. Eric E. SeeMr. James D. SpielmanMr.William E. TimkoClass of 1977Mr. Randolph B.AustinProfessor Edward A. BrotakMr. Leon E. BucherMr. Javade ChaudhriMr. Jonathan FalkMr. Glenn FredenMr. Kenneth R. GarganMr.William T. Glidden Jr.Mr.Victor L. Gonzalez A AProfessor Steven P. HamburgMr.William A. HansonMr. Timothy C. HawleyDr. Charles E. HewettMr. Peter S. HomannMs. Pamela KohlbergMr.Angus S. LairdDr. Howard S. NeufeldMs. Joanne R. PolayesMr. Robert C. Rooke Jr.Dr. Joann P. RoskoskiAAMr. Lawrence M. SchaeferMs. Kathryn A. TrollMr. Richard E.WetzlerMr. George C.WheelwrightMr. Robert T.WinterbottomClass of 1978Dr. Carol A.AubryMs. Ellen K. BaumMr. Edward Orrin Becker Jr.Dr. Rebecca E. BormannMr. Thomas E. Davies Jr.William C. Davis, Ph.D.Mr. Peter John FalcoMr. Kenneth J. FaroniMr. Robert S. GipeDr. Douglas M. HaefeleDr. Rosine W. HallMr. John R. HoffnagleMr. Edward A. HoganMs. Catherine G. HopperMs. Patricia H. KorotkyAProfessor Bruce C. LarsonMs. Dora Yuen-Kie LeeMr. Kim C. Pflueger Mr. Michael D. ReesAAA A Aldo Leopold Circle (gifts of $5,000 and up)Fall 2005 19

Honor Roll of SupportersDr. Regina M. RochefortMr. Kenneth L. RosenbaumMr. Thomas A. RumpfMr. Ralph C. SchmidtMr.Andrew M. SchwarzMs. Loring La Barbera SchwarzMs. Louise P. SclafaniMr. Gordon J. SmithProfessor C. Dana TomlinMr. David WentworthClass of 1979Ms. Charlotte F. Belser AMr. Christopher N. BrownMr. John A. Carey AMs. Dorothy K. FaulknerNeil Hendrickson, Ph.D.Mr. Douglas R. KodamaMrs. Patricia S. LeavenworthRobert B. McKinstry Jr., Esq.Ms. Martha E. OkieMr. Robert T. PerschelMs. Hope PillsburyMs. Elizabeth L. RichMs. Margaret N. SchneiderMs. Penelope C. SharpVijay K.VermaMs. Jeanne Wong-BoehmClass of 1980Ms. Natasha AtkinsMs. Susan M. BraatzMr. Starling W. Childs IIMr. Robert D. ComerDr. M. Thomas Hatley IIIMs.Virginia F. KearneyMs. Eleanor S. LathropMr. Thomas McHenryMr. Thomas D. MordecaiMr. Charles NilonMr.W. Kent OlsonMr. Curtis G. RandMs. Linda Kasper ReedMrs. Frances M. RundlettDr.V.Alaric SampleDr. Laura K. SnookAAAMs. Jane E.S. Sokolow AMr. Keith D. StewartMs. Carol Zimmerman, Ph.D.Class of 1981Mr. John A.Arnone IIIMr. Keith A. BalterMr.Alan W. BelcherMr. James M. CaffreyMs.Amy L. Catterton-JanovskyJohn D. Echeverria, Esq.Mr. Michael Ferrucci IIIMs. Louise Richardson ForrestMr. Thomas GamanMs. Betsy JewettMs. Priscilla KellertMrs. Susan Fitch KelseyDr. Matthew KeltyMr.William J. KlassenMr.Aaron MansbachMs. Elizabeth D. MullinMr. Sumner PingreeMr. Mark G. RacicotMs. Gail K. ReynoldsMr. James R. RunyanMs. Marcia K. SailorMs. Elizabeth B. SpeerMr. Keith D. TaitMs. Thea Weiss TarbetMr. David Allen Van WieMs. Carol E.YouellClass of 1982Mr. Christopher P.AllanMs. Susan Becker-JacobMr. Michael BellMs. Sandra J. BlinstrubasMs. Paula DaukasMr. Michael P. DowlingAMrs. Deborah Reichert FinleyMr. Leonard GeorgeMs. Jacqueline K. HewettMr. Edward W. IonataMr. Thomas R. JacobMr. Phillip C. Lende Jr.Mr. Keio MaedaMs. Diane MayerfeldMr. Patrick M. MissetMrs.Ada Ndeso-AtangaMr. Benjamin L. NilesMs. Marie Z. NolanTrevor O’Neill, Esq.Mr. Kenneth D. OsbornMr. Daniel F. ReynoldsMr. Robert S. RidgelyMs. Silvia Strauss-DebenedettiMrs. Hazel F. TuttleMr. Keith G.WaiteMr. Thomas James WalickiMr. Thomas H.WalkerMr. Nathaniel B.WhitcombeClass of 1983Mary A.Arthur, Ph.D.Ms. Susan M. BabcockMr. Louis J. BacchiocchiMr. Stephen D. BlackmerMs. Elizabeth A. BlairMr. Stephen P. BrokerDr.Anne C. BrewsterMr. Bruce J. CabarleMr. Guillermo CastillejaMs. Mary Jane CockerlineMs. Robin F. DaviesMr. John A. DuwaldtMr. Lorens FasanoProfessor John C. GordonAMr. Peter T. HazlewoodMs. Carol Kennedy HearleMr. David W. HoskinsMr. Richard M. Huber Jr.Mr. Charles J. KatuskaDr. Melissa R. LadenheimMs.Victoria Dompka MarkhamMr. Peter B. McChesneyMr. Richard H. Odom Jr.Ms. Jennifer Cross Peterson AMr. David E. ReevesMs. Denise SchlenerMs.Anne-Nicole SchlessMr. Jim Daniel SerfisMs. Elizabeth W. SwainMrs. Susan F. SwensenMr. Olaf UnsoeldMr. Paul S.WatsonKathleen C.Weathers, Ph.D.Mr. Frederick J.Weyerhaeuser AClass of 1984Ms. Sherburne B.AbbottMr. James R.AndersonMr.Ambrose O.AnoruoDr.C.Dustin BeckerMr.Alan C. CareyDr. Thomas O. CristMrs. Barbara B. DowdMs. Shelley J. DresserMs. Frances F. DunwellMs. Rosemary N. FurfeyMr. David C. Gibson IIIMs.M.Elizabeth GillelanMs.April Diane GrimmMr. Randall H. HagensteinMs. Rose H. Harvey AADr. Jennifer Hasser-MatteiMs. Leah V. HaygoodMr. Mark John KernMs. Cara LeeMr. Peter B. Maxson ADr. Eva U. MullerProfessor A. Sharon HambyO’Connor AMs. Maryla B. OhlandtMr. Bruce A. PhillipsMr. Norbert J. Riedy Jr.Mr. Christopher W. SteckoMs. Susan Huke SteinProfessor Wendy E.WagnerMr. Nathan R.WilliamsMr. Timothy R.WilliamsClass of 1985Professor Peter Mark S.AshtonMr. Robert Brent BaileyProfessor Richard L. BoyceMr.Alexander R. BrashMr. Ian R. CameronMs. Jane CerasoMr. Robert E. ClausiDr. James S. ColemanMr. John Nesbitt ConynghamMr. Christopher M. DonnellyMr. Mark Damian DudaMr. John E. Earhart A AMs. Caroline S. EliotMr. Edward H. EllimanMr. James J. Espy Jr.Ms. Lynne Wommack EspyMs. Deborah FleischerDr. James B. FridayMs. Kathleen S. FridayMr. Steven F. JacovinoMr. Lawrence H. KingMs. Margaret R. KingMr.J.Stephen LoweMr. Stephen J. LowreyMs.Abigail A. MaynardMs. Catherine A. McConnellAMs. Lesley A. Morgan-ThompsonMr. Jonathan W. NuteMs. Molly Harriss OlsonMr. Cameron H. Sanders Jr.Mr. David B. SteckelMr. Mark J. Twery, Ph.D.Mr. Henry L.WhittemoreMr. Stephen YoungAClass of 1986Mr. Kenneth J.Andrasko Jr.Mr. Peter P. Blanchard III AMr. David Max BraunMs. Sarah L. BrichfordDr. Laura MacAlister BrownMr. Mark R. DillenbeckMr. Peter J. FeuerbachMr. Elliott L. GimbleMr. Daniel M. HellersteinMs. Nan L. Jenks-JayMr. Nels C. JohnsonMr. Bruce H. LeightyMs. Brenda R. LindMr. Steve J. MillerMs. Caroline NordenMr. Rob Roy Ramey IIMr. Richard P. ReadingMs. Sarah Clark StuartMs. Caroline A.WoodwellMr. Mohammed Nuruz ZamanClass of 1987Mr. Karl A. BeardMs. Christie Anna CoonMs. Pamela Manice AMs. Nina T. MarshallMs. Elizabeth Hyde MooreMs.Annette S. NaegelMr.Arvid R. Nelson AMr. John Patrick PhelanMr. Peter Cooper Pinchot20ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies deceased A Sand County Society (gifts of $1,000 to $4,999)

Mr. Christopher E. PrattDr.Anne E. ReillyMs. Kathleen M. RorisonMr. Joshua L. RoyteMs. Kathleen Lake ShawMr. Steven TaswellMr.J.Geoffrey TaylorMr. Edgar L.VaughnMr. Gregory R.WaldripMr. Jonathan G.WingerathClass of 1988Ms. Jennifer H.AllenMs. Robin Gale CashMr. Peter Michael ConnortonMs.Anne Buckelew CummingMr. Pieter W. Fosburgh Jr.Mr. Stephen C.N. GormanMr.William Childress GreenMr.Anthony C.W. IrvingDr. Margaret Lee KnellerDr. Elizabeth Ann KramerMs. Cristin Gallup RichMr. Carlos Rodriguez-FrancoDr. Holly Page WellesClass of 1989Ms.Andree Marie BreauxMs. Helena BrykarzMs. Susan M. CampbellMs. Elizabeth Pardee CarlsonMs. Kate Elizabeth HeatonMs. Cynthia Marion JoyceMs. Julia P. McMahonMs. Judith E. MooreMr. John R. Potter Jr.Ms. Laurie Reynolds RardinMr.Allen Joseph Reilly Jr.Mr. Conrad C.S. ReiningMs. Mary Nelligan RobbinsMs. Mary Katherine RourkeMr. Dave Trynz TobiasMr. James Chesnut WilliamsClass of 1990Ms. Tracy C.AndersenMs. Joan P.AndersonMs. Mary Ann K. BoyerMelissa M. Grigione, Ph.D.Mr.Alan E. HaberstockMs. Judy G. Olson HicksMs. Leslie J. HudsonMr. Peter Taber JenkinsDr. Peter Hobart JippMs. Kristie N. KappMr. Thomas Edward KelschMr. Jonathan Martin LabareeMs. Jennifer LambMs. Linda Lee LindMr. Phillip Chin-Chen LiuMs. Penelope Ireland LowMs. Jennifer Ann MarronMrs. Mary T. MillerJennifer K. Reining, Esq.A A Aldo Leopold Circle (gifts of $5,000 and up)Mr. Douglas Morgan RobothamMs. Catherine Bealle StatlandMs. Susannah Beth TronerClass of 1991Ms. Susan D. BrodieMs. Margo L. BurnhamMr.J.Creed ClaytonMs. Jane CoppockMs. Gillian T. DaviesMrs. Julia M. des RosiersMr. Timothy J. DonnayMs. Diane W. DuvaMr. James H.E. FosburghMr. Helmut GiebenMr.Anthony J. GordonMs. Jennifer GreenfeldMr. Mark J. HardingMs.Anne H. HarperMs. Ingrid O. HopkinsMs.Annette HuddleMs. Joan B. KelschMr. Edward Kennedy Jr.Mr. Michael B. KnappMs. Betsy W. LymanMrs.Anne S. MarshMs. Mary C. McConnellMr. Geoffrey McGeanMs. Sarah J. PickMr. Peter T. SchuylerMs. Leonora SheelineMs. Jennie Wood SheldonMr. Fernando Silva-CaraballoProfessor K. SivaramakrishnanMr. Richard D. SlomanMr. Richard L.WallaceMs. Carroll YandellClass of 1992Mr. Nicholas T. BennettDr.Anne E. BlackMr. Charles H. CollinsMs. Katherine K. FarhadianMs. Peyton C. GriffinMr. Lawrence D. JacobsMr. Mark S. JenMs. Maala Krishnadasan-AllenMs. Pamela LichtmanMs. Lisa K. LumbaoMr. Peter J. MailleMrs. Robin L. MailleDr. Peter A. PalmiottoMs. Susan C. PetersonMs. Joan Bresnan PopowicsMs. Elizabeth A. ReichheldDr. Mary RowenMs. Susanne SchmidtMr. James N. SheldonDr. Gary M. TaborMr. Staunton Williams Jr.Class of 1993Ms. Mary Christine AngeloMr. Por-Chiung ChouMr. Jonathan C. CookMs. Susan Helms DaleyMr. Charles H. DarmstadtMr.Andre Thomas EidMr. Erik C. EsselstynMr. Joshua G. FosterMrs. Katharine Elsom FrohardtMs. Molly G. GoodyearMr. Jeffrey F. GriffinMs. Lisa Christine GustavsenMrs. Kathleen M. HookeMr. Daniel H. HudnutMr. Thomas Joseph KalinoskyMs. Margaret C. Holliday KellyMr.William L. KennyMr. Dexter C. MeadMs. Lois L. MorrisonMr. John M. NorwoodMs. Sara L. St AntoineMs.Anita Van BredaMr. Bernard A.WeintraubMs. Margaret D.WilliamsMr. Jeremy S.WilsonMr. Timothy J.WohlgenantClass of 1994Mr. Oliver D. BartonMr. Matthew F. BlackMr. Thomas E. BrendlerMr. Mark T. BryerMs. Jane L. CalvinMs. Susan E. CarpenterMs. Eliza J. ClevelandDr. Marlene B. ColeMs. Elizabeth H. ConoverMr. Gregory D. CorbinMr. Javier L. DominguezDr.Amity A. DoolittleAMs.Anne Paddock DowneyMr. Charles T. EndersMs. Jessica L. EskowMs. Holly L. FerretteMr. Tad S. GallionMs. Catherine C. GarnettMr. David L. GoldblattMr. Richard D. HaleyMr.Alexis P. HarteMr. Mark D. HengenMs. Cynthia W. HenshawMs. Harriet B. HonigfeldMs. Lorraine M. HotzMr.A. Felton Jenkins IIIMr.William S. KeetonMr. Lars Erik KulleseidMs. Sherry R. LoginMrs. Elizabeth Hayes McGrawMr. Michael D. MoffatMr. Sean MurphyMr. Thomas Warren OstromMr. Morgan E. RobinsonMr.William A. Root IVMs. Tanya RubensteinMs. Colleen R. RushMs. Donna R. StaufferMr.William E. StevensonMs. Eileen Cates StoneMr. Graham L. TrelstadMs. Jane M.WhitehillMs. Jessica Bennett WilkinsonMr. Theodore G.WongClass of 1995Ms. Ellen Tarrant AikenheadMs. Kate A. BickertRichard L. Blaylock, Esq.Mr. Cecil A. BrownlowMr. Richard J. BucchieriMs. Nina I. Rooks CastMs. Karalyn L. Replogle ColopyAndrew B. Cooper, Ph.D.Ms. Lisa O. FernandezMs. Elizabeth J. Galli-NobleMs. Michelle Bonnie GottliebMs. Marie J. GunningMs. Kelly Ann HoganMs. Cassandra J. HopkinsMr. Johann Heinrich JessenMr. James Paul JilerMs.Wendy Brewer LamaMs. Lindsey Brace MartinezMs. Kimberlee Ann McDonaldMrs. Kerry Kaneda MeyerMr.Adam Robert MooreMr. Tetsuro MoriMs. Ciara M. O’ConnellMs. Suzanne Marie PelletierMr. Kent M. PierceMs. Jody Tait RowlandsDr. Jonathan L. ScheuerMs. Ilana Lynn SchoenfeldDr. James H. SpencerMs. Kristen Margaret SteckMs. Robin A.Wilcox-CabanosMs. Eve WittenClass of 1996Ms. Jennifer Thorne AmannMr. Thomas T. BallantineMr. Gary C. BarrettDr. Benjamin H. BeckerMr. Ronald C. CherryMs. Lisa M. ClarkMrs. Sharon K. CooperMr. Stephen V. DunnMr. Robert H. FitzgeraldMs. Paulette S. FrankMr. Nathan M. FrohlingMs. Elisabeth J. GrinspoonMr. John S. GunnMr. Derek E. HalbergMr. Christopher T. HansonMr. Jared J. HardnerMr. Philip B. HuffmanMr.William F. JosonMr. Jonas KarosasMr. Stephen P. KeimMs. Cami L. KlosterMr.William W. MartinAFall 2005 21

Honor Roll of SupportersMr. Edmond D. McCarthyMs. Dawn Greene NorchiMr. Matthew Jack NortonMr. Edmund E. PeckMs. Kristen PhelpsMs. Kathryn A. PipkinMr. Thomas A. Pokalski Jr.Ms.Anne K. ReynoldsMs. Kristin SaltonstallMr. Duncan M. SchmittMs. Kathleen M. SchomakerMs. Robin R. SearsMr. Brent L. SohngenMr. Edward M.WalshMr.Ward T.WickwireMs. Rhonda K.WilliamsMs. Luise A.WoelfleinClass of 1997Mrs. Nancy Osterweis AldermanMs. Shauna Alexander AMr. Jonathan Solomon BarronMs. Lori Audra BirdMr. Timothy William BishopMr. Todd Robert CampbellMr.H.Casey CordesMs. Ellen G. DennyMr. Keith Mark EisenstadtMr. Douglas Campbell ElliottMr. David Lee GaillardMr. David L. GaltMs. Namrita KapurMs. Kelly Jean KeefeMr. Praveen Gopaldas KhilnaniMr. Jonathan KohlMs. Jean E. Triol McLainMs. Sally Tinker MillikenMs. Tonja Sue OppermanMs.Astrid Ute PalmieriMr. David A.K. PinneyMr. Scott Frederick RehmusMr. Larry Richard RogeroMr.William G. StanleyMr. Jeffrey Scott StewartMs. Shana Willie StronginMr. Darius S. SzewczakMr. Dan G. UtechMr. Erik M.WohlgemuthMr. Peter Lawrence YollesClass of 1998Mr. Glenn Martin AllenMr. Manrique Rojas ArayaMs. Kimberly A. BaymillerMs. Nadine E. BlockMr. Peter A. CookMs. Claire M. CorcoranAMr.Antonio S. Del MonacoMr. Tomio DoiMs. Kira Sawchuk DrummondMs. Michelle G. ErnstMr. Todd A. ForrestMr. Timothy Clark Fritzinger AMr. Benjamin R. GardnerMr. Bruce W. HammondMr. Xinzhang HuMr.H.Bradley KahnJennifer R. Kefer, Esq.Mr. John KuriawaMr. Indah D. KusumaMs. Paula Jo LebowitzMr. Dirk LudwigMr. Elliot E. MainzerMs. Keely B. MaxwellMr.Andrei L. PodolskyMr. Evan L. PreisserMr.Andrew D. RichardsonMs. Elizabeth A. SaxtonMr. Nathan J. SmallwoodMr. Joseph L. TaggartMr. Christopher J.WilliamsClass of 1999Mrs. Kirsten Prettyman AdamsMs. Sarah R. BogdanovitchMs. Jenna Suzanne BorovanskyMr. Steven Edward BosakMs. Lena BrookMs. Stephanie L. CampbellMs. Elizabeth Bennett CarrollMs. Nicole Smith ChevalierMs. Katherine A. CooperMr. Drue Lemuel DeBerry IIIMr. Thomas C. DillonMr. Christopher B. EspyMs. Cristin Enelle FullerMr. Brett J. FurnasMs. Jennifer Megan GarrisonMs. Rebecca S. GratzRachel C. Hampton, Esq.Ms. Jennifer R. HeintzMr.Andre Thierstein HeinzMs. Erin L. HeitkampMr. Erik M. HellstedtMs. Megan Shane HellstedtMr. James Matthew LevyMs. Bonnie Joy MalloryMr. Noah Paul MatsonMr. Jonathan D. MeadeMs. Kathleen E. MillerMrs.Allyson MuthMr. Norris Zachary MuthMr. Eli Samuel SagorMr. Benjamin Jacob SilberfarbMs. Suganthi SimonMr. Stewart M. StewartMs. Laurel J. SteginaMr. Robert J. TierneyClass of 2000Ms. Monica ArayaMs. Julie Lyn BeaneMs. Joyce Kempner Berry AEric G.N. Biber, Esq.Ms.Valerie Clare BodetMs. Laura Mary DunleavyMs. Katherine Sye GroverMs. Shannon D. Heyck-WilliamsMs. Katherin Marie McArthurMs.Ashley Prout McAveyMs. Heather Joy McGrayMs. Carrie Ann MillerMs. Megan Kate MurphyMr. Michael David NewkirkMs.Anne Todd Osborn AMr. Jason Richard PatrickMr. Dylan T. Simonds ADr. Janet C. SturgeonMs.Alice Jane WalkerMr. Harry Edward WhiteMr. Scott Colby WilliamsClass of 2001Ms. Donna Duckjwa AnMr. Michael Anthony BenjaminMs. Cordalie BenoitMs. Marcela Beatriz BocchettoMr. Daniel Joseph ByrdMs. Kerry Michele CesareoMr.Adam Sebastian ChambersMr. Matthew Roberts ClarkMr. John Edward DalyMs. Mariana M. Du BrulMs. Mary Elizabeth FordMs. Catherine Claire GuimondMr. Scott Andrew HedgesMr. Peter John HillMr. Jesse D. JohnsonMr. Gregory C. JonesMs. Stephanie Hanna JonesMr. Christian F. KemosMr. Dong-Young KimMs. Pia Marili KohlerMs.Ashley Graves LanferMs. Heather Lorraine LangfordMs. Laura Lynne LetsonMr. Christopher Markley NyceMrs.Valerie F. O’DonnellMs. Michel Woodard OhlyMr. Robert Baxter PowellMs.Abigail Bagasao SarmacMs. Georgia N. 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PoppeMr. John Woods PotterAMr. Ramsay Michel RavenelMs. Madeleine Renee WeilMs. Corey Leslie WisneskiMr.Adam Robert WolfensohnMr. R. Zampierollo-RheinfeldtClass of 2003Mr. Ryan Meridan BennettMs. Nicole Leah BreznockMr. Charles Andrew BruntonMs. Olivia Chavonne CarpenterMr. Nathaniel Webster CarrollMr. Richard Jose ChavezMs. Heather Sy CoadyMs. Nancy Ann CothranMs. Daniela Francis CusackMs. Melanie Ann CutlerMr. Stephen Paul DettmanMr. Hoang Huu DinhMs. Katherine Lange Dolan AMr. Jason John DrebitkoMr. George Van DuzerMr. Brian S. GoldbergMs. Elizabeth Amy GordonMr. Oliver J. GranthamMs. Rebecca Marie JensenMs. Sunanda Kishore22ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies deceased A Sand County Society (gifts of $1,000 to $4,999)

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Gustave Speth Jr., Esq.Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Daily SusmanMr. Nelson S. TalbottMr. Stirling Tomkins Jr.Mr. Thomas R. Trowbridge IIIMr. Harry W.Walker IIMr.William D.Waxter IIIRobert H.WhitbyMr. Joseph H.WilliamsMr. Lee Wilson, Ph.D.Mr. Frank V.Wisneski Jr.James D.WolfensohnProfessor G. Lawrence ZahnCorporations,Foundations &OrganizationsAdvanced Micro DevicesAlternate Investment GroupBermingham FundCamp-Younts FoundationCharles FoundationThe Coca-Cola CompanyCommunity Foundation forGreater New HavenCompton FoundationConservation InternationalGorham and Joan CrossFoundationLarsson Danforth FamilyFoundationDFID, UK GovernmentGeraldine R. Dodge FoundationThe Dowling FoundationDoris Duke Charitable FoundationFidelity InvestmentsBetsy & Jessie Fink FoundationFletcher Asset ManagementThe Fletcher FoundationThe Ford FoundationForest Products Associationof CanadaFox Family Charitable FoundationTrustEvan Frankel FoundationGE FoundationThe Grainger FoundationMary W. Harriman FoundationVira I. Heinz FoundationThe Home DepotAlexander Host FoundationIKEAJewish Community EndowmentFundJohnson Family FoundationLeitner Family FoundationLiving Springs FoundationLostand FoundationLutak Lumber & SupplyMason Charitable TrustGordon and Betty MooreFoundationWilliam Morse AssociatesThe Curtis & Edith MunsonFoundationThe New York Community TrustNickel Development InstituteOpen Space InstituteOverhills FoundationPeople Insurance AssociatesPinchot Institute for ConservationReforest the TropicsRockefeller Brothers FundSafari Club InternationalFoundationThe San Francisco FoundationThe Dylan Todd SimondsFoundationSurdna FoundationEdna Bailey Sussman FoundationThe Nelson Talbott FoundationTrust for Mutual UnderstandingUnited Technologies CorporationUnited Way of Greater New HavenThe U.S. Trust Company ofNew YorkThe Weyerhaeuser CompanyLee Wilson & AssociatesWolfensohn Family FoundationWorld Agroforestry CentreWorld Business CouncilWorld Wildlife Fund-U.S.The Xerox FoundationYale Club of New HavenFall 2005 23

F&ES Conference Generates Agenda to AddressScience-Action Gap on Climate ChangeBy Daniel AbbasiAssociate DeanThe Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies exercised itsconvening capacity in early October on one of the great intellectual andpractical challenges of our time: the gap between science and action withrespect to the high-stakes issue of climate change.Despite credible forecasts and warnings from the scientificcommunity about climate change for over two decades, greenhouse gasemissions have continued to grow, signals of human-induced climatechange have begun to emerge and scientists studying the issue projectincreasingly adverse consequences unless stronger actions are taken.Public opinion polls, meanwhile, reflect significant awareness of climatechange, but also a striking lack of civic engagement and urgency toundertake meaningful action. Nor has the official governmentalresponse been commensurate with the scientific indicators.Against this backdrop, F&ES drew 120 top leaders and thinkers toAspen, Colo., from October 6 to 8 to engage in a set of candid, intensiveand not-for-attribution dialogues designed to diagnose the reasons forthe science-action gap and to fashion an action plan to help narrow it.The event drew high marks from the attendees for its innovativeworking-group format and its unusually diverse mix of participants,including former Vice President Al Gore; U.S. Congressman Jim Leach(R-Iowa); Reverend Richard Cizik of the National Association ofEvangelicals; Jim Rogers, chair, president and CEO of Cinergy andincoming chair of the Edison Electric Institute; Dick Wirthlin, formerPresident Reagan’s chief strategist; Cornelia Dean, New York Timesreporter; Jane Lubchenco and Stephen Schneider, prominent scientists;Reverend Barrett Duke of the Southern Baptist Convention; U.S. SenatorJohn Kerry (D-Mass.); Frances Beinecke, executive director of theNatural Resources Defense Council; Peter Seligmann, chair and CEO ofConservation International; and the presidents of many of the nation’sother major environmental organizations.In addition, 11 F&ES faculty members participated in pivotal rolessuch as working-group chairs, and nearly as many current and formerstudents served as skilled rapporteurs to help distill and report onthe findings.Each participant was assigned to one of eight working groups basedon their professional background: Science; News Media; Religion &Ethics; Politics; Entertainment & Advertising; Education; Business &Finance; and Environmentalists & Civil Society. On the first full day,1 2 3 4 57689101124ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studiessee page 26 for photo captions

1213 1415161718 1920conferees were asked to diagnose how the norms, incentives and institutionalconstraints operating in their respective professions have shapedtheir responses to the climate-change issue and, in turn, havecontributed to the science-action gap. Scientists, for example, identifiedstrong risks to career and reputation that tend to inhibit theiroutspoken engagement in the public realm on controversial issues likeclimate change.Participants then proceeded to generate dozens of ideas and initiativesto help close the gap, both through action within their respectiveprofessions and through new or enhanced collaborations across theseboundaries. On the second full day, the participants were shuffled intonew, mixed groups and asked to further refine and extend the actionitems from the prior day.Overarching themes included the recognition that communicatingscientific facts is not enough to motivate a societal response. Abstractissues like climate change need narrative packaging and often a humanface. Conferees explored, with the aid of leading social scientists such asJon Krosnick and Arthur Lupia, how cultural and religious values,partisanship and other filters affect the way individuals interpret andoften discount scientific information on climate change. This becomesespecially crucial regarding the complex and technical matterssurrounding climate change, where people necessarily rely on thetestimonials of others; in such cases, whom do they trust as messengersand why? Many conferees argued that climate change would onlygenerate a societal response once it was recast from a scientific issue to amoral or energy issue. Others underscored how important it is to recruitnew, nonenvironmentalist messengers and to strike new alliances on theissue, for example between religious and business leaders.F&ES is evaluating what role it might play in advancing therecommended actions, which were sparked by the diversity of viewsexpressed at the meeting rather than by a full consensus. They includedthe following:© for all photos❒ The Science group recommended the creation of a new bridginginstitution that would seek out business, religious, political and civicleaders and the media to deliver independent, reliable, comprehensibleand credible scientific information about climate change, unassociatedwith any advocacy agenda. The group also called for research prioritieson climate change to be reoriented so as to be more responsive todecision-making needs, with special emphasis on the timing ofprojected impacts and related solutions.❒ The News Media group recommended orchestration of a series ofmeetings and conferences whereby respected journalists and editorsinformed on climate change would speak to their peer editors. The groupmembers believe that this peer-to-peer approach would be moreeffective than communications conducted by scientists or environmentalists,since fellow editors could talk more credibly about story ideas andtheir craft and thereby provide guidance on how to cover climate changewith appropriate urgency, context and journalistic integrity.❒ The Religion & Ethics group called on their fellow religious leaders toacknowledge the scale and urgency of the climate-change problem andto reach deep into their membership to communicate the vital moralimperative of addressing it. In particular, they urged that seminaries andother religious-training institutions incorporate climate change intotheir curricula for new religious leaders and provide similar, ongoingeducation to current clergy.❒ The Education group recommended incorporation of climate-changecontent into K-12 curricula and teacher-certification standards (usingthe occasion of the 2007 review of the National Science EducationStandards), as well as into instructional technologies, devices andsoftware products, including video games and educational simulationssuch as SimCity.CONTINUED on page 26Fall 2005 25

F&ES Conference❒ The Business & Finance group composed an eight-principleframework and urged its dissemination to trade associations andindividual business leaders. These principles include analyzing anddisclosing financial risks and opportunities related to climate change;developing a companywide plan to address climate-change risks andopportunities; convening board-level sessions to inform and educateexecutives and members on climate change; requiring major suppliers toadopt principles for corporate engagement on climate change; andengaging in policy dialogue at the state, regional and national levels insupport of market-based, long-term reductions in greenhouse gasemissions, while limiting manipulation of scientific information.To request notification when the full report of recommendations isreleased, visit 222324 252627 282930 311 Steve Curwood, executive producer and host ofNational Public Radio’s Living on Earth program2 Richard Wirthlin, principal of Wirthlin Worldwideand pollster and strategist for former PresidentRonald Reagan3 Ellen Futter, president of the American Museumof Natural History4 Edward Skloot, executive director of theSurdna Foundation5 Stephen Kellert, F&ES Tweedy/Ordway Professor ofSocial Ecology6 Conferees during an hour-long hike; the Rockies arein the background.7 Auden Schendler, director of environmental affairs atthe Aspen Skiing Company; Brad Gentry, F&ESsenior lecturer in sustainable investments; andOs Schmitz, F&ES professor of population andcommunity ecology8 David Fenton, founder of the public relations firmFenton Communications; Kathy Katz; Judy Hill;Randall Katz, president and CEO of MilestoneEntertainment; and Jeff Burnside, a producer andreporter for WTVJ NBC 6 in Miami9 Strachan Donnelley, president of the Center forHumans and Nature; Rick Kroon, former managingpartner of the Sprout Group venture capital fund;and Fred Danforth, managing partner of SustainableLand Ventures10 Arthur Lupia, professor of political science at theUniversity of Michigan; Jon Krosnick, Frederic O.Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciences atStanford University; and Lisa Curran, F&ES associateprofessor of tropical resources26ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies11 Martin Kaplan, an attorney with Wilmer CutlerPickering Hale and Dorr LLP, and Eileen Claussen,president of the Pew Center on Global ClimateChange and Strategies for the Global Environment12 U.S. Congressman James Leach (R-Iowa)13 Linda Shi, an F&ES student rapporteur; John Wargo,F&ES professor of environmental risk analysis andpolicy; and Kelly Levin, a rapporteur and F&ESdoctoral candidate14 Hal Harvey, environment program director at theWilliam and Flora Hewlett Foundation; ClaraSchweiger; and Larry Schweiger, president andCEO of the National Wildlife Federation15 Mark Schwartz, former president and CEO of SorosFund Management, and Mindy Lubber, president ofCeres (Coalition for Environmentally ResponsibleEconomies)16 Virginia Lacey, F&ES student rapporteur; Betsy Fink;Ann Grodnik, F&ES student rapporteur; Daniel Esty,F&ES professor of environmental law and policy; andJesse Fink, president and CEO of Marshall StreetManagement17 Ellen Susman, producer and host of the weeklyHouston PBS program Superwoman Central;Stephen Susman, founder of the law firm SusmanGodfrey; Cynthia Brill, general counsel for VerifiedIdentity Pass; and Steven Brill, founder and CEOof Verified Identity Pass18 U.S. Senator John Kerry gives a talk at the PineCreek Cookhouse.19 Marian Chertow, F&ES assistant professor ofindustrial environmental management, andDean Speth20 Edward Bass (center), philanthropist21 Former Vice President Al Gore and Carl Knobloch,president and CEO of West Hill Investors22 Eugene Linden, freelance journalist and author;Jeff Burnside, a producer and reporter for WTVJNBC 6 in Miami; Jon Krosnick, the Frederic O.Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciencesat Stanford University; and Dean Speth were part ofthe News Media working group.23 James Rogers, chair, president and CEO of CinergyCorp., and Mindy Lubber24 Jessica Catto, president of Crockett StreetManagement; Dean Speth; Teresa Heinz, chair of theHoward Heinz Endowment and the Heinz FamilyPhilanthropies; and Associate Dean Daniel Abbasi25 Adam Wolfensohn, a New York-based producer ofenvironmental documentaries; Peter Seligmann,chair and CEO of Conservation International;Frances Beinecke, executive director of the NaturalResources Defense Council; and Susan Crown,principal of Henry Crown and Company26 John Scurci, principal of J. Scurci Co., and hisdaughter, Vanessa27 Timothy Wirth, president of the United NationsFoundation and Better World Fund28 Robert Repetto, F&ES professor in the practice ofeconomics and sustainable development, andEmily Knobloch29 Al Franken, host of The Al Franken Show on AirAmerica Radio30 Robert Edgar, general secretary of the NationalCouncil of the Churches of Christ in the USA31 William Ellis, an F&ES senior visiting fellow

Habitat Conservation Plans a Tonicfor an Endangered Endangered Species ActBy David SkellyProfessor of EcologyDuring more than three decades, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) has beenheralded as a revolutionary success and derided as ineffective or worse.While Americans are divided over this controversial law, it is difficult to findanyone who wants to reauthorize it in its present form. In 1998, then-Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt came to speak at Yale. His visit coincided with the lasttime that Congress was considering revising the law, and so I posed the questionto him,“How would you change the Endangered Species Act?” Babbitt responded thathe wouldn’t change a thing. At that time, as at the present, criticism of the ESA waswidely reported in the media, and there were calls to reduce protections. Babbittbelieved that the law contained enough latitude so that he could reform the way theDepartment of the Interior did business in ways that many thought would requireradical legislative revision.David Skelly© hshapiro8@aol.comBabbitt’s efforts succeeded in supplanting a large regulatory hammerencased in the ESA with an incentive-oriented initiative known asHabitat Conservation Plans (HCPs). HCPs are, in the simplest terms,contracts. Rather than being handed down by federal officials, they arewritten by those affected by the law: landowners, corporations and localand state governments. These entities are offered the opportunity topropose solutions that can allow commerce, development and otheractivities to coexist with conservation efforts. Planning is encouraged forany and all species, regardless of their conservation status. Once thefederal government approves an HCP, it is bound to its terms. If a revisionto the plan is deemed expedient, then the government must pay for it.Reform in the administration of the ESA has led to a groundswell oflarge-scale planning initiatives all over the United States. From the pineforests of the Southeast to the deserts surrounding San Diego,communities are taking proactive steps to create innovative plans thathave local support. Even better, results from the earliest HCPs show thatthey work. International Paper crafted an HCP for its Southlands Forestin Bainbridge, Ga. In just five years, the population of red-cockadedwoodpeckers, an endangered species, has increased from 5 to 50, allbecause the agreement removed the disincentive to let pine stands growuntil they were colonized by the birds. Comparable successes are beingrepeated all around the country.While we can credit Babbitt’s Department of the Interior with greatforesight, in truth they overhauled administration of the ESA partlybecause they had little choice. It was becoming increasingly difficult,even then, to list new species and even harder to enforce measures forpreviously listed species. To many people, endangered-species conservationwas beginning to look like just another form of governmentbullying. Today, even though much of the public believes that federalactions to conserve species and ecosystems are needed and important,they also want local input and control. Environmental groups can gnashtheir teeth at these sentiments, but they are a fact of our society. It is clearthat a functioning ESA will have to devolve some of the decision makingresponsibility to local interests.The success of HCPs shows that decentralization of planning, intelligentlyconceived, can work well. Continuing controversy surrounding theESA concerns not HCP planning processes, but rather species listing,critical habitat designation and recovery planning. Together, theseelements form the bedrock of the original ESA, providing an “emergencyroom” for species on the brink. However, there are good reasons to revisethese processes and, importantly, to change their relationship to largescaleplanning efforts like HCPs, which are aimed at avoiding listingrather than waiting for the inevitable to occur. Most biologists agree thatmeasures to avoid endangerment are more cost-efficient than efforts atrecovery. One explicit goal of a new ESA should be to provide incentivesto further initiatives, like HCPs, that will prevent the need to list speciesas threatened or endangered. It is also apparent that a new listing andrecovery planning process will be needed to break the paralysis-bylawsuitthat has plagued endangered-species conservation during thelast decade.Clearly, there is ample room for constructive debate and creativethinking. The way forward is not, however, to gut the ESA. There is broadsupport for conservation in the United States. People want effective andefficient mechanisms that can allow flexibility in reaching an agreedupongoal. All constituencies can agree that an ESA that providesincentives to avoid listing species and does not penalize responsiblecitizens is preferable to one that steps in only at the last moment and failsto prevent native species, elements of our national heritage, fromdisappearing. We are fortunate that in the last 20 years professionals andthe public have been working together to create better ways to reachconservation goals. Now is the time to put that newly gainedunderstanding to work. EYFall 2005 27

Research Points to Land Useas Likely Culprit of Frog DeformitiesBy Marc Wortman© hshapiro8@aol.comDavid Skelly, professor of ecology, holds a vialcontaining a frog with three hind legs.“I care about frogs,but the real issue ishuman health.”David SkellyIn 1996, Vermonters began seeing something unnerving in the ponds and wetlands near LakeChamplain. Large numbers of frogs were missing limbs and hopping about in circles. Surveys foundthat one in 10—and at some sites as many as four in 10—frogs within the 120-mile-long watershedwere missing limbs. A team of Yale scientists went wading through the streams, ponds and swampsto collect thousands of the frogs, searching for the cause of the problem. They now worry that notonly are large portions of the frog population struggling to survive, but also that the developmentalabnormalities could be an early warning sign of environmental hazards that may eventually proveharmful to humans.In the most exhaustive study ever undertaken of developmental malformations in amphibians,the Yale team’s findings point to chemical runoff from nearby agricultural lands as the likeliestsource of the problem. The study’s findings, published in the journal Environmental HealthPerspectives in November, contradict previous findings about the causes of amphibian developmentalabnormalities now being seen around the country. The study also raises concerns that theamphibians may be “animal sentinels,” much like the canaries that coal miners carried with them asliving sensors of rising carbon monoxide levels in the mines.Around for more than one hundred million years before dinosaurs first appeared, amphibians,including the 230 species in the United States, are among evolution’s hardiest vertebrates, havingsurvived numerous cataclysmic geological events. Amphibians reproduce in toxic stews that fewother vertebrates can tolerate, even in sewers and septic systems, and as long as water can be found,they can make it through the hottest summers and coldest winters.“Unlike canaries, frogs are prettymuch bulletproof,” said David Skelly, professor of ecology at F&ES, who led the team that collectedand the Vermont frogs. “Amphibians are not acutely sensitive to environmental insult.” And that iswhat worries him.Amphibians afflicted with developmental abnormalities have now been spotted in 44 states andCanada, according to NARCAM, the North American Reporting Center for AmphibianMalformation, which is now managed by the National Biological Information Infrastructure. Afterthe first important outbreak was seen in Minnesota in 1995, biologists concluded that a waterbornetrematode parasite, Ribeiroia ondatrae, not known to harm humans, appeared to be the likeliestculprit. Armed with a $2.1 million, five-year grant from the National Institutes of Health and theNational Science Foundation, Skelly led a team that began collecting frogs at some 40 sites within theLake Champlain watershed in western Vermont, starting an hour and a half from New Haven andextending northward nearly to the Canadian border.“We found deformities up and down the state,”he said.What they did not find was Ribeiroia.Bringing Epidemiology to the SwampThe study of the frogs forged an unusual Yale collaboration between Skelly,“the muddy-boots-goout-and-get-the-frogsguy,” as he described himself, and Peter Rabinowitz, a physician “with thestethoscope hanging on the door.” Rabinowitz, an associate professor of medicine in theOccupational and Environmental Medicine section of the School of Medicine’s Department ofInternal Medicine, spends most of his time investigating human health problems associated with theworkplace environment. However, he has also been studying animal die-offs and abnormalities asprecursors to impending human health problems.Rabinowitz has developed an online database to collect studies linking animal health to humanhealth ( The fast-accumulating studies indicate the growing interest inanimal sentinels, such as the dead crows that have presaged human cases of neurologic encephalitis28ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

© hshapiro8@aol.comPeter Rabinowitz, associate professor of medicine in theYale School of Medicine.“We’re not surewhat the exactsource of theproblem could be.”Peter Rabinowitzfrom West Nile virus. And there are growing concerns about avian influenzaviruses found in chickens that are spreading to humans. “We pay moreattention now because of infectious diseases,” he said, “but there are lots ofpast examples related to toxins.”One of the most famous animal sentinel cases preceded the rash ofhorrific human birth defects in Japan resulting from the consumption ofmercury-laced fish from the Minamata Bay in the 1950s and 1960s. Peopledisregarded the large numbers of fish-consuming cats that became ill wellbefore human birth defects began to appear.“There’s always a danger in notpaying enough attention to what these events are telling us,” Rabinowitzcontended, “and also in overreacting. But it’s worth spending adequateresources to study them because they may be important for animal andhuman health.”With Brynn Taylor, a student in the joint master’s degree program inenvironmental management and public health, the team applied epidemiologicaltechniques to the study of possible risk factors associated withmalformations being seen in the Vermont frog population. Skelly’s lab systematically collected frogs,a total of nearly 6,000 specimens. The team also used geological and land-use maps to survey thesurroundings for houses, farms, lawn and agricultural chemical applications and septic systemswithin 200 meters that could be contaminating water at the collection sites.Their approach included epidemiological statistical methods that Rabinowitz would typicallyapply to public health studies. They sorted through and weighed the many environmental andbiological variables that might play a role in the developmental malformations.Because predators can mutilate frog limbs, any animal with evidence of trauma was immediatelyeliminated from the study. They then considered the most widely held hypothesis, the presence ofRibeiroia, which can prevent the formation of or truncate limbs by blocking their development. Thegroup examined the skins of the remaining frogs for cysts, and dissected the animals for otherevidence of Ribeiroia. None was found. Additionally, snails known to serve as a host for part of thetrematode’s life cycle were collected from the ponds and studied. Again, Ribeiroia was not found.“The parasite,”said Skelly,“simply isn’t part of the picture. It has to be something else.”Looking for a CauseAfter all the variables were studied individually and together, Skelly said, “The only thing thatpopped out was the presence of agriculture.” Further research is needed to identify what chemicalsmight be included in the agricultural runoff, but pesticides are widely applied on the cornfields thatare a staple of Vermont dairy farms. The scientists also cannot yet explain why the amphibiandevelopmental abnormalities arise in Lake Champlain watershed areas adjacent to agriculturallands but not in other New England areas similarly situated.“We’re not sure what the exact source of the problem could be,” said Rabinowitz, “but the toxinhypothesis should continue to be explored.”Richard Levey, an aquatic biologist charged by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources tooversee frog abnormality studies, said other factors might be affecting the developing frogs’environment, including water pockets with varying temperatures and nutrient levels that can affectfrog skeletal development.The potential for any future public health risk remains uncertain. Levey said the sites where thefrogs have been found are not near human water supply sources or where people swim. Skelly hopesto study possible genetic factors underlying the malformed limbs. “If we know which genes areinvolved,” he said,“perhaps we can figure out if they’re being influenced by environmental exposureto toxins.”For now, the research team does not know if the frog limb malformations are merely a tragedy forthe amphibians and a threat to biodiversity, or if they might be a canary in a water-filled coal mine.“I care about frogs,”said Skelly,“but for most of the public, the real issue is human health.” EYFall 2005 29

AT THE SchoolYale Study Examines Criteria Used to Set GlobalConservation AgendaA study that examines the scientific criteria used by conservationorganizations to set global forest conservation priorities has beenpublished by researchers at the Yale Global Institute of SustainableForestry.The report, Protecting Biodiversity: A Guide to Criteria Used by GlobalConservation Organizations, examines the global conservation planningapproaches utilized by five conservation organizations, includingConservation International, the World Wildlife Fund and The NatureConservancy. Its aim is to enable industry, policy makers, environmentalnongovernmental organizations, scientists and others to work togetherwith greater understanding, and to guide decisions about which areas toprioritize for conservation.“This report is going to serve as an excellent resource for land managersas they develop local strategies to conserve biodiversity on their land,” saidDean Speth. “The fact that we were asked to conduct the study suggeststhat industry is interested in working collaboratively with the conservationcommunity. It is encouraging from the standpoint of sustainability.”The F&ES researchers found that while the various approaches aredistinct, they share many scientific underpinnings, techniques andrecommendations, such as the need to focus on vulnerable and uniqueareas. Furthermore, a significant level of collaboration exists among theorganizations, resulting in many of the same global regions beingidentified as high priority: the Tropical Andes, the Atlantic forest regionof eastern Brazil, Mesoamerican forests, the Philippines, Madagascarand most of Indonesia.In response to high worldwide deforestation rates and dramaticspecies decline, conservationists have been joined by a broad array ofstakeholders in stressing the importance of protecting habitats,including forests, to maintain biological diversity, preserve ecologicalfunctions and ensure sustainable forest management. “The forestproducts industry, in particular, has taken a growing interest inintegrating ecological factors into management decisions and placingincreasing emphasis on scientifically based and ecologically sensitiveforest management,” according to the report’s authors, Mary Tyrrell,executive director of the Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry,Elizabeth Gordon, program director for the Yale Program on ForestCertification, and Oscar Franco, a candidate for a master’s degree inenvironmental management.The study was commissioned by the American Forest & PaperAssociation, the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement andthe Forest Products Association of Canada. The full report is part of theF&ES Publication Series, which is edited by Assistant Dean JaneCoppock, and is available at, as wellas Foundation Grant to Develop EnvironmentalLeadership in AmazonThe Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation has awarded the YaleEnvironment Management Center a $1.5 million grant to support thejoint master’s degree program of the Yale School of Management and theYale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.The joint master’s degree is a three-year program through whichstudents earn both an M.B.A. and a master of environmentalmanagement degree. The program prepares students to be adept atworking in the increasingly interconnected realms of business andenvironment by combining training in environmental science withtraditional leadership and management skills. Established in 1982, it isthe oldest program of its kind in the country.The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funds organizations whosework supports global environmental conservation, science and the SanFrancisco Bay area. The grant received by the Yale EnvironmentManagement Center is part of the foundation’s Andes-Amazon Initiativewithin its environment program. The initiative finances and coordinatesactivities that contribute to biodiversity conservation in the Andes-Amazon region.The grant will fund tuition, fees, stipends and summer fellowshipsfor six joint-degree students. Students who receive these scholarshipswill commit to working in the biodiversity conservation field in SouthAmerica for at least three years following graduation. The grant willalso support visiting scholars or practitioners from the Andes-Amazonregion who are engaged in environment or biodiversity conservationissues. Their work at Yale will help them develop short courses andjoint-degree programs in environmental management when theyreturn home.“The students and faculty who benefit from this grant will leave Yalewith the skills to make a difference in a region that contains some of themost critical ecosystems in the world,” said Garry Brewer, Ph.D. ’70,director of the Yale Environment Management Center and the FrederickK. Weyerhaeuser Professor of Resource Policy and Management.“Whether they conduct scientific research in protected habitats, managean area nongovernmental organization or create a local educationprogram, their efforts will have a global impact.”The grant will be administered over five years beginning in the 2006-2007 academic year. For more information on the joint master’s degreeprogram, visit Forinformation about the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and theirAndes-Amazon Initiative, visit The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

AT THE SchoolF&ES Professor Receives Research AwardPete Raymond, assistant professor of ecosystem ecology, has receivedthe Estuarine Research Federation’s 2005 Cronin Award for EarlyAchievement for significant career accomplishments.“The Cronin Award is awarded to an estuarine scientist who hasshown great promise in his or her work that is carried out six years afterobtaining a doctorate,” said Linda Schaffner, president of the EstuarineResearch Federation. “We are pleased to recognize and honor thebreadth and interdisciplinary nature of Professor Raymond’s researchinterests, the quality of his publications, his teaching accomplishmentsand the impact he has had on the field of coastal ecology.”Raymond’s research examines how climate and land-use changeaffect the amount of carbon transferred to rivers from the continents.This work will be an important step toward allowing researchers toclose the carbon budget in rivers, estuaries and the coastal oceanworldwide. Raymond currently works on East Coast and Arctic riversand estuaries; his research is funded by the Hudson River Foundationand the National Science Foundation.Raymond has been involved in many studies designed to establishthe role of rivers and estuaries in the carbon budget of coastalecosystems. His Ph.D. and postdoctoral work on the York River inVirginia and the Parker River in Massachusetts were some of the first touse 14 C, a radioactive isotope used for carbon dating, to determine themajor flows of carbon in East Coast estuaries.Since arriving at Yale, he has been working to determine how old rivercarbon is, and if there is a relationship between the age of carbon and itsavailability to riverine bacteria. He has also has been collaborating withresearchers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at ColumbiaUniversity to develop methods to accurately measure the air-waterexchange of carbon dioxide in rivers and estuaries.Raymond has authored or co-authored 16 papers, with one publishedin Science,one in Nature and three in Estuaries.A 2003 study, conductedby Raymond and researchers at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies inMillbrook, N.Y., and published in Science, suggested that inorganiccarbon export from agricultural lands might offset some of theproposed carbon sequestration due to reforestation.Raymond holds a doctorate from the Virginia Institute of MarineScience, College of William and Mary. He joined the faculty of the YaleSchool of Forestry & Environmental Studies in 2002, after completingpostdoctoral fellowships at the Marine Biological Laboratory’sEcosystems Center and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.Journal of Industrial Ecology Special Issue Focuseson ConsumptionThe environmental impact of what we buy and use, which isincreasingly drawing the attention of businesses, governments andconsumers, is analyzed in new and important ways in a special issue ofthe Journal of Industrial Ecology.“The research in this special issue is a striking advance,” said DeanSpeth.“It takes the understanding of consumption and the environmentwell beyond the platitudes and bromides that have dominated previousdiscussions by exploring the role of consumption in a systematic andquantitative way.”Articles in the special issue examine the ways in which everydaydecisions about diet, work, housing size, leisure and quality of life cansignificantly alter consumption patterns at the household, city andnational levels. The resulting environmental impact of theseconsumption patterns is analyzed using the tools of industrial ecology.“This special issue demonstrates the power of industrial ecology,”saidReid Lifset, editor in chief of the journal.“Techniques that lie at the coreof this field, such as materials flow analysis, lifecycle assessment andinput-output analysis, help us to understand much better the pivotal roleconsumption plays in shaping the quality of our environment.”Using these techniques, journal contributors analyzed water use inChina, energy use in Sweden and the “export” of environmental impactsin the Netherlands. Other articles examine the strategies used byadvocacy groups to influence global production and consumption, therisks to consumers from exposure to scented products and theconsequences of the “rebound effect”—the possibility that reducedpurchase of one set of products can lead to increased consumption ofother goods and services, with their attendant environmental effects.The research represents a broadening of the scope of environmentalconcern, which has traditionally focused on the impact of productionrelatedactivities such as emissions from factory smokestacks.Edgar Hertwich, professor in the Department of Energy andProcess Engineering and director of the Industrial EcologyProgramme at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology,served as guest editor. The Garfield Foundation and the UnitedNations Environment Programme provided funding for the issue.The articles in the special issue are available for free download at EYFall 200531

ClassNotes1942CLASS SECRETARY:HAMLIN WILLISTONwilliston@watervalley.netS. Gayley Atkinson continues to play golf and takethe courses necessary to maintain his status as aPennsylvania certified forester.Mel Chalfen enjoys the piano and painting, but sayshe has virtually retired. He is ever-willing to talk ofthe good old days of his youth, some of which werespent in the forests of northern Idaho and the pineywoods around Crossett,Ark.Ben Eggeman did not finish all the course workneeded for a degree in forestry, but had a career as aNaval Officer, retiring with the rank of captain. Herecalls with fondness his days spent with the class inthe woods at Union, Conn., in the summer of 1940,and the Wednesday field trips with Pop Hawley.John Gray moved into an assisted living facility onSeptember 1. He has a new address and phonenumber that are available through the F&ES AlumniAffairs office.Bill Guttentag reports from Florida that with airconditioning, they no longer need to go north forthe summer.Dick Jorgensen reported that he has had a hipreplacement, and thoroughly recommends theprocedure.Bonnie MacKnight, who was married to SidMacKnight for 62 years, passed away on February28. Sid continues to live in Skylake, Ga., where he cancall upon his extended family of 44.Bob Martin says he is in poor health, and has justhad a pig valve substituted in his heart.Dick West was the recipient of the Sal Vuocolo Awardpresented by the New Jersey Forestry Association foroutstanding contributions to forestry in New Jersey.Dick was a driving force in the organization anddevelopment of the association, serving on its boardfor many years and as president from 1986 through1993. Dick also remains active in the Monroe CountyShade Tree Commission as chair of the finance andlandscape committees.In May, Ham Williston suffered a mild heart attack.Despite this, Ham and Elizabeth went to NewHampshire in July to celebrate their 60th weddinganniversary with all four of their children and theirspouses, and six of the grandchildren.194660th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARIES:PAUL BURNS pyburns@lycos.comDAVID SMITH david.m.smith@yale.eduPaul Burns writes from Baton Rouge, La.:“I survived Hurricane Katrina, with little damage tomy home. I am hosting two refugees from NewOrleans. Dave Smith, Ph.D. ’50, and I, along withEd Adelberg, Ph.D. ’43, have exchanged World WarII memoirs.We three were in the first year of a twoyearM.F. program at Yale when World War II began,and in March 1942 we enrolled in an Army weatherofficer training program at New York University.Afterbrief service in the United States, each of us wentoverseas to different locations—Dave to North Africaand Italy, Ed to the Pacific Theater, and I to Englandand the Continent. Ed became a major and was theinspector for the entire Pacific area; Dave waspromoted to captain and served in Italy as staffweather officer in the headquarters of the 15th AirForce and for the 370th Fighter Group; and I was acaptain at the end of the war.We were delighted to bereleased from active military duty and to resume ourstudies at Yale: Dave and I in forestry and Ed inmicrobiology.”Carl Hupman, who died in 2003, was memorializedby the Center for Sustainable Forestry at Pack Forestat the University of Washington—4,300 acres ofgreen-certified, working forestland located at the footof Mount Rainier—with the naming of HupmanCreek. The announcement appeared in the center’sMay/June 2005 newsletter, with a map of HupmanCreek’s course through the forest.1947CLASS SECRETARY:EVERT JOHNSONswede-doc@mindspring.com1948CLASS SECRETARY:FRANCIS CLIFTON fhcpbyfor@webtv.netGeorge Hindmarsh writes:“Still a trail and boatguide volunteer for Charlotte Harbor. Just back fromGeorgia and family reunion to see grandson, Dannie,who is in Air Force Para Rescue, marry his highschool sweetheart. It was great to see all five kids, plusmost of the grandchildren. Best regards.”Hap Mason writes:“I have been working with BillHull of Hull Forest Products in Pomfret Center, Conn.,on establishing a biomass generating plant, burningonly virgin wood in my town,Russell,Mass.Unfortunately an element of the environmentalcommunity has been opposing the operation on thegrounds that it will greatly pollute the atmosphere. Ifany alumni have thoughts or hard evidence on thesubject, we would be happy to have them.”1949CLASS SECRETARY:FRANK ARMSTRONGfarmst1037@aol.com1950CLASS SECRETARY:KENNETH CARVELL1951kencarvell@aol.com55th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:PETER ARNOLD arnoldp@nccn.netLester Bradford has retired to Mt.Vernon,Wash.,from his long career as an agricultural missionary inAfrica and the Ukraine. Recently he attended a familyreunion in Maine and met his classmate and brotherin-law,Jerry Fitzgerald.1952CLASS SECRETARY:MILTON HARTLEYredheded@olympus.net1953CLASS SECRETARY:STANLEY GOODRICH slmygood2@cox.net1954CLASS SECRETARY:RICHARD CHASE RAChase@aol.com195650th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:JACK ROSE jackrose@iopener.net1958CLASS SECRETARY:ERNEST KURMESernest.kurmes@nau.edu1959CLASS SECRETARY:HANS BERGEY hberg16@aol.com1960CLASS SECRETARY:JOHN HAMMER jgham@bulloch.comGreg Brown writes:“I retired from Virginia TechUniversity in late October 2004 as dean of the Collegeof Natural Resources, and am now living in Fairview(a suburb of Asheville), N.C. My wife and I areenjoying the natural beauty of the area and the manyavailable activities. Since receiving my doctorate fromDuke University in 1963, I have worked at the OakRidge National Lab and five universities, having beenin academic administration during the last coupledecades of my career. I have five children and eightgrandchildren, and my wife, Laura, has two childrenand three grandchildren. This gives us a birthday onthe average of once every three weeks. I’m currentlyretaining some professional involvement with theFriends of the Blue Ridge Parkway Board, the USFS,Fall 2005 33

ClassNotesthe USDA-CSREES and some private boards. Someof these activities provide me an excuse to get awayfrom home renovation and landscaping projectsshared with my wife. I have returned to Yale onoccasion for a visit, particularly when I was at theUniversity of Maine.”Peter Huberth is a consulting forester in Juneau,Alaska.196145th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:ROGER GRAHAM1962CLASS SECRETARIES:JAMES LOWE JR.LARRY SAFFORDlsaffordnh@earthlink.net1963CLASS SECRETARY:JAMES BOYLE jim.boyle@orst.edu1965CLASS SECRETARY:JAMES HOWARD jhoward@sfasu.edu196640th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:HOWARD DICKINSON JR.1967CLASS SECRETARY:ROBERT HINTZE bclues@aol.com1968CLASS SECRETARY:GERALD GAGNEGerald.gagne@sympatico.ca1969CLASS SECRETARY:DAVIS CHERINGTON cheringvt@aol.com1970CLASS SECRETARY:WHITNEY BEALS wbeals@neforestry.orgBill Lansing has written a well-illustrated book,Seeing the Forest for the Trees, about the history andevolution of the Menasha Forest Products Corp.,which started in Wisconsin in 1850 and has been inCoos Bay, Ore., since 1905. Bill became a field foresterfor the company after Yale, and is now its presidentand CEO. It has now spun off most of its mills thatwere concerned almost exclusively with the intensivemanagement of its 100,000 acres of forests in Oregonand Washington.F&ES Professors Chad Oliver ’70, Ph.D. ’75,andFlorencia Montagnini participated in the XXII WorldCongress of the International Union of ForestResearch Organizations (IUFRO),“Forests in theBalance: Linking Tradition and Technology,”in Augustin Brisbane, Queensland,Australia, with over 2,500scientists from all over the world, including manyF&ES alumni.At this congress, Jeff Burley ’62,Ph.D. ’65, received honorary membership in IUFRO.Among his many services, Jeff had been on the boardof directors of IUFRO for the past 25 years.As Jeff putit,“Can you believe they gave me this award just to getme off the board?”Chad gave a presentation on “A Working Definition ofSustainable Forestry and Means of Achieving It atDifferent Spatial Scales,”while Florencia presentedcollaborative research on two topics:“EnvironmentalBenefits of Agroforestry Systems: CarbonSequestration,”with P. K. R. Nair, and “DiversifyingFunctions of Planted Forests and Forests in the GlobalBalance—Changing Paradigms,”with M.Varmola, D.Gautier, D. Lee and J. Saramäki. On the third day of thecongress, Chad and Florencia held an F&ES alumnireception attended by Keith Jennings along with,among others, Jeff Burley; Matt Kelty ’81, Ph.D.’84; Heidi Asbjornsen ’93, D.F.E.S. ’99; ToralPatel ’92, D.F.E.S. ’01; Gerard Schreuder, Ph.D.’68; Richard Guldin ’76, Ph.D. ’79; Jan Volney’72; Ian Ferguson ’63, Ph.D. ’67;and LauraSnook ’80, D.F. ’93.Prior to the congress Bryan Petit ’03 and Florenciaparticipated in a workshop at Southern CrossUniversity in Lismore, New South Wales, where theypresented an article on their work in La Selva, CostaRica:“Productivity in Pure and Mixed Native SpeciesPlantations in Central America.”After the congress,Chad met with Ron Wilson ’71 in Brisbane and gavea presentation at the annual dinner at the New SouthWales Division of the Institute of Foresters ofAustralia. The talk was titled “Short Rotation Forestry:A Great Investment or Another Enron?”197135th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:HAROLD NYGREN tnygren@juno.com1972CLASS SECRETARY:RUTH HAMILTON ALLENruth.allen@aehinstitute.comGary Drobnack had an impromptu reunion inSeattle early in May when Keshab Pradhan ’68visited from Sikkim. The other alums who attendedwere Sandy Bill ’67, Gordon Enk ’67, Bob Ellis’68 and Katherine Bill ’00 (a third-generationF&ES alum), as well as family members. Many of theattendees, including Katherine, had a much-earlierreunion in Sikkim at the foot of Mt. Kachenjunga inthe Himalayas, when Gary and Bob worked forWeyerhaeuser in Indonesia.Paul H.S. Van Zyl reported in from South Africa,where he is a medical practitioner and has threechildren—Paul Jr., Brand and Luna. He wasappointed a professional officer in the Department ofForestry, serving in the Ministry of Water Affairs andForestry, the wood utilization section (managingsawmills), the nature conservation section(demarcating wilderness areas) and the forestrecreation section (planning the National Hiking WaySystem). drphvanzyl@gpnet.net1973CLASS SECRETARY:LAUREN BROWN leb481@aol.comClyde Cremer writes:“I am still in the log homebusiness. The economy has been slow since the 9/11attack, but it will surely get better. The family is fine,with both children in college. Gail and I are working tokeep up our end of the tuition payments, books, cars,etc. Gail teaches in a youth prison, so she will never bewithout a captive audience! In March 2004, I traveledto Europe with two other history buffs to visit thebattlefields. On our way out from the Paris airport, wevisited Melos Jovic and his wife, Ellen. Melos gave usthe tour of the Aga Khan’s high-value estate nearChantilly, France. It was a great tour of this land,which is under intensive silvicultural practices.Afterlunch at a great restaurant on the Oise River, wetraveled to the Argonne Forest with a metal detector.We uncovered two H.E. Howitzer projectiles fromWorld War I, and managed not to get turned into pinkmist! My grandmother’s cousin was killed in Argonneand I am doing research on him for a possible book.I might add that this type of hands-on research is90 percent boredom and 10 percent sheer terror!”Dix Leeson has left the development staff atthe Harvard Business School to become seniordevelopment officer at Babson College, a highlyranked undergraduate and graduate businessschool in Wellesley, Mass.1974Liz Mikols writes:“Our class lost a dear friend andthe school one of its biggest boosters with the passingof Jim Rogers on October 22 (see obituary, page 48).Having graduated from Yale College the year before hecame to the school, Jim exposed us to Greater Yale andenriched our experience in New Haven. His life’s workcombined economics with the environment, the socialwith the hard sciences, and ethics with productivity.He traveled to far-flung outposts: Eastern Europe, theGalapagos and China, as well as Love Canal and thebrownfields of New Jersey, to heal damaged localenvironments.We will miss you, Jim, and your abilityto bring out the best in us and to spur us to action,your infectious belly laugh, your encyclopedicknowledge of philosophy to phylogeny, the lyrics to allthose Irish songs, your boundless enthusiasm andlove for people.You never knew a stranger, and youbrought all of us into your circle of light and34ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

optimism. True to the end, Jim asked that, in lieuof flowers for his funeral service, people sendcontributions to the Yale School of Forestry &Environmental Studies. Boola, Boola, dear friend.Several of us are working to set up a memorialscholarship fund in Jim’s name.For more information, visit”1975Audrey Hoffer writes:“I had a fabulous time at thereunion and thank you for making it such a specialaffair. I had a great time with my ’75 friends. Neverbefore have I experienced the sensation or emotionsof seeing people I once knew but hadn’t seen in 30years. It was incredible! I loved the sessions and talks.Dinner conversation at the Class of 1975 and Friendstable was great, and the field trip was out of thisworld. That alone brought my time there back to mindand reminded my why I went to F&ES in the firstplace. Though it’s not my actual profession, I’m stillreally interested in knowing the names of all thosetowering trees and tiny flowers that form a carpetunderfoot, and how and why the white pine stand waspruned. Thanks very much for everything. Hope tosee you again soon.”197630th Year Reunion.Sven Hultman writes:“I retired as manager of theUppland Foundation for Nature Conservation andOutdoor Recreation in Uppsala, Sweden. Since then Ihave been happily busy doing consultant work on twoof my old favorite issues: interpretation and healththrough nature contact. For the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency, I produced areport called A Path to Nature, which gives advice tothe agency on how it should act to develop betterenvironmental/nature interpretation. Now I am busywith issues concerning health and nature—specifically,advising the regional county council on how tointroduce therapeutic horticulture, and moregenerally, using nature contact to improve health. Iwas a member (and chair for a period) of Uppsala’sfirst carpool. It has existed for some 10 years andworks well. Our National Highway Authority is nowinvolved in spreading information on how to start andrun carpools.All federal agencies are obliged to workin their sector of interest to reach the nationalenvironmental goals set by Congress. The NationalAssociation for Interpretation has arranged its firstinternational conference for May 1 to 5 in San Juan,Puerto Rico. Heritage interpretation has been one ofmy main interests for some decades, so it would befun to take part.”1977CLASS SECRETARY:JAMES GULDIN jguldin@prodigy.netClassNotes1978CLASS SECRETARIES:SUSAN CURNAN curnan@brandeis.eduMARIE MAGLEBY lomamag@aol.comREGINA ROCHEFORTregina_rochefort@nps.govJeff Cassis writes:“I’ve shifted a bit from environmentalengineering and science after leaving CampDresser and McKee in 1986, and moved into thesemiconductor software automation industry. Mydaughter, Caitlin, is 23, just graduated from ColbyCollege, and is now at Harvard. My son, Connor, isstudying biomechanical engineering at Tufts, and mywife keeps busy with clinical social work andvolunteer work in the Boston area. I have worked forBrooks Automation in the software division for thepast 12 years and have enjoyed setting up ouroperations in China this past year. My real passion isthe 20-year restoration project on my 1815 FederalColonial home in the Boston area. I still play soccer inan over-the-hill men’s league—the body is stillholding together.” jeff.cassis@brooks.comLuke Umeh writes:“On retirement from the AfricanDevelopment Bank, I set up a consultingagriculture/environmental firm. Since all themembers of my family are in the United States, I visitat least twice a year. I plan to come to part of thealumni weekend if I know the dates.Very warmregards.” ifyumeh@hotmail.com1979CLASS SECRETARY:JOHN CAREY carey@aya.yale.edu1980CLASS SECRETARY:SARA SCHREINER-KENDALLsara.kendall@weyerhaeuser.comKen Olson addressed the 33rd Commencement ofCollege ofthe Atlantic,Bar Harbor,Maine,on June 4after receiving an honorary M.Phil. degree in humanecology for his contributions to conservation. OfOlson’s 30 years in nonprofits, he served 20 as chiefexecutive of three natural-resource organizations—The Nature Conservancy of Connecticut,AmericanRivers and Friends of Acadia. He will enter a workingretirement in early 2006.Laura Snook was at Oxford early this year workingup the results of her recent studies in tropical forests.In May, she went to Rome to start as the new directorof the Programme for Understanding and ManagingBiodiversity of the International Plant GeneticResources Institute.198125th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARIES:FRED HADLEY Mrm@evansville.netCAROL YOUELL envstew@snet.netAnn H. Clarke, D.F.E.S. ’92,writes:“I have beenthe executive officer to NASA’s chief scientist for thepast year. Due to a reorganization and downsizing inresponse to the new Vision for Space Exploration andplans for returning to the Moon and traveling to Mars,I am moving into strategic investments, whichoversees preparation of the NASA strategic plan tocarry out the vision.A new discipline, called discoveryscience, is in the President’s science advisor’spriorities. Discovery science involves flexibility inresearch design and infrastructure, so that as weexplore space (through human and robotic means)and discover new information, we can adjust researchplans to delve deeper into the particular topic whileon a mission.”Mark Plotkin was named one of 35 “People WhoHave Made a Difference”in the November issue ofSmithsonian magazine.Also included on the list areDavid Attenborough, Bill Gates,Wynton Marsalis, SallyRide and Steven Spielberg, among others. Mark was citedfor his work as an ethnobotanist with shamans—tribalelders who use plants for healing—in Suriname inspreading the practice of herbal medicine amongrainforest inhabitants. Convinced that rainforest conservationwasn’t going to succeed without the fullparticipation of indigenous people, he and his wife,Liliana Madrigal, founded the Amazon ConservationTeam (ACT), a nongovernmental organizationheadquartered in Arlington,Va., to create suchpartnerships.ACT has started a program, Shamans andApprentices, which helps healers share medicinalknowledge with tribal members of the next generation.1982CLASS SECRETARIES:BARBARA HANSON ForestsRUs@aol.comKENNETH OSBORNforstman@fidalgo.netBarb Hanson reports:“Jim Colla and I are still inCoeur d’Alene. Jim is with a forestry consulting firm,and I’m still with the Forest Service.We seem to be inConnecticut quite a bit for family affairs, and now ouroldest son is at the Coast Guard Academy. Ourdaughter just started high school, and our youngestboy is in fourth grade.We see Rick Weyerhaeuser’83 periodically, and Sandy Blinstrubas and I try toget together regularly, but it’s usually way too longbetween visits.”Tom Jacob is returning to the West Coast withDuPont.“As of September 1, I have begun a transitionfrom managing DuPont’s relations with the incrediblydynamic world of intergovernmental policy to a newrole managing DuPont’s relations with what manyregard as the most dynamic government in the UnitedStates—California. I will be responsible forFall 2005 35

ClassNotesestablishing a new DuPont government affairs officein Sacramento, with responsibility for stategovernment affairs in California and nine otherwestern U.S. states. Daughters Kristin and Erin arenow grown and living in Seattle,Wash., andChesapeake City, Md., respectively.” Tom and Sue Ellenare moving to the Sacramento area in November fromWilmington, Del. Krumenaker, National Park Service superintendentof Apostle Islands National Lakeshore innorthern Wisconsin, writes that he had the honor ofhosting the dedication ceremony for the nation’snewest wilderness area on August 8.After 10,000public comments over the past three years and aformal study written largely by Michael Rees ’78,with an unprecedented 99 percent public support,Congress established the Gaylord Nelson Wildernesslast December. The wilderness area covers 80 percentof the land area of the national lakeshore, and isnamed for the former Wisconsin senator andgovernor, who was the father of Earth Day.Unfortunately, Senator Nelson died just five weeksbefore the ceremony at age 89. His daughter, TiaNelson, spoke eloquently of her father’s legacy and histears of joy when he learned that the wilderness billhad passed. The dedication, attended by well over 300people, became a poignant celebration of SenatorNelson’s life, and was probably the biggest event in thepark’s history.Wisconsin Governor Jim Doyle, U.S.Senator Russ Feingold, Congressman Dave Obey andYale environmental historian William Cronon,Ph.D. ’90, also spoke at the event.“The passion,commitment and pride were tangible. This wasno doubt the proudest moment of my career,”Bob writes.An outstanding essay by Bill Cronon onthe paradox and opportunity of wilderness in theApostles, a richly historical as well as naturallandscape, is at Bob can be reached Wommack and Gro Flatebo are living inBrisbane,Australia, where Kent is the director of TheNature Conservancy’s Australia Program. They’relearning Aussie-speak and adjusting to urban wildlifethat includes huge fruit bats, cockatoos and even a7-foot-long python at the trash bin. Their boys attendan English-style school with hideous uniforms andstraw boater hats—quite a change from Maine. Theirdaughter attends Carleton College. They’ll be back inMaine in 2006.1983CLASS SECRETARY:STEPHEN BROKER lkbroker@snet.net1984CLASS SECRETARIES:THERESE FENGTherese_feng@yahoo.comROBERTA TABELL JORDANrjordan@clinic.net1985CLASS SECRETARIES:ALEX BRASH KING the5kings@attbi.comAfter eight years with Conservation International,Ed Backus moved to Portland and, with RandyHagenstein ’84, started Interrain Pacific in the early1990s, a conservation GIS consulting group, whichthen merged with Spencer Beebe’s Ecotrust in 1998.Six years ago, Ed finally married Jessica, a Ph.D.marine biologist and best scuba diving and fly-fishingpartner ever.Helen Ballew is enjoying life in San Antonio withhusband, David, an ecologist and chair of the biologydepartment at Trinity University, and her kids. Theyare heading to Mexico for a six-month sabbatical inJuly, and then to Africa for another six months.Helen is deeply involved in her kids’ inner-city duallanguagepublic school, where she’s launched agreen team outdoor classroom project in which kidsgrow veggies and other things. Helen is also on theboards of two environmental organizations, theBamberger Ranch Preserve and the AquiferGuardians in Urban Areas, an advocacy group forEdwards Aquifer protection.Dorie Bolze writes that she finally dragged herfamily out of NYC and ended up in Nashville, Tenn.,where they have been in the “buckle of the Biblebelt since Spring 1999.” Their two kids are now 11and 8. She notes that she finally got married, andthat her family has a foundling dog, hamstersand aquariums. She is still interested in riverconservation, creating a bit of a monster in Tennesseewith a new conservation organization.From Alex Brash:“Our 20th reunion was indeed asplendid event in the great Woolsey Hall, thoughtempered by the presence of a portrait of George Bushabove the podium.Attendees included suchillustrious classmates as Mark Ashton, Ph.D. ’90,Richard Boyce, Ian Cameron ’99, Mark Duda,Eunshik Kim and Jonathon Nute.After some lightcocktails (no TGIF—no geologists or nurses either),we settled at our table, chattered a bit, then listened tostirring presentations by Dean Speth regarding thegreat work of Professor Graeme Berlyn; recognition ofthe great growth and character of Joyce Berry,Ph.D. ’00, dean at Colorado State University (andlearned there is port stashed in the dean’s office); andthen watched the Class of 1980 pat themselves on theback in a grandiose display and implicitly goad usinto greater alumni giving. Last, former Dean JohnGordon, who had roused himself from the quietwoods of New Hampshire, was very warmly treatedthroughout the evening and even inducted as anhonorary alumnus.And as he stood lookingquizzically about, we stood to a person at our tableand accepted him as one of our own! Finally, sneakingin late, like really late—well, actually, for Sundaybrunch—came Dave Gagnon, Shelley Dresser(aka Mrs. Gagnon) and their two kids.” Worn out fromreintroducing bald eagles in the Big Apple andsupervising concerts in Central Park,Alex finally leftthe New York City Parks Department. This pastsummer, he opened a regional office for the NationalParks Conservation Association in New York City, butnow thoroughly enjoys trips farther afield than theBronx. In fact, he just “whupped”some trout nearEstes Park. Married to Jane, a former vice president inmarketing, they have two children, Ian, 14, and Emily,10, and live in Greenwich, Conn. They also built a logcabin a few years ago near Jane’s family place, which isnear Algonquin Park in Canada.Louise de Montigny writes from the BritishColumbia Ministry of Forests in Victoria that shewould have loved to attend the reunion, but it was justtoo far away. But she did convince Ian Cameron tokindly take photos. Maybe he’ll share … .Jeff Diehl of Albion Environmental in Santa Cruz,Calif., writes to express his regrets about not “joiningeveryone in New Haven,”and claimed that he wouldone day “venture back to Sage.”Jay and Lynne Espy are living in Freeport, Maine,with three children (Hannah is 17,Adele is 14 andJosh is 10), as well as a black lab and a cat. Jay ispresident of Maine Coast Heritage Trust, and Lynne,after retiring (early!) from working as a hydrogeologist,is volunteering—she’s president of theboard—for the Waldorf School that their kids attendin Freeport. The Espys also run into HenryWhittemore at ski events their kids compete in,Caroline Norden ’86 (whose daughter goes to theWaldorf School), Caroline Elliot (who lives just 30minutes north) and Brent Bailey and family. Theyused to see Jock Conyngham, before he moved outWest to save the salmon and get paid to blow up damsfor the Army Corps.Deborah Fleischer started Green ImpactEnvironmental Consulting. She lives north of SanFrancisco. She is focused mostly on land conservationand sustainability issues, but has dabbled a little ininternational work. She’s also working on her Spanish,and has visited Cuba three times over the past twoyears. If you want to see her smiling face, check and Katie Friday get back to New Englandoccasionally, and went fishing with Henry W.last summer in Maine. J.B. is doing extension work inHawaii and working on a project in East Timor.Not to be outdone, Katie is headed to Guam to run aworkshop on fruit-tree propagation and fire control.Their daughter, Hilda, just turned 6, and son,Nathanael, is 11.Steve Lowe writes:“Neither Jane nor I can make thereunion.We have plans, although it would be fun tocatch up with everyone.”Molly Harriss Olson writes:“I want you to knowthat I was really keen to come to the festivities, as Iwas out of Australia for the first time in ages. I was inBoston and D.C., but I was traveling with my two36ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

ClassNotessmall kids (4 and 6 years old) and had to get to theWest Coast for sick parents as soon as I could. So thetiming just didn’t work.”Whitney Tilt moved to Bozeman, Mont., four yearsago.While the move meant giving up being director ofconservation with the National Fish and WildlifeFoundation, he prefers his new work on communitybasedcollaborative conservation with the SonoranInstitute and consulting for NFWF and the U.S. Fishand Wildlife Service. His lovely wife, Stuart, is busywith real estate and serving on the Gallatin LandTrust board. His son, Mac, is heading to the Universityof Colorado this fall to study aerospace engineering,and daughter,Allison, started Bozeman High Schoolin September.Henry Whittemore, the director of the governor’sforest certification initiative, is deep in Maine. He saidhe is trying not to become a bureaucrat now that he isback in public service. Henry and Darcy’s youngsters,Katie, 17, and Sam, 14, are great kids. Henry notesthey are starting to look at colleges with Katie, and heand Sam are building a boat together.And keepingpace, Darcy is working three-quarters time at thearboretum in Augusta, teaching environmentalscience and ecology.Ruth Yanai, Ph.D. ’90, is an associate professor atthe SUNY College of Environmental Science andForestry. Noting that she never took silviculture anddidn’t get an accredited degree, she teaches forestecology to majors after many years of teaching soilscience to nonmajors. Mostly, Ruth does research, andhas undertaken projects with, among others, MaryArthur ’84 and Steve Hamburg ’77, Ph.D. ’84,and still sees Therese Feng ’84, Ph.D. ’98,Guillermo Castilleja ’83, Ph.D. ’91,andsometimes Shelly Dresser and Dave Gagnon.Ruth also has been single-handedly raising adaughter, now 7.198620th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARY:CAROLINE NORDENcnorden@maine.rr.com1987CLASS SECRETARIES:CHRISTIE COON cacoon7@aol.comMELISSA PALY mpaly@aol.comChristopher DeForest writes:“Life is busy and full.I’m running the Inland Northwest Land Trust(, involved in old-houserenovation projects with my wife, CarolineWoodwell ’86, and teaching Terre Eco 101 to our2-year-old son, John Elliott DeForest. I also have asideline as minister-for-hire, and had the fun ofmarrying off my best friend, Kirk Johnson (beachhousemate and geology grad student while we were atF&ES), to my cousin, Chase DeForest, whom he met atmy wedding to Caroline in April 2001.”Kevin L. Griffin writes:“My family and I are inNew Zealand for the year. I am on sabbatical, andhave a visiting Erskine Fellowship at the University ofCanterbury in Christchurch. During my stay here, Iwill conduct research on respiratory temperatureacclimation in mast-seeding snow tussocks. NewZealand is a beautiful country, and we are enjoyingbeing outside and seeing the sights.”Robert T. Lester writes:“I’ve been in Guatemala forabout three years now, after having started my ownconsulting company dedicated to providing environmentaland corporate responsibility advisoryservices. Happy to meet with any alums comingthrough town for work or pleasure.”1988CLASS SECRETARIES:DIANE STARK dsstark@comcast.netPHILIP VOORHEES pvoorhees@ncpa.orgJenny Allen writes:“I’ve been in Portland, Ore.,since 1997, originally with Ecotrust, then with theState of Oregon as sustainable business liaison, andnow with Portland State University to develop aCenter for Sustainable Processes and Practices. Myhousehold consists of my Canadian husband,Wayne,dogs Argus and Jasper, and Kitty the cat. I also movedmy 81-year-old parents from New Hampshire toPortland this summer, where they seem to be veryhappily settling in. This is a welcoming place, and it iswonderful to have family here at last.”Jeff Campbell writes:“I ran into Brian Lockhartat an F&ES get-together at the International Union ofForestry Research Organizations conference inBrisbane,Australia. He is doing well, working onbottom-land hardwoods in Arkansas with the U.S.Forest Service Research Station. I am the seniorprogram manager for environment and developmentat the Ford Foundation.”During the last five years,Jeff has directed a $25 million program to financecommunity forests and promote locally controlledmultiple-use forestry on the lands being set aside.Martin Christ writes:“I am in Morgantown,W.Va.,where I work for a watershed organization and domiscellaneous other consulting jobs on water qualityand environmental issues. Kathy and I live in thecountry, with cows for neighbors on three sides anda family of llamas not far away.A feral emu passedby once.”Anne Buckelew Cumming writes:“I work for theU.S. Forest Service in the Urban and CommunityForestry (UCF) Program. My husband, Jack, is chairof the biology department at West VirginiaUniversity, and our daughter, Margot, has just startedmiddle school. I work with a bunch of Yalies frommany classes. Chris Donnelly ’85 is the UCFcoordinator for Connecticut—he used to frequentour TGIFs.”Eric Jay Dolin writes:“I’m living in Marblehead,Mass., with my wife, Jennifer, and two children, Lily, 8,and Harry, 5. I am a policy analyst with the NationalMarine Fisheries Service in Gloucester. My book onBoston Harbor, Political Waters (see Fall 2004Bookshelf), was recently chosen by the AmericanLibrary Association as ‘One of the Best of the Bestfrom the University Presses: Books You Should KnowAbout’ for 2004. I just published The Ph.D. SurvivalGuide, and am working on a history of whaling inAmerica for W.W. Norton publishing. I can be reachedat”Betsy Greer Edwards writes:“I am in Seattle andam the executive director of a nonprofit, raising fundsfor the national parks. I moved into the nonprofitsector two years ago after almost 20 years in theprivate sector, but may have to go back as thealternative energy market heats up.We have threeredheaded kids (8, 7 and 4) and are trying to get backinto some serious skiing (skating) and running witharthritic 40-plus joints. I saw Holly Welles mostrecently in San Francisco, shortly after she gotmarried. I saw Phil Voorhees in Washington, D.C.;he lost his wife to an illness recently. I did a five-daytrek across Olympic National Park via the Elwha Riverwith Betsy Carlson ’89.”Heidi McAllister writes:“I need to toot anotherF&ES grad’s horn for her. Lily Whiteman,whogot joint masters degrees from F&ES and PublicHealth, just published a book on how to get a jobin the federal government, Get Hired! How to Landthe Ideal Federal Job and Negotiate a Top Salary.You can find more about the book down to Get Hired!).”Holly Welles writes:“I live in Mill Valley, Calif., justacross the Golden Gate Bridge. I’m working in theenvironmental policy group at Pacific Gas andElectric, where I’ve worked since completing a longand arduous Ph.D. at Berkeley in 2000. I married agreat guy, Rob Thomas, originally from Pennsylvania.The ocean is close and so is wine country.”1989CLASS SECRETARIES:SUSAN CAMPBELLsusan.campbell@comcast.netJANE FREEMAN jane@ewalden.comC.J. May has entered his 15th year working as Yale’srecycling coordinator.Yale has now hired a sustainabilitydirector (,approved a set of environmental principles and hasbecome aggressive about reducing its ecologicalfootprint. On the home front, Ella Fionnuala May wasborn on August 20. C.J. continues to tell Celtic storiesas a part of the Celtic Learning Project( 200537

ClassNotes1990CLASS SECRETARIES:JUDY OLSON HICKSCAROLYN ANNE PILLINGcapilling@gds.orgSeema Bhatt writes:“I am an independentconsultant on biodiversity issues, focusing mainly onIndia and other South Asian countries. It’s been anexciting time since I started consulting five years ago.My work has ranged from medicinal-plant issues topeople-park-related issues. I was also part of thetechnical and policy core group that coordinated theformulation of India’s national biodiversity strategyaction plan.”Ann Camp writes:“I’m still teaching at Yale andhaving a great time. This past spring, I organized orparticipated in three field trips with students: theSouthern trip to Alabama; a trip to Alaska for theAlpine,Arctic and Boreal Ecosystems course I coteachwith Graeme Berlyn; and the University ofMunich trip to Germany and France. This year I’mheading to China for an invasive-species and globaltradesummit. I went to the reunion and had a greattime visiting with Seema Bhatt,who came over fromIndia, and Leslie Hudson,who came from Maine.Itwas also fun seeing some from the class of 1990whom I haven’t kept up with over the years. Mydaughter, Caitlin, is now 18 and just left for herfreshman year in college! Sure makes me feel older(and poorer).”Melissa Grigione writes:“I am an assistantprofessor in wildlife ecology at the University of SouthFlorida. I study mostly endangered cats and othercarnivores in parts of Mexico, Bolivia and Patagonia.In Florida, my husband and I study burrowing owlsand coyotes.We have a 2-year-old son, Marcus, who isin training to attend F&ES!”Nick Simmons writes:“After working for theMiami-Dade Department of EnvironmentalResources Management for a few years (first doingfield inspections, and then supervising theremediation of industrial and residential propertiescontaminated with hazardous waste), I decided to goto law school. I graduated from Columbia Law Schoolin 1998, and have been practicing in California. I amworking as the general in-house counsel for a medicaldiagnostic/biotech company called SpecialtyLaboratories.We do testing for doctors and hospitalsto help them diagnose and treat patients, and we do alot of genetic testing for things like resistance totherapeutic drugs. I enjoy my job and like the people Iwork with. My partner, Matt, and I just celebrated our10-year anniversary, and we live in a great house inSherman Oaks, Calif., with two sweet dogs, Jake andPolly, that we rescued last year.”Susannah Troner writes:“I am a project managerwith my county’s environmental agency. Mostly Ispend time working on a large urban canopyrestoration project in which we organize large eventsto give away free trees to residential homeowners.I also organize an annual coastal cleanup eventinvolving approximately 8,000 people. In between,I work on environmental education and sustainabilityissues. I just resigned from sitting on our local Leagueof Women Voters board. Now I am serving as amember of the Citizens Independent TransportationTrust, which is more environmentally related. It is amass transit board, which reviews all spending in thecounty related to a half-penny sales tax that is used asa dedicated source of funding for transit projects. Iam reviewing contracts and proposals for hundreds ofmillions of dollars. John is still great, and we have twowonderful girls, Chiara, 7, and Rachael (although wecall her Ruby—long story), 3.”Susannah would alsolike to try to organize a reunion for our group in thefuture, since many people did not make it to theofficial school reunion. If anyone knows of a neatecotourism place, solar-powered lodge, etc., let herknow. Finally, Susannah would love to know thewhereabouts of Eirik Steifhorne.Contact her Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARIES:DOROTHY BEARDSLEY DEBPDC@aol.comKRISTIN RAMSTADkramstad@odf.state.or.us1992CLASS SECRETARY:KATHERINE KEARSE FARHADIANfarhadian@aya.yale.edu1993CLASS SECRETARIES:DEAN GIBSON deang@duke.eduMOLLY GOODYEARmandm4@mindspring.comHEATHER MERBS hmerbs@aol.comBill Mott writes:“I will be phasing out of my workwith SeaWeb and ramping up my time with TheOcean Project. My new initiative will include thelaunching of Seas the Day, a new education-andactioninitiative that will build strong connectionsbetween individuals and aquatic and ocean conservation.”billmott@aya.yale.edu1994CLASS SECRETARIES:CYNTHIA W. HENSHAWchenshaw@newenglandforestry.orgJANE WHITEHILLjanewhitehill@hotmail.comNicole Wilson Alsarraf tells us she’s enjoying life inBoston, working with her husband, Ramsey,YaleSchool of Medicine Class of 1994, and spending a lotof time at hockey rinks with their 7-year-old son,Max. Nicole continues environmental projectsthrough volunteer work with the MassachusettsHorticultural Society and the Boston Public Garden,as well as other nonprofit organizations in the area.mail@thenewburycenter.comJeff Andrews finished law school in May and isworking in the intellectual property litigation groupof Locke Liddell & Sapp LLP in Houston.jeffrey.a.andrews@gmail.comJane Calvin is potty training her 3-year-old son andwaiting for her 10-month-old son to cut teeth.jcalvin@prospeed.netEileen Cates writes:“After 10 fabulous years ofworking at AES (an energy company), I am now a freewoman, enjoying more time at home, volunteering inmy community, focusing on promoting local foodsand land conservation, riding horses, playing with mydogs and loving my husband and 18-month-old son.We are living in Charlton, N.Y., a small rural town 20minutes southwest of Saratoga Springs.”ecates@nycap.rr.comAnne Downey is director of Sugar Maple MusicTogether ( Her programis for parents and their children from birth throughpreschool. The curriculum teaches that all childrenwill develop basic musical competence given afriendly, stimulating musical environment, and sheguarantees no performance pressure.anne.downey@valley.netTad Gallion tells us life is fine in Bethesda, Md., withhis wife and two daughters. Claire is nearly 2, andEmma is in third grade. Kristen started atGeorgetown University, where she practices medicineand teaches medical residents. Tad has worked withthe House Appropriations Committee for about a yearand a half—about 10 months on EPA’s appropriationas part of the VA/HUD subcommittee (now dissolved)and now the Homeland Security subcommittee (gofigure!). He says he felt a bit like a duck in a wine shop(sure, Tad), but is enthusiastic about his colleagues.Tad still loves astronomy and has continued to takeout his telescopes for public astronomy activitieswhen work, weather and wife Goldblatt has returned with his family toZurich. They are now five—a third daughter, CillaElena, was born in February. David’s book, SustainableEnergy Consumption and Society (see Spring 2005Bookshelf), was published last January, and he plansto build on that work in further research with theSwiss Federal Institute of Technology, where he got hisdoctorate in 2002. He’s also running an Englishediting/translating firm in Zurich, and suggests thatany good freelancers interested in doing somedistance editing and/or translating contact him byemail. goldblatt.david@gmail.comSteve Harrington and his wife, Shirl, and theirchildren, Sionann and Oisin, are living on the BearaPeninsula in southwestern Ireland. He says that helooked up from the bottom of a waterfall, where he38ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

stood with his children, to see a dude walking by withan F&ES hat on his head. scribes1963@yahoo.comAlexis Harte writes that he lives in Berkeley, Calif.,with his wife,Anna, and their daughter, Mia, wholooks just like him.Alexis directs the urban forestprogram for San Francisco’s Department ofEnvironment. He also writes and performs music,touring on occasion.;www.alexisharte.comCynthia Wood Henshaw, director of communityforest programs for the New England ForestryFoundation ( inLittleton, Mass., has been blessed with a healthy babygirl, Gabriella Henshaw, born July 6.chenshaw@newenglandforestry.orgDave Moffat joined TNC New Hampshire thissummer and is learning all the dirt roads and bestswimming ponds in the state. Wendy Taggart ’98is across the hall at TNC. Carol and Dave have a newpuppy ruling their lives. Dave was elected vicepresident of the F&ES Alumni Association ExecutiveCouncil in the balloting held this summer. He hasenjoyed becoming active in alumni activities andwould welcome hearing from any alums who wouldalso like to get involved. dmoffat@aya.yale.eduNicky Robins writes:“I continue to train, danceand work as a Sangoma (African traditional healer),and my learning in this tradition has led me to aframework for sustainability that has been around formillennia. It makes sense to me and apparently to thevarious corporate clients I have been testing it outwith. I am a founding member of the consultingcompany Incite Sustainability, with a particular focuson sustainability coaching.” Snyder writes:“I have had a great couple ofyears building my nonprofit, Thisyear, I merged with the Orton Family Foundation, asmall operational foundation headquartered inVermont. I represent their Rocky Mountain office,heading up their planning tools program.”Will Stevenson writes:“Working in Waltham, Mass.,to bring automation and efficiency to managingcommercial real estate. Two kids—3 and 5—which iswhere most of my time goes.”Diana Wheeler writes:“On September 20, 2004,Don and I flew to Durban, South Africa, to adopt our8-month-old daughter, Katherine Sinethemba WheelerRedmond.As far as I know, she’s the only native Zululiving in our neighborhood in Austin. She’s now 19months old and I can’t believe we’ve had her for over ayear. The three dogs are still in the process ofadjusting, especially now that she’s completely mobile.I’d also like to put a plug in for supporting theEnvironmental Foundation Ltd. ( Caron has been associated with them since1995. In addition to work on preventing coral reefdynamiting, they are also involved in the campaignagainst the Sethusamundran canal, which India plansto dig in the Palk Strait (between Tamilnadu and SriClassNotesLanka’s western coast). It will have significantimpacts on the marine life in the Gulf of Mannar.Anyone interested in donating can contactme ( or Cindy(, who’s now living andworking in Sri Lanka.”Jane Whitehill writes:“I have a new and even betterjob translating science into English. Lyman is living inChicago and writing computer programs. I continueto work in support of sustainable policies for theenvironment and the citizenry.”janewhitehill@hotmail.com1995CLASS SECRETARIES:MARIE GUNNINGmjgunning@aol.comCIARA O’CONNELLciaramoconnell@aol.comLaura Meyerson, Ph.D. ’00,and Fred Meyerson,Ph.D. ’00, left Washington, D.C., this summer afterfour years inside the Beltway. They write:“Laura’stime at the Heinz Center has been fun and interesting.It has focused primarily on national-level indicatorsof nonnative species, but Laura has also focused onecosystem services and indicators for urban systems.Laura worked for Tom Lovejoy and with AnneMarsh ’91, Ph.D. ’96, and also saw Ryan Valdez’96 with some regularity.”Laura and Fred will join thefaculty of the University of Rhode Island in SouthKingston. Laura will continue the work she started atthe Heinz Center on ecological indicators, and alsoundertake fieldwork related to invasive species andrestoration ecology. Fred will continue his work onhuman population and the environment, and willfinish a book on American population policy. BothLaura and Fred will teach various ecology courses,including Terre Eco. Malcolm, 7, and Cortlandt, 3,will miss their friends in Washington.meyerson@heinzctr.orgRicardo Tarifa is a forest specialist with the Amazonrainforest program at the World Bank office inBrasilia. He travels to the Amazon often and, in hisspare time, enjoys biking throughout various parts ofBrazil. Recent travels included a visit to Spain’sAndalucia, where he visited the village where hisgrandmother was born.Maria Uriarte and her husband, Gustavo Azenha,welcomed the arrival of their son, Lucas UribeAzenha, in early June. They are living in New YorkCity, where Maria is an assistant professor in theDepartment of Ecology, Evolution and EnvironmentalBiology at Columbia University.199610th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARIES:KATHRYN PIPKIN kate@goodisp.comJULIE ROTHROCK jarothrock@juno.comSaleem Ali, who is on the faculty of the University ofVermont, recently got a grant from the TiffanyFoundation to study the environmental and socialimpacts of gemstone mining in Brazil, Madgascar andBurma/Myanmar.Deron Chang is teaching at Choate Rosemary Hall(a boarding school 20 miles north of Sage Hall). Heand his wife, Penny, were expecting their second childin October. Their first child,Abigail, 4, loves to gohiking in the woods! See the F&ES website for a photoof Abbie admiring a piece of Mother Earth.Ronnie Cherry is working with Levi’s Asia-Pacific,and has moved from Singapore to Hong Kong. He andhis wife celebrated the birth of their daughter, Bailey,in May. Ronnie has ferried Starbucks coffee to CindyCaron ’94 on frequent visits to Sri Lanka.rcherry@levi.comMichele Dash writes:“I have been assigned to theDepartment of Energy’s office in Moscow for twoyears.”mdash@doe.ruWarning G8 leaders that the only way to avert climatecatastrophe is by holding corporations accountable,while securing environmental justice and politicalstability, were Michael Dorsey, professor ofenvironmental studies at Dartmouth University andformer Sierra Club director, along with Ken Wiwa, sonof slain Nigerian activist Ken Saro-Wiwa, NoreenaHertz, Steve Kretzman and Stephen Mills, whodiscussed “Achieving Environmental Justice andPolitical Stability in a Changing World”on July 3 inEdinburgh, Scotland.Andi Eicher writes:“Sheba and I are working inThane (part of the Greater Mumbai urban sprawl)with a program called Jeevan Sahara Kendra, whichhelps people and families affected by HIV/AIDSthrough home-based care.We have two adorablekids—Asha, 4, and Enoch, 2, who enjoy going tonursery school. Though we live next to the SanjayGandhi National Park, we don’t venture in muchbecause some of the leopards seem to have developeda taste for humans when they can’t get normal prey ordogs.We are active in our local church, and find ourwork quite challenging, especially when it comes toterminal care. Our apartment is a blessing because weonly have a two-minute walk to work—an absoluterarity in Mumbai.”andi@aya.yale.eduJared Hardner recently moved from Palo Alto, Calif.,to Amherst, N.H., where he is settling into a new homewith his wife, Shaye, and twin daughters. He continuesto manage Hardner & Gullison Associates, LLC.Workhas recently been taking him across the U.S.West forthe National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and to theGalapagos Islands for Conservation International.Fall 2005 39

ClassNotesDavid Newman writes:“Benjamin Merrill Newmanwas born on December 29, 2004. He gets along wellwith our golden retriever, Cody. I’m with Millipore, abioscience company. In addition to beingenvironment, health and safety director, I am plantmanager for the facility in Bedford, Mass.”Katie Genshlea Paris writes:“I’m a part-timeconsultant for a green buildings developer—theWindmill Development Group—helping to raisefinancing for green building projects in Canada. Mydaughter, Julia, 5, is in first grade, and Simon, 3, isstarting preschool. I’m officially a soccer mom, nowthat Julia plays soccer. I’m still having fun as anAmerican in Canada, getting used to winter andloving skating and canoe trips.”Jennifer Pett-Ridge writes:“I was married lastSeptember to another environmental scientist, LoganHennessy, whom I met while doing my Ph.D. at UC-Berkeley.We got married at the MendocinoWoodlands Camp in California. Derek Halberg andChristy Johnston, Whendee Silver ’87, Ph.D. ’92,and Steve Beissinger attended. In May, I finished myPh.D.; my studies were of redox effects on soilmicrobiology and N isotopes in Puerto Rican soils.I’m working as a postdoc at Lawrence LivermoreNational Lab, doing nanoscale mass spectrometry tostudy bacterial metabolism and soil chemistry.”Kate Pipkin is in the Raleigh, N.C., area workingpart-time for a state agency, the Wildlife ResourcesCommission, on rules/regulations and specialprojects. More important, she is excited to bewatching Taylor Elliott Pipkin, born in early 2005,grow and get into everything!Lloyd Raleigh writes:“I am a contractor for WWF-China in northwestern Yunnan Province, and amtraveling around China and elsewhere. I am workingon several film projects for them, as well asecotourism and forest management plans for Tibetanvillages. Prior to that, I lived on Martha’s Vineyard foreight years, working for The Trustees of Reservations,enjoying beach volleyball and island life.”; keeps a travelog Reynolds writes:“In March, my husband andI had a baby girl, Hannah Kerry, much loved by herolder brother, Tim. I love being a mom of two, andstill enjoy working at Environmental Advocates ofNew York.”Kath Schomaker won a seat on the legislativecouncil in her hometown of Hamden, Conn. Shewrites:“I’ve been there for 11 years now, and it’s timefor more involvement. There are a lot of developmentpressures on the remaining 20 percent of the town’sopen space. I also sit on the board of the town’s allvolunteerland trust.”Lara (Nachiem) Swenson writes:“Our daughter,Emma Jane Rose, was born on Mother’s Day (May 8).Jack and I are busy—Joseph is now 9 years old, Jamieturned 2 in October, and Emma Jane is 6 months.I’m temporarily a full-time homemaker, a job that’smuch more exhausting than my math/scienceteaching position.”1997CLASS SECRETARY:PAUL CALZADA pcalz@metro2000.netNancy Alderman,president ofEnvironment andHuman Health (EHHI), received the Public HealthAward for contributions in the area of environmentand human health from the New England PublicHealth Association in 2001. EHHI ( published a series of studies, many concerningschoolchildren and their exposures, includingChildren’s Exposure to Diesel Exhaust on School Buses,A Survey of Asthma Prevalence in Elementary SchoolChildren and, recently, The State of Nutrition andPhysical Activity in Our Schools. EHHI, founded byAlderman in 1997, is a nonprofit organizationdedicated to protecting human health from environmentalharms through research, education andpromotion of sound public policy.1998CLASS SECRETARIES:NADINE BLOCKnadineblock@alumni.williams.eduCLAIRE CORCORANCorcoran_Claire@hotmail.comJeff Adams reports that he and Kirsten PrettymanAdams ’99 had their first daughter, Lily, on July 27.Kim Baymiller writes:“My husband and I aregoing to relocate to Shanghai, China, within thenext several months.While we are both employedby International Paper, his job is being transferredand I am looking to see what opportunities may existin Shanghai. In 2004, I took a role in our sustainableforestry and forest policy group, managing waterpolicy issues for the forest resources group. Thisinvolved development of a wetlands mitigationbanking enterprise, structuring a team frameworkof policy representatives, and so on.”Nadine Block is living and working in theWashington, D.C. area. She and her husband, Patrick,just bought a home in Falls Church,Va., and arequickly discovering the joys and despairs of homeownership. She recently met with Sarah Whitneyand her husband, Steve, for a fun weekend of hikingand camping at Cunningham Falls State Park inMaryland.Pascal Collotte is a civil servant with the EuropeanCommission, dealing more and more with high-techand less and less with the environment. He is incharge of the operations (projects cycle) providingfunding for the deployment of new e-services to theEuropean market. Cristofani married Mark Geurts, whograduated from the Yale School of Management in1998, in Mendocino, Calif. Stephanie Campbelland Lila Gil ’99 attended the wedding.Andrea andher husband went to South Africa for theirhoneymoon, which she said,“is an amazingly wildand pristine country with miles of undeveloped beachand coastal forest.”They are living in San Francisco,where they have reconnected with many F&ES andSOM graduates.Antonio del Monaco has been working at theGlobal Environment Facility’s Office of Evaluationsince 2002. His work has contributed to improving themonitoring and evaluation of GEF projects. In 2005,he also joined a program at Georgetown University tobecome a certified financial planner to assistindividuals in achieving their financial objectivesthrough proper planning in the areas of investments,taxes, retirement, estate and insurance.After five great years as the land protectioncoordinator with the Land Trust of Napa County inCalifornia, Vanessa Johnson went to Ecuador onSeptember 1 for a year of teaching English toecotourism students. She is volunteering forWorldTeach, a nonprofit based at Harvard’s Center forInternational Development, and is living inRiobamba, a small city at the base of Ecuador’s largestvolcano (now extinct).Indah “Indi” Kusuma got her Ph.D. in forestryfrom Louisiana State University last summer.She is married to a Baton Rougean with one son(18 months), and lives in Louisiana. Indi has kept intouch with Paul Gagnon, who is still working on hisPh.D. in biology at Louisiana State University. He ismarried to Heather Passmore (from North Carolina),a colleague in the same department.Lisa Mastny is senior editor of the magazine andother publications at the Worldwatch Institute. She istelecommuting from Durango, Colo., where she lovesbeing able to take midday hikes in the mountains orgo rafting on the river. In August, she had a nice visitfrom Jennifer (Yelin) Kefer,her husband,Josh,and their 14-month-old son,Ari, who live in SilverSpring, Md.Keely Maxwell, Ph.D. ’05, writes:“I am a newhomeowner with a new job (tenure track!). I am anassistant professor of environmental studies atFranklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pa., andloving it so far. It’s lovely here—I take long bike ridesthrough Amish country.Went to Peru for two weeks.”kmaxwell@fandm.eduTobgay S. Namgyal writes to tell us that his brother,Sonam Wangchuck, is part of the incoming F&ESclass for fall 2005. Sonam brought his family withhim, including a son in 9th grade, another son in 5thgrade, and a daughter in 2nd grade.Chris Williams and his wife,Amy, had a secondchild, Madeline Grace, on April 20, the day before herbig brother, Noah, turned 2.40ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

1999CLASS SECRETARIES:JOCELYN FORBUSH jforbush@ttor.orgJENNIFER GARRISONjennifermgarrison@yahoo.comCHRISTIANA JONESchristiana@aya.yale.eduBryan de Ponce writes:“All is well here inSeattle.We recently returned from a yearlong tripthroughout Asia.We quit our jobs, rented a houseand hit the road. Deborah (Swander) de Poncehas started an immigration law firm. I am attemptingto enter the green building industry. In the meantime,I am doing program management consulting workfor Microsoft.”2000CLASS SECRETARIES:ERICA SHAUB schaube@battelle.orgZIKUN YU yuzikun2001@yahoo.comThu Ba writes:“I am working at the UNDP office inHanoi. I was also offered another job at the WorldBank in Hanoi, but I chose the UNDP job. My job isGEF program development. It is very interesting andchallenging, but I still need to learn a lot. My husband,Lam, has resumed his work at Siemens with a slightlydifferent role, heading a mobile network unit. LamNhi, our daughter, is going to an InternationalChildcare Center in Hanoi and having a hard timeadjusting to the weather and everything here. LamNhi has been sick three times since we came back.I am looking for contacts with GEF programs eitherglobal or regional (in any country office where GEFportfolios are well-developed), so I can gain somepractical knowledge about GEF portfoliodevelopment. The GEF portfolio in Vietnam isrelatively small (as compared to China, India,Malaysia and other Asian countries), and our bosseshere are very keen on making it grow. I have to admitthat I miss Yale and New Haven a lot. I hope to get achance to visit the school, the professors and friends.”Katherine Bill works for the Methow Conservancyin north central Washington, and also does a lot ofmountain climbing.Linus Chen is a first-year law student at EmoryUniversity.Connecticut Clean Energy Fund staffer Bryan Garciawas in the “Staff Member Spotlight”in the April/Mayissue of Clean Energy Today, published by CCEF. Thearticle read,in part: “As director of energy marketinitiatives, Bryan Garcia oversees the strategic directionand management of the fund’s voluntary clean energymarket initiatives, public awareness, monitoring andevaluation of program effectiveness. Encouragingvoluntary purchases of clean energy is Bryan’s primefocus. He plays a key role in several programs,including the clean energy communities program andSmartPower’s 20 percent by 2010 campaign.”ClassNotesTony Rodolakis writes:“In April and May, I took fiveweeks off from work to participate in an exchangeprogram to Argentina.We were way up near theborder of Chile and Bolivia—what a beautifulcountry! Anyway, it turns out that one of the people Imet there has come to Yale for six weeks as part of theEnglish Language Institute.”Sylvia Stone writes:“I’ve finally left the WildlifeConservation Society after four years, and after seeingmany other F&ES alumni join the team—YemiMegenasa ’02, Abby Weinberg ’03 andDaniela Vizcaino ’04. It was a wonderfulexperience working there, and I would be happy todirect more alumni their way. I’m in the San FranciscoBay area, and seeking a new job with a medium tolarge national conservation organization in programmanagement. I have applied for several positions, andone of them was with The Nature Conservancy inSan Francisco.”After five years as a mediator of environmentalconflicts, Becky Turner has returned as a student atthe Vermont Law School. She looks forward toreconnecting with her East Coast classmates.Zikun Yu writes:“I moved to New York City and ammanager of the purchasing department in the NewYork branch of a recycled material import/exportcompany called Genius AA Corp.”20015th Year Reunion.CLASS SECRETARIES:LEIGH CASHleigh@cultureearth.comADAM CHAMBERSadam_chambers@nrel.govJENNIFER GRIMMjwgrimm@earthlink.netBruce Cabarle ’83, director of the Global ForestProgram, writes: “As of July 1, Kerry Cesareo isdirector of the Global Forest Program’s NorthAmerican Forest and Trade Network. Kerry willoversee development of the forest program’s relationswith U.S.-based forest product companies, which arepotential members of the North American Forest andTrade Network. The goal of the network is to catalyzeNorth American businesses to adopt and executepurchasing policies that shift trade in forest productsfrom illegal or poorly managed forests to known, wellmanagedand credibly certified forests.”Adam Chambers writes:“I will soon be leavingNational Renewable Energy Lab to work for IIASA inVienna,Austria, where Arnulf Grübler works when heis not teaching about energy and the environment atF&ES. I’ll be there for two years working on post-Kyoto analysis that will hopefully bring China andIndia to the table.”achambers@aya.yale.eduMatt Hollamby is working with the WyssFoundation, and attended weddings for MargieHuang (in New York) and Smita Malpani (inVermont) last summer.Quint Newcomer defended his dissertation lastNovember. He is station director and resident scientistfor the Ecolodge San Luis and Research Station inCosta Rica, operated by the University of Georgiain Athens.Jennifer Osha (Jenosha) is working in WestVirginia on creative projects to raise awareness abouta form of coal mining called “mountaintop removal.”The first project, a CD compilation of songs writtenabout the impacts of mountaintop removal, alongwith interviews from coalfield residents, was releasedin the spring of 2004. The second project is a noveltitled The Green River Coalfish,focusing on a smalltown in West Virginia that begins to fight againstmountaintop removal. In October 2003, Jenosha gavebirth to a son, Elijah Storm Wellings-Osha.Diane Russell writes:“It has been a wonderful fouryears at ICRAF and in Kenya, as well as Cameroon. Iwill miss my ICRAF friends very much and hope tosee you in the United States or when I return to Africa.I am joining USAID’s biodiversity team based inWashington, D.C. I look forward to continued collaborationon issues related to conservation, agroforestryand livelihoods.”Mariana Upmeyer married Peter Du Brul in July.Mariana is the conservation planning associate at thePine Barrens program of The Nature Conservancy inBrowns Mills, N.J.2002CLASS SECRETARIES:CATHERINE BOTTRILL ANDROBERTO FRAU-RODRIGUEZSageboy02@yahoo.comNissa Mardiah is working as head of a subdivision,providing further analysis to the assistant minister foragriculture and forestry at the IndonesianEnvironmental Ministry.Kim Thurlow married doctoral student Mark Sternin late June.Madeleine Weil, policy analyst for EnvironmentNortheast, said she is thrilled that the ConnecticutHouse of Representatives approved the ConnecticutClean Diesel Plan bill (S.B. 920), which will reducehealth risks from diesel pollution in the state.“The billdirects the Connecticut Department ofEnvironmental Protection to report back to thelegislature with a comprehensive strategy forminimizing emissions of toxic diesel soot. … We arethrilled to see that the strategy will include specificrecommendations for achieving near-term reductionsfrom school buses, transit buses and state-fundedconstruction diesels.”mweil@env-ne.orgFall 2005 41

ClassNotesFormer F&ES Dean Receives Pinchot MedalFormer F&ES Dean John Gordon is known by some of his colleagues as the “statesman of the forestryprofession.” His long history of leadership on difficult issues regarding the management andbiodiversity on public lands, as well as his accomplishments as a scientist, teacher, dean and advisor hashad a significant effect on the forestry profession and the development of natural resources policy.At the 2005 Society of American Foresters (SAF) national convention in Fort Worth, Texas, inOctober, Gordon’s contributions were recognized with conferral of the Gifford Pinchot Medal, foroutstanding contributions in the administration, practice and professional development of North© William SaccoAmerican forestry.Gordon, Pinchot Professor Emeritus of Forestry and Environmental Studies, began his forestrycareer as a plant physiologist with the USDA Forest Service and then joined the faculty at Iowa StateJohn GordonUniversity, where he was instrumental in bringing together teams of scientists to study the biologicalprocesses that limit tree and stand productivity. Gordon has also served as chair and professor of forest science at Oregon StateUniversity, where he established two forestry research cooperatives, and then as F&ES dean from 1983 to 1992, where he helped toincrease the number of female faculty and staff. In 1996, he founded Interforest LLC, a forestry consulting firm in Branford, Conn., thatbrings national and international forestry experts together to develop integrated solutions for the forest products industry andforestland management agencies.Gordon, an SAF member since 1961, has played a leadership role on several important panels created by SAF, the U.S. Congress, theNational Academy of Sciences and the Intertribal Timber commissions. He also is the senior editor of the primary book on biologicalnitrogen fixation in temperate forest ecosystems, and the author or co-author of more than 100 publications.2003CLASS SECRETARIES:BRIAN GOLDBERGbrian@fieldoperations.netSCOTT THREADGILLMichael.threadgill@aya.yale.eduElizabeth Allison writes:“I traveled to Mussoorie,India, in the Garhwal Himalaya to present a paper atan ecotourism conference, and visited my brother inChennai, south India, on the same trip. I neverwould’ve guessed that Madison,Wis., would be ahotbed of South Asian languages and cultures, butthat’s where I spent the summer learning Tibetan foruse in my fieldwork in the Himalayas. I ran intoNaoko Nakagawa, who was a couple years aheadof us at F&ES and was studying Thai. On the wayback to Cali from Madison, I stopped in to seeKate Hammond—Che is as wiggly as ever—andTed Lanzano in Denver.”Ryan Bennett writes:“I’m pricing manager for theAmericas and Asia for GE Energy’s wind business.I moved back to California from Canada, andstrangely enough I drink less beer and watch lesshockey these days.”Chuck Brunton writes:“I am working at the WorldBank, applying quite a bit of the M.E.M degree, andam still excited about applying more in the internationalenvironmental management capacity. I’mhelping the National University develop a classcurriculum for a master’s of environmentalmanagement degree that they are eager to create.42ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesIn other news, I’ve been in touch with Maleye Diop(Senegalese UNDP official) about a job opportunity.I am looking for immediate full-time opportunities inthe international environmental sector where I canuse my Spanish or work in Bhutan.”Melanie Cutler writes:“I’m teaching biology andenvironmental science at Andover High School inMassachusetts. The big news is that Mark and I areexpecting a little Cutler at the end of February!”Lydia A. Dixon writes:“I bought a townhouse inJackson. I have been volunteering a couple of days aweek on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service WyomingWolf Project. I am also still working for NRCC, withJason Wilmot, Dylan Taylor ’02 and DaveCherney ’05.”Alison Forrestel writes:“I get to go off and makemaps of wildfires. The last fire involved breakfast anddinner served by convicts.And I still miss everyoneand think they should move to the Bay Area.”Brian Goldberg writes:“I enjoyed spending time inNew York City with Jay Shepherd, Dani Simons’04 and Steve Dettman this past spring.After twoyears with the landscape architecture firm FieldOperations, I’m moving to Bangkok, Thailand, whereI’ll join my girlfriend,Akiko, and work with the UNDPon its poverty and environment initiative.”Carlos Gonzalez, Ph.D., writes:“I am the MexicoDesk Officer with the Foreign Agricultural Service. Inaddition, I have also moved to a different office.”carlos.gonzalez@fas.usda.govElizabeth Gordon, Oscar Franco and MaryTyrrell ’97 have published a new study, whichprovides a comprehensive examination ofthe scientific criteria used by conservation organizationsin setting global forest conservationpriorities. The complete report, ProtectingBiodiversity: A Guide to Criteria Used by GlobalConservation Organizations, is available study examines the global conservation planningapproaches utilized by five conservation organizations,including Conservation International, theWorld Wildlife Fund and The Nature Conservancy.J. Bishop Grewell writes:“I’m entering my last yearof law school at Northwestern and checking intofederal clerkships for next year. I could end upanywhere in the country, but I’m pretty sure there willbe an F&ESer wherever I go. So be prepared for myphone call.”Kate Hammond is still plugging away for theNational Park Service and loving Colorado!Krithi K. Karanth is in India most of 2005-2006doing fieldwork for the Ph.D.Pete Land went on a 10-day camping trip in Spain.Cherie Lim writes:“I am an environmental assessorfor JMK Environmental Solutions, where I provideenvironmental due diligence services for commercialreal estate.”Christopher Menone is a studio manager for avideo artist and a collaborator in environmental artand design projects.

ClassNotesTerry Miller writes:“Kate and I have a new additionto the family: Ms. Rubinator Blue Miller (aka Ruby).No, we didn’t name a baby’s our mutt dog!”Karen Murray writes:“I have a new e-mail addressand a new name—Karen Hardigg.”karen.hardigg@comcast.netTim Northrop is the Connecticut state director forThe Trust for Public Land.Kabir G. Peay writes:“I passed my qualifying examand have been elevated from ignominious ‘graduatestudent’ to ‘doctoral candidate.’ Despite the newfoundsense of respect I feel emanating from the peoplearound me, I still get funny looks when I cut to thefront of the movie line.”Soni M. Pradhanang writes:“I am doing a the State University of New York, College ofEnvironmental Sciences and Forestry. The goodnews is I am a mother of a beautiful baby boy. …he is already 13 months.”Marni Rapoport is a project manager at PPMEnergy.Liz Roberts writes:“I am cycling across theGolden Gate Bridge most days to commute to work,saving the world one fan or sustainable civil societyorganization at a time ( I am also assimilatingsomewhat, and I might even be developing a fondnessfor baseball.”Curtis Robinhold is working on the strategy forBritish Petroleum’s renewables business, and gotmarried in September to Angela Uherbelau.Laura Ruiz is a biology teacher at Whittier HighSchool; she lives in Gardena, Calif.Abdalla S. Shah writes:“I am a national projectcoordinator for the Nile TransboundaryEnvironmental Action Project.”Liz Shapiro is a doctoral student at UC Berkeley.She started her year of field research in southernMexico this October.Jay Shepherd writes:“I am with a D.C.-basedbrownfield/urban infill redeveloper for WestonSolutions. My family is healthy and my daughter,Camille, will be 3 years old in March. I will alsopartner with nonprofits to build green office spacein supply-constrained markets.”Ninian Stein writes:“Still working on mydissertation. I am teaching an undergraduateseminar of my own design in Brown’senvironmental studies department, called‘New England Environmental History.’”Laura Tam writes:“I’m still working at the EPA-OIGin San Francisco, evaluating EPA’s water programs.I was just recently promoted to ‘real employee’ fromthe rank of intern. In my free time, I’m training forthe Nike Women’s Marathon here in October to raisemoney for the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society.”Scott Threadgill writes:“We love NOVA/DC,although I’ll never forgive Bill Finnegan and Flo forsucking me into coming up here and then abandoningme in favor of Pete Hill and Vermont.”Toru Uemachi is a program coordinator for theChina Office of Japan International CooperationAgency (JICA). He is preparing a project forimproving the rural pension insurance system of thePeople’s Republic of China.Nicole Vickey writes:“I am the Alabama coastalprogram director for The Nature Conservancy,focused on oyster restoration, longleaf pinerestoration and migratory bird habitat protection.Baby Elle is 9 months old and growing like a weed.”2004CLASS SECRETARIES:KEITH BISSONkeith.bisson@aya.yale.eduDANIELA VIZCAINOdanielavizcaino@aya.yale.eduJENNIFER VOGEL jenvogel@yale.eduLAURA WOOLEY laura.wooley@yale.eduPhilippe Amstislavski is an urban planner for theEnvironmental Simulation Center in New York, wherethey use the latest GIS and real-time 3D modelingtechnology to provide communities, planners andlocal governments with interactive, hands-on tools tomodel health, social, demographic and environmentalimpacts of different planning decisions in cities.Misa Andriamihaja writes:“I am a program officerin energy and environment for the UNDPmulticountry office based in Apia, Samoa, where Imanage and develop a portfolio of regional andnational programs for Pacific Islands countries.”Leigh Baker writes:“I got married in Jackson,Wyo.I am a conservation associate for the SouthernEnvironmental Law Center in Chapel Hill, N.C.,involved in endangered-species research and GISanalysis for environmental law cases.We just won a bigcase against the U.S. Navy in our effort to protect anational wildlife refuge from development of anoutlying landing field.”;leigh_work@yahoo.comJessie Barnes writes:“I am starting the second yearof a Ph.D. in sustainable development at Columbia.During the summer, I went to Syria, where I will bedoing my research on water management andenvironmental change.I am living in Brooklyn withSarah Vogel ’03.”Keith Bisson is working on communitydevelopment and rural water policy in Washington,D.C. He looks forward to working in the forests ofMaine soon.Marco Buttazzoni and Valerie Craig are engaged,and plan to be married in April.Valerie works for amarine NGO called SeaWeb, dealing with issues ofsustainable seafood. yfes-dc-owner@yahoogroups.comAvery Cohn is a student in the environmentalstudies Ph.D. program at the University of California,Santa Cruz. His work focuses on agriculture, trade andthe environment in the Americas.Kyla Dahlin writes:“I am living in the Presidio inSan Francisco and working for the Golden GateNational Parks Conservancy in the Site StewardshipProgram.We do community-based restoration in theGolden Gate National Recreation Area. In my sparetime, I’ve been doing lots of freelance GPS/GIS workand hanging out with F&ESers.”Alvaro del Campo writes:“I am director ofoperations for a Peruvian NGO, CIMA.As a directsupport to the National Institute of Natural Resourcesof Peru, CIMA is responsible for the implementation ofall activities within the 1.35-million-hectare CordilleraAzul National Park (shared by four Peruvian regions:Loreto, San Martin, Ucayali and Huanuco) and its2-million-hectare buffer zone. This enormous parkplays a key role in the economic, political, environmentaland geographic landscape of the region.”Michela De Palo completed a master’s degree infinance at the London Business School, and isworking for Climate Change Capital, London, U.K.,providing financial services and products to organizationsaffected by the convergence of laws andpolicies on energy and the environment.Ona Ferguson is an associate at the ConsensusBuilding Institute in Cambridge, Mass.“We givetrainings on consensus building skills, help mediateenvironmental conflicts like Superfund site cleanups,facilitate policy dialogues and do research onalternative dispute resolution.”Alex Finkral ’97, Ph.D. ’05,and Liz Kalies weremarried on June 27 on Cape Cod. Liz writes:“We leftNew Haven and moved to Flagstaff,Ariz., where Alexstarted his job as assistant professor at NorthernArizona University’s School of Forestry, and I beginmy Ph.D. in wildlife ecology.”Betony Jones is natural resources program officerfor the Sierra Business Council in Truckee, Calif.“I’mworking on two programs: the Sierra NevadaConservancy, which is a new state agency with asustainability focus, and a new forestry program toimplement best management practices in the region.”Cindy Kushner writes:“I’ve recently moved to EastTimor to lead a U.N. community development projectfocused on rural water and energy. I’m excited to getback to this beautiful, fascinating little corner ofthe world.”Ery Largay is Northeast regional vegetationecologist for NatureServe in Boston, identifyingand mapping native vegetation communities inprotected conservation areas in accordance with thenational vegetation classification system throughoutthe Northeast.Woon Kwong Liew is corporate safety and environmentaloperations specialist with HoneywellFall 2005 43

ClassNotesInternational in Morristown, N.J. He married LiangSze on July 9 in Singapore.Chris Mahendra was onhand for the wedding. woonkwong.liew@aya.yale.eduKatherine Lin writes:“I was a legal intern lastsummer with the Environmental Integrity Project,a nonprofit group in Washington, D.C., thattargets environmental issues, primarily airpollution concerns.”Liz Martin writes:“I’m still living in D.C. andworking for ICF Consulting on climate change andozone issues. This year I got to do projects with theEuropean Union, UNEP and EPA. I’m also stillcelebrating being a newlywed! I was married on May14.We were so happy to have many F&ESers attendand be there in spirit.We honeymooned in Thailandand Europe.”Susan Matambo writes:“Muta and I are still inBethesda. I have been working for the GEF inWashington, D.C., for a year now.”Neha Menon got married and is now Neha Sami.She writes:“After working for a year at the BostonRedevelopment Authority, I am starting my Ph.D. inurban planning at the University of Michigan. Myhusband, Rahul, is moving there, too, to start work atthe School of Information as an assistant professor.”neha.menon@aya.yale.eduKim Mortimer is a wildlife biologist for theFlorida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commissionin Panama City, writing management plans forprivate landowners in the panhandle.Beth Owen writes that she is a bit more thanhalfway through her one-year Dean John A. KnaussMarine Policy Fellowship in Washington, D.C. She isworking at the Silver Spring, Md., office of theNational Estuarine Research Reserve Program of theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.beth.owen@noaa.govChristopher Riely writes:“One year in the Ozarksturned out to be enough, but I’ve gained some nutsand-boltsfield experience and I’m proud that Ihelped our little four-employee business gain FSCcertification. I’ll be getting dirty for TNC in aninvasive species assault/ecological restorationproject on Cape Cod.”Nalin Sahni is working for the Environment andEnergy Project at the Brookings Institution inWashington, D.C.Erica Schroeder is residential program associatewith the Consortium for Energy Efficiency inBoston. She writes:“The Consortium for EnergyEfficiency, a nonprofit public benefits corporation,develops national initiatives to promote themanufacture and purchase of energy-efficientproducts and services. Its goal is to induce lastingstructural and behavioral changes in themarketplace, resulting in the increased adoption ofenergy-efficient technologies.”erica.schroeder@aya.yale.eduAlison Van Gorp is green Seattle project managerfor the Cascade Land Conservancy in Seattle. Shemanages the Green Seattle Partnership, a publicprivatepartnership between Cascade LandConservancy and the city of Seattle to restoreforested parklands and greenways throughoutthe city.Maria Vargas is executive director of theNatura Bolivia Foundation in Santa Cruz,Bolivia. She writes:“I’m leading a conservationand development organization, an NGO thatfocuses on developing markets for environmentalservices or other incentives that move people inthe direction of sustainable management.”mteresavargas@naturabolivia.orgDaniela Vizcaino writes:“I am working for theWildlife Conservation Society in the Bronx Zoo asprogram manager for their Latin America program.”Marty Walters writes:“I’m managing environmentaldue diligence (and a fair amount of cleanupwork) for very large real estate transactions aroundthe world for GE Real Estate, which followed on myinternship in 2003 and has put me back on trackwith a well-compensated career doing good for theenvironment. I’m also lucky enough to be workingremotely from Quincy, Calif. (population 5,000),where much of my family lives and where my kidsand I have re-established in an absolutely beautifulenvironment.Although I am still working primarilyon industrial and land-use issues, I have becomeinvolved in various community initiatives, includinga long-term effort to integrate forestry, timberindustry, water resources and climate change issuesin the northern Sierra Nevada.”Jeremy West is the program director at the GreatBasin Institute in Reno, Nev. “I run the forestryprogram for a large, environmental nonprofit.Wework with government agencies and local firedistricts to implement fuels management andcommunity development projects to makecommunities at the wildland-urban interface morefire-safe.”Hillary Young is the associate regional scientist forsoutheastern Massachusetts with the MassachusettsAudubon Society, based in Cambridge. She keepsbusy compiling inventory information on birds andamphibians and researching effectiveness of warmseason grassland restoration projects. She has beenaccepted into a Ph.D. program in ecology andevolutionary biology at Stanford.Zhizhou Zhang writes:“I am working as anassistant industry analyst for CEB Monitor Group.The company is helping foreign fund managers findinvestment opportunities in China.”2005CLASS SECRETARIES:DAVID CHERNEYdavid@nrcooperative.orgDORA CUDJOEdora.cudjoe@aya.yale.eduVIRGINIA LACYvirginia.lacy@yale.eduBENJAMIN URQUHARTbenjamin.urquhart@yale.eduLauren Baker writes:“Over the summer I taughthigh school in New Haven, including doing someadvocacy and environmental justice work with thestudents. I am working on community-basedproperty rights with the Center for InternationalEnvironmental Law, and have started a stint inWashington, D.C.”David Cherney is working with the NorthernRockies Conservation Cooperative in Jackson,Wyo.,with Dylan Taylor ’02, Jason Wilmot ’03 andLydia Dixon ’03.Jamie Fergusson writes:“Got married in July inToronto and went on a honeymoon to Costa Rica. Iam now in D.C. working at the IFC on environmentalfinance (looking at wind farms in Mongolia), andhave just bought a house.All very exciting, butmissing Sage Boy!”Beatrice Huang writes:“I’ve moved to Bethesda,Md. I am a research coordinator at the PhysiciansCommittee for Responsible Medicine.”Po-Yi Hung writes:“I’m now a Ph.D. student ingeography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,and will focus my research on political ecology andcultural geography.”Thu Ba Huynh writes:“I am taking care of GlobalEnvironment Facility (GEF) program developmentat the UNDP Office in Vietnam.”Andrea Johnson writes:“I was in Kalimantan,Sumatra and Java until October, conducting a smallcomparative study of field research stations.”Amy Kimball married Graham Dodds in early July.Amy began a Fulbright fellowship in Montreal atMcGill University to study the city’s parks.David Kneas writes:“I am in Ecuador as aninternational human rights observer in thecommunities that are opposing plans to open thearea (the Intag region) to large-scale mining. I amworking with a former professor from DePauw anda few other friends to get the observer project moreestablished.We have a video camera here and havebeen filming everything, including a recentmeeting between the CEO of the mining companyand the local environmental organizer. Theprevious video I made is now on the TropicalResources Institute website.”44ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

ClassNotesMary Alice and Rob Lamb and Megan Sutton arehoping to do great things for land protection in theSouthern Appalachians. Rob is doing stewardshipwork at Carolina Mountain Land Conservancy inHendersonville, N.C., while Mary Alice and Meganare working together at the Southern AppalachianHighlands Conservancy in Asheville. Mary Alice isworking on public outreach and Megan on conservationplanning and stewardship for WesternNorth Carolina.Maura Leahy writes:“I’m working for theHarvard Green Campus Initiative and willcoordinate a campus energy reduction program.The premise is that people will be more likelyto change their behavior if they’re presentedwith concrete ways to do so in interesting ways(”maura_leahy@harvard.eduVirginia Lorne writes:“I’m back in Tahoe workingon land acquisition and public access projects for theCalifornia Tahoe Conservancy. I have been runninginto Betony Jones ’04. My husband, Matt, and I areexpecting a little Lorne in mid-December.And Mot,the dog, is happy to have his paws back in LakeTahoe, his favorite swimming hole.”Joe MacDougald writes:“I’m working as mycompany’s chief operating officer, and am chair ofmy town’s planning and zoning commission. In thespring, I’ll teach an advanced land-use law course asan adjunct law professor.”Sarah Matheson writes:“I am doing environmentalsustainability work for the World Bank andreside in Arlington,Va.”Alex McIntosh spent the summer creating anenergy conservation program for Yale College,working for John Pepper, vice president for financeand administration. Now Alex is interviewing withThe Nature Conservancy for conservation jobs inthree states and had hoped to have something linedup by end of September. He also volunteered inLouisiana with the American Red Cross to help thevictims of the hurricanes (see story on page 49).alexmcintosh@aya.yale.eduRolando Mendez-Treneman writes:“I designedand implemented an applied ecology workshop for ahigh school ecology class. The students learned andpracticed cross-country navigation (use of compass,aerial photography, topographic maps), forestmeasurement methodology (use of relascope, anglegauge, clinometer, Spencer tape) and teamwork.”Azalea Mitch writes:“I’m still looking into thecauses of marsh loss along the Connecticut coastwith Shimi Anisfeld. My husband and I just cameback from our first Engineers Without Bordersassignment in Honduras.We stomped and hackedour way through subtropical wet forests with amachete, looking for water sources that we couldtap into to help some of the local villages incentral Honduras.”Matt Muspratt writes:“I’ve just finished my firstterm of law school at the University of Michigan. I’vehad one visitor, Sharon Gulick.”Justin Pollard writes:“Since graduation I have beenliving in Portland, Maine, where I have been a builder,and founded a sustainable building and designcompany called Pollard Builders. I volunteered withthe Red Cross in the Hurricane Katrina relief effort inMontgomery, Ala.”Rebecca Reider writes:“I have been wanderingaround Ecuador and Peru. For a month, I mothered 18goofy gringo teenagers around Ecuador as a tripleader for Global Routes. I also spent some time in therainforest with the communities where I did mymaster’s research last summer, visiting Kichwafriends, trying to support their battle for title to theirancestral territories and living the good junglelifestyle eating roasted ants and caterpillar soup.”Michael Ritger writes:“I am a financial analyst for asmall research and investment firm in New York,specializing in natural resources companies.”Amy Shatzkin is a transportation planner in Seattle.Emily Shelton writes:“I am a global sustainabilityanalyst with Mattel (Barbie, Hot Wheels, Fisher Price),based in Los Angeles. My work deals with environmentaland social performance of licenseemanufacturing facilities worldwide.”emily.shelton@aya.yale.eduDan Stonington writes:“I’ve had a great summer inthe Pacific Northwest.After graduation, I drove backto Seattle via Colorado, Utah and California, stoppingto visit relatives and F&ESers along the way. I’mhoping to get a position in Olympia, either workingfor the legislature or staffing an environmentaladvisory council to the governor.”Jonathan Strunin writes:“I’m interning at theAssociation of Bay Area Governments (ABAG),a regional governmental planning organization.I am developing and writing a report updating theexisting land-use map for the entire region, whichwill be used in ABAG’s regional projections that theyput out every few years to help local governmentsmake planning decisions. I’m also assisting in thepreparation of the multijurisdictional local hazardmitigation plan (always a huge issue in California)by writing a piece on past, present and future landusedevelopment in hazard areas.”Hannah Stutzman writes:“I spent the summer atthe David and Lucile Packard Foundation in LosAltos, Calif., doing research on marine ecosystembasedmanagement initiatives. It was fun to spendthe summer on the West Coast, and now I’m lookingfor a full-time position in Colombia.”hannah.stutzman@aya.yale.eduVictoria Thompson writes:“Earlier this summer,I met briefly with Alex Pannock and Kyla Dahlinin San Francisco, and made some ‘educational’ visitsto Napa Valley wineries. I started my new job at ICFConsulting in D.C. on August 1, and have beenspending my time settling into my new apartmentwith Lisa Patel and going to various office socialevents. Liz Martin works in the same office as me.”Jennifer Vogel writes:“I am communicationscoordinator for Rainforest Alliance in New York. Mywork is mostly writing, editing and media outreach.I’ve also started a small business, marketing wildAfrican silk as an NTFP.”Huiyan Zhao writes:“I am in Rhode Island, andam happy to be an environmental analyst for thenext few years.”Kate Zyla writes:“Brian and I got married inOctober in New York. I’m living in D.C. and workingat the Pew Center on Global Climate Change.We’retaking our honeymoon in Hawaii!”From Kathleen Schomaker ’96, Director of Alumni/ae Affairs:Thank you for your submissions to Class Notes—we hope you enjoy reading this section of themagazine, along with all the rest of Environment:Yale.Please note the following procedures for Class Notes: Class secretaries try to contact classmates,generally in February and August, to remind you to send notes. If you do not hear from a secretary, wemay no longer have your e-mail address or other contact information. Please update your information or or by calling 203-432-5108.If your note misses the deadline, we will save it for the next issue. Should you choose to update your notebefore the following issue, simply let us know.We publish e-mail and website addresses as part of Class Notes, but we do not publish mailing addressesor phone numbers. However, we appreciate receiving your mail and phone updates as well.As always, we enjoy hearing from you!Fall 2005 45

ObituariesJ. Willcox (Will) Brown ’41 came from Delaware, and was a 1937graduate of Dartmouth. He died on August 18 in Concord, N.H., at 90.Brown was an assistant forester for the Society for the Protection of NewHampshire Forests and was once the governor’s representative to theNational Commission on Public Land Review. He met his wife, Natale,YaleSchool of Nursing Class of 1941, while they were both in college. Brownwas a forester in New York, California, Pennsylvania and Michigan beforesettling to work in New Hampshire in 1955. In 1959, he became a privatenatural resources consultant. A longtime resident of Dunbarton, N.H.,Brown served the town as a selectman and town moderator. In 1999, heand Natale donated 159 acres of forest to the town, permanentlypreserving the hilltop that leads to Dunbarton’s center. In 2001, he andNatale were jointly awarded the Granite State Award from the Universityof New Hampshire for their service to the state.At that time, the presidentof the Audubon Society of New Hampshire, Richard Moore, noted threeissues Brown fought for: he opposed building a four-lane interstatehighway through Franconia Notch; he favored acid-rain research thateventually led to federal legislation to address the problem; and heopposed the Seabrook nuclear power plant because of its proximity to asalt marsh. At Brown’s death, New Hampshire Gov. John Lynch issued astatement that praised him for his accomplishments and acknowledgedthat he was a friend and advisor to state senators, representatives,governors and presidential candidates, as well as a mentor to youngpeople interested in public service. Gov. Lynch also said, “The beautifulopen spaces and forests that we enjoy today in New Hampshire—and thatour children will be able to enjoy in the future—are due in no small partto the work and dedication of Will Brown.” He is survived by Natale, wholives in Concord.Richard J. Campana ’47, Ph.D. ’52, was from Everett, Mass., andgraduated with a degree in forestry from the University of Idaho in 1943.During World War II, he served in the Army in Europe and was awardedthe Bronze Star. After his first stay at Yale, he was a forestry instructor atPennsylvania State University and North Carolina State University. Afterdoctoral study at Yale, he spent several years as a forest pathologist for theU.S. Department of Agriculture and the Illinois Natural History Survey atUrbana. In 1958, he became head of the Department of Botany and PlantPathology at the University of Maine at Orono, and spent the rest of hiscareer as a professor there. He and Jean, his wife of 60 years, stayed inOrono after he retired. He died there on April 1 at 87.Laura (Laurie) Beth Cuoco ’05 came from Flushing, N.Y., and wasa 1997 graduate of U.C. Berkeley. From 1998 to 2000, she served in ElSalvador with the Peace Corps as an agroforestry volunteer andenvironment educator. Following the Peace Corps, she remained in ElSalvador another year, joining the American Red Cross as awater/sanitation project coordinator in disaster relief efforts in the wakeof two major earthquakes. She relocated to Panama to work with schoolsystems before applying to F&ES, where she wanted to learn more aboutthe interplay between politics, economics and the environment, and towork with the Tropical Resources Institute. She died on May 10, two weeksbefore graduation, from complications of a brain hemorrhage. She issurvived by her parents and her many friends in the Class of 2005.Ronald Gale ’49 was from New York City and was a 1947 forestrygraduate of SUNY-Syracuse. He was an expert in wood technology and aconsultant to a variety of entities concerned with forest products in NewYork state and throughout New England, including private-sectormanufacturers, the U.S. Navy, Norwich University and the New YorkLumber Trade Association. In 1970, he joined the PennsylvaniaDepartment of Forests and Waters in a similar capacity. He was 78 whenhe died in Harrisburg, Pa., where his wife, Judith, is among his survivors.Marilyn Griffith ’77 was from Boston and was a 1975 graduate ofMount Holyoke. She died on February 19 in Waterloo, Ontario, fromcomplications of a stroke, leaving her husband, Tim Thorne, her parentsand a brother and sister. After receiving her M.F.S. from F&ES, Griffithcompleted her Ph.D. in plant physiology from the University of Minnesotain 1981. She was a Killam Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department ofBotany, University of British Columbia, then a postdoctoral fellow withNorm Huner in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University ofWestern Ontario, where she worked from 1982 to 1984. From 1984 to1987, she was an assistant professor at the Agricultural and ForestryExperiment Station at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks. In 1987, shemoved south to become an assistant professor in the Department ofBiology at the University of Waterloo, where she was promoted to fullprofessor in 2000. In 2003, she was named a Killam Research Fellow, aprestigious title she held at the time of her death. Griffith gained internationalrecognition for her research on cold hardiness in plants,particularly winter rye and, more recently, Thellungiella. Her discovery ofplant antifreeze proteins led to successful collaborations with scientists inmany disciplines. The focus and integrity she brought to her workresulted in a collection of highly cited publications and a cadre of welltrainedstudents and postdoctoral fellows. Her colleagues respected herknowledgeable, honest and principled opinions. Griffith authored or coauthoredmore than 80 research publications, and her research led to fourpatents relating to cold tolerance in plants. She was the founder and amember of the board of directors of Ice Biotech. In addition, she servedon the grant selection committee in plant biology, Natural Resources andEngineering Research Council of Canada (2000 to 2003); as associateeditor of the Canadian Journal of Botany (2005); and as eastern regionaldirector (1994 to 1996) and senior director (2003 to 2005) of theCanadian Society of Plant Physiologists.John Sloane Griswold Sr., Yale College Class of 1937, of Greenwichand Hobe Sound, Fla., former chair of the board of trustees of the46ENVIRONMENT:YALE The School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Children’s Aid Society and founding partner of Griswold, Heckel andKaiser, an industrial design firm in New York, died July 30 at the age of 91.He was a Whiffenpoof and president of the Yale Glee Club. He had a keeninterest in the environment and believed strongly in the importance ofsupporting scholarship assistance. He established two scholarships atF&ES, and had been instrumental in encouraging others to fundscholarships. He thoroughly enjoyed meeting and getting to know hisstudents. He attended Harvard Business School before joining his family’sfirm, W&J Sloane, in New York City. During World War II, he managed thefirm’s shipbuilding contract with the U.S. Navy in Wilmington, N.C.,fitting the interiors of Liberty Ships for the North Carolina ShipbuildingCompany. Following the war, he enrolled at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn,where he studied and later taught industrial design before forming hisown design firm. His clients included General Motors and RCA, amongothers. He served on many boards of charitable organizations, includingThe Boys & Girls Clubs of America, where he was recently honored withits highest national award for his 65 years of service as a national trustee.He also served on the boards of The Boys & Girls Clubs of Greenwich,Pomfret School and International College in Beirut, Lebanon. An avidgolfer, he was a member of numerous clubs and associations inConnecticut, Florida and Scotland. He was also a member of The NewYork Yacht Club and the Yale Club of New York. He was predeceased by hisfirst wife, Anna Lauder Griswold, and is survived by their six children, S.Shelby Schavoir of Savannah, Ga., Ursula LaMotte of Bedford, N.Y., JohnGriswold Jr.,Yale College Class of 1967, of Greenwich, Evan Griswold ’75 ofOld Lyme, Conn., Edward Griswold of Friday Harbor, Wash., and CharlesGriswold of Ojai, Calif., and 13 grandchildren and nine greatgrandchildren.He is also survived by his wife, MaryElla (DeeDee)Griswold, and her four children.Peter Kaminsky ’89 died on September 14 at home in Branford,Conn., after a long illness. He was born in New Haven in 1945 andattended Colgate University before coming to Yale. He was the retailmanager for Pete’s Hearth & Home in Old Saybrook. He was a member ofthe Branford Yacht Club and the Branford Garden Club, as well as theBranford Environmental Commission. He was an avid gardener andoutdoorsman. A devoted F&ES alumnus, he was adopted by the Class of1980, and until 2003 managed the Class of 1980 Fund, providing annualawards for creative projects to students. He is survived by his wife, SandraKonopka Kaminsky; his stepsons, Jeffrey Rizzo and James Rizzo Jr., bothof Rhode Island; and his siblings, Barbara Ford and John Kaminsky ofBranford and Frank Kaminsky of Nantucket. Members and friends of theClass of 1980 are making contributions to the fund in his memory.Contact the F&ES Office of Alumni Affairs, 203-432-5108.Andrew Richard Kroon, a Latin American studies major at YaleCollege, member of Berkeley College and admitted student to the master’sdegree program, died in April at 24 from complications of a congenitalheart defect. He was a great friend to F&ES and a committed environmentalistinterested in sustainable forestry in the Amazon region. As a YaleCollege student, he helped create a sustainable food initiative; coauthoreda study on university energy use; spoke at the 2002 UnitedNations World Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa; and was the copresidentof the Yale Student Environmental Coalition. He studied inSpain and Brazil and was fluent in Spanish and Portuguese. Prior tocoming to Yale College, he graduated from Deerfield Academy. He issurvived by his parents, Mary Jane and Rick; his siblings, David, SarahKroon Chiles,Molly,Stephen and Michael; and his grandmother, Helen.The Andrew Kroon Environmental Fund at Yale has been established tohonor Andrew’s memory. The fund could be used to support a range ofcauses and projects that Andrew was interested in, such as planting treesacross the country and relandscaping of the south court of BerkeleyCollege with plants that are drought-tolerant and will not requireunnecessary chemical fertilizers.Arthur E. MacGregor ’36 died on August 26 at Havenwood NursingHome in Concord, N.H., at 93. He was born in Providence, R.I., andreceived his bachelor’s degree at Dartmouth College before coming toYale. He also completed graduate studies at Harvard University. He ownedthe Sunset Farm in Hanson, Mass., for 25 years. He also worked for theNew Hampshire Fish and Wildlife Services. He was a member of theDartmouth Outing Club, the Appalachian Club Hutman’s Association andTrout Unlimited. He loved hiking and camping, and was an avid troutfisherman. One daughter predeceased him in 1997. His surviving familyincludes his wife of 65 years, Beatrice; a son, Douglas, of Alaska; adaughter, Ellen, of London, Ontario; six grandchildren; and threegreat-grandchildren.Carl E. Ostrom ’41, Ph.D. ’44, was from the Philadelphia area. Hestarted a lifelong career in research with the U.S. Forest Service aftergraduation from Pennsylvania State University in 1933. His firstassignments were around Pennsylvania and in naval stores research inLake City, Fla. In 1950, he conducted research at the Southern ForestExperiment Station in Louisiana, and from 1965 to 1976 he was deputychief for research in the USFS national office. Prior to his retirement, hewas director of science programs for the Society of American Foresters.He retired to Prescott, Ariz., where he died on March 22 at 92. Laura, hiswife of 64 years, is among his survivors.John W. Parsons ’50, a forestry graduate of the University of theSouth, died on January 29, 2005, in Palmerton, Pa., at 78. His wife, Mary,survives him.Harold A. Paulsen ’51 was from Minneapolis and obtained a B.S. inforestry from Iowa State University, following his military service. He hada long career in range management research at the Rocky MountainForest & Range Experiment Station, where he became assistant directorin 1970. He remained in Fort Collins, Colo., after he retired in 1978.He died on or about April 28 at 83. At least one son in Vashon, Wash.,survives him.Kim (Casey) Pflueger ’78 was a 1976 graduate of the University ofCalifornia at Irvine. He was born in Ortonville, Minn., and died at the ageof 51 in Seattle on April 8, while riding his motor scooter. Following histime at Yale, he pursued a J.D. at the University of Washington School ofLaw. He was a senior partner with Floyd & Pflueger. A devoted husbandand father, he leaves Virginia, his wife of 25 years; his sons, Max andNathan; as well as his mother, sister, brother and two nieces. He will beremembered for his endless enthusiasm for the little joys of life—music,his garden, his wine cellar and riding his Vespa on a sunny day.Fall 200547

Recent Graduate Reaches Out to Hurricane VictimsBy Dave DeFuscoEditor© hshapiro8@aol.comAlex McIntosh ’05“I appreciate whatI have and that oneperson can make asignificant differenceeven in the largestof disasters.”Alex McIntosh ’05Alex McIntosh ’05 remembers watching the disturbing images of disaster and thechaotic relief effort in New Orleans caused by Hurricane Katrina playing out on TV.“I thought,‘Our country can do better.’”He was so troubled that he called the Red Cross to assist in relief efforts. After two daysof training at the Danbury chapter,Alex was deployed to Baton Rouge on September 16—nearly three weeks after Katrina made landfall. In less than three hours, he was registeredfor a two-week assignment, given $200 for gas and handed the keys to a 14-foot Budgetrental truck.With another volunteer from Iowa,Alex set out on a six-hour drive to a shelterin the town of Monroe in the northeastern corner of Louisiana.The Monroe shelter served approximately 2,000 evacuees at its peak, including familiesdisplaced by Hurricane Rita, and was located in an unoccupied 275,000-square-foot officebuilding. To accommodate the evacuees, a bank, post office, Head Start program, cafeteria,sleeping quarters, medical offices, showers and supply stores were established and staffedby over 200 social workers, national guardsmen, local police and Red Cross volunteers.In his first week, Alex and 10 other volunteers drove Red Cross Emergency ResponseVehicles (ERV) loaded with food, water and emergency supplies to hurricane victims atchurches, campgrounds, hotels and shelters in 100-degree heat and humidity. Inseven days, he delivered 3,500 meals, 14,000 bottles of water, 4,200 snacks and 2,100 carekits, which included shavers, toothpaste, shampoo and other personal care items.When they were available, he delivered ice, diapers and baby food, diabetic supplies andstuffed animals.A regular shift was from 8:30 a.m. to 7 p.m., but during one run, which Alex called a“nail-biter,” it took him six hours to travel 70 miles on backcountry roads through Rita’s tornadoesto bring food and water to 40 families who had found refuge in an isolated church in thecountryside. In his second week, he put in 14-hour days supervising the ERV team and supportingthe development of the shelter.“The hardest part was watching incoming evacuee families wait for hours to be registered at theshelter, knowing everything they had been through. Many of the families and individuals had beendisplaced and evacuated two, three and even four times since Katrina struck,” said Alex. “I felt Iwas letting them down. On the flip side, I got good advice from another volunteer, who advised meto find a family or person who needed help and to stick with them until they got it.”One of those in need of support was a New Orleans woman who had lost her uninsured houseand personal belongings in the flooding. To make matters worse, she had just been diagnosed withglaucoma and didn’t have the money for surgery or medicine to stop the disease’s progression. Shewill go blind in a few years. After his shifts were done, Alex helped her arrange for FEMA (FederalEmergency Management Agency) busing back to her hometown and fill out the paperwork for twotypes of financial aid.“She told me,” said Alex,“that her ‘heart was heavy,’ but that I had given herthe strength to go on.”Despite the stress, there were lighter moments. An older female evacuee hadn’t had any sleep foralmost two days during a long and difficult bus ride to the shelter from Port Arthur, Texas. Ritadestroyed her home. The check-in on the evening she arrived was slow, and Alex was helping staffescort new evacuees into the increasingly crowded shelter. When the woman got to Alex, shecollapsed into the chair in front of him. Alex told her that he didn’t think the shelter had any moreroom for her in the single women’s section of the shelter. At that, she started to get upset, but herespectfully interjected that he did have room for her in the single good-looking women’s section.“She burst out laughing and said to me:‘Honey, you keep up that sweet talk and I’d be happy to sleepon a cot in the parking lot.’”Alex said that while many evacuees were frustrated by the slow pace of initial relief efforts,the vastmajority he encountered were grateful for the assistance.“After spending two weeks as a volunteer,I feel much more conscious of the less fortunate in our society,”he said.“I appreciate what I have andthat one person can make a significant difference even in the largest of disasters.” EY

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