Summer 2005 - YALSA - American Library Association
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Summer 2005 - YALSA - American Library Association

148 J. DOZIER, J. BRUNO and P. DOWNEYprocedure horizon(N, A, D, Ht, Hb ) calculates the onedimensionalhorizon function for both forward andbackward directions by the previously described algorithm.S(x') is a vector holding the number of coordinatepairs in queue x'.Algorithm 3 to build the queues, and Algorithm 4, tocalculate the horizon function for each queue, in thedirections O and O + rr, are listed in the Appendix. If thehorizon for the complete circle is desired, this lastalgorithm may be run at some A0 over the range 0 ~< 0

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COLUMNPerspectives on YA PracticeCommon YA Models of Service in Public Libraries:Advantages and DisadvantagesMary K. CheltonIt would be wonderful to havea separate YA space and a YAlibrarian, but we haven’t thespace or the personnel budget.And so we function in the librarythat we have, rather than thelibrary that we would like to have. . .—Recent post on YALSA-BKHaving worked at a varietyof levels in severalindividual libraries andlibrary systems, I havecome to the conclusionthat there is no one perfect way to deliverservices to the young adult group in publiclibraries, only options to be chosenon the basis of a specific library’s serviceprovision history; the library’s size interms of budget, staff, or user visits; thestaff’s attitude toward service, particularlyYA services; and the library director’ssusceptibility to local or national trends.Obviously the library’s mission, localyoung adults’ preferences, and nationalguidelines such as YALSA’s Young AdultsMary K. Chelton, a cofounder of VOYA,is a professor in the Graduate Schoolof Library and Information Studies,Queens College, City University of NewYork. Her dissertation on YA servicesis entitled Adult-Adolescent ServiceEncounters: The Library Context(1997). She is the editor of three editionsof Excellence in Library Servicesfor Young Adults for the Young AdultLibrary Services Association of ALA.Among her many articles on library andYA Services is “The Problem PatronThat Public Libraries Created: TheNormal Adolescent,” The ReferenceLibrarian, nos. 75 and 76 (June 2002):23–33.Deserve the Best should influence thechoices, but they often only come intoplay later when initial choices are reexaminedor reconfigured. 1 For this article,“service model” refers to the unique localconfiguration of staff, position titles, servicedelivery area, collection, and servicesset up for young adults.I don’t expect to solve argumentsover the choices here, only to make thepros and cons evident so the choices canbe better informed. I find the currentintense interest in YA space planning fascinatingbecause I rarely see any attentionto service model choices in those articlesor pictures; yet, it would seem logical thatthe service model adopted should naturallyinfluence planning for teen spaces.Basically, the choices among various servicemodels need to address three questions:(1) What kind of staff will do thework in what organizational category?(2) What kind of services will be offered?(3) Assuming that reading promotionand adolescent literacy are among theservices offered, what kind of collectionare you developing, and where and howwill it be housed or accessed?StaffWhen service models were last surveyednationally, position titles of librariansserving youth were distributed amongthe categories and percentages shown intable 1. 2This distribution is very similar tothe same survey conducted in 1988; however,it should be noted that more thanhalf of the libraries responding to thesurvey had only one or two librarians onstaff. Eleven percent of all public librarieshad the specific young adult specialisttitle, which, in turn, was related to thesize of those libraries as measured by thenumber of patrons per week. The largestlibraries, those with one thousand ormore patrons a week, in other words, hadspecialist YA positions, but most publiclibraries are not large, and the lack of aYA specialist position is more normalthan not. Unfortunately, while there havebeen more recent surveys, there has beennothing specific enough in its breakdownof position titles to see if anything haschanged since 1988. This distribution ofposition titles may still be the same, andwhether it should be considered ideal interms of the goals of YA services overall,or just inevitable because of library size,is debatable. If one assumes, however,that this distribution is stable, it is obviousthat some choices should be what tocall and where to place the librarian mostresponsible for YA services, and how thatperson’s time should be allocated amongvarious service activities, such as planningand budgeting; collection developmentand promotion; direct service to teens andparents; services promotion; outreach toschools, community youth workers, andyouth-serving organizations; and professionaldevelopment. If the person’s time issplit among age groups or functions—forexample, reference and YA, or audiovisualservices and YA, or youth services for bothchildren and adolescents—time allocationwill have to be even more finely planned.In the absence of such planning, the designatedperson can become the publiclibrary analog to a substitute in schools,pulled onto some other service deskor activity whenever there is a positionvacancy emergency or a perceived need.Table 2 summarizes some pros andcons of various staffing configuration4 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

CHELTONCOMMON YA MODELS OF SERVICEchoices. 3 The implications of what theYA-serving librarian is called have mostto do with the degree of focused attentionon the primary young adult clientele,the depth of professional knowledgeabout this clientele, and the time allocatedtoward various other clienteles oractivities. If the distributions of the 1994national survey are still true, this may wellbe a discussion needed in all public librariesbecause specialized YA positions are sorare and are related to library size, but it isa discussion that should be informed andpart of YA services planning.The access-versus-ownership debateabout information materials, with allits attendant problems, such as whichformat and whether to purchase materialsor access them on the Web, appliesto the information-seeking collectionin YA services too. Licensed, full-textonline databases accessible in the libraryor at home are obviously preferable toyoung adults than print resources forimposed school-related queries. It is notaccidental that Teen Central (TC) in thePhoenix Public Library has twenty computerterminals exclusively for users ofthat space and links to those resourceson the TC Web site. 4 While the evaluation,licensing, and management ofonline databases is an ongoing decisionmakingand budgeting issue in terms ofpublic service space, it also means spaceplanning for terminals in the library andfor off-site access policies.The physical, more personal interestcollection may present problems becauseof the way it is acquired and housed.Current wisdom would suggest buyingas many graphic novels, paperbacks, andmagazines and displaying them face-outto maximize cover appeal, given theirenormous popularity with teenagers.Even if there is a separate YA specialistand department, though, problems canarise such as those discussed regularlyon GNLIB-L concerning where to placepotentially controversial graphic novelswithin the library to avoid politicalproblems. 5 If the YA-serving librarianis part of a Youth Services Departmentencompassing young children, nobodywill be happy intershelving real YAinteresttitles. Intershelving can lead toSpaceService DeskA succession of YA space planning modelshave appeared in the column “YASpaces of Your Dreams” in Voice of YouthAdvocates for several years now, andTeen Spaces: The Step-by-Step LibraryMakeover by Kimberly Bolan Taney isavailable from ALA Editions for helpin planning. One of the issues I rarelysee covered in any depth, though, is theconfiguration of the service desk. A deskis important because it symbolizes theplace where service may be expected onsite. Table 3 gives a list of pros and consfor different desk configurations commonin public libraries.None of the cons of these deskconfigurations are inevitable, given goodadministrative oversight, training, interpersonalcommunication, and respectamong staff, but they are common.CollectionTable 1. Percentage by Position Title In Public Libraries, 1994% Public ServiceLibrarian% Children’sLibrarian% Young AdultLibrarian% Youth ServicesLibrarian25 40 11 24Table 2. Models of Service for Young Adults by OrganizationalDepartmentalization: Pros and ConsModels Pros ConsSeparate position/department.Part of Youth ServicesPart of Adult ServicesBetter ability to focus on primaryclientele.Better advocacy for primaryclientele.More intervention andinterpersonal concern for YAs.Better understanding of YAinterests and materials.Developmental cohesion andflexibility.More intervention andinterpersonal concern for YAs.Better understanding of YAinterests and materials.More status.More interest in reference.Marginalization from other staff.Stigma of clientele attached.No responsibility for YAs taken inother departments.Less interest in reference,especially information literacyinstruction.Marginalization from other staff.Stigma of clientele attached.No responsibility for YAs taken inother departments.Less interest in reference,especially information literacyinstruction.Time split with young children.Ignorance of YA interests andmaterials.Competition with children’s overYA materials.Loss of interpersonal emphasis.Competition with other adultservices priorities.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 5

COMMON YA MODELS OF SERVICECHELTONlibraries with Junior High collectionsin the children’s or youth services spaceand YA collections outside that space, adistinction that may well be lost on thepublic regardless of the controversies thelibrarians feel they are avoiding.The pros and cons of various collectionhousing configurations appears intable 4.Interfiling YA-interest titles in theadult collection can render them invisibleto the public and staff unless thereis a major readers advisory effort to list,display, and booktalk these titles. Somepublic libraries avoid this by having aseparate YA collection, usually limited tofiction, even though they do not have aseparate specialist staff. Without attentionthough, such collections quickly becomeunattended organizational anomalies,and all the research on boys and readingand their attraction to nonfiction makesthis approach extremely discriminatoryand feminized. 6Ideally there would be a lively separatepopular interest multimedia collectionfor young adults, but many publiclibraries do not have money for heavyduplication, they are print-biased bytradition, or they only budget by formatrather than audience, so that the personsin charge of buying audio books or magazinesmay not be those buying paperbacksand graphic novels. This way of purchasingleads to philosophical and coordinationproblems about who should get what,when, and under whose authority.ConclusionNone of these service models makesgood services for young adults insurmountable,given leadership, patience,and communication, although somesimply may not be affordable. They doimply choices that may not be immediatelyvisible, however, so this article hasbeen just a small attempt to make theeffects of such choices visible. No choicehas to be irrevocable, though, and thevariety of models available offers manypossibilities if chosen wisely with theinterests of young adults as the mainobjective. The comfort of individuallibrary staff and a particular library’sTable 3. Models of Service by Service Desk Configuration: Pros and ConsModels Pros ConsSeparate age-levelservice deskSingle servicedesk/library withspecialists on staffSingle service desk/library with onlygeneralists on staffBetter focus and attention onprimary clientele.More consistent serviceexpertises.Everyone expected to serve all agegroups.Acknowledged in-house expertiseof specialists available.Better interaction with rest ofpublic service staff.Everyone expected to serve all agegroupshistory of how things are done shouldalways take a back seat to the informationneeds of young adults. One thingwe do know, though, is that whenlibraries do dedicate resources, staffYA users bounced from desk todesk with bad referrals.Understaffing to cover otherdesks.Marginalization from other staff.Specialist often drawn away fromhelping YAs to help other agesand needs.Non-YA specialists have noincentive to learn about YA needsand interests.Resistance from colleagues tospecialist advice.Less consistent service expertise.Specialty knowledge only gainedby personal preference in absenceof other incentives.Young adults may not be the agegroup given priority.Less consistent service expertise.Table 4. Pros and Cons of Various Print Collection Housing OptionsModels Pros ConsInterfiled in youthservicesInterfiled in adultSeparate young adultwith specialistNear designated service specialist.Takes wide developmental rangeof early adolescents into account.Fewer political problems becauseof location.Easily available to others as wellas to YAs.Focused on interests of YAs.Political problems because ofaccessibility by young children.Purchasing authority and budgetsmay need excessive coordination.Materials become invisible if notpromoted outside housing.Purchasing authority and budgetsmay need excessive coordination.Cost of duplication, if any.Political problems if controversialmaterials particular, toward young adults, asmany big city libraries such as thosein Houston, Salt Lake City, Cleveland,Columbus, and Cincinnati have recentlycontinued on page 116 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

COLUMNThe Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research GrantPlanting, Nurturing, and Growingthe Field of Young Adult ResearchBridgid FennellLibrary service to teens is aflourishing organic movementsprouting up in librariesacross the country. Researchon teens and library useenriches the scholarship of the professionand reinforces the critical need foryoung adult services. The Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant enablesYALSA members to engage in actionresearch and formulate new models ofservice to teens.The teen population in the UnitedStates is experiencing a boom. As publicand school libraries respond withemerging and evolving service plans,the research into the information needsand use patterns of teens guides planning.Regrettably, teens continue to beoverlooked by most library systems, andmany school districts weaken mediacenters and library instruction due tocost-cutting measures. Carol Doll, pastrecipient of the Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant, reinforces thenecessity for research in this field. “Youngadult services in libraries have notreceived the respect they deserve. Thereis an acceptance of the need and valueof children’s library services, but thesame is not true for young adult services.Research is one way to document thevalue of those services.” 1 Better understandingof contemporary teens and theirrelationship with libraries informs bestpractices and sets benchmarks for qualityservice. Furthermore, research identifiesdeficiencies and suggests remedies,demonstrating the need for increasedsupport through funding and specializedstaffing. Our colleagues, administrators,community, deans, and other fundingproviders are reminded of the necessityof teen services by a comprehensive bodyof literature. Lastly, research stimulatesdialogue within the profession and posesnew questions, challenges assumptions,and illuminates new directions.The Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA ResearchGrant: Planting the SeedScholars have experienced challengesfinding funding and interest for theirwork in youth services among generallibrary scholars. In her early foray intoacademia, Mary K. Chelton lamented,“We need to buy ourselves an academicif we want anything done.” 2 DorothyBroderick, with whom she cofoundedVOYA, suggested the creation of a modestresearch grant “to give seed money forsmall projects.” 3 The Young Adult ServicesDivision (YASD) was approached toadminister the grant of five hundreddollars, and in 1982 the YASD boardapproved the grant and requested of theYASD Research Committee to designapplication criteria and administer thegrant. 4 The Research Committee definedthe purpose of the grant “to provide seedmoney for small scale projects which willencourage significant research that willhave an influence on library service toyoung adults.” 5 YASD membership wasan eligibility requirement, and the grantwas originally available only to qualifiedresearchers. Consequently, the earlyrecipients were library scholars. However,practitioners soon took advantage of thegrant, and in 1998 the guidelines wererevised to include student membersconducting research leading to a degree. 6Following the death of Frances Henne, aleading scholar of youth library services,Dorothy Broderick lobbied the YASDboard to rename the grant in her honorat the 1986 Midwinter Meeting. 7Befitting Tribute to HenneA native of Springfield, Illinois, FrancesHenne (1906–1985) earned her bachelor’sand master’s degrees in English at theUniversity of Illinois in 1929 and 1936,respectively. Henne’s relationship withColumbia University began in 1935 whenshe enrolled in the bachelor’s program inlibrarianship. She was an instructor andschool librarian at the New York StateCollege for Teachers from 1937 to 1939but returned to Illinois when she becamean instructor at the University of ChicagoGraduate Library School (GLS) and headof the University High School Library. Shewas an assistant professor from 1946–1950and the acting dean from 1951–1952. Herlegacy to GLS included being the firstwoman faculty member and foundingthe Center for Children’s Books and TheBulletin, a review journal for children’s andyoung adult materials. It was during thisBridgid Fennell has been the teen andreference librarian at the GlendalePublic Library in Southern Californiasince Fall 2003. She is currently amember of the YALSA Research andYALSA Selected DVDs and Videos committees,and an SUS Trainer.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 7

THE FRANCES HENNE/YALSA/VOYA RESEARCH GRANTFENNELLShe continued to lead the developmentof school library guidelines for thenext twenty-five years and lectured onchildren’s and young adult services atColumbia until 1975 when she retired asprofessor emeritus.Research Taking RootVOYA and YALSA pay no better tribute toHenne than sponsoring research projectsin her honor. The Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant recipients probeyoung adult services with an array ofresearch questions and topics, and theirfindings are often reported in Young AdultLibrary Services (formerly the Journal ofYouth Services). These research projectschallenge assumptions of teen library useand break the mold of traditional libraryservices. Indeed, some of the grant recipientshave reported findings in articlesthat have grown into fundamental worksof the profession (see figure 1).The grant money has fundedresearch ingenuity by supporting dataanalysis, travel expenses, materials support,and employing youth participationin the research process.period that Henne co-authored with RuthErsted and Alice Lohrer A Planning Guidefor the High School Library Program, a documentthat outlined the need for planningand evaluation of services and materials inthe school library. 8In 1954, Henne returned to NewYork and joined the faculty of ColumbiaUniversity. Her work Standards forSchool Library Programs, published in1960 by ALA, advocated for the restructuringof school media programs tostudent-centered facilities that attendedto the learning needs of individuals. 9Henne was awarded the LippincottAward for this seminal work in 1963.Future DirectionsYALSA members are encouraged to applyfor the Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYAResearch Grant to conduct and sharetheir own action research. The deadlinefor proposals for the next grant cycle isDecember 1, 2005, and the winner willbe selected at Midwinter 2006. Currentlyfunds of up to five hundred dollars supportthe winning research proposal.Interested applicants should refer to thegrant website for application proceduresat the growing field of research ofyoung adult library services, many questionsremain unanswered. The YALSAResearch Agenda identifies access, demographics,evaluation, information seeking,interdisciplinary issues, technologyand history as key areas of young adultresearch. 10 Some possible research agendasmight include:8 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

FENNELLTHE FRANCES HENNE/YALSA/VOYA RESEARCH GRANT1985 Shirley Fitzgibbons—“An Investigation of Reference and Information Service for YoungAdults and Children in Public Libraries”1987 Patsy Perritt—“An Investigation to Learn Information Sources of Pregnant Teens beforeThey became Pregnant”1990 Lesley Farmer—“Research Strategies of Young Adults”Marilyn K. Maynard—ILLINET (Illinois School Library Media Association) ProjectSurvey1992 Joan Lynn Atkinson —“Censorship in Young Adult Fiction”1994 Kathy Latrobe and W. Michael Havener—“Information Seeking Behavior of HighSchool Honors Students”1996 Evie Wilson-Lingbloom, Carol Doll and Barbara Carmody—“Storytelling TeenageFolklore, an experiment in building self-esteem with American oral-tradition”1999 Sheila Anderson and John Bradford—“State-Level Commitment to Young AdultServices”2000 K. Bishop and Patricia K. Bauer—“Attracting Young Adults to Public Libraries”2001 Patrick Jones—“Buyer Beware: Investigating the Quality of Customer Service to YoungAdults in a Major Urban Public Library”2002 Teri Lesesne—“Project H.E.A.R: Help Encourage At-Risk Readers”2003 Kelley McDaniel—“Giving Them What They Want: A Browser-Friendly FictionCollection Organized by Genre”2004 Amy Alessio and Nick Buron—“Measuring the Impact of New and Long Term YoungAdult Services”●●●●●●●●developing models to evaluate outcomes-basedservices and highlightingsuccessful programs;evaluating how various factors suchas library and information studiesmaster’s programs, current events,societal attitudes, and local communitiesimpact the ethics and practicesof young adult library services;surveying young adult spaces that aredevelopmentally sensitive to teens’needs;understanding how emerging technologiessuch as the Internet, virtualchat reference, and personal computingdevices impact YA library services;evaluating the impact of youth participationin the cultivation of libraryservices and youth development;documenting the history of youngadult services;exploring diversity issues and youngadult library services; andlooking at how youth consumerculture and marketing informs thedesign and promotion of library servicesto teens.What are your professional questions,and what ideas and findings canFigure 1. Grant Recipientsyou contribute to the field? How can theFrances Henne/YALSA/VOYA ResearchGrant support your inquiries into teensand library use? ●BIBLIOGRAPHYAnderson, Sheila and John Bradford. “FrancesHenne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant.”1999.Bauer, Pat. Telephone conversation withauthor, Feb. 25, 2005.Bauer, Pat and Kay Bishop. “Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant Application.”Grant proposal, 2000.Bishop, Kay and Pat Bauer. “Attracting YoungAdults to Public Libraries/FrancesHenne/YALSA/VOYA Research GrantResults.” Journal of Youth Services inLibraries (2002): 36–44.Chelton, Mary K. E-mail to author, Mar. 4,2005.Doll, Carol. e-mail to author, March 4, 2005.Doll, Carol, et al. “Unleashing the Power ofTeenage Folklore: Research to Investigatethe Power of Storytelling.” Journalof Youth Services in Libraries (2001):35–40.Feehan, Pat. “The Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant: Past, Present,and Future.” Journal of Youth Services inLibraries (1997): 201–06.“Gale Contemporary Authors Online.” FrancesE. Henne. 1998. Accessed Feb. 26, 2005,“Henne/VOYA Grant Guidelines Revised.”American Libraries 29, no. 4 (1998): 7.Jones, Patrick. “Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYAResearch Grant 2001.” Grant proposal,2001.Kester, Diane D., and Plummer Alston JonesJr. “Frances Henne and The Developmentof School Library Standards.” LibraryTrends 52, no. 4 (2004): 952–62.Latrobe, Kathy, and W. Michael Havener.“Information Seeking Behavior of HighSchool Honors Students: An ExploratoryStudy.” Journal of Youth Services in Libraries(1997): 188–200.Wilson, Evie Lingbloom, Carol Doll, and BarbaraCarmody. “Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant: Grant Application.”Grant proposal, 1995.Young Adult Library Services Association.“Handbook: YALSA Research Agenda.”Accessed Feb. 28, 2005, Adult Services Division. “YASD/VOYAResearch Grant.” Memorandum, n.d.REFERENCES1. Carol Doll, e-mail to the author, Mar. 4,2005.2. Mary K. Chelton, e-mail to the author,Mar. 4, 20053. Pat Feehan, “The Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant: Past, Present,and Future,” Journal of Youth Services inLibraries (Winter 1997): 201.4. Young Adult Services Division, “YASD/VOYA Research Grant,” memo, n.d.5. “Henne/VOYA Grant GuidelinesRevised,” American Libraries 29, no. 4(1998): 7.6. Chelton, e-mail; Feehan, “Henne/YALSA/VOYA.”7. Diane D. Kester and Plummer AlstonJones Jr., “Frances Henne and the Developmentof School Library Standards,”Library Trends 52, no. 4 (2004): 955.8. Kester and Jones, “Frances Henne andthe Development of School Library Standards,”956.9. Frances Henne, Standards for SchoolLibrary Programs (Chicago: ALA, 1960).10. Young Adult Library Services Association,“YALSA Handbook: YALSAResearch Agenda.” Accessed Feb. 28, 2005, ● SUMMER 2005 9

COLUMNResearch Resources for LibrariansResearch Committee ColumnJami L. JonesFor many, it seems so arduous.We wonder if the Herculeaneffort necessary to pull off agood research study is worthit. You bet it is! Whether youare conducting it, reading about it, orapplying its findings, research is an excitingway to invigorate your career whilemaking a substantial contribution tothe profession. It’s an excellent way toimprove library service for the patrons wecherish—children and young adults. Theresources listed below will help librariansbegin this journey.General ResearchResourcesThe books in this section provide anoverview of the research process, whichincludes identifying a researchable question,conducting a literature search,designing a research project and selectinga methodology, gathering data, analyzingresults, and publishing findings.Johnson, Burke, and Larry Christensen.Educational Research: Quantitative,Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches.2nd ed. Boston: Pearson, 2004.McEwan, Elaine E., and Patrick J.McEwan. Making Sense of Research:What’s Good, What’s Not, and HowTo Tell the Difference. ThousandOaks, Calif.: Corwin, 2003.Jami L. Jones is assistant professor,Department of Library Science andInstructional Technology, East CarolinaUniversity, Greenville, N.C. Her interestsare in the area of resiliency and wayslibraries can strengthen youth. Jonesis a member of YALSA’s ResearchCommittee.Mertler, Craig A., and C. M. Charles.Introduction to Educational Research.5th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2005.O’Leary, Zina. The Essential Guide ToDoing Research. Thousand Oaks,Calif.: Sage, 2004.Powell, Ronald R., and Lynn SilipigniConnaway. Basic Research MethodsFor Librarians. 4th ed. Westport,Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2004.Sanders, Susan. How to Do Research inYour School. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:Sage, 2006.Walliman, Nicholas S. R. Your ResearchProject: A Step-by-Step Guide forthe First-Time Researcher. 2nd ed.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2005.The Literature ReviewThe literature review, an importantpart of the research process, helps theresearcher understand the problem bylearning how others have tried to answersimilar research questions.Fink, Arlene. Conducting ResearchLiterature Reviews: From the Internetto Paper. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks,Calif.: Sage, 2004.Onwuegbuzie, Anthony, Qun G. Jiao, andSharon L. Bostick. Library Anxiety:Theory, Research, and Applications.Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2004.Writing the ProposalA well-written proposal helps to articulatethe research problem, its significance,and the research design. A research proposalis required to apply for the FrancesHenne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant,which provides funds to conduct researchpertaining to young adult library services.To learn more about YALSA’s researchagenda, go to, Paul T. P. “How to Write aResearch Proposal.” DesignThe books in this section describeresearch designs that are quantitative andqualitative. Quantitative research relies onthe collection of numerical data, which isstatistically analyzed. Qualitative researchrelies primarily on the collection of narrativedata, which is analyzed verbally. Someresearch designs that combine the two arecalled mixed research methods. Actionresearch is especially beneficial because itallows librarians to utilize research methodsto reflect on and solve problems intheir settings and communities.Coghlan, David, and Teresa Brannick.Doing Action Research in Your OwnOrganization. 2nd ed. ThousandOaks, Calif.: Pine Forge, 2004.Coolidge, Frederick L. Statistics: A GentleIntroduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:Sage, 2000.Cox, James. Your Opinion, Please! How ToBuild the Best Questionnaires in theField of Education. Thousand Oaks,Calif.: Corwin, 1996.Czaja, Ron, and Johnny Blair. DesigningSurveys: A Guide to Decisions andProcedures. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks,Calif.: Sage, 2004.Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S.Lincoln, editors. Collecting andInterpreting Qualitative Materials. 2nded. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003.Farmer, Lesley. How to Conduct ActionResearch: A Guide for Library MediaSpecialists. Chicago: ALA, 2003.10 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

JONESRESEARCH RESOURCES FOR LIBRARIANSFink, Arlene. How to Ask SurveyQuestions. 2nd ed., The Survey Kitvol. 2. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage,2002.Fink, Arlene. How to Design SurveyStudies. 2nd ed. , The Survey Kit vol.6.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2002.Howard, Jody K., and Su A. Eckhardt.Action Research: A Guide for LibraryMedia Specialists. Worthington,Ohio: Linworth, 2005.Krueger, Richard A., and Mary AnneCasey. Focus Groups: A PracticalGuide for Applied Research. 3d ed.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2000.Nardi, Peter M. Doing Survey Research:A Guide to Quantitative ResearchMethods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,2003.Sagor, Richard. The Action ResearchGuidebook: A Four-Step Processfor Educators and School Teams.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin,2004.Sykes, Judith A. Action Research: APractical Guide for Transforming YourSchool Library. Westport, Conn.:Libraries Unlimited, 2002.Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research:Design and Methods. 3d ed.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage, 2003.Publishing FindingsOnce research has been conducted, animportant step is to make sure othersknow your findings. One of the best vehiclesto do this is to write an article to bepublished in a professional journal. Beloware resources and journals to consider.School Libraries Worldwide at is theofficial professional and research journalof the International Association of SchoolLibrarianship.School Library Media Research research journal of the AmericanAssociation of School Librarians.Knowledge Quest at is devoted tooffering substantive information toassist building-level library media specialists,supervisors, educators, and otherdecision makers concerned with thedevelopment of school library mediaprograms and services.Voice of Youth Advocates at addresses topics of interest forlibrarians, educators, and other professionalswho work with young adults.Public Libraries at the official journal of thePublic Library Association. A priorityobjective is to report on the findings ofapplied research useful to library managementand staff.Young Adult Library Services is the officialjournal of the Young Adult LibraryServices Association and presents bestpractices and current scholarly researchrelating to young adult library services.Children and Libraries at the official journalof the Association of Library Services toChildren and presents current scholarlyresearch pertaining to library service tochildren. ●CHELTONCOMMON YA MODELS OF SERVICEcontinued from page 6done, it works. Making YA work is thepoint of doing any of this, after all. ●BIBLIOGRAPHYVoice of Youth Advocates. Taney, Kimberly. Teen Spaces: The Stepby-StepLibrary Makeover. Chicago: ALA,2003.REFERENCES AND NOTES1. Young Adult Library Services Association,ed., Young Adults Deserve the Best:Competencies for Librarians ServingYouth, 2003. Accessed Apr. 7, 2005, The table is from U.S. Department ofEducation, National Center for EducationStatistics, Fast Response SurveySystem (FRSS), Surveys of Library Servicesfor Children and Young Adults in PublicLibraries, FRSS 47 (Washington, D.C.:GPO, 1994), 8, 10.3. Tables 2 and 3 were previously developedas handouts for a staff developmentmeeting at the Suffolk (N.Y.) CooperativeLibrary System, Dec. 1, 1999. They havebeen updated for this article.4. “Phoenix Teen Central.” Accessed Mar.13, 2005, “GNLIB-L On the Web.” Accessed Mar.13, 2005, Patrick Jones and Dawn Cartwright Fiorelli,“Overcoming the Obstacle Course:Teenage Boys and Reading,” TeacherLibrarian 30, no. 3. Accessed Mar. 13,2005, ● SUMMER 2005 11

PUBLISHER/AUTHOR PERSPECTIVEBone and Scholastic GraphixAn Interview with Jeff Smith and Jean Feiwel(with John Mason)Katharine KanScholastic’s new imprint,Graphix, is publishing graphicnovels for ages eight througheighteen, and their very firsttitle is a full-color version ofBone by Jeff Smith. Bone #1: Out fromBoneville was published in February2005, and they are planning to releasethe subsequent volumes every sixmonths. Bone #2: The Great Cow Racewill be published in August 2005. I hadthe opportunity to speak with Jeff Smith,the creator of Bone, and Jean Feiwel,senior vice president and editor-in-chiefof Scholastic, in a conference call, aboutBone and Graphix.Jeff had first published Bone withhis own company Cartoon Books. Thestory first appeared in comic book form,and took fifty-five issues to tell thecomplete story. He collected them intonine volumes of trade paperbacks (andsome hardcovers), then last year publisheda compendium volume of morethan thirteen hundred pages—both intrade paperback and in a collector’s editionhardcover. Except for a few issuesin Disney Adventure magazine, whichserialized the first few issues of the story,Bone has always been in black and white,until the Graphix editions, which are infull color. Jeff took twelve years to writethe complete series of Bone. If there’sKat Kan has been an avid reader sinceshe was four years old. She worked inpublic libraries in Hawaii and Indianaas a children’s librarian and as ayoung adult librarian for almost twentyyears. Now she uses her experienceand (sometimes obscure) knowledge asa freelance book selector and writer,specializing in YA literature and graphicnovels.anyone reading this who still doesn’tknow what Bone is, it’s an epic adventureof three cousins who get lost in a lushvalley that is threatened by a sinisterhooded figure aided by a horde of hugerat creatures; it’s been described as Pogomeets The Lord of the Rings, which isquite apt. Jeff has said that Bone standsalone, and there will be no sequels. Hehas collaborated with a couple of differentcreators to write books set in theworld of Bone.Kat: You’ve done Stupid, Stupid Rat Tailswith Tom Sniegoski as the writer, andRose with Charles Vess as the illustrator.Do you anticipate doing any more collaborationswith other creators for Bonestories?Jeff: I worked with these two becauseI wanted to work with them. I’d doanother if I find someone I really want towork with. I’m thinking of maybe doinganother Rose story with Charles.Kat: Jeff and Jean, in your 2004 Comic-Con discussion panel, you mentionedthere would be additional scenes in theGraphix editions of Bone. Many librariesalready own the Cartoon Books editions.Should they feel the need to purchase theGraphix editions in order to get theseadditional pages of story?Jeff and Jean: [Both] Yes! [laughter]Jeff: Once I finished the story and startedto talk with Jean about the new editions,I had the chance to read everythingstraight through. I saw ways to make ita stronger, more linear story. It won’t besignificantly different from the CartoonBooks editions, but there are at least onehundred fifty pages that are different, anda number of other smaller changes. Also,the color makes it very different.Jean: We’re introducing the story to a newaudience who may never have heard ofBone before.Jeff: Also, some people will only buy colorcomics. At one of my signings, a mancame up. He had refused to buy Bonein black and white, but he bought thecolor volume, had me sign it, and said hecouldn’t wait to get home and read it.Kat: Jeff, in the interview you did withPublishers Weekly, you said that you didn’tset out to write Bone for children. Whowas the audience in your mind while youwere writing it?Jeff: First answer, I was just writing formyself. The second answer: When I wasnine, I wanted to read a really long comicbook story; I wanted Uncle Scrooge andDonald Duck in a Moby Dick-type longstory, but there weren’t any. The book asit exists now, at thirteen hundred pages, iswhat I wanted to read at age nine.Jean: Some of the best books for childrenweren’t originally written for children.Kat: My sons both discovered Bone whenthey were about ten years old, and theyeach fell in love with the story. My ownthoughts are that ten is about the perfectage to begin to appreciate Bone.Jeff: Ten is the perfect age. Actually, at alot of my signings predating Scholastic, Iwould see families bringing in their fiveyear-oldsand seven-year-olds, and theyloved the books. One seven-year-old had12 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

KANBONE AND SCHOLASTIC GRAPHIXthe thirteen-hundred-page one-volumebook, and he’d read it twice!Jean: Ten is the sweet spot, the age ofmore independent readers. Our seriesmostly start for age ten. The ten-year-oldin all of us loves books and movies likeHarry Potter, Star Wars, and Bone. If abook or movie can appeal to ten-yearolds,it has broad appeal and will be a hit.Jeff: Librarians caught me off-guardwhen I noticed they were supportinggraphic novels. Vijaya [Jeff’s wife andbusiness partner] and I tried severalyears ago to get Bone into bookstores anddistributors with no luck—they didn’twant graphic novels. Then, a couple ofyears ago Ingram called and said librarianswere asking them to get Bone,because kids were going into librariesand asking for it. A couple of years ago,I spoke at a YALSA preconference [“GetGraphic @ your library®,” 2002] with ArtSpiegelman, Neil Gaiman, and ColleenDoran. We were prepared to pitch comics,but the librarians were way aheadof us. They told us that circulation wasgoing down, but circulation of graphicnovels was up 300 percent.Jean: Graphic novels always seemed forbiddenby institutions and academics. Jeffand I are on a mission to tell everyonethat graphic novels are for everyone. Theyare just stories with pictures, and somelibraries have kind of ghettoized them,saying they’re not for them. Graphic novelsare hooks to reading; they are for abroad audience. It takes education to getthat point across.Jeff: Comics and graphic novels are different.Comics are endless serial adventures,the heroes always come back for more,but graphic novels are usually writtenby one person, maybe two, but with aunique creative vision and a beginning,middle, and end.Kat: I’ve been pushing for graphic novelsin libraries since 1984!Jeff: At least one person at every signingsays their son was a reluctant readeruntil they gave him Bone. The picturesdraw them into reading. From the kids’point of view, they want to know whatthe characters are saying in those wordballoons. My father used to read thecomics with me, and I wanted to know.I taught myself to read with CharlieBrown. Of course, I was also learning inschool, but the comics were the apple,the fun reward.Kat: Yes, I was stuck learning to read fromDick and Jane. I much preferred RichieRich, Baby Huey, Marge’s Little Lulu,Nancy and Sluggo.Jean: There aren’t as many kid-friendlytitles out there right now.Kat: Jean, in recent months more publishershave been bringing out kid-friendlycomics, such as Top Shelf with Owly andDark Horse reprinting Marge’s Little Lulu.Did this have any influence on Scholasticcoming out with Graphix?Jean: No, actually. David Saylor[Scholastic’s VP creative director] identifiedgraphic novels as something hewas interested in. Scholastic needs tobe a groundbreaker in the field. I setout to educate myself about graphicnovels, and I saw a real opportunity todo something because there aren’t a lotof graphic novels for children. They’remostly for teens and adults; they’re edgy,definitely not for kids. It’s only fairlyrecently that more books for kids havebeen published. And since Scholasticannounced Graphix, some other publishershave started graphic novel linesfor children.Kat: I’m excited to see creators such asChynna Clugston-Major writing QueenBee for Graphix. Do you have other creatorslined up to write for your line?Jean: We’re working with RainaTelgemeier to adapt The Babysitters Clubfor us. We are being selective because wewant quality work. Bone is the centerpieceof our imprint. Romeo and Juliet is definite.We’re working with Tina Packer, thedirector of Shakespeare and Company;they take Shakespeare into high schools.They use a version she wrote for highschools, and we’re having her work withan artist to adapt her vision onto thepage.[Jean had to leave, so I asked JohnMason, marketing director of Scholastic,who was sitting in on the interview, thenext question.]Kat: Will Scholastic be doing a studyguide for the Graphix line, for Bone, forexample?John: Yes, we’re working on a discussion/study guide which will be posted on theWeb site.Kat: Jeff, do you think it would ruin Boneas a fun read if it’s studied in class?[laughter]Jeff: I think there’s enough fun stuff thatthe kids should still enjoy it. But there’salso a lot of symbolism, I used Moby Dickas a symbol, so there’s stuff to study, too,I guess.John: I have a question. Jeff, when youstarted coloring, did you know what colorsto use right away, or did you have tomake it up with the colorist?Jeff: I pictured the story in color whenI first started working on Bone. I haveno skills to color, so I have to describeeverything to Steve [Hamaker, colorist]. Ittakes six months to color each volume.Kat: Jeff, can you tell me anything aboutyour new science fiction adventure storyyou’re planning?Jeff: Well, first I’m working on CaptainMarvel, so I won’t even start writing thenew story until next year. It will be forgeneral audiences, not kids, and it’s notvery science fictional. It will be set inmodern-day New York City, a romance atthe speed of light.Kat: Thank you very much, Jeff and Jean,and John for taking the time to talk withme. This was a real treat. ●YALS ● SUMMER 2005 13

PUBLISHER/AUTHOR PERSPECTIVEOUCH!An Interview with PaperCutz Publisher Terry NantierJana FineFounded in 1976, FlyingButtress Publications, nowNantier Beall MinoustchinePublishing Inc. (NBM), wasthe dream of Terry Nantier,then a student of Syracuse University’sNewhouse School of Communications.His vision of bringing comic albums toAmerica was slow to take off, but duringthe 1980s, NBM finally found its nicheand steadily grew from there. Today, itis the second largest independent comicpress and has recently established a newimprint called Papercutz. Papercutz isaimed at the adolescent or ’tween (ageeight to fourteen) market and has collaboratedwith Simon and Schuster tointroduce Nancy Drew and the HardyBoys as graphic novels.Fine: I understand you started NBM withfriends in 1976 and began to importEuropean graphic novels into the U.S.What was that time period like for youand the company?Nantier: Graphic novels didn’t even havea name yet! We were very much aheadof our time. People looked at us googleeyed:you want to put WHAT in thebookstores? And they looked threatened!We were the enemy. There was a lot to bedone to educate on the quality of comicart, and slowly but surely we did so withwhat we published, which illustratedclearly how intelligent comics can be.Fine: When did NBM become “America’sFirst Graphic Novel Publisher,” and whatnovels put your company into the forefrontof the graphic novel industry?Nantier: In 1977 we published our first:Racket Rumba, a spoof of noir thrillers.This was before anything else likethis, including the start of Heavy Metalmagazine. From there on it was a slowbuild with such series over the years asCorto Maltese by one of the giants ofcomics Hugo Pratt and The Mercenary, aspectacularly fully painted fantasy series.We also made quite a name for ourselvesin pioneering library-worthy hardcovercollections of classic comic strips such asTerry and the Pirates and Tarzan.Fine: I’m sure there are thousands ofpotential graphic novels that are waitingto be published. How do you choosewhat to publish? Is the process similar toa written manuscript?Nantier: It is, in fact, for NBM anyway.We receive submissions all the time, havea process we ask of artists to submit, andtake it from there (guidelines on our site, The choice is based on merit andwhether it has a chance to find an audience,besides, of course, fitting well withour catalog.As for Papercutz, the line for kids, aswe are concentrating on licensed properties,we just look for writers and artistswith experience in such, and for the artists,ones who can do the manga style well.Fine: How do you feel about the fairlysudden rise in popularity of graphicnovels among the general population?What do you think has attributed to thisgrowth of a distinctly visual medium?Nantier: People are realizing how goodcomics can be! They have great art withvery diverse styles and stories that canbe very sophisticated and intelligent. Forkids, the success of manga stems fromthe fact they grew up with Pokemon andother anime. It’s a style they recognizeplus a lot of the manga provides a goodlong read that’s catchy and addictive. Aslibrarians have found, don’t knock it,it makes them read and many go on tobooks!Fine: On NBM’s Web site (, there is a statementthat says “From the beginning, theview was to woo a general audience andthat goal has never changed.” Can youtalk about what this means to you and hasthat goal changed at all since 1976?Nantier: The whole point for NBM andnow Papercutz is to bring in a whole newaudience for comics and get comics backout as the mass medium that it’s alwaysbeen. For years, we were floundering inan increasingly fan-based environmentthat was feeding on itself and only talkingto itself. Superhero comics have beensuffering and have lost the younger generation,regardless of the movies, due toincreasingly arcane stories that make ithard for new readers to come in.14 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

FINEOUCH!We’ve never made choices based onjust a fan audience but always ones thatwe felt a general reader could understand,enjoy, and be attracted to. Specifically infact noncomics readers.Fine: How has the success and acceptanceof graphic novels in everyday societyaffected you personally?Nantier: Ah, gratification. Nothingsweeter than that. It’s a cause I’ve beenfighting for. It’s been fun going fromexplaining what a graphic novel is toincredulous people visibly bringing medown many notches in their esteem as Iexplained, to now hearing “cool!” as soonas I mention the words.Fine: I understand that you and JimSalicrup (formerly editor at Marvel andfounder of the Topps Comics line) createdPapercutz. Can you tell us a little about it?Nantier: It’s all about getting more andmore kids into reading comics (whichthen will get them into reading). It’sabout taking advantage of the fact thatkids are embracing again, in increasingnumbers, reading comics and are makinggraphic novels the fastest growingsegment of publishing. It’s about takingthis exciting trend to the next level. Afterimporting comics from Japan, Papercutzis now bringing well-known titles for’tween kids to comics. Besides bringingNancy Drew and the Hardy Boys areal blast of fresh excitement we’ve alsogot Zorro coming out this fall as thenew movie with Antonio Banderas andCatherine Zeta-Jones comes out.Fine: The ’tween market has always beenthere buying up as much as they can.Why have an imprint line marketedtowards that age group?Nantier: They’ve in fact NOT been therefor comics for quite a few years now.Older fans were buying comics. The trendof manga being bought by ’tweens is allnew,and what is particularly exciting isthat at least half of them or maybe even amajority are girls! That hasn’t been seenin ages. Comics had become known asa male geek thing. And that’s all beingrewritten as we speak!Fine: How did you two come to a decisionto publish Nancy Drew and theHardy Boys in a comics-album format?Nantier: We are building on an alreadyvery successful trend: pocket-sized thickgraphic novels with an affordable price.Our next dimension is full-color andwith series and characters that are asAmerican as apple pie.Fine: Many public libraries and schoolmedia centers have incorporated graphicnovels into their collections. What doyou see, from a publishing perspective,as important for libraries to realizeabout graphic novels and their impact onyoung people?Nantier: I think the word is out on howGNs bring kids into libraries who probablywouldn’t come in at all otherwise,many of whom go on to read regularbooks who wouldn’t otherwise. However,there is a heck of a lot of material beingthrown out there, much of which is ofdubious quality and questionable entertainmentvalue, if not downright questionable,period. You do have to filter.Just because something is in demandmay not mean it’s appropriate for thelibrary to acquire. As a son of two generationsof librarians, I know that they arealtruistic people, second only to nurses(if that!). Steering kids to the good stuffis always a good thing. Suggesting morethan the pandering, at times somewhatprurient, typical manga, can get kids todevelop their tastes. As for any category,get a good cross-section, not just thebest-sellers.Fine: One last question—what would youlike to say to all the staff who work withteens and ’tweens in libraries?Nantier: Steer them from the manga tothings like Nancy Drew and Bone, thenfrom the most popular to discovering,say, classics adapted into comics andthen they just might be ready to read theactual classic! ●FINEcontinued from page 2The following passage kind of says itall for me:I am standing upon the seashore.A ship at my side spreads herwhite sails to the morning breezeand starts for the blue ocean.She is an object of beauty andstrength, and I stand and watchuntil at last she hangs like aspeck of white cloud just wherethe sea and sky come down tomingle with each other. Thensomeone at my side says, “Thereshe goes!”Gone where? Gone from mysight . . . that is all. She is just aslarge in mast and hull and sparas she was when she left my sideand just as able to bear her loadFROM THE EDITORof living freight to the place ofdestination. Her diminished sizeis in me, not in her. And just atthe moment when someone atmy side says, “There she goes!”there are other eyes watching hercoming and their voices readyto take up the glad shouts “Hereshe comes!”—Henry Van Dyke,“A Parable of Immortality” ●YALS ● SUMMER 2005 15

TEEN PERSPECTIVEGraphic GenerationChris FallisGraphic novels—why is itthey’ve consumed bookshelves,libraries, stores,and such a great percentageof teen homes? How isit that over the past few years these visualsources of entertainment have grown soimmensely popular? What makes them sointriguing that the modern youth findsthem to be such an absolute necessity?Perhaps it’s the fact that graphic novelspresent epic anthologies of fantasticalworlds, sci-fi, drama, and action that theimaginative teen mind craves. Over thepast couple of years, graphic novels havegrown from simple visual stories to entirestory arcs defined in an artistic format.So what has the modern definition ofgraphic novel become?The term graphic novel refers tovisual images presenting a story in amore self-contained, novel-like formatas compared to the more juvenile, serialcomic book, thus differentiating it fromthose appearing in the traditional comicbook or magazine composition. Graphicnovels are also used as a reference to themore popular term “manga”, a currentphenomenon that has been developingin Japan since the early 1100s. Mangaoriginated in Japan and is most easilycharacterized by the widely recognizedfeature of exaggerated eyes and simplisticfeatures. Manga has grown astoundinglypopular with the modern youth ofJapan. In Japan such novels have longbecome a source of literary entertainmentfor both the young and old. DespiteJapan’s 98 percent literacy rate, mangahas become immensely popular due tothe sheer entertainment element. It hasChris Fallis is a freshman at Niskayuna(N.Y.) High School and is planning toattend an art college in order to pursuea career in Japan as a manga-ka. Heis a longtime reader of Shonen Jumpmagazine and Viz graphic novels.also assisted teens in recognizing culturaldifferences brought by the reflection ofmodern Japanese life including history,culture, language, politics, economy, andeducation. This graphic novel form visuallyeducates the reader with the reality ofordinary Japanese life while at the sametime providing entertainment. Manga ismost easily recognized by the fact thatthey’ve maintained a traditional Japanesereading format of right to left.If manga can be classified under theterm graphic novel, then why can’t comicbooks? The term graphic novel alludes tocomics bound together not only to formulatea story, but also to build an entirestructure. They are more or less a collectionof stories initially published sequentiallyin a comic book format. Some arestandalone novels published on a stricttime basis. Others are simply anthologiesof various series. Overall, the termgraphic novel is widely used to cover anextensive range of visual entertainment.Though graphic novels have broadlybeen used as a source of entertainment,they may also assist those who learn morevisually as compared with those whoprefer a more traditional literary source.Currently, it seems as though teens prefera more visual source of education.With Internet access and programs suchas instant messaging (both visual references),teens seem to prefer the visualform over the printed word such asbooks. Graphic novels have long sinceprovided a center of education in a morevisual and comprehensible format bycontributing both images and conceptsin one format that the modern teen ismore oriented to. In doing so, graphicnovels have created a learning environmentthat is both simple and fun. Thisexact style was widely used in the early1940s. During this time period, classicnovels were transformed into comics inorder to capture the attention of youth inan alluring format. That single factor hasassisted in explaining why graphic novelshave become so popular among youth.But what aspects of graphic novelshave made them so attractive? Mangahas grown substantially more popularamong the teen population within thepast couple of years, mostly due to thecultural appeal and diversity presentedThough graphic novels have broadly been used as a sourceof entertainment, they may also assist those who learn morevisually as compared with those who prefer a more traditionalliterary source.through black and white. By limitingcolor, the general genre of graphic novelsallows teens to utilize their imaginationand thereby formulate a herosimilar to their ethnicity, culture, standards,moral codes, and overall self. Thesecond most appealing characteristicwould be manga’s cross-cultural appeal.Manga tends to focus on specific groupsand sexes. Some even go as far as toclassify the specification on the novel’scover, generalized by shojo (female) orshonen (male). In doing so, manga hasbecome fairly balanced with regard tosexes. Some manga such as Kare Kanohave targeted the teenage female populationby basing the plot and story aroundteen relationships as compared withmales who seem to prefer a more actionbasedmanga such as Rurouni Kenshin, amanga that provides both Japanese historyand detailed action. The appeal ofgraphic novels can be defined in numerousways. In my personal opinion, thesheer diversity, cost, entertainment, andcultural catechism are all factors thatform an alluring option for both educationand amusement. ●16 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

TEEN PERSPECTIVEThe Otaku’s View on MangaChristina CuchinottaManga. Literallytranslated, it means“whimsical pictures.”If you know whatmanga is, and thestyles that it can take on, it kind of fits,doesn’t it? Graphic novels are another,western form of manga. The descriptionstill works. Even though thereare many teens who think that animeis synonymous with “cartoon,” andmanga or graphic novels are somethingto be avoided for sake of looking coolor mature, that’s not particularly true.Manga has become a form of art, aswell as entertainment, and both mangaand western graphic novels providea new way to look at the issues thatmany teens—not just those of Japanesenationality—face today.I’ll say it upfront, right now: mangaand American graphic novels do notrequire the highest grade level to read.It’s (mostly) meant for people of all agesand intelligences to read and understand,and if there’s a hidden connotation thatmay require one to be a bit savvier topick up on, that’s cool. But you’ll neverlose anything from the story. Regardless,it is entertaining. Just like when someonepicks up the new romance or fantasynovel off the bookshelf, picking up ajust-released volume of a favorite mangaor the latest Shonen Jump promises afew hours of well-spent reading. [As aside, Shonen Jump is a popular magazinetranslated into English that is dedicatedto publishing manga (in Shonen Jump’scase, boy’s manga). Magazines are whereall manga starts.] And depending on thestoryline, a good laugh, something toponder, or even a reason to shed a tear orso is always present.The manga-ka, or the artists orauthors of the manga, are ingenious insetting up their plotlines as well as anyprofessional author of a text-based storywould. The only difference is that theirdetails are not given in words but inpictures. Any action, expression, or reactionis given to you in an image insteadof described in text. And usually, theseimages are very amusing. A character’sextremely shocked reaction to a surprisingstatement is something that someoneshould see at least once. The expressioncan be so outrageous, yet sometimesI feel that it’s so cool that libraries carry kind of wish it was humanly possibleto re-create that kind of face, if andwhen faced with similar circumstances.And almost nine times out of ten, theusual teen (about which these storiesare usually based) has (or has had) asimilar experience, give or take a littlebit: a love triangle, for instance, or ayoung boy that tries to rise out of thelow circumstances he’s surrounded byafter being beaten down countless times,but eventually winds up on top. Evenif the characters seem glorified, or theplotlines outrageous, the messages areusually universal (even if they vary tothe extremes), and are able to be appliedto almost any teen. And even if there’san adult reading the book, the messageis easily picked up on, and it gives everyonesomething to think about.There are many people who enjoyreading manga and drawing manga aswell. The style that manga has startedis something that is easy to notice andcopy, though it takes a long time to trulymaster. But it is something that is rewardingand fun to draw, and it doesn’t take avery long time, unlike some true-to-lifestyles. With exaggerated poses, big hairand clothing, and chibi eyes (to name avery few examples), one’s imaginationcan take off and make anything they wantas long as they confine to a few basics ofthe style. And if there’s anything else thatcomes to mind? It’s there for the takingand molding into whatever form the artistso wishes.Manga and graphic novels are likeany other story, really. The only differenceis that they’re told through pictures,not words. That’s why I feel thatit’s so cool that libraries carry them.And even though it’s not important to amajority of a library’s clientele, or evennecessary to be carried, it’s certainlyappreciated. Manga is expensive to teenson a limited budget, and usually librarieswho carry graphic novels and mangacarry the most popular (and sometimesthe slightly more expensive) titles. Itgives those who might not have themoney to spend on the books somethingcompletely different from a text-styledbook. And possibly more entertaining.At least, that’s how I feel. ●Christina Cuchinotta is a junior atNiskayuna (N.Y.) High School. She is aself-proclaimed manga and anime okatu(extreme fan girl) and has read morevolumes than she can count. She hopesto study in Japan for a year when shereaches college and eventually wantsto become a chemist, though how shewill ever connect the two she has yet tofigure out.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 17

TEEN PERSPECTIVEManga Madness in the LibraryAngie EspelageStep aside Marvel, and makeway for the newest graphicnovel craze from Japan: manga!Manga is the Japanese termfor comic, and its style is veryunique. Big, bright eyes adorn the facesof men and women alike. Magical worldscome alive as a character stumbles intoanother universe or is faced with a situationthat is very real in our own world.No matter what the manga, there is sucha wide variety to choose from that everyonecan find one to enjoy. Since its arrivalat the library, more and more people areable to enjoy the stunningly beautiful artand watch fascinating sagas unfold!I, personally, was very excited to seethe new arrival of manga in the library.This was back when the selection consistedof a few volumes of Dragon Balland Saint Tail, but I checked them all out.This was my chance to read manga forfree, and anyone else who buys mangaknows what I mean. It can get prettyexpensive! What attracted me to them wasthe art, which I found to be intriguing.Somehow they were able to make a person,whose eyes were half the size of theirhead, look beautiful! I decided to try myhand at drawing with the same style; it’stoo bad I didn’t keep them since they’repretty humorous! With manga availableat the library, I was able to check out asmany comics as I wanted, with no fearthat I was wasting my money. It allowedme to study the different styles of themanga artists and gave me an opportunityto broaden my knowledge of the mangastyle. Of all the artists, I particularly loveCLAMP since it was their CardcaptorSakura who brought me to love anime(Japanese animation) and manga.Eighteen-year-old Angie Espelage ismajoring in art education at the Collegeof Mount St. Joseph, Cincinnati, Ohio.She enjoys drawing anime and dragonsor losing herself in a good book.It was that summer that the teenlibrarian Paige told me her plans oncreating an anime night. I was enthusiasticabout the idea, and it turned outso were many other teens in the area.Anime night was such a success that itwas turned into Harrison’s Anime Club,which still meets monthly. More thanforty teens show up for this event, allsharing the same love of anime. It wasthrough library programs such as thisthat I was able to meet other anime andmanga fans like me, and I made manyfriends in the process! Who would havethought there were so many fans of thisgrowing craze just in Harrison? Sadly,as I entered into my freshman year incollege, I no longer had the time to goto the club meetings. I not only leftthe anime club but also my own TeenWriting Club, where I had been presidentfor two years.It was very recently that I was askedto return to my writing club and speakat a meeting. The theme of the monthwas about creating comics! Of course Iwanted to see my friends again, but thiswas a chance to talk about somethingI really loved. Over the past years I hadpracticed my technique and even triedto make my own comic. Word of advice:It’s a lot harder than it looks! I only gotthree pages done in three months, butI was very happy to present the pagesat the Teen Writing Club’s meeting onMarch 19. The looks of amazementon their faces made me feel incrediblyrelieved and pleased. Like any artist, Ididn’t think my work would go over verywell and could stand some improvement.Surprised with their compliments,I proceeded with confidence to give themadvice about comicking.If any readers are curious aboutthe art of manga, here are a few suggestions.First, I believe that research is thekey to learning about what you love. Ifmanga is your passion, as it is mine, goto the library and read as much of it asSample of Espelage’s can! There’s no better way to learnthe anime style than by looking to theexperts. Be daring! Try a manga or twothat you wouldn’t normally read. Themore you read, the broader your experiencewill be. The last and best tip I cangive anyone is to practice drawing. Everytime you draw you learn something new,so even doodling helps! If you find themost gorgeous illustration, go aheadand try to copy it. Tracing is consideredcheating! By copying pictures you lovefrom artists you love, you develop a styleof your own and can also learn a thingor two. Just don’t go calling the artworkyour own, as you would be breakingcopyright laws. The art that I submittedfor this article is all original, yet I didn’tjust obtain the talent immediately. I’vebeen drawing anime for over four years,and I have decades to go before I can callmyself a pro.Ever since that year manga came tothe library, my admiration for books andthe library has grown. I continue to readmanga to this day, and I encourage othersto read it, too. There are so many worldsto explore in these comics, and I’m not theonly one who loves discovering them. ●18 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

SCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVEHoly Reading Revolution, Batman!Developing a Graphic Novel Collectionfor Young AdultsAlison ChingOK, let’s get one thing out inthe open right away: I am acomic book geek. It’s true.It all started in high schoolwhen my guy friends gotme hooked on the X-Men. That band ofmerry mutants turned out to be my gatewaydrug, plunging me into the strangeand mysterious world of sequential art. Foryears, I haunted comic shops, scoured theInternet for information on my favoritebooks and characters, and, at one point,even collaborated with my friends to writeour very own superhero comic, the soleissue of which is thankfully lost to posterity.But then, in the late nineties, I entered aperiod of fangirl ennui, during which I wasenjoying comics less and less, until I readonly one or two books sporadically andthen went for extended periods withoutpicking up a comic at all.That all changed in fall 2002. At thatpoint, I was still a pretty green librarian,only one year removed from a stint in theclassroom teaching English. When we discoveredthat the theme for Teen Read Weekthat year would be “Get Graphic @ yourlibrary®!” my far more experienced librarianpartner suggested we start a graphicnovel collection. Since I knew a little somethingabout comics, I got to work on thefirst order. Soon, the graphic novel collectionwas my baby, and my flame for comicswas reignited. Lately, my zeal has beenlargely directed into proselytizing to theuninitiated, so strap in, folks—here we go.Why Collect GraphicNovels? Because KidsReally Like ThemIf this argument seems oversimplified, itis only because it does not reflect the fullmagnitude of the passion many kids havefor these books. Let me illustrate. Ourlibrary serves a student population ofabout 2,300 in grades 9–12. Currently, wehave 372 graphic novels, which accountfor 1.5 percent of our total collection. Asof late March, we have had 3,158 graphicnovel circulations during the 2004–2005school year, accounting for a whopping17.7 percent of our total circs during thattime. In terms of percentage, this makesgraphic novels our top circulating section,coming out far ahead of the next3 runners-up (the 300s: 15.7 percent ofcircs, 8.6 percent of collection; fiction:15.6 percent of circs, 23 percent of collection;and the 800s: 10.2 percent of circs,8.6 percent of collection). This does notreflect the large number of students whoread graphic novels in the library withoutchecking them out.I confess that when we started thiscollection, I thought our students wouldlike the graphic novels, but I had no ideathey would be so outrageously popular.One particular concern I had was withmanga, the ubiquitous comics fromJapan. Even after being translated intoEnglish, many of these books are meantto be read from right to left, in accordancewith the original Japanese. Havingspent three years in an English classroomwith some less-than-strong readers, Iwas concerned these books would betoo difficult for some students to follow.My fears were completely unfounded.Perhaps because of the increasingly visualnature of the culture around them, moststudents can and do read manga withease, and as a result, they probably knowmore about Japanese culture than mostadults. While I think it would be unfortunatefor kids to read only manga andother graphic novels, just as it would beunfortunate for them to read only mysteriesor fantasy or romance, I believegraphic novels represent an excellentopportunity to get students hooked onthe written word, which can only be agood thing in the end.Nuts and BoltsGraphic novels generally range in pricefrom $9.95 to $19.95. In terms of format,the best choice is paperback. Manygraphic novels only come in paperbackeditions, which makes choosing a formata moot point, but even if a hardcoveris available, a paperback is still usuallya better choice. When we startedthe graphic novel collection, I orderedmostly paperbacks in accordance withthe literature I’d read on graphic novelcollection development, and if the spinesare reinforced with book tape, the booksactually hold up pretty well. In the past,we have experimented with prebinds andlaminated covers, but these types of bindingshave fallen apart even more quicklythan the paperbacks. The basic truth isthat, eventually, you will probably have toreplace some books, but at that point theoriginal copies will have circulated wellenough to justify the cost.In terms of shelving, there are acouple of options. One is to shelve allgraphic novels under 741.5, which isthe Dewey designation for cartoonsand drawings, regardless of the subject.Alison Ching is a librarian at NorthGarland High School in Garland, Texas,the school she attended as a student.She is waiting for volume two ofAstonishing X-Men with bated breath.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 19

HOLY READING REVOLUTION, BATMAN!CHINGAnother is to intershelve graphic noveltitles with other books based on theirsubjects, such as shelving fictional storiesunder fiction, Art Spiegelman’s Holocauststory Maus under 940, Judd Winnick’sPedro and Me: Friendship, Loss, and WhatI Learned under 364.1, and so on. A thirdoption, which is the one we use, is to createa separate section for graphic novelswithin the library. Our graphic novels areshelved in the front of our library, nearthe magazines, which makes them verybrowser-friendly. They all are assigned thedesignation 741.5, but this number is precededby a “GN” designator to let patrons,aides, and librarians know at a glance thatthe book is a graphic novel and should beshelved in its special section rather than inthe general nonfiction area.Major PublishersWhen you’re just getting started in thedevelopment of a graphic novel collection,the choices can be kind ofoverwhelming. One of the best ways tobecome an informed consumer is to learnabout some of the major publishers andthe titles they offer. This will enable youto zero in on the sources most likely toprovide you with the types of books youwant, while also helping you to makeinformed decisions about individualtitles: These are a few of the names youwill see most frequently:●●DC—DC is one of the oldest andbest-established publishers in themarket, particularly when it comesto superhero titles. DC’s roster ofcharacters includes some of the mostenduring figures in our popularculture: Batman, Wonder Woman,and, perhaps most iconic, Superman.Most DC titles are suitable for YAcollections, the one major exceptionbeing titles published underthe Vertigo imprint. While there areexceptions, such as the Neil GaimanpennedThe Books of Magic, mostVertigo titles are solidly adult in contentand should be treated as such.Marvel—Marvel is another wellestablishedpublisher with popularsuperhero characters. Marvel●●●titles may be particularly appealingbecause movies based on Marvelcharacters have recently been orwill soon be released. These includeSpider-Man, X-Men, The IncredibleHulk, Daredevil, and The FantasticFour. It bears noting here that whendealing with characters and storylinesthat extend back forty years ormore, as DC and Marvel do, manyseries can exist based on the samecharacters, and various series can begeared toward different audiences.For example, X-Men Evolution is agood book for middle-schoolers,while Astonishing X-Men is moreof an older teen book. Along withreviews, publishers’ Web sites canhelp librarians keep series straightand make informed collection developmentdecisions.Dark Horse—While Dark Horsedoes publish original work, much ofwhat they offer is based on licensedproperties such as Buffy the VampireSlayer and Star Wars. Local interestshould factor into the titles youselect. In our library, the Buffy titlescirculate fairly well, while the StarWars titles don’t; in another library,the exact opposite might be true.TokyoPop—TokyoPop is perhaps thelargest and most popular purveyorof manga in the U.S. Conveniently,all of TokyoPop’s titles have a codeon the back cover providing therecommended age group for thattitle. In my experience, most booksrated Teen (13+) or lower would befine for most YA collections; bookswith codes of Older Teen (16+) andhigher should be considered carefully.Of course, to paraphrase Piratesof the Caribbean, these are moreguidelines than what you’d call actualrules.Viz Communications—Viz is thepublisher of some very popularmanga titles: Dragon Ball, DragonBall Z, and Yu-Gi-Oh!. Also, Viz isthe publisher of the manga magazineShonen Jump. In Japan, beforemanga titles are released in bookform, they are usually serialized inmagazines. Shonen Jump is one ofthe few English-language magazinesof this type available in theU.S. Our library has a subscription,and when the more-thantwo-hundred-pageissues come in,they are catalogued and circulatedlike other manga. The magazine isenormously popular among ourstudents, and I have a sneaking suspicionit would disappear if it werenot available for circulation.These are by no means the onlysources of graphic novels. There aremany excellent smaller publishers, suchas Top Shelf Productions and Oni Press,which distribute works that would begood for YA collection. Keep an eye outfor publishers when reading reviews orthe graphic novels themselves and makenotes for future reference.ResourcesIn 2002, graphic novel reviews and selectiontools were still very hard to comeby. Fortunately, this is no longer the case.Major professional publications includingVOYA, School Library Journal, andBooklist now regularly feature reviews ofgraphic novels. Even so, there are somevery valuable electronic resources thatcan be very helpful for collection development.One of these is the GNLIB-Ldistribution list, which is devoted entirelyto discussion of graphic novels in libraries.You can subscribe at Another fantasticresource is the Web site “No Flying, NoTights” ( Robin Brenner is a youngadult librarian and provides lots of greatinformation for both young adults andthe librarians who serve them, includinga breakdown of recommended titles byage-appropriateness. While most librariansare at least marginally familiar withsuperheroes, manga can still present somespecial challenges. A Librarian’s Guideto Anime and Manga ( is a good introduction forthe uninitiated. Finally, the archived Webpage for the Get Graphic! @ your libraryTeen Read Week promotion can be foundat SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

CHINGHOLY READING REVOLUTION, BATMAN!This page has a lot of good informationand some helpful links.Recommended TitlesThe following are some specific titles Iwould recommend to librarians just startingout with graphic novel collections.Some are standalone volumes, while othersare first volumes in series. The annotationsexplain which is which (numberof available volumes is based on status asof late March 2005).Ashihara, Hinako. Forbidden Dance,Volume 1. Los Angeles: TokyoPop,2003. ISBN 1591823455.Series comprised of four volumesBendis, Brian Michael. Ultimate Spider-Man: Power and Responsibility.New York: Marvel, 2001. ISBN078510786X.Ongoing series—currently twelvevolumesJohns, Geoff. Teen Titans: A Kid’s Game.New York: DC Comics, 2004. ISBN1401203086.Ongoing series—currently two volumesMashima, Hiro. Rave Master, Volume 1.Los Angeles: TokyoPop, 2003. ISBN1591820642. Ongoing series—currentlysixteen volumesMiller, Frank. Batman: The Dark KnightReturns. New York: DC Comics,2002. ISBN 156389341X.Standalone title—this is the tenthanniversaryedition. There is onesequel, Batman: The Dark KnightStrikes Again.Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York:Pantheon, 2003. ISBN 0375422307.Standalone title with one sequel,Persepolis 2.Smith, Jeff. Bone: Out from Boneville.Columbus: Cartoon Books, 1996.ISBN 0963660942.Series comprised of nine mainvolumes, plus a couple of spin-offvolumes.Soryo, Fuyumi. Mars, Volume 1. LosAngeles: TokyoPop, 2002. ISBN1931514585.Series comprised of fifteen volumes,plus the bonus volume A Horse withNo Name.Van Meter, Jen. Hopeless Savages.Portland: Oni Press, 2002. ISBN1929998759.Ongoing series—currently three volumesWhedon, Joss. Astonishing X-Men: Gifted.New York: Marvel, 2005. ISBN0785115315.Ongoing series—currently one volumeWhedon, Joss. Fray. Milwaukie: DarkHorse, 2003. ISBN 1569717516.Standalone titleYoshizumi, Wataru. Marmalade Boy,Volume 1. Los Angeles: TokyoPop,2002. ISBN 1931514542.Series comprised of eight volumes.Our goal for the library has alwaysbeen to create a fun and welcoming placefor our students. The graphic novel collectionhas gone a long way towardshelping us accomplish that goal. Even ifyou don’t catch the fever for discussingthe finer points of Wolverine’s healingfactor or Superboy’s genealogy, providinggraphic novels to your teen patronscan give them a sense of ownership inthe library and you a warm fuzzy feelingderived from helping them develop a lifelongrelationship with books. ●Everything the New Generation of FansNeeds to Know About the BeatlesA fast-paced, fun-to-read guide to the BeatlesWritten by a father for his teenaged daughterMore than just a biographyThe author explores the Beatles phenomenon and the reasons forthe band’s break-up. Probing into many of the controversies,myths, and mysteries surrounding the most popular and influentialmusic group in history, the author examines the hot issues fortoday's teenaged Beatles fans. Current information on Beatles fanclubs, magazines, festivals, and Internet resources is included.Available August 2005 • Distributed by Baker & Taylor0-9658740-7-9 • Hardcover • 208 Pages • $24.95www.averstreampress.comYALS ● SUMMER 2005 21

SCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVEY Archive?The Rapid Rise of Graphic Novels and Their Place inthe Cleveland Public LibraryRollie Welch and Julianne BrownAs young adult librarians,we’re sure that you, ourfellow comrades in thetrenches, are absolutelysold, from top-to-toe, onthe artistic and literary merit, the culturalsignificance, and the outright . . . funacityof comics, graphic novels, and manga. Sothere’s no place here for dry, philosophicaldiscussions on the nature of (as Eisnerdescribes it) “sequential art,” nor is thereroom for any Derridian deconstructionof the visual/textual plane—“Dude! I didall that in undergrad!” We’re with youthere—but the ghost of these and otherlofty (though largely academic, and thusimpractical) ideas inform our policy andpractice as librarians, and we cannotescape their mighty influence.So here’s a tale about the Cleveland(Ohio) Public Library (CPL) and thehumble graphic novel. Laugh and crywith us as we describe how comics,graphic novels, and manga made thejourney from marginalia to mainstream,from the back shelves to crowning gloryas archival material. Even, dare we say,from pulp to priceless.Now in his twenty-fourth year as alibrarian, Rollie Welch is employed asa young adult librarian at the ClevelandPublic Library and is a member ofYALSA’s Quick Picks for Reluctant YoungAdult Readers Committee. He is servesas chair of VOYA’s Top Shelf for MiddleSchool Fiction Committee. JulianneBrown is a recent graduate from KentState, Kent, Ohio. She is an avid comicand manga fan, and looks forward toa long and happy career serving youngadults, whilst gaining as much fame(or infamy) as Melvil Dewey or MicheleGorman.(You know, a how-we-did-it,ain’t-we-great, and don’t-you-envy-us,though-you’ve-probably-done-the-sameor-mean-to,report.)So, on with the boasting!RollieEntering Cleveland Public Library’s MainBuilding on December 1, 2003 as a newlyhired young adult librarian, thoughtsof the daunting task of ordering newyoung adult books for the entire systemof twenty-eight branches and the mainbuilding were foremost on my mind. Ofcourse I was expected to provide outreachservices for teens by offering programs,and conducting school visits, as well asincrease circulation of young adult materials—youknow, the routine aspects ofany YA librarian. I had ideas about programsto implement and felt confidentthat I knew my stuff about current booksand popular materials . . . but how to targetteens across the city and put in placebooks that would circulate, and circulatewell, was a big problem.In my former position, graphicnovels were just beginning to catchon but weren’t the hottest item in theteen collection. When I came on boardat CPL, my predecessor had really gotthe ball rolling with graphic novels byordering a core collection of titles, bothmanga and comics.It was pretty solid, featuringrenowned writers such as Will Eisner,Frank Miller, and Craig Thompson. Butthere were the staples, too: Spider-Man,Batman, Superman, and other superherotypes gazed at me from their covers as Ifirst browsed the collection. I was pleasedto see, but at the same time wary of, themanga titles sitting on the shelves. Myexperience with this type of comic waslimited, and I was determined to expandmy knowledge . . . if there was a demandfor manga in the City of Cleveland.Like many other YA librarians, I sat inon workshop presentations about graphicnovels and quickly became overwhelmedby the enormous volume of titles andseries. Very few authentic manga titleshad circulated in my former library, so Ijust wasn’t familiar with them. But I knewfrom lurking on discussion boards postedon YALSA-BK that in many areas of thecountry, manga rules, so again, I wasprompted to start Manga 101.Prowling the ten floors of publicaccess areas in the main building, Ilocated quite extensive graphic novelcollections tucked away in our literatureand popular library departments. Butthe series were incomplete, and it seemedthat they were purchased randomly orselected from positive reviews, withoutinput from our patrons.I mentioned my desire to increaseyoung adult circulation by building amore extensive graphic novel collection tosome of my coworkers. My Spidey-sensestarted tingling when I heard commentssuch as, “What literary value do theyhave?” or “We really can’t have them withthose types of pictures on the covers.”Was it possible that there was a prevailingnegative attitude to these types of booksand possibly to YA material overall?The spring of 2004 brought somehot movie releases adapted from graphicnovels, including Hellboy and Spider-Man2, further affirming my resolve to providemore current material for our teenpatrons. And the final push came fromthe patrons themselves with passing com-22 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

WELCH AND BROWNY ARCHIVE?ments such as, “Hey, you gonna get anyHellboy books in here?”I was further frustrated, no, makethat embarrassed, when a teen patronasked me about the series Vagabond, ofwhich he held our only title of the series,volume 8. I pleaded ignorance and triedmy best to conduct a quality reader’sadvisory interview. I asked, “So, is that agood series?”To his credit, he did not scoff.Instead, he gave me a lesson in mangaand how this series in particular is basedon the Japanese warrior MiyamotoMushashi, an actual figure from the feudalsociety of seventeenth-century Japan.He said that we really should have thecomplete series rather than just the onerandom title he had in his hand.Dazzling him with my customer serviceskills (and mining this fall-into-my-lapinformation source) I asked, “Is there a biginterest in Cleveland for manga books?”His answer? “Dude, it’s huge. Yougotta get this stuff.”Well, yeah, but why stop at justHellboy, Spider-Man, or Vagabond? Theproblem now was: how can I get a largenumber and an extensive variety into thecollection in the shortest amount of time?Trusted friends in the young adultworld told me it was simple. Just go to thelocal comic book store and write downtitles you like, go back to your cubicle andorder them! No offense, but I was orderingfor the City of Cleveland, twenty-eightbranches, and the main library. That’s apotential outbreak of arthritis from jottingdown hundreds of ISBNs.I chatted up some of our daily afterschoolwalk-ins who each day rushed tothe computers to spend hours with theireyes glued to the monitors. What werethey watching? Anime. They told me howthe series are cool, romantic, and scary(Hey, this sounds just like hardcoverbooks!). And further enlightened me withthis nugget of information: anime aremade into manga and vice versa. Was Ithe last YA librarian to know this?Enter BWI (formerly known as BookWholesalers, Inc.), our library’s preferredvendor for ordering new books. Duringa scheduled meeting with the sales repabout navigating the TitleTales database,the conversation steered to graphic novels.Like a cat, she sprung on the topicsaying, “Oh sure, we can get you thosethrough SNAP.”“Like snapping your fingers?” Iasked, showing my dexterity by clickingoff a few sounds.SNAP stands for Selection,Notification, and Acquisition Plan, (Iquickly learned) and a library could ordergraphic novels on preview, limiting themby publisher, patron age, author, or illustrator.Like many librarians, I was immediatelyleery of preview plans. I mean,who needs to battle with the accountingdepartment on a weekly basis? Who needstrash that the vendor just wants to unload?Those fears aside, BWI’s program fitmy immediate needs and fortunately ourcollections manager felt that our libraryneeded to take a leadership role in theregion for providing a wide variety ofgraphic novels.We were on our way.The books arrive weekly and CPL’syouth services librarians view them ata monthly meeting, selecting titles theywant in their collection. This enables usto pinpoint what they’re getting ratherthan a blind central order offering themlimited input. Through this system, CPLis now adding about seventy-five newgraphic novels a month.The first shipment sent twenty-twonew titles, and you can imagine my joywhen I activated them electronically anddiscovered fifteen holds by teens viewingour catalog. It was great knowing that Ihad finally got them what they wantedand placed it in their hands.A year later, we have an active animemania club that meets biweekly andrecently sponsored an anime film festivalthat drew over one hundred teens to thelibrary for the day! Through the club I’vefound that popular series are Hellsing,Hot Gimmick, Model, Inu Yasha, FruitsBasket, Tuxedo Gin, Sgt. Frog, and BoysOver Flowers (though the list is potentiallyendless). The collection is fluid,and the anticipated shelving space problemnever materialized. The books areimmediately checked out upon return,and teens take out over a dozen titles at atime. Wonderful.But wait! It gets better.I was asked to present informationon graphic novels to the serials committeeabout this “new” format of book andexplain why it attracts teens. I entered themeeting armed with a variety of graphicnovels and manga, ready to explain whatauthentic manga is, how they’re differentfrom American graphic novels andhow many (such as Craig Thompson’sBlanket) have won prestigious awards. Iwas interrupted in my enthusiastic presentationwith the question: “Why arethey all so pornographic?”Uh oh.Well, my powers of persuasionmust have been high, for two hoursafter that query, I was given the directiveby the committee to begin a collectionthat would be archived, so thatfuture generations could visit CPL andview a sampling of twenty-first-centurypop culture.We are proud to be a major urbanlibrary that (in a relatively short time)has taken steps to increase its commitmentto graphic novels and manga, andto provide a wide variety of these titlesto teens and other patrons. With thearchive project, we have the beginnings ofa graphic novel collection that will standthe test of time and truly represent a fascinating(and oft neglected) segment ofcurrent pop culture.JulieOkay, so now you know how it happenedat CPL, and you might consider developingyour own special collection or miniarchive.If you’re anything like me, thenyou’re interested in a practical sort ofguide to the best.Lest I step on any toes here, I’m justa newly graduated, naïve little imp, afterall, and it would behoove me to acknowledgeone of the leading gurus in the field,(though he’s just a business librarian,imagine!) our own Michael R. Lavin. Hehas published several highly informativearticles on the selection and developmentof a comics collection for public libraries,many of which are available at his Website: ● SUMMER 2005 23

Y ARCHIVE?WELCH AND BROWNYet, excellent though his work is, heisn’t snooty enough to recommend onlyaward winners. That’s where I step in.Here is a short list of comics awards separatedby region:●●United States●●●●Rueben. Named for Reuben“Rube” Goldberg, the NationalCartoonists Society’s first presidentand designer of the awardstatuette, it was first awarded in1946 for Milton Caniff ’s SteveCanyon. Its most recent recipient(2002) is Matt Groening,creator of the Simpsons.Eisner. This award was namedin honor of Will Eisner, creatorof The Spirit and Contractwith God, begun in 1988. Itsmost recent recipient (2004) inone of its many genres is NeilGaiman’s Sandman: EndlessNights. This award is huge,ladies and gentlemen. Do notneglect any Eisner award winner—they’relike the AcademyAwards of the comic industry.Harvey. Ever read Mad magazine?This award was namedfor Harvey Kurtzman, creatorof Mad. It was first awarded in1988 and has honored comicwriters as diverse as AlanMoore (Watchmen), CraigThompson (Blankets), andAlex Ross (Astro City).Ignatz. You’d have to be ahard-core fan of comics andgraphic novels to get this one.Named for George Herriman’sbrick-wielding mouse, Ignatz,in the surrealist comic, KrazyKat, the award began in 1997and has seen an on-again, offagainpopularity. As its nameand heritage suggest, this awardhighlights alternative, eclecticcomic artists such as RichKoslowski (Three Fingers) andJason Shiga (Fleep).United Kingdom●National Comics Awards. TheNational Comics Awards are thepremier comic industry awardsof Great Britain. Begun in 1997,●●France●they have awards for Best ComicCharacter, including Rodger theDodger (weekly comic strip byRobert Nixon), and Nikolai Dante(Robbie Morrison and SimonFraser).Alph-Art. Originally, named theAlfred Awards, after a penguinfrom Alain Saint-Ogan’s seriesZig et Puce. In 1989, the namewas changed to the Alph’art.Recipients include native Frenchartists as well as American comicwriters like Brian Michael Bendis(Torso, Fortune and Glory).Germany●Max and Moritz Prize. Thoughawarded exclusively to materialspublished in Germany, theaward began in 1984 and recognizesquality artwork and storyon an international scale.Now for manga! Only the hottestcultural import and the most belovedcomponent of many YA collections, so besure to look for these nominations andrecognitions:●Japan:● Nippon (Manga ArtistAssociation Award)● Osamu Tezuka Bunka Shô(Named for legendary mangaartist, Osamu Tezuka)● Kodansha (Kodansha CulturalAward)● Shogakukan Manga Shô(Shogukan Publishers Award)These should guide you right whenmaking selections for your archives, butnothing beats personal recommendationsfrom experts. Plenty of useful informationon these and other awards are compiledby Joel Hahn on his “Comics AwardAlmanac,” available at and Lavin have collaboratedin the past, and their work is an excellentresource if you’re on shaky groundwhen it comes to comics, graphic novels,or manga.And because I just can’t resist, thisupstart new LIS graduate will recommenda few of her favorite titles in this littlemanual o’ selection. They are must-havesfor any serious comics archive collection:AdolfOsamu TezukaVIZ LLC, 1996ISBN: 1569310580 (volume one)This is a five-volume series, and theentire set is a must. Tezuka is the mangagod of Japan, and this ground-breakingseries explores the lives of three individualsnamed Adolf: a Jewish boy living inJapan; a half-Japanese, half-German boy;and the leader of Nazi Germany. This isa wonderfully fresh perspective on theevents of World War II.Bone (complete edition)Jeff SmithCartoon Books, 2004ISBN: 188896314XThree modern cartoon cousins getlost in a pretechnological valley, spendinga year there making new friends and outrunningdangerous enemies. Their manyadventures include The Great Cow Race,and a giant mountain lion called RockJaw:Master of the Eastern Border. They learnabout sacrifice and hardship in a climacticjourney to The Crown of Horns.Maus (box set)Art SpiegelmanPantheon Books, 1993ISBN: 0679748407All volumes in one complete set. Ifyou haven’t heard of Maus, then you’vebeen living under a rock. It’s the story ofthe narrator, Artie, and his father Vladek,a Holocaust survivor.SandmanNeil GaimanDC Comics, 1993ISBN: 1563890119 (Volume One)This is a ten-volume series, andI recommend the whole set. Gaimandraws from European and worldmythology to spectacular effect inone of the most original fantasy seriesever. The main characters are Dream, aMorpheus-like protagonist, and his complexsiblings, Destiny, Death, Delirium,Despair, and Desire.continued on page 2624 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

Who Is Reading Manga?One High School’s StoryMelissa BerginSCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVETheir hair is long and short,light and dark, and occasionallya shocking purple.They wear short skirts, longflowing coats, and all-blackoutfits. And a couple of them have thebiggest, most beautiful eyes you have everseen. Am I talking about the characters inmanga? I could be, but in this case I amtalking about my students who read them.As librarians we are always wonderingwho exactly is reading the books webuy. Sure, we see some readers as we doreaders advisory, but others slip to theshelves and back out without ever trippingour radar. I know manga is big withmy students. I know I have to hide halfprocessedbooks, or they will try to takethem out. If I process them while studentsare around, I need to keep sticky notes athand to create impromptu reserve lists asthe students see them. The manga I havemake up less than 1 percent of my collectionbut is creating between 25 and 30percent of our circulation most months.I’ve known for a long time that theparaprofessionals in my library whohandle the reserves and interlibrary loansoften know more about a particularstudent’s reading habits than I know. Iknew our school had an active animegroup who often suggested new titlesfor our collection and that a significantnumber of titles were being loaned to ourlocal middle school. But who was readingthem here at our high school library?My casual observation showed threetypes of readers. The first type was areader who was interested in anime andJapanese culture and was reading mangain light of its popularity. The secondtype was an avid reader who would readanything that wouldn’t walk away. Andthe third type was a reluctant reader whowas attracted to titles recognizable fromcurrent anime on television. But why thisgroup of readers? What did they have incommon? What was the appeal?I set out to do some research. I createda one-page survey, and, with thehelp of two wonderful paraprofessionalswho spend much more time with thestudents and the graphic novel collectionthan I do, I set about surveying students.Between students who came in to borrowmanga and those taking the survey to theschool’s Anime Club, I soon had thirtythreeresponses.So what did I find out? Well, firstof all, I wasn’t finding out who thesestudents were. Their self-descriptions,particularly of their own reader type, differedfrom others’ descriptions of them.I surveyed thirty-three students agesfourteen through eighteen. Of those students,twenty-three were female, and tenwere male. This gender difference did notsurprise me. Our anime club was startedby girls, and my collection is heavilyweighted to shojo (girl) manga, since thatis what has been requested. Like manyother areas of buying, I also have to fightmy own “appeal” criterion to buy what Ithink is cool. Just because Yu Yu Hakushodoesn’t appeal to me doesn’t, in fact,mean it will not circulate well.I tried through the survey to see whattypes of students were reading the manga.The majority almost evenly split (fifteento sixteen) between being a “good”student and an “average” student, withonly two considering themselves “poor”students. Favorite classes were most likelyto be English, art, or math, while at thesame time the least favorite class wasoverwhelmingly likely to be math. Is theresomething about how the mind processesthe information in graphic novels that ismore or less compatible with a learningstyle needed for math?From my sample, manga seems toembrace both readers and nonreaders.Almost half the sample, fifteen students,reported reading at least twenty books ayear, not including manga and requiredschoolbooks. Within that sample, sixreported more than fifty books a year!(And I am embarrassed to say I can onlyname three of them!) Many reported apreference for fantasy and adventure,echoed by the fact that Inu-Yasha is ournumber one circulating title in the collection.Several reported romance astheir favorite, also supported by theconstant circulation of shojo series likeKare Kano and Mars. All but one studentreported that reading was easy for them.Considering that the sample includedstudents who are identified as specialeducation students, it says that studentsare feeling successful reading manga—even if they have to read it backward. I’vewondered for some of these students ifthe challenge of reading a book forwardis so great that the challenge of reading abook backwards is no greater. (“Authenticmanga,” the most popular of the mangaforms being printed currently, is printedin the original Japanese format with thereader starting at what we would considerthe back of the book and reads right toleft to the front of the book.)These are also social students. Whilea few were self-reported bookworms orathletes, a majority of students reportedtheir favorite activity as “hanging out withfriends.” One of the other teachers in mybuilding brought it to my attention thatMelissa Bergin is one of a team of twolibrary media specialists at Niskayuna(N.Y.) High School. She recently spentpart of February and March in Japan asa volunteer with Special Olympics for the2005 World Winter Games. She is currentlyworking on an additional degree ineducational administration.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 25

WHO IS READING MANGA?BERGINyou rarely see a student reading mangaalone. They often can be seen reading ingroups and discussing what they haveread. Perhaps the short length of thebooks allows for more shared experiencesto discuss, but their reading has a sense ofcamaraderie about it. While many teacherslook down at graphic novels, I’m notsure we can dismiss something that hasour students critically and enthusiasticallydiscussing what they are reading.But perhaps where it got mostinteresting was when I asked studentsfor their favorite three manga series. Ofthe top fifteen titles suggested we onlyhad nine of them in the school mediacenter. When you went further out onthe list even more titles I had neverheard of appeared. I knew there was anelaborate network of manga-sharinggoing on of which the library was onlypart, but obviously many of the studentswere getting books from outside sources.Some of the titles suggested were theshojo titles in our collection, while othersreflected a more shonen (youngboys) preference such as Naruto or YuYu Hakusho. What I had not expectedthough was the interest in shonen-ai(boy love) series. Shonen-ai are characterizedby a fairly innocent, romanticmale-male relationship and are targetedto appeal to girls. Two of the mostpopular for my students are Gravitationand Only the Ring Finger Knows. Theterm yaoi is sometimes also used in theUnited States to describe these titles.Though the yaoi moniker has traditionallyapplied to a more mature audienceand more graphic images, the terms areused interchangeably by today’s teens.I have learned several things fromthis small survey. One of the lessonsshould have been obvious—be aware ofbuilding a balanced collection reflectingthe interests of all your users and potentialusers. Just because the girls were themost vocal does not mean they were theonly ones reading. I had the evidence inmy circulation reports as well that theboys books were moving too, and theywere underrepresented.I also learned that my instinct wasright. There are three basic groups readingthem, and I had pretty accuratelypegged those groups. One question Icould have asked is if there had been anychange in their other library habits sincethey began coming in for manga. Didthe manga lead them to other libraryresources? I know several of them havebuilt wonderful relationships with Linda,one of our paraprofessionals, who hasbecome extremely well read in manga.For those students, I know they have onemore adult in the school they feel theycan talk to.I still have a nagging suspicion thatthere is more here to be researched. Isuspect there is something in how thesestudents learn that makes graphic novelsappeal to them. If as educators we can tapinto that, we have another way to reachthese students. Unfortunately I know Idid not ask the right questions. While thestudents overwhelmingly told me thatthey learned “by doing” over “listening”or “reading,” I doubt that they are trulyFavorite Manga ofNiskayuna High Schoolstudents●●●●●●●●●Naruto—Masashi KishimotoInu-Yasha—Rumiko TakahashiRurouni Kenshin—NokuhiroWatsukiOnly the Ring Finger Knows—Satoru Kannagi, Hotaru OdagiriMars—Fuyumi SoryoGravitation—Maki MurakamiFruits Basket—Natuki TakayaCeres, Celestial Legend—YuWatasePretear—Junichi Satou, KaoriNaruse(Note: not all of these seriesare held by the high school or wouldbe appropriate for a high schoollibrary.)kinetic learners, more likely some typeof visual or spatial learners. Consideringthe number that said that they did notlike math and that none reported anyaffinity for music, two known learningconnections, maybe there is another areaof literacy to be explored here. I currentlyhave more copies of the survey at our twomiddle schools to gather more information,which will hopefully allow me torefine my survey tool and maybe try toask the right questions. While manga maybe recognized as barely more than a fad,it is leaving a mark on a significant partof a generation. ●Y ARCHIVE?WELCH AND BROWNcontinued from page 24WatchmenAllan Moore, Dave Gibbons.DC Comics, 1995.ISBN: 0930289234The central story in Watchmen:apparently someone is killing off ordiscrediting the former Crimebusters.The remaining members end up comingtogether to discover the who and the whybehind it all, and the payoff to the mysteryis most satisfactory.We hope you find this anecdote/guide helpful and entertaining. Good luckwith all your endeavors! ●BIBLIOGRAPHYHahn, Joel. “Comics Award Almanac.”Accessed May 26, 2005,, Michael R. “Comic Books for YoungAdults.” Accessed May 26, 2005, SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

Japan Comes toElizabeth, New JerseySCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVEA Week of Japanese Entertainment for TeensKimberly PaoneAt a Teen Advisory Councilmeeting in late fall 2004,the discussion came aroundto spring break 2005. Atthe time, the library’s auditoriumwas being remodeled, and theteens were getting tired of having theirprograms in a makeshift public space inthe library. They were looking forwardto when we could return to the fourthfloor, spread out, make noise, and watchmovies with the volume turned up loud.That’s when the idea started to form.Someone suggested we show some anime.Someone else said we should talk aboutmanga. A third mentioned karaoke. Ourspring break loaded with Japanese entertainmentwas born.The preparations began soon after.One teen in particular, sixteen-year-oldKamil, a longtime program participantand huge anime and manga fan, wasextremely excited and began lendingme anime features and previews fromhis own collection. He was practicallycounting down the days until March.We decided that we would have oneprogram per day during the week ofspring break (six days total since we’reclosed on Sundays): four evenings ofanime, one manga swap and discussionand “An Afternoon in Tokyo” featuringJapanese snacks and karaoke. “Karaokemachine” was added to the top of myChristmas list.After the holidays, the pressurewas on to choose the anime that wouldbe featured. Everyone had his or herfavorites, and although I am an animefan, I was worrying about the previewingtime that this decision was going totake. Luckily, I remembered to check theWeb site of our movie licensing companyto see what would be available toshow under our contract. There werefive anime films listed: Cowboy Bebop,Millennium Actress, Princess Mononoke,Spirited Away, and Tokyo Godfathers.Because Cowboy Bebop is rated R, wehad our four selections. Fortunately, thefour titles were approved by the hardcoreanime watchers, and I could breathe asigh of relief. Our library already ownedSpirited Away, so I ordered the remainingtitles that would be added to our collectionafter the showings.The manga swap and discussionwas nothing that had to be carefullyplanned out. On any given day in theTeen Department, manga swapping anddiscussing could be witnessed, so I knewthat this program would take care ofitself. I have been purchasing huge quantitiesof manga for the teen collection forseveral years, so I really just needed tomake sure that we were up to date withthe latest releases.As March drew nearer, I started tobecome concerned about the Japanesesnacks I had promised. The wonderfulsalad bar at the Korean deli down thestreet featured California rolls, so I spoketo the owner and arranged for a specialorder of bite-size pieces with a sideof wasabi and packages of soy sauce. Iwent to an Asian market near home andfound a huge package of chopsticks fornext to nothing (the kids ended up takinghome the extras as souvenirs). ThenI made a special trip to Manhattan to alittle second-floor Japanese supermarketcalled Sunrise Mart. I quickly found thesnack aisle and filled my basket with allkinds of brightly colored, unidentifiablecandies. Some were marked with picturesof Hello Kitty and others had drawingsof fruit or chocolate, but otherwise, I figuredwe’d just have fun being surprised!Thirty or so dollars later, I had a bulgingbag of goodies that also included shrimpand soybean-flavored chips and wasabipeas. A quick trip to Sam’s Club for acase of green tea, and I was ready to feedthe masses.A little research was necessary wherethe karaoke was concerned. I had seenLost in Translation, but I needed somethingmore. A trip to a Japanese karaokebar in New York taught me the protocol:would-be singers visit the bar to obtaina menu of the song titles available andfill out a slip of paper with their request.(Songs were two dollars each!) Singerswould then be summoned when it wastheir turn. The fancy leather-boundmenus and the two-dollar charge wouldhave to be forfeited, but a photocopiedtitle list and the sign-up papers were easyenough to do.Karaoke CD+Gs can be purchasedfor about the price of a regular CD atToys ‘R’ Us, and stores like Best Buy. Onedrawback is that music being played onthe radio right now is not yet availableKimberly Paone is a 2000 graduateof the School of Information,Communication and Library Scienceat Rutgers University and has beenworking at the Elizabeth (N.J.) PublicLibrary for nearly five years. Kimberlyis very involved with the New JerseyLibrary Association’s YA Sectionand YALSA. She has served on YALSA’sBest Books for Young Adults Committeeand Outreach for Young Adults withSpecial Needs Committee and is currentlya member of the Michael L.Printz Award Committee.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 27

JAPAN COMES TO ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEYPAONEon CD+G, so the teens have to contentthemselves with music from last summerand fall. The karaoke machine I gotfor Christmas is the MTV STVG-988. Ithas two microphones (for duets!) anda seven-inch black and white screen forreading the lyrics. It has a pretty strongspeaker but a very weak camera.The preparations were complete, theword was spread among the anime andmanga-loving teens, and the time hadfinally come. So did the rain. About halfof the week was plagued with horrible,flood-inducing storms, and because 95percent of our teens rely on their owntwo feet to get them to programs, ourattendance was certainly affected.The fourteen teens who showed up tosee Tokyo Godfathers on Monday eveningwere early, and I could tell that nothing(not even torrential rain) was goingto keep them away. These were animedevotees. Some had seen the film, somehadn’t. All were riveted to the screen.Tokyo Godfathers (Rated PG-13) is thestory of three homeless people (a middleagedman, a washed-up drag queen, anda teenaged girl) who find an abandonedbaby on Christmas Eve. The three don’texactly get along but decide to find thebaby’s parents, and they set off on quitean adventure. The film is in Japanese, subtitledin English, and is at times humorous,at other times, poignant. As they filedout at the end of the movie, I heard onlypositive comments, and plans being madeto attend the next night.Spirited Away (Rated PG) was amovie that more of the eighteen teens inattendance on Tuesday had seen previously.It is the story of a ten-year-oldgirl whose parents upset the gods byeating their food, and she has to enter avery strange world to try to rescue them.This film was dubbed in English, but inmy opinion, the creepiness factor aloneshould give it a PG-13 rating. The floating,slime-spewing monsters, the giantbaby and his wart-laden mother, the disembodied,rolling heads were almost toomuch for me—but the teens sat wideeyedand rapt through every scene.Most surprising was MillenniumActress (Rated PG), a film within a filmwhere a reporter and cameraman interviewan aging actress who takes them onan amazingly cinematographic journeythrough her life. The interview chroniclesher lifelong search for a man she metand aided when she was a girl. Many ofthe teens were disappointed with thisfilm’s ending but were impressed with theuniqueness of its art and design. One teenpointed out that he was glad that this onewas subtitled, not dubbed.Princess Mononoke (Rated PG-13)is a film I had shown previously at thelibrary, yet some of the fifteen students inattendance had never seen it. This movie’sdubbing boasts a long list of Hollywoodstars including Billy Crudup, Billy BobThornton, Claire Danes, and MinnieDriver, but something seems to havebeen lost in the translation. The story issomewhat difficult to follow but featuresa tough girl princess who has been raisedby wolves, a brave young man, sometalking animals, and lots of crazy, creepycreatures. The teens were already talkingabout karaoke as they left this movie.The rainy Friday afternoon of springbreak turned out not to be the best timefor our manga swap and discussion. Onlynine students attended, but that did notslow down the debates over what are thebest manga and what are the worst! I emptieda few shelves of the books onto a cart,we spread them out on the floor insideour circle of chairs, and several studentsbrought their own stash from home. Noone was willing to trade, as I had fearedbut expected, but they were certainly willingto show off their collections. Kamilpassed around a copy of Mars in Polishthat he picked up while he was visitingfamily in Europe the previous summer.He shared with us some interesting anecdotesabout manga in Poland—accordingto Kamil, the books are not available incomic book stores, only gaming stores,and pretty much all of the titles that areavailable here in English are available therein Polish. Another student mentioned thatone could purchase manga in other languageson members of the group seemedto like Hana-Kimi, Love Hina, Chroniclesof the Cursed Sword, Ranma 1/2, andSilent Mobius the most. They likedPretear, Wedding Peach, and Ragnarok theleast. Gravitation made both the best andworst lists. There was a very interestingdiscussion regarding the gay relationshipin Gravitation, and seventeen-year-oldSteve made a very passionate case forthe series stating: “It’s about love andstalking. It doesn’t matter who he is orthat he’s a guy.” He seemed to convincesixteen-year-old Brandon (who had onlyread the first one or two books) to give itanother try.After about an hour, as the discussionwaned, we watched a couple ofanime previews to finish out the afternoon,but not before I gathered a nicelong list of soon-to-be-released mangatitles to order for the collection and aneven longer list of anime to purchase(everything from Castle in the Sky to FullMetal Panic).Finally the big day had arrivedand with it, more rain. But the karaokemachine was hooked up to project thelyrics on the big screen and blast musicout of our sound system, the snackswere out, ready to be devoured—andtwenty-five slightly soggy teenagers camethrough the door. We had a blast! Onlynine of the teens could get up the courageto actually sing, but the others had just asmuch fun being audience members. Theyall enjoyed trying out the Japanese snacksand learning how to use chopsticks. Wehad a drawing for an authentic Japanesemanga, and we were even serenaded inJapanese by Brandon who has startedlearning the language.About the week’s activities, sixteenyear-oldRuth said, “I loved it, but I wishthat we explored a wider spectrum ofJapanese culture—not just mainstream.”They’ve already started planning the nextweek of events like this one (and therewill certainly be a repeat performancein the summer) which could includeorigami, a martial arts demonstrationand maybe a tutorial on how to make aJapanese food dish. Hopefully we won’thave any rain.For your own week of Japaneseentertainment, here’s what you’ll need:●Anime films (approximately twentyto thirty dollars each unless you canborrow them from a teen)28 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

PAONEJAPAN COMES TO ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY●●●●●●●●●Viewing rights (price varies)Snacks and drinks for each program[I couldn’t afford Japanesesnacks for every day of the week sowe had chips or cookies and juiceduring the week and saved all theJapanese food for Saturday. I spentabout fifty dollars on the Americansnacks.]Manga from your shelves for the discussion(free)Karaoke machine (free if you put iton your Christmas list, otherwiseone hundred eighty-nine dollars forthe model I mentioned)Karaoke CD+Gs (ten to twenty dollarseach)Printed title listsSlips of paper for song requestsPensJapanese snacks (thirty dollars for●●●candy and chips at Sunrise Mart,fifteen dollars for California rolls,twelve dollars for green tea)Chopsticks (two dollars)Napkins, plates, cupsJapanese manga prize (five dollars—purchased at Sunrise Mart)HAVE FUN! ●BIBLIOGRAPHYMangaAkamatsu, Ken. Love Hina. Los Angeles:TokyoPop, 2002.Asamiya, Kia. Silent Mobius. Viz Communications,1999.Beop-Ryung, Yeo. Chronicles of the CursedSword. Los Angeles: TokyoPop, 2003.Lee, Myung-Jin. Ragnarok. Los Angeles:TokyoPop, 2002.Murakami, Maki. Gravitation. Los Angeles:TokyoPop, 2003.Nakajo, Hisaya. Hana-Kimi. Viz Communications,2004.Satou, Junichi. Pretear. ADV, 2004.Takahashi, Rumiko. Ranma 1/2. Viz Communications,2003.Tomita, Sukehiro. Wedding Peach. Viz Communications,2003.DVDsCastle in the Sky, dir. Hayao Miyazaki, DVD,125 min., Walt Disney Video, 2003.Full Metal Panic, dir. unknown, DVD, 100min., ADV Films, 2003.Millennium Actress, dir. Satoshi Kon, DVD, 87min., Dreamworks Video, 2003.Princess Mononoke, dir. Hayao Miyazaki, DVD,134 min., Miramax, 2000.Spirited Away, dir. Hayao Miyazaki, DVD, 125min., Walt Disney Video, 2001.Tokyo Godfathers, dir. Satoshi Kon, DVD, 92min., Sony Pictures, 2003.Where Great Teen NovelsBecome Great Teen Listening!BuddhaBoyKathe Koja2 Cass. Lib. $20.00ISBN 1-932076-52-23 CD Econo $28.00ISBN 1-932076-53-03 CD Binder $34.00ISBN 1-933322-20-9“Spencer Murphy aptly conveys Justin’s fears,ambivalence, and outrage…a surefire springboardfor discussion about bullying, peer pressure, andtolerance.” – School Library JournalThe Cat AteMy GymsuitPaula Danziger2 Cass. $20.00ISBN 1-932076-55-73 CD Econo. $28.00ISBN 1-932076-56-53 CD Binder $34.00ISBN 1-933322-21-7“The shining star in this production isCaitlin Brodnick, who plays Marcy toperfection.” – Booklist, Starred ReviewGilbert &SullivanSet Me FreeKathleen Karr5 CD Econo. $34.00ISBN 1-932076-74-35 CD Binder $42.00ISBN 1-933322-27-6Too new for review, but here’swhat the author had to say:“I am totally enchanted byFull Cast Audio’s recording ofmy book. The entire cast hasmade its characterizationsspot on. Better, they’vethrown their hearts in aswell.” – Kathleen KarrBruce Coville’sAvailable from your distributor or directly from1-800-871-6809 “WE PUT MORE ACTORS IN EVERY BOX!”YALS ● SUMMER 2005 29

SCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVEI Got Graphic!Using Visual Literature Works!Jodi LeckbeeIn mere moments, my studentsare transported to Poland in the1930s, and they, like the maincharacter Vladek, are witnessingthe horror of the Holocaust. Theywatch helplessly as German soldiers hanga group of men on the street; they experiencethe fear these family members feltbecause they are there with them and cansee it on the expressions of their faces. Irepeat they can see it themselves. This isthe power of the graphic novel, compellingvisuals that move literature beyondjust a simple collection of words into aform of visual literature. My studentsare reading a graphic novel called Mausby Art Spiegelman. The image and thetext work together on the page, bringingthe complicated story of a man and hisfather, one comic strip frame at a time,to life.I discovered the power of usinggraphic novels in my classroom, not toreplace, but rather to enhance the learningof literary analysis for my students.Some educators assume that the art ofgreat writing is diminished by usingvisual images to convey what authorsso successfully accomplish with words.Thematic structure, the use of metaphor,simile, exaggeration, and other literarytools, are not abandoned within a graphicnovel, but rather enhanced by the ethicalunderpinning and multicultural perspectivethe artist brings to the table. In manyof these novels, students connect visuallyand can relate personally to the archetypesfound within the pages.Jodi Leckbee has been teaching for tenyears. She is a graduate of Texas TechUniversity. After teaching Theatre Artsfor seven years, she is now an Englishteacher at Akins High School in Austin,Texas.Sample timeline brochure for Maus.Graphic novels, already popularwith teen readers, act as a bridge allowingthem to transcend the apathy usuallyfelt toward reading assignments. Becausemany students are not excited by reading,and peer pressure punishes manyof those who are, graphic novels have a“cool” factor, and a teen is rarely embarrassedto be seen reading one. In fact,many teens possess expertise in the areaof graphic novels, especially manga, andare willing to share their own personallibrary and knowledge. Letting studentsteach me about the reading they love hashelped me transfer that same enthusiasmto reading response assignments andclass discussions. I have also found greatsuccess by pairing a graphic novel withother forms of literature to support athematic unit.When I teach Maus, I am incorporatingthe novel into a larger unit onthe Holocaust. I like using literature andfilm to connect with my students. Moststudents feel this subject matter is farremoved from them. Using Maus bringsthem closer to understanding the ideathat this kind of crime toward humanitycould happen again. After interactingwith the graphic novel, the students willpresent what they have learned in theform of a brochure. The brochure assignmenton Maus requests that the studentswrite about their own lives, therebybringing the experience of Holocaustparticipants directly to them. My intentionis to have my students interact withthe experiences that the characters inthe novel survive in an emotional powerfulway. The art of the graphic novelmakes this experience visceral and farmore intense. The brochure assignmentasks them to follow one character asthey move throughout the novel as wellas compare and contrast themselves tothe character. Students will create diary30 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

LECKBEEI GOT GRAPHIC!Maus brochure assignment.entries for their character based on eventsthat occur in the novel. This task requiresthem to put themselves in the story andgive a voice to the pictures they are seeing.The combination of the images inMaus and the video I use in class, Nightand Fog, force my students to visually facethe horror of the Holocaust. I stand bythe old adage, “Seeing is believing.”When I teach my unit on compassionI use the graphic novel FamilyMatter written by Will Eisner. I like topartner this reading with the novel OfMice and Men by Steinbeck. Eisner, whois considered the father of the graphicnovel, coining the term, writes and illustrateshonest human stories that caneasily win over skeptics that believe thatall graphic novels are based on fantasyand superhero formulas. I don’t want todiminish the use of superhero comics inan English class; however, what better wayto teach the Hero Cycle than by usingactually superheroes? Using superheroesalso gives me the opportunity to discussgenre and subgenre with my students.Anyone who believes that all superherocomics are alike just has not read enoughcomics. There are traditional superheroes,modern superheroes, teen superheroes,teams of superheroes, parodies of superheroes,anti-hero superheroes, and evenfeminist superheroes. The world of thegraphic novel is just as varied as otherforms of literature. As English teacherswe should read as much of this genre aspossible before we can make educateddecisions about what is appropriate forour students and our classrooms.I started down the road of graphicnovels by teaching an entire unit usingcomic books. I set up a gallery of comicbook and graphic novel covers aroundthe room. The number of distinct genresfound today surprised my students. Justlike fiction, graphic novels have many differentcategories; super hero, fantasy, horror/supernatural,science fiction, humor,crime, real life, historical fiction, myth/legends, non-fiction, educational andmanga. Some of these genres are furtherdivided up into subgenres, illustratingthe range of material available. But thereis more. I haven’t even fully opened thedoor to the world of manga. The mangaform of the graphic novel is a phenomenonin well-educated Japanese society,outselling any other form of literature.They have become quite popular in theUnited States as well and allow a uniqueopportunity for students to gain a multiculturalperspective. Manga requires studentsto read from the bottom right sideof the page to upper left creating opportunitiesfor them to experience readingin a new way. After asking my studentsto spend time reading several differentgraphic novel titles, they were given aMultiple Intelligences project to completeon the novel of their choice. With thisassignment, I was able to have studentsthink about how graphic novels are written,the art involved in the process andthe thought behind the author’s intent.With many standardized tests introducinga visual component to assessmentand the overload of visual mediums intheir everyday lives, the graphic novel isuniquely poised to tap student’s enthusiasmand further their learning. Whyshouldn’t educators use the power of thegraphic novel to help students becomebetter readers and writers? The multidimensionalnature of comics and graphicnovels allows teachers to think aboutliterature in a new creative way. Exploringthe visual world of graphic novels willheighten your students’ interest in readingand expand intellectual possibilitiesrather than contract them. A literarypiece, like a graphic novel, is calling onstudents to use both their analyzing andsynthesizing skills, actually requiring moreinvolvement and focus in their reading.Therefore, teaching graphic novels provideseducators another way to engage theminds of our students. Not unlike the useof film and music in English classrooms,graphic novels should be acknowledged asa valuable learning tool. Sometimes youjust have to see it to believe it. ●YALS ● SUMMER 2005 31

SCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY PERSPECTIVEGet Animated @ your library ®Kristin Fletcher-Spear and Merideth Jenson-BenjaminThe Glendale (Ariz.) PublicLibrary (GPL) has had asummer reading program(SRP) specifically for teensfor the past seventeen years.The past three years, the individual teenlibrary councils (TLC) from our threebranches met in January to discuss theteen summer reading program. The teensrecommended the theme of the programand the format. Although our TLCsare notorious for making outlandish orunworkable suggestions, most of the timewe are able to accommodate our teens’requests. But for the first time, this yearthe teens planned it all.Prior to the three TLCs meetingtogether, each council met individuallyto brainstorm ideas for themes andprizes. Past joint meetings of the threecouncils have been held on a Saturdayafternoon, and fortified with snacks andan icebreaker that the teens groaned at,but enjoyed immensely, the kids wouldhammer out a program theme and makesuggestions about the format and administrationof the program. Although thesnacks were popular, neither the teensnor the librarians looked forward to thisKristin Fletcher-Spear is the teenlibrarian at the Foothills Branch Libraryin Glendale, Arizona. She received bothher BA and MLS degrees from IndianaUniversity (IU). She was introduced tographic novels at IU by reading Mausfor a literature class. Now she’s ableto use her love of graphic novels, particularlymanga, every day at work withthe teens. One day, Merideth Jenson-Benjamin—librarian, mother, and supergoddess—wokeup and discovered shewas a rampaging comics geek. Shehas no idea how this came to be sinceit was never a goal or even a dimlyrealized ambition. Merideth holds twodegrees from the University of Arizona,an MLS and a BA in women’s studies.She is employed as head chaos generator(teen librarian) at Glendale (Ariz.)Public Library.meeting, as it was usually a multihourordeal, boring for the kids, and rather likeherding cats for the adults.In order to liven things up, this yearthe teen librarians in charge of the TeenLibrary Councils, Greg Kinder, KristinFletcher-Spear, and Merideth Jenson-Benjamin, decided to have an after-hoursparty held at our centrally located Mainbranch. Our party was by invitation onlyfor TLC members, each of whom couldbring one guest. In order to cut downon uninvited participants, we held theevent on a Saturday night after the libraryhad locked its doors to everyone else.We mixed business with pleasure, takingturns singing karaoke, eating pizza andice cream, and discussing the readingprogram. After a rather horrifying grouprendition of “Summer Nights” fromGrease and some pizza, the librariansshowcased the goals of a summer readingprogram and of the night using a handydandy three-part PowerPoint presentationthat covered the goals of an SRP,theme ideas, and program format ideas.We emphasized to the teens that the programhad to appeal to a wide age range(twelve through eighteen) and needed tobe simple for the staff to administer.After the PowerPoint on SRP themes,the councils broke down into groups tobrainstorm new theme ideas. Of course,the librarians had to provide parametersand had veto power over the teens’suggestions. Otherwise, we would haveinappropriate themes with cuss words orthat were sexual in nature. Our personalfavorite suggestions that were vetoed thisyear were: “Is that a book in your pocketor are you happy to see me?” and “BooksGone Wild.” We enjoyed imagining theSRP art for that suggestion. An image ofa book, its title pixilated out, the bookjacket slipping off or an animated imageonline of a book flashing its pages at theviewer were both suggested by the teens.After three voting turns, the teens finallychose “Get Animated! @ Glendale PublicLibrary! Teen Summer Reading Program2005” as this summer’s theme.Our teens really got into karaoke,even though it gave Kristin a massiveheadache. The quietest girl of all threecouncils belted out a JoJo song. Oneteen boy entered someone else’s namefor karaoke so they both sang a duet of“Sugar, Sugar.” An extremely off-key falsettorendition of “I Believe in a ThingCalled Love” by a group of male TLCmembers drove both teens and librariansfrom the room.But soon we had to reel them backin to discuss the program setup. In thepast, the teens only suggested the format,and the teen staff made the finaldecision in the matter. Again, the handydandy PowerPoint was very useful forworking our way through the six planswe were suggesting to the teens. Theplans we discussed were the following:Reading Records, Review System, AuctionMethod, Genre Method (also known asBook Bingo), Prize/Drawing Method,and the Combo Platter, a combinationof the previous five methods. Each planhad the positives and negatives noted.It was particularly important to impressupon the teens the benefits of simplicity.When working with our councilsin a large group setting, they have thetendency to take a straightforward ideaand then build upon it until it becomescompletely unworkable. We had to makeit clear to the teens that any ideas involvingelaborate equipment setups such asgiant prize wheels, slot machines, or livingchess games were not viable; nor werecomplicated registration and trackingmethods involving databases, tally sheets,or anything else requiring special trainingfor staff.The teens surprised us by pickingthe Combo Platter and being inventivein their setup. They chose to keep theReading Record-style program, whichGPL has used for the last several years.This type of program entails teens getting32 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

FLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINGET ANIMATEDa reading log that has X number of pagesand hours of reading on it broken downinto blocks. As teens work through thelog, they receive prizes. It is a very basicreading program that many libraries use.However, our teens added an innovativetwist. They liked the idea of the genremethod, but instead of being forced toread specific genres in order to receiveprizes, they wanted to make it a bonuspart of the program.Once a teen finished a book, theteen’s name was entered in a raffle for theappropriate genre prize. At each library,we had gift bags correlating to differentgenres: historical fiction, horror/thriller,fantasy, science fiction, mystery, romance,comics, and free-for-all good-reads. So,for example, a teen reading the sciencefiction manga Planetes could enter inthe drawing either for the science fictionprize or the comics prize. At the end ofthe summer, a drawing was held for eachof the genre bags. Through this rafflesystem, teens could continue to readthroughout the summer for chances atgenre specific prizes and were encouragedto explore different genres. Each teenstaff member took on the task of creatinga gift bag using a budget of fifty dollarswith a little extra from the book budgetfor books. For example, historical fictioncould be things from different decades.The fantasy gift bag could include a giftcertificate to a popular role playing game(RPG) and miniatures gaming store, andthe romance bag could include chocolateand candles. A comics and manga gift bagwas enthusiastically endorsed by the TLCmembers, since like many teens, most arerabid manga and graphic novel fans. Thecombination of reading record and genredrawings made the librarians excitedabout the reading program and proudof the teens for their hard work. So wecelebrated with ice cream bars and morekaraoke. Kristin’s headache was eventuallyrelieved by medication but flared upagain around the time the group sangalong to “Without Me.”Last year’s SRP theme “PH34R M%L337 R34D1N 5K1LL5!”—“Fear my leet[elite] reading skills,” per MegaTokyospeak—was popular because no onecould read it or explain it, but it lookedfantastic on a t-shirt. This year’s theme“Get Animated” will be popular with ourgraphic novel and anime enthusiasts, andit can be expanded in different directions.The nonteen librarians were thrilledbecause it was a theme they could readand pronounce easily. We, the teen librarians,were thrilled for an entirely differentreason, as we are in the process of writinga book on graphic novels for VOYA. Ourknowledge of the format, combined withcontacts within the comics and animeindustry, made the possibility of partneringwith publishers and distributors bothattractive and possible.With the theme, we easily saw theconnection to graphic novel and animecompanies. We could envision cool artpermissions and great prizes for the teens.In reality, it took a lot more work thanimagined. First we wrote a letter requestingdonations to several companies withwhom we had built relationships throughyears of going to comic and anime conventions,writing and publishing aboutgraphic novels, attending focus groupswith publishers, being active on animeand comics electronic distribution listsand Web sites and being truly geeky fansof the format. While these working relationshipsmade us comfortable approachingthese companies about beingsponsors, it still took time to make a letterprofessional and to the point. We sentthe letter to several companies and had agood response. ADV Films, DC Comics,Broccoli International, FUNimation,Viz, Dark Horse Comics, Slave LaborGraphics and Oni Press all agreed to actas sponsors for “Get Animated,” in additionto local sponsors including restaurants,movie theatres, and comic bookstores. The response to our inquiries wastruly amazing! These partnerships providedboth the library and the sponsoringcompanies with great opportunities.We were able to receive prizes we couldnever have afforded for our teens, and thesponsoring companies got their names inthe hands of teens through SRP handoutsat area schools and at our library. Also ofbenefit to our sponsors was the library’snot-for-profit status, which allowed themto use any donation to us as a tax writeoff.While our connections in the industrymade these partnerships possible,we would not have thought to contactthese companies without the input ofour teens. If we learned anything fromworking with our teen library councilson this program, it was to think creativelyand always consider who you can partnerwith in order to make the event or programthe best one possible.In an especially nice piece of synergy,the “Get Animated” theme allowed usto further tap into the creativity of ourteen library councils. Many of the councilmembers are not only anime and mangafans but also enthusiastic amateur mangaartists. One of these artists created ourmascot for the Get Animated program,“Danii” named after her creator, DanielleSeidner. Danielle provided the line art forour smiling representative, and a digitalpaint job brought her to life. Workingwith our teens on the artwork for thesummer program added another chancefor teens to have input into the programand created a new layer of involvement.As we do every year, we will be passingout our program flyer at local schools,and where we are able, doing a brief presentationabout our SRP. Our programflyer includes information about the teenSRP, our events and programming information,and a booklist of graphic novels,an expanded version of which we haveincluded at the end of this article. Thissummer we expect to have over eighteenhundred teens sign up for the readingprogram, and approximately six hundredteens finish the program. We want tothank our program sponsors for supportingour teens and library. Without them,we would be unable to do the programthe teens envisioned.Planning a reading program withteens can be a challenging and chaoticexperience. Mix in karaoke, some devotedmanga, anime and comics fans, and librarianswilling to try anything once, and youhave a recipe for disaster or a chance totry something completely new and innovative.With a little luck, some creativenetworking, and the hard work of both theteen staff and the teen library councils atGlendale Public Library, we were able toplan and produce a teen summer readingprogram that met the request of teens andYALS ● SUMMER 2005 33

GET ANIMATEDFLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINsatisfied the goals of the library. It will behard to top this for next summer, but weare sure we will manage.Recommended ReadingThose titles marked with an asterisk (*)are intended for older teens.ActionAnzai, Nobuyuki. Flame of Recca (series).San Francisco: VIZ, 2003–.Recca has a dream—to be a ninja,not a very realistic dream for someoneliving in contemporary Tokyo.But one day unexpectedly he discoversthat he has powers of his own!Flame of Recca is a ninja actionstory that focuses on friendships andelemental powers. Another ninjagraphic novel series to check out isNaruto by Masashi Kishimoto.Jae-Won, Lim. The Boss (series).Houston: ADV Manga, 2004.Sang Tae, a sophomore and powerfulfighter who only fights when necessary,is respected despite his youth.Guk Do, a thug who has recentlyreturned to school, attempts toregain control. Sang Tae is placed inthe middle of things right away inthis kung-fu title.Oda, Eiichiro. One Piece (series). SanFrancisco: VIZ, 2003–.This hilarious action series focuseson Monkey D. Luffy, and his piratecrew on their search for the treasureOne Piece. Since Luffy ate the cursedGum-Gum Fruit, he has special rubberypowers, but now he can’t swim!And how can you be a pirate withoutswimming! The crew and their beliefin Luffy keep this ship of a graphicnovel series floating along.*Rucka, Greg. Queen and Country (series).Portland, Ore.: Oni Pr., 2002–.Featuring the burnt out andamoral “minder” Tara Chase, thissurprisingly topical series offersa warts-and-all view of internationalespionage. Artwork aping theEuropean style of realistic backgroundsand cartoony charactersgives this series a distinctive look.Togashi, Yoshihiro. Yu Yu Hakusho(series). San Francisco: VIZ, 2003–.When Yusuke dies while performinga selfless act, the afterlife doesn’tknow what to do with him. So theyoffer him a chance to come back tolife and become a spiritual detectiveinvestigating supernatural orspiritual issues on earth for the kingof hell; which usually means Yusukewill end up fighting more than justhumans.ComedyAzuma, Kiyohiko. Azumanga DaiohVol. 1–4. Houston: ADV Manga,2003–2004.The story of a group of high schoolgirls and their hilarious day-to-dayschool life are told through a seriesof four panel comic strips. Whilethoroughly entertaining and humorous,the story also is heartwarmingin showing the friendships onemakes during the school years.Baker, Kyle. Plastic Man: On the Lam.New York: DC Comics, 2004.Well-known artist Baker’s reinventionof the 1940s hero is relentlesslysilly and packed with endless sightgags. Baker’s idiosyncratic artworkstyle works wonders here, as thistrade paperback (TPB) is a treasurechest of visual humor.Clugston-Major, Chynna. Blue Monday(series). Portland, Ore.: Oni Pr.,2000.Northern California teens mix it upin this late ’80s set series. A parodyof the raunchy teen sex comedies ofthe era, Blue Monday boasts strongfemale protagonists, clean mangainspiredartwork, and the addedbonus of soundtrack suggestions foreach scene.Kobayashi, Makoto. Club Nine (series).Milwaukee, Wis.: Dark HorseComics, 2003.Harou is a lovable, klutzy countrybumpkin, who has left everythingand everybody she knows to attendcollege in Tokyo. She works at a barcalled Club 9 as a hostess to pay forher apartment. In Japan, hostesses sitwith the customers and provide conversationwhile continually filling theglasses. Her hostess job leads to somevery amusing situations.Lash, Bratton. Supernatural Law (series).San Diego, Calif: Exhibit A Pr., 2000–.Where do the things that go bump inthe night go for legal representation?To Wolfram and Hart, Counselors ofthe Macabre, the stars of this fantasticallyfunny small press gem. Full ofpop-culture references and some reallybad puns, this series might requirepushing but will find a loyal audience.Takaya, Natsuki. Fruits Basket (series).Los Angeles: TokyoPop, 2004–.After Tohru Honda is discoveredliving in a tent on their property,the Sohma family invites her to livewith them. She’s happy to cook andclean for them, but things get hilariouslysticky when she accidentallydiscovers their family secret—whenhugged by members of the oppositesex they transform into theirChinese zodiac animal.Drama and Realistic FictionAdachi, Misturu. Short Program Vol. 1and 2. San Francisco: VIZ, 2004.Adachi proves his mastery of shortstories in these volumes. While theblack and white art is an older, simplisticstyle, the stories told are internationaland timeless. Whether it is arepairman fixing a stereo for the girlhe likes or the supertall student whocelebrates his track star friend’s success,Adachi captures the characters’emotions at major moments in theirlives. The stories will warm the readers’hearts with their dramatic touchesof human life and relationships.*Clowes, Daniel. Ghost World. Seattle,Wash.: Fantagraphics, 2001.A series of short vignettes detailingthe end of a friendship betweentwo alienated and foul-mouthedteen girls, this book received a lotof attention when the eponymousmovie debuted. The graphic novelis equally worth checking out as itfeatures solid writing and interestingthree-toned art.34 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

FLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINGET ANIMATEDIkezawa, Satomi. Othello (series). NewYork: Del Ray, 2004–.Split personalities come to life inthis manga series. Yaya is a sweethigh school girl who secretly loves tocostume play or “cosplay.” (Cosplayrefers to fans who dress up as anime,manga, or video game characters.Often, they will re-enact scenes duringmasquerade competitions atanime conventions.) Yaya’s friendsare cruel and abusive. Whenever Yayagets angry and sees her reflection,she becomes Nana, the tough andconfident personality.Thompson, Craig. Blankets. Marietta,Ga.: Top Shelf, 2003.The story of an introverted youngman’s first love and his voyage ofself-discovery, this quiet TPB toucheseveryone who reads it. Soft-edgedblack and white artwork contributesto the lyrical and sad story.*Kim, Derek Kirk. Same Difference andOther Stories. Marietta, Ga.: TopShelf, 2004.Simon and his friend Nancy, twoKorean-American, San Franciscoareatwenty-somethings, return toSimon’s hometown of Pacifica, andSimon ends up reminiscing about hishigh school days. Not much happensin this quiet graphic novel, but theunique perspective and clean artworkwill win you over.*Yoshida, Akimi. Banana Fish (series).San Francisco: VIZ, 2004–.New York, 1985: Youth gang leaderAsh Lynx receives an address anddrug samples from a dying manwhose last words are “Banana Fish.”Behind this mysterious drug is a violentconspiracy that involves not onlythe mafia and the Chinese Triad, butbegins with the U.S. Government.One of the most well-known andbeloved shojo titles of the 80s, withshonen-ai undertones, it is has crossoverappeal for both sexes.FantasyCLAMP. Tsubasa: RESERVoirCHRoNICLE (series). New York: DelRay, 2004–.In this new series using many oldand familiar characters, CLAMPuses a method typically only seenin the superhero genre of Americancomics—the crossover. Sakura andSyaoran from Cardcaptor Sakura areback but not as cardcaptors. Sakurais the Princess of Clow and Syaoranis her childhood friend. WhenSakura enters an archeological digsite, a mystical occurrence causes allof Sakura’s memories and thus herlife force to leave her body and beflung through multiple dimensions.With the help of Yuko, the spacetimewitch, Syaoran, Sakura, and twoother adventurers, Fai and Kurogane,travel through the dimensions toretrieve Sakura’s memories one byone. This series is recommended forcollections that already have CLAMPmaterial.*Gaiman, Neil. Sandman: Endless Nights.New York: Vertigo Comics, 2003.Acting as both a coda and introductionto the Sandman series,Endless Nights tells one story foreach of eight siblings: Endless,Destiny, Death, Dream, Desire,Despair, Destruction, and Delirium.Illustrated by a who’s-who of comicartists, this mature readers’ title willwhet your appetite for the rest of theSandman series.Irwin, Jane. Vögelein: Clockwork Faerie.Ann Arbor, Mich.: Fiery Studios,2003.This lyrically drawn, well-writtencomic is about an automaton whohas become more than the sumof her parts, and her search for anew life mate is a small press gem.Difficult to find, this TPB’s rich tapestryof urban fantasy and historicalfiction is worth seeking out.Tamura, Yumi. Basara (series). SanFrancisco: VIZ, 2003–.Set in the distant future, Sarasa mustlead her people and become theChild of Destiny after the Red King’sarmy kills her twin brother Tarata.Now masquerading as Tarata, Sarasamust find the strength to protect herpeople and take revenge upon theRed King. Since this is a manga writtenfor girls, a romance blossomsduring a chance meeting at a hotspring introducing a man namedShuri to Sarasa. Little do they knowthat they are meeting the one personthat they would do anything todestroy—Tarata and the Red King.Watase, Yu. Alice 19th Vol. 1–7. SanFrancisco: VIZ, 2003–2004.In this fantasy set in modern-dayTokyo, Alice learns that words havepower. When she says that she wishesher sister would disappear, her sisterdoes just that. Mayura disappearsinto her soul that has become corruptedwith hatred. Now Alice andher friends must become Lotus masters,those who control the power ofwords, to save Mayura from her corruptedsoul.*Willingham, Bill. Fables (series). NewYork: DC Comics, 2002–.Having been driven from theirhomes by a nameless Adversary, theresidents of the fairytale lands havetaken up residence in an apartmentbuilding in New York City. Focusingmostly on Vice-Mayor Snow Whiteand house detective Bigby Wolf, thisTPB series manages to both mockand honor fairytale conventions.Historical Fiction*Cruse, Howard. Stuck Rubber Baby. NewYork: DC Comics, 2001.The racial tensions of the 1960scome to life in this overlookedgraphic crime novel. As one youngman joins the fight for racial equality,he comes to terms with his ownsexuality. Gorgeous, evocative artworkbrings the period and the charactersto life.Eisner, Will. A Contract with God andother Tenement Stories. New York:DC Comics, 1996.It could be argued that Will Eisnerinvented modern comics, and thiscollection of short stories set in aJewish tenement in the 1930s showsthe master at the top of his game.Semi-autobiographical and beautifullydrawn, this book belongs in allpublic library collections.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 35

GET ANIMATEDFLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINGaiman, Neil. 1602. New York: MarvelComics, 2004.Yes, it has superheroes. But it also hasan incredibly realistic Elizabethansetting, an intricate, yet comprehensibleplot, and some of the mosttextured and realistic comic art to befound today. To tell too much wouldruin the experience of this surprisingand engaging title.Kobayashi, Motofumi. Apocalypse MeowVol. 1–3. Houston: ADV Manga,2004.This series follows an Americanreconnaissance team in Vietnam.Using anthropomorphic characters,the Americans are rabbits, and theVietnamese are portrayed as cats.Ranging from scouting for an ammunitiondump to the Tet Offensive tothe team’s R & R in Saigon, each oneshotchapter focuses on the missionsand wartime issues the team facestogether. The black and white art isphenomenally realistic. It’s a war filmcome to life, if war films had rabbitsand cats fighting.Tezuka, Osamu. Buddha Vol. 1-4. NewYork: Vertical, 2003–.Fictionalized characters and storiesare intertwined with the biographyof Siddhartha, the prince whobecomes Buddha. One of Tezuka’smore mature masterpieces, the seriesbrings the world of long ago Indiato life with action and humor. Thereis nontitillating imagery of slavesand pariahs without clothing, butit is realistic to the times portrayed.Although this series was publishedfor adults, teens interested inBuddhism will want to pick it up.Watsuki, Nobuhiro. Rurouni Kenshin(series). San Francisco: VIZ, 2003–.Once known as Hitokiri Battosai,an assassin during the Bakumatsuperiod, Kenshin is a wanderingswordsman who now protects otherswith his reverse blade sword andwill not kill. Kenshin soon meetsup with the other characters of thislong-standing manga, Kaoru—aswordswoman; Yahiko—a youngboy filled with the Samurai Pride;and Sanosuke—a rough and toughfighter. Together they have manyadventures fighting those who wantto bring back the samurai and thefeudal lord system.HorrorHirano, Kohta. Hellsing (series).Milwaukee, Wis.: Dark HorseComics, 2002–.Hellsing, England’s secret organizationfor fighting of the monsters ofthe world has an ultimate weaponagainst the things that go bump inthe night—Alucard, a loyal vampire.A visually stunning graphic novelthat is fun, violent, and not too scary.*Hyung, Min-Woo. Priest Vol. 1–15. LosAngeles: TokyoPop, 2002–.Ivan, an ex-priest who sold his soulto a devil called Belial, is the onlything standing in the way of thedark lord Temozarela’s resurrection.Starting in the American WildWest but truly encompassing theInquisition through contemporarytimes, Ivan fights for humanity’s survivalwith silver bullets while fightingBelial for control over his own soul.Due to the ultra-violent nature ofthe series, this title is recommendedfor high school and up.Ito, Junji. Uzumaki: Spiral into HorrorVol. 1–3. San Francisco: Viz, 2001–2002.Recently Kurozu-cho, a small townon the coast of Japan, has become aweird Mecca for spiral-obsessed andpossessed individuals. The storiesare interconnected, each one depictingyet another incident of spiralinducedmadness, which ends givingreaders chills down their spine. Withthe characters drawn like realisticJapanese teens, the setting in everydayplaces, and the usage of black,white and grays, this trilogy bringsTwilight Zone creepiness to life.Mignola, Michael. Hellboy (series).Milwaukie, Ore.: Dark HorseComics, 1997.While it may require a willing suspensionof disbelief (reanimatedNazis! Rasputin! Frog-men!), thisLovecraft-inspired series is pure goldfor horror fans. Mignola uses cleanand spare art to illustrate a worldwhere the supernatural is not onlypossible, but also expected.Niles, Steve. 30 Days of Night. San Diego,Calif.: Idea & Design Works, LLC,2003.A unique Alaskan setting and somerefreshingly angst-free, nonromanticvampires give a classic horrorsetup—a small town invaded byvampires with slim hope of humansurvival—new life. Gory artwork,which perfectly matches the bloodstainedstory, earmarks this one forthe strong of stomach.Whedon, Joss. Fray. Milwaukie, Ore.:Dark Horse Comics, 2003.Melinka, a young girl with unusualstrength and speed, is told she is theChosen One who will fight the bloodsucking Lurks. Even nonfans of Buffythe Vampire Slayer will find much tolike about this future slayer tale.MysteryAoyama, Gosho. Case Closed (series). SanFrancisco: VIZ, 2004–.Jimmy Kudo, top-rate teen detectivetrailing after some men in black, iscaptured and given an experimentalpoison that instead of killing himshrinks him to a first grader’s body!Now using the pseudonym ConanEdogawa, Jimmy is tracking the menin black one case at a time in searchfor an antidote.*Bendis, Brian Michael. Powers (series).Fullerton, Calif.: Image Comics,2000–.In a world where superbeings fightclimactic battles in the sky, twoeveryday detectives do their jobs,patrolling the world of the Powers.A germinal crimes and capes story,Powers is notable not only for itspowerful writing, but also for beingthe first mature readers comic toemploy a distinctive style of animatedart.*Rucka, Greg. Whiteout: Melt. Portland,Ore.: Oni Pr., 2000.Federal Marshall Connie Stetkowas banished to Antarctica for past36 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

FLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINGET ANIMATEDscrew-ups. Now, she is offered achance to get off the ice, but onlyif she’s willing to betray those whotrust her. A tightly plotted, wellwritteninternational mystery, thisfollow-up to the first Whiteout TPBfeatures some of the best synergybetween art and text to be found incomics.Kanari, Yozaburo. Kindaichi Case FilesVol. 1–12. Los Angeles: TokyoPop,2003–2004.Hajime Kindaichi is a cocky amateursleuth with amazing deductive skills.Each volume is a conclusive murdermystery and can be read in anyorder. The well-designed mysteriescause readers to use both visual cluesin the black and white art and textualclues in the writing to solve themurder mystery. Readers who liketraditional whodunits will fall hardfor this mystery series.RomanceMizuki, Hakase. Demon Ororon Vol. 1–4.Los Angeles: TokyoPop, 2004.One rainy day, Chiaki brings homethe injured Ororon, who turns outto be the King of Hell. They quicklyfall in love despite their cosmic differences:he—a demon who kills,she—a half-angel pacifist. Whileeverything isn’t always happy, it isalways beautiful with the hip art. Aslightly different love story that isn’tall hearts, love, and happiness, thereare slayings, political intrigue, anddemons that eat angels.*Murakami, Maki. Gravitation (series).Los Angeles: TokyoPop, 2003–.When famous romance novelist EiriYuki criticizes Shuichi’s lyrics for anew song for his band, Shuichi isdetermined to prove him wrong.Shuichi pushes his way into Yuki’slife and soon their lives entwinetogether, leaving this series as oneof the most popular shonen-aititles available.Tsuda, Masami. Kare Kano (series). LosAngeles: TokyoPop, 2003–.Yukino lives for praise. Seriously, sheworks day and night to get it. She’snot really this nice girl; she’d muchrather be reading get-rich schemesthan a classic, but she’s great at puttingon airs. Now in high school,she is all ready to be in the spotlightuntil Arima gets there first! She seeshim as her archrival and when hefinds out her real personality, she’ddo anything to destroy him. That isuntil he confesses his love to her.Van Meeter, Jen. Hopeless Savages (series).Portland, Ore.: Oni Pr., 2002.Punk icons Dirk Savage and NikkiHopeless settle down in the ’burbsto have a family. Now Rat Bastard,Arsenal Fierce, Twitch, and SkankZero are grown, with trials and tribulationsof their own. A series thatis truly about love—love betweenparents and children, between brothersand sisters, between boys andgirls, between boys and boys—usespunk imagery and language to hide awarm and fuzzy core.Watson, Andi. Love Fights (series).Portland, Ore.: Oni Pr., 2004.It’s a story as old as time: comic artistboy meets superhero-obsessedgirl tabloid reporter, boy’s cat getssuperpowers, boy and girl fall in love,boy and girl torn apart by superheropaternity scandal. Watson invigoratesthe romance comic genre with theaddition of sly superhero elementsand his distinctive angular art.Yoshizumi, Wataru. Marmalade BoyVol. 1–8. Los Angeles: Tokyopop,2002–2003.All Miki wants is a normal family,but that’s not going to happen withher parents divorcing, swappingpartners with another couple, and allfour living under the same roof! Butthen she meets Yuu, her new stepbrother,and maybe, just maybe, hecan ease her pain.Science Fiction*CLAMP. Chobits Vol. 1–8. Los Angeles:TokyoPop, 2003.Hideki is a student who finds a persocom,a humanoid computer, inthe trash. After turning her on andnaming her Chi, he discovers thather operating system has been wipedclean and Chi has strong firewallsprotecting her from anybody tryingto learn about her. Hideki quicklyrealizes that beneath her childlikebehavior lies something more powerfulthan persocoms should have.Gatou, Shouji. Full Metal Panic (series).Houston: A.D. Vision, 2003–.MITHRIL, an antiterrorist organization,has assigned Sosuke to protectChidori, a kidnapping target for variousterrorist organizations. His job isto infiltrate her high school and pretendto be a normal high school guywhile protecting her, but that turnsout to be too difficult for Sosuke, thegun-toting, war-crazed, teenage mercenary!While he protects Chidorifrom various minor attacks such asguys trying to ask her out, Chidoritries to keep peace at her school andto keep Sosuke from blowing anythingelse up!TenAppel, Doug. Creature Tech.Marietta, Ga.: Top Shelf, 2002.A scientist who long ago tradedfaith for facts is confronted with thegenuine shroud of Turin, a big bluebug alien, a giant space eel, and areanimated mad scientist circa 1900.A silly story that masks a maturediscussion of theology and acceptance,complemented by dynamic,cartoony artwork.Vaughn, Brian K. Y the Last Man (series).New York: DC Comics, 2003–.After everything else with a Y chromosomedies, the last survivingmale Yorrick Brown must embarkon a terrifying journey to discoverthe cause of the holocaust and tofind his true love. This series lives ordies depending on your willingnessto accept its premise, and rewardsreaders with unconventional plotsand a disturbingly believable dystopicsetting.Watson, Andi. The Complete Geisha.Portland, Ore.: Oni Pr., 2003.Jomi is an android, raised as part ofa human family, who wants to be anartist. When anti-android prejudicekeeps her from making a living withher paintings, she joins the familyYALS ● SUMMER 2005 37

GET ANIMATEDFLETCHER-SPEAR AND JENSON-BENJAMINbodyguard business. Art forgery, familyrelationships, supermodels andgiant mechanicals or “mecha” are justa few elements included in this beautifullyillustrated title. Mecha refersto giant robots or piloted armor suitsfound in anime or manga.Yukimura, Makoto. Planetes (series). LosAngeles: TokyoPop, 2003–.Hachimaki’s dream is to be an astronautexploring the outer limits ofspace. However, instead of exploring,he’s an intergalactic garbage man.He and his teammates pick up thespace trash mankind has left behindin their foray into space exploration.The storyline follows these threeteammates and their ruminationsabout space.SuperheroesBusiek, Kurt. Astro City (series). La Jolla,Calif.: Homage Comics, 1996–.If you’ve ever wondered what superheroesare like behind the mask thenthis beautifully illustrated series isfor you. Busiek and his collaboratorsbring an amazing amount ofthoughtful planning to the sometimes-slapdashsuperhero genre.Punkett, Kelly. Batgirl (series). NewYork: DC Comics, 2001–.A mute teenager raised to be theperfect assassin must face up toher past and embrace an uncertainfuture in this relaunch of the Batgirlseries. Pitch-perfect characterizations,some of the most expressivelyrendered faces in comics. and a verybelievable teenage heroine makethese TPB a treat.*Moore. Alan. The League ofExtraordinary Gentlemen, vol. 1,1898. La Jolla, Calif: America’s BestComics, c2000.Don’t be fooled by the god-awfulfilm adaptation. Moore’s team ofVictorian crime-fighters, all liftedfrom fiction of the period, is wortha second look in its original comicsform. Staying true to the roots of thecharacters, Moore and artist BenedictDimagmaliw present VictorianLondon in all its squalor, as well aspresenting a new twist on a stereotypicalsuperhero team.Rucka, Greg. Wolverine (series.) New York:Marvel Comics, 2004–.Fanboy favorite and best-knownX-Man Logan is given a thoughtfuland thought-provoking makeover inthis TPB series. Lighter on action thanmost Wolverine titles, Rucka looks atwhat makes this enigmatic charactertick, while creating some strong andappealing female characters.Winnick, Judd. Green Arrow: StraightShooter. NY: DC Comics, 2004.Green Arrow, a Silver Age characterrevised by author Kevin Smith,comes into his own in this TPB byWinnick. Sharply written, tightlyplotted, and clearly drawn, this is agood standalone title for those interestedin the Emerald Archer. ●38 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

Adult Graphic Novels ReadersA Survey in a Montréal LibraryOlivier CharbonneauINTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVEGraphic novels have takenthe library world bystorm. This new formatfor sequential or narrativeart is closer to a bookand thus resolves many problems publiclibraries had with comic books, thoseflimsy booklets teenagers love so much.Traditional superhero comic book editorshave jumped on the bandwagon, and newpublishers are heralding a modern, moremature age for comics. For example,the Montréal-based Drawn & Quarterlyoffers many titles for adult readers (NOTsexually explicit). These new narrativeapproaches, coupled with a more practicalformat, have made graphic novels asure hit in public libraries.Having been raised in Québec,I was fascinated at how English-languagelibrarians saw the comic bookand later reacted to the graphic novelphenomenon. In fact, “la bande dessinée”(literally: illustrated strips) are asmuch a part of Québec public librariesas encyclopaedias or novels. These arefull-color, usually glossy-paged hardboundbooks called “albums” (thinkTintin, Astérix, the Smurfs—originallyBelgian—and friends). Some institutionseven boast collections of morethan ten thousand bandes dessinées forchildren and adults. It was certainly themain reason I started using my locallibrary as a teenager, a move that eventuallylead me to librarianship.As my MLIS at the Université deMontréal called for an internship in myfinal semester, I instantly thought ofstudying a bandes dessinée collection.Keeping in mind its role in francophoneculture, finding an interested librarywas rather simple. In fact, the OctogoneLibrary, in the LaSalle borough ofMontréal, boasts one of the largest collectionson the island.The 73,000 LaSalle residents, ofwhich 25,113 were active users of thelibrary in 2002, accounted for 262,457visits and 542,289 loans in that sameyear. At the time of my internship in winter2003, the adult collection had morethan 5,500 titles from French Europe,600 French, and 75 English manga titles(sequential art from Japan) as well as 650English-language graphic novels. As thelibrary holds multiple copies of somepopular titles, a total of 9,232 documentsare available in the adult collection. Theadult sequential art collection representsabout 5 percent of the overall adult collection,but as a component of our circulation,it accounts for 13 percent of theadult and 11 percent of the overall (adultand children) borrowing.You might have noticed that I focuson the adult bande dessinée collection.There is a separate collection for youth,but initial meetings with the library’smanagement allowed us to zone in ontheir particular needs. After all, I only hadthirty-six working days over four monthsfor my internship, so we had to determineprecise goals. We opted to surveythe collection’s users. The purpose was toidentify these patrons’ demographic characteristicsand to determine their satisfactionwith regard to this subcollection.Survey FormatAfter much discussion, thought, andpreparation, the final survey had twentysevenquestions and fit on two doublesidedlegal size pages folded in half, toproduce an eight-page booklet (each onemanually prepared by this humble exintern).1 Banking on my experience in thedirect marketing industry from my pastlife, I used the Recent-Frequent-Money(RFM) model to build my survey. In anutshell, it asks the three main questionsretailers have found to best describe customers:How recent was your last visit?How frequently do you visit us? Howmuch money do you usually spend? (Thislast point I adapted to “How many bandedessinées do you borrow?”) Both Frenchand English versions of the survey wereproduced, and the latter was reproducedin the appendix of this article.A large, colorful display filled withquestionnaires was left near the collection,and smaller but still colorful displayswere strategically placed near thecomputer lab, reference, and circulationdesks. Staff were asked to hand one outwhen users borrowed a bande dessinée.The survey ran for five weeks (February13 to March 19, 2003, limited by theinternship) and we distributed 450 andreceived 108 valid forms. Statistical validityis not confirmed, and some subgroupsare rather small, but it provides interestingviews into the minds of patrons. 2The ResultsMore men and all ages—Sixty-two percentof respondents are men, whereasthey account for 40 percent of all libraryOlivier Charbonneau is a businesslibrarian at Concordia University. Asa tenure track faculty member, he isinterested in the entertainment industry,primarily digital copyright concerns, aswell as comic books, graphic novelsand French bande dessinée. He is amember of CLA’s and ASTED’s copyrightcommittees and is in the midst ofcoursework for a master’s in law. Also,he is the vice president of the Arts onPaper Society, a nonprofit organizationbased in Montréal that promotesgraphic and narrative art.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 39

ADULT GRAPHIC NOVEL READERSCHARBONNEAUusers. It is largely known that men lovesequential art, but it shows that we mustnot discount female users as well, witha respectable 38 percent of respondents.For both sexes, 38 percent are aged fifteenyears and younger; 22 percent are sixteento twenty-one; 21 percent are twenty-twoto thirty-nine; and 19 percent are fortyand older! It clearly shows that all agesindulge in sequential art.Draws motivated users—Fifty-ninepercent of those who responded statedthat bande dessinée is the main reasonthey visit the library, while 85 percent ofthe sample disclose that they use otherlibrary services (novels and computerlabs being the most popular). So this collectionattracts users that fully participatein the institution. On the other hand, 11percent of those who replied are maleusers aged twenty-one or younger whowould not have otherwise visited thelibrary. In this case, this collection attractsreluctant users that may eventually useother library services.Stable users—About 75 percent ofthose who responded have been using thecollection for three years or more, while80 percent visit the library at least everyfour weeks. Of course, satisfaction surveysusually attract the most motivatedcases, so this point is often a fallacy—butit is still interesting to note.Give them what they want—Userswere asked to rank their favorite genres.Here are their preferences, in order:humor, adventure, science fiction, police/spy/political, and fantasy. Other choiceswere available, but they didn’t do nearly aswell. In order: superhero, historical, erotic,horror, western, drama/romance, andalternative/underground. This is quite usefulfor collection building and reference.Youths love manga—Nineteen percentof responders stated that they ONLYread manga (Japanese comics such asPokémon and Dragon Ball), and theyare all younger than thirty! Only about6 percent of those responding were agedthirty or older and admitted readingboth bande dessinée and mangas. This isan important trend: the western worldis only now waking up to the mangaphenomenon. In 1995, 40 percent of allbooks and magazines sold in Japan weremanga! 3 Expect more and more mangain English and French in years to come.Activities for all—Sixty percentwould be interested or very interested inparticipating in a club, in conferences, orother activities. About half would readmore if they were recommended documentsbased on their genre. There seemsto be unanswered demand at this level.Satisfaction—Eighty-nine percentof responders—spanning all demographiccharacteristics—are either satisfiedor very satisfied with the OctogoneLibrary’s collection. (Those dissatisfiedare unhappy with the size of the Englishcollection.)ConclusionDespite major cultural differencesbetween francophone and anglophonesequential art, they both benefit froma devoted fan base. Furthermore, theintroduction of the graphic novel formatis a clear departure from the classicalsuperhero comic book dogma. This willprobably lead to a shift in readership, andpublic libraries should have the foresightto benefit from this trend.The data collected from this satisfactionsurvey provide key indications ofthe wants of a Québec client base, comfortablewith the Franco-Belgian bandedessinée tradition. It clearly shows thatthis collection is a desired and vibrantIf you are considering creating a graphic novel collection inyour library, build it and they will come!part of the Octogone Library. This tool isa definite boon to librarians from all overNorth America, especially as it attests tothe future popularity of English-languagegraphic novels. In a nutshell, if you areconsidering creating a graphic novel collectionin your library, build it and theywill come! ●REFERENCES1. Mira Falardeau, La Bande dessinée au Québec(Montréal: Editions Boréal, 1994); SharonL. Baker, “Quality and Demand: TheBasis for Fiction Collection Assessment,”Collection Building 13, nos. 2–3: 65–68;Sophie Ranjard, “Pratiques et attentes despublics des médiathèques: méthodes ettechniques d’enquête,” Bulletin des Bibliothèquesde France 45, no. 5: 102–107;Marie-Fabienne Fortin, Le processus de larecherche: de la conception à la réalisation(Montréal: Décarie Éditeur, 1996).2. Jacques Ferron, Comprendre, interpréteret évaluer les sondages (Montréal: Info-Éditique Ferron, 1994), vi, 218.3. Paul Gravett, “Telling Tales ThroughVisuals,” Library Association Record 99,no. 3 (Mar. 1997): 141.Appendix: Survey QuestionsFor a Better Comic Book and Manga CollectionDid you know that your library has one of the most extensive collections of manga, comic books, and graphic novels (bandesdessinées) on the Island of Montréal? It’s true, and we’re always trying to touch it up for you. Actually, you might have noticed theimproved display cases for the manga collection. (Mangas are comic books from Japan, on the rotating display cases)In keeping with this desire to offer you better service, we ask you to take a few moments of your time to answer this short survey.Be assured that all the details you provide us will be used for statistical purposes and that this survey will remain confidential. Pleasefill out this survey only once.Thank you in advance for your time!40 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

CHARBONNEAUADULT GRAPHIC NOVEL READERSValidationHave you ever borrowed from the Octogone Library . . .● mangas in French? yes no● mangas in English ? yes no● comic books/graphic novels in French? yes no● comic books/graphic novels in English? yes noIf you have answered YES to any of the previous questions, please fill out this survey.Your Use of the Collection1. Are the comic book/graphic novel and manga collections the main reason you visit the library?(Yes, I visit the library primarily for the comic book/graphic novel and manga collections; No, I visit the library primarily for theother services or collections)2. How long have you been using the manga or comic book/graphic novel collection?(Less than 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1–2 years, 3–4 years, 5–9 years, 10 years or more)3. How long ago was the last time you visited the library to use the comic book/graphic novel or manga collection?(this is my first time, less than a week ago, 1–2 weeks ago, 3 weeks ago, 4–6 weeks ago, 7–9 weeks ago, 10–12 weeks ago, 13 weeksor more)4. On average, how often do you visit the library for the comic book/graphic novel or manga collection?(more than once a week, once a week, twice a month, once a month; once every two months; once every three months; once everysix months, I don’t know)5. How many comic books/graphic novels or mangas did you borrow when you last visited the library(estimate if you are not sure)? (1–2, 3–4, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10; I never borrow comic books/graphic novels or mangas, I read them at thelibrary)6. Once at the library, do you use its other documents or services?(Yes, I use its other documents or services, specify_______________________________; No, I visit the library only for its comicbooks/graphic novels or mangas)7. Do you use the computer system to find comic books/graphic novels or mangas you want to read?(Yes, No, specify _______________________________).Your Preferences8. Do you prefer mangas or comic books/graphic novels?(mangas; comic books/graphic novels; both)9. Order the following genre from 1 to 12, where 12 is your favorite genre and 1, the one you like the least.(alternative/underground; adventure; drama/romance; erotic; fantasy; historical; horror; humour; police/spy/political; science-fiction;superhero; Western)10. Do you prefer stories that span many volumes (series) or stories contained in one volume (graphic novels, one-shots)?(series, graphic novels, one-shots; both)11. In which language do you prefer to read comic books/graphic novels or mangas?(French; English; both)12. How interested are you in works detailing artists’ lives (biographies, making-of) as well as essays or books about comic book/graphic novel or manga (history of, analysis, papers)?(very interested; interested; uninterested; very uninterested)13. How interested are you in encyclopedias or dictionaries about comic books/graphic novels or mangas?(very interested; interested; uninterested; very uninterested)14. How interested are you in events involving comic books/graphic novels or mangas(lectures, conferences, book club)? (very interested; interested; uninterested; very uninterested)15. Do you buy your own comic books/graphic novels or mangas?(Yes, specify the number of books purchased each year: ____; No)16. Do you receive comic books/graphic novels or mangas as gifts?(Yes, specify the number of books received each year: ____; No)YALS ● SUMMER 2005 41

ADULT GRAPHIC NOVEL READERSCHARBONNEAUYour Appreciation of the Collection17. Regarding the comic book/graphic novel and manga collection in general, are you . . .(very satisfied; satisfied; unsatisfied; very unsatisfied)?For the following points, please read the statement and show if it’s true or false for French or English mangas as well as for Frenchor English comic books/graphic novels. Specify your choice by circling:T, if the statement is TRUE;F, if the statement is FALSE ;?, if the statement does not apply or if you do not know.IN GENERAL,MangasComic books/graphic novelsFrench English French English18. The books I want to read are never there T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?119. I’ve almost read everything that interests me T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?20. I feel like all the books are alike T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?21. I have a hard time finding what I want to read T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?22. I would read more if I knew which books are good T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?23. I would read more books if I knew which ones are inthe genre I like T F ? T F ? T F ? T F ?In Closing24. What is your age group?(Less than 12 years old; 13–15 years old; 16–17 years old; 18–21 years old; 22–25 years old; 26–29 years old; 30–39 years old; 40–49 years old; 50–59 years old; 60 years old and older)25. What is your gender?(Female; Male)26. Do you live in the LaSalle borough (old city of LaSalle)?(Yes; No, specify ________)27. Do you have suggestions or comments to improve the manga or comic book/graphic novel collection?PLEASE FILL OUT THIS SURVEY ONLY ONCEPLEASE HAND IN THIS SURVEY TO ANY LIBRARY EMPLOYEEThank you. By answering this survey, you have partaken in the collection’s improvement!42 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVETeenage Reluctant Readers andGraphic NovelsClare SnowballResearch has shown that recreationalreading decreasesas students progressthrough school. 1 Brown hasfound that children stopgoing to the public library between theages of fourteen and twenty, which quitelikely correlates with their not reading. 2In a discussion between some ninth gradeboys they said reading was “boring, it wastoo difficult, it took too long . . . readingwas hard work.” They didn’t get instantgratification from it. 3 Australian authorAgnes Nieuwenhuizen has found teenagers“don’t want to read, they’re bored,they don’t think books have anything tosay to them.” 4As librarians, we all know howimportant reading is. But why is it soimportant that teenagers read?John Marsden, an Australian authorof young adult books, notes that a commonassumption is that reading is good.“This ignores the fact that some of themost successful and envied people in oursociety are apparently nonreaders,” forexample, sports people. 5 This is not asincongruous as it first seems because hequalifies this with his belief that booksare one of the few ways available to helpteenagers understand the great passionsand dramas. 6Krashen has studied the benefits ofreading for many years. He has foundthat children who read for pleasure showimprovement in reading, writing, grammar,and vocabulary, and they acquirethese skills “involuntarily and withoutconscious effort.” He also notes that peoplewho are well read rarely have seriousproblems with writing, grammar or spelling.7 Reeves provides an example of whatcan happen when a student stops readingfor pleasure. Joel was an excellent readerin his first years of school. In seventhgrade, he stopped reading because he wastoo busy with other activities. On enteringhigh school, he couldn’t understandwhat he read anymore, and he couldn’tunderstand why reading had become sohard. His problems with reading camefrom his lack of reading practice. 8Reading can offer a “wealth ofexperience . . . on both an emotionallevel and an intellectual level.” 9 If teenagersdon’t read, “they are missing outon so much.” There is no getting awayfrom the printed word in everydaylife, whether at home, school, or work.You have to read wherever you go—inbooks, in newspapers, in magazines, onsigns, on television, or when surfing theInternet. Reading allows more understandingof a whole range of issues andimproves the ability to argue a point. 10ALA says reluctant readers are thosewho, for whatever reason, choose notto read. 11 Teenagers in particular oftencan read but hate to do it. 12 Stringer andMollineaux define reluctant readers asthose who are able to but “do not possessthe desire or the inclination to read.”They note the reasons for this lack ofreading are diverse. 13 For example, someyoung people who hate to read find itdifficult and still have bad memories oflearning to read. 14People will read, if and when theyare interested. 15 Reluctant readers will notread just for the sake of reading. They tendto be highly selective when choosing whatto read, but they are willing to read whenthey find something they connect with. 16So to get teenage reluctant readersreading, we need to find the elusivereading material that provides interest.Many writers agree that graphic novelscould be that special something thatprovides interest and that a teenagerconnects with.Jones notes the overwhelming evidencefor the value of comics. He saysthe library that carries comic books will“create raving fans of its collections.” 17Teenage reluctant readers are especiallyattracted to comics. 18 Crawford says comicsare an “invaluable tool for motivatingreluctant readers.” 19 Gorman thinks thecover art pulls in those who are “otherwisedisinclined to pick up a book.” 20Mackey and Johnston believe graphicnovels appeal to “readers who wouldreject more traditional fare.” 21 Researchundertaken on sixth graders in Austin,Texas in 1999 found the most popularreading choices for all children, regardlessof reading ability or gender, were scarybooks and comic books. 22Comics have “low readability levels”and are thus easier for less proficientreaders. 23 Crawford mentions the readinglevel of graphic novels being about thatof Time magazine, young adult novels,and many adult best sellers. 24 This couldbe the reason graphic novels are less likelyto intimidate a reluctant reader. 25The UK Reading Agency had a promotionin February called Manga Mania,which was aimed at teenagers from thirteento sixteen. It was publicized as a wayfor libraries to reach those who didn’tthink of themselves as readers. 26Why are comics are so popular withteenagers?Teenagers today have so muchto keep them occupied and are “surroundedby diverse and increasinglycomplex media.” 27 CorrespondinglyClare Snowball has been a youngpeoples’ services librarian in Perth,Western Australia for the past threeyears. This year she stopped workingto begin Ph.D. work at Curtin Universityof Technology on teenagers’ use ofgraphic novels. Right now she is workingtowards her candidacy.YALS ● SUMMER 2005 43

TEENAGE RELUCTANT READERSSNOWBALLtheir expectations for entertainmentare high. 28 They have been raised ina very visual world, with wide-screentelevision, electronic games, and theInternet. 29 Those ninth grade boys Imentioned earlier find television, videos,and computers far more interesting thanreading a book. 30 These are all highlyvisual activities and necessitate visualliteracy. 31 Tony Panaccio was the seniorvice president of product developmentfor a reading program developed by theformer comic publisher CrossGen. Hebelieves comics are a “natural tool” forreaching this generation. 32Steve Kleckner is the vice presidentof sales and distribution for mangapublisher TokyoPop. He likens readingcomics to experiencing entertainmenton many different levels. “You are readingand watching a story unravel at thesame time.” 33 Kan believes it is the “visualaspect” of graphic novels that attractsreluctant readers. 34 It could also be thesmaller amount of text combined withthe “picture activity.” 35Teenagers who choose not to readbecause they find it difficult may prefercomics, whose pictures can providecontextual clues to the meaning of thewords. 36 The blending of words and picturesin comics allows readers to “see thecharacters through the illustrations.” 37Stringer and Mollineaux discuss theimportance of the pictures in helpingreaders who “have difficulty in enteringthe story.” 38 Paxton studied a class ofeighth graders and found the studentscould not visualize the scenes, characters,or action based on what they read.The books did not have extensive illustrationsand thus “held little meaningfor them.” 39 Comics could have helpedthese students with their reading andunderstanding, “pictures are not onlyengaging, but also an aid to learning andmeaning making.” 40Are graphic novels a steppingstone to other reading materials, or is itenough that teenagers are reading something?There is some disagreement onthis question.Just getting reluctant readers to readsomething can help in their discovery ofthe joy of reading. 41 Carrie Edwards, aseventh grade teacher in Oklahoma, usesmanga in her classes and says, “Even mystudents who weren’t interested in readingreadily picked up the books.” Sheencourages other teachers to use them intheir classes and although hesitant at first“once they finally pick them up and readthem, they realise their value.” 42Another teacher, Sister John Delaney,says parents would complain their childrenonly liked to read comic books.She would reply, “At least he is reading.”Delaney believes comics “are merelya good introduction to books, not anend.” 43 Librarian Sandra Rockett believesgraphic novels are stepping stones toreading materials at “the next level.” 44Teacher Diane Roy says a graphic novelcan become a “bridge to other things.” 45Lebrun agrees, as teenagers get olderand their tastes mature, these readersmay be drawn to “more sophisticatedgenres.” 46 Krashen has found considerableevidence that comic books do lead tomore “serious” reading. 47 Graphic novelsspecialist of the United Kingdom booksellerOttakar, George Walkley, says thatcomics are not just “books for kids whodon’t read.” He emphasizes that they are“proper” books. 48A mother of three boys who were allvery reluctant to read and had difficulty inlearning to read said, “The first thing myeldest boy read because he wanted to wasa comic book.” A year or two after this, heprogressed to reading other books. 49With all this evidence as to theimportance of graphic novels in motivatingteenage reluctant readers to pick upa book, let’s hope every library starts orexpands their graphic novel collection. ●REFERENCES1. Thomas M. Smith, Beth AronstammYoung, Yupin Bae, Susan P. Choy, andNabeel Alsalam. Condition of Education:Reading and Writing Habits of Students,Dec. 22, 1997. Accessed Apr. 5, 2005, Anita Brown, “Reference Services forChildren: Information Needs and Wantsin the Public Library,” Australian LibraryJournal 53, no. 3 (2004): 265.3. Vivienne Muller, “The ‘I Hate Reading’Book Club: What a Challenge, and HowDid It Come About?” The Written World:Youth and Literature, ed. Agnes Nieuwenhuizen(Melbourne, Australia: D. W.Thorpe, 1994): 94.4. Barbara Dobson, “An Interview withAgnes Nieuwenhuizen,” Reading Time 39,no. 4 (1995): 8.5. John Marsden, “More Power to Them!Young Readers and Access to Reality inLiterature,” The Written World, 108.6. Ibid., 112.7. Stephen D. Krashen, The Power of Reading:Insights from the Research, 2nd ed.(Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited,2004).8. Anne R. Reeves, “Reading This andRefusing That: Case Studies of HighSchool” (Paper presented at the 91stAnnual Meeting of the National Councilof Teachers of English, Baltimore, Md.,Nov. 15–20, 2001).9. Monique Lebrun, “From Pre-Teens toTeens: Evolutions Regarding the Attendanceat Libraries and the Developmentof Literacy” (Paper presented at theWorld Library and Information Congress:70th IFLA General Conference andCouncil, Buenos Aires, 2004).10. Muller, “I Hate Reading.”11. American Library Association. YoungAdults Deserve the Best: Competenciesfor Librarians Serving Youth, Oct. 2003.Accessed Apr. 5, 2005, Margaret Mackey and Ingrid Johnston,“The Book Resisters: Ways of ApproachingReluctant Teenage Readers.” SchoolLibraries Worldwide 2, no. 1 (1996): 25.13. Sharon A. Stringer and Bill Mollineaux,“Removing the Word Reluctant fromReluctant Reader,” English Journal 92, no.4 (2003): 71.14. Lebrun, “From Pre-Teens to Teen.”15. David Kendall, “Our Children Don’tRead,” Library Association Record 102, no.6 (2000): 334.16. Reeves, “Reading This.”17. Patrick Jones, Connecting Young Adultsand Libraries: A How-to-Do-It Manualfor Librarians, 2nd ed. (New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1998).18. Katharine Kan, “Getting Graphic at theSchool Library,” Library Media Connection21, no. 7 (2003): 15; Danuta Kean,“Get Ready for Manga Mania,” Booksellerno. 5155 (2004): 22.19. Philip Charles Crawford, “A NovelApproach: Using Graphic Novels toAttract Reluctant Readers and Promote44 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

SNOWBALLTEENAGE RELUCTANT READERSLiteracy,” Library Media Connection 22,no. 5 (2004): 26.20. Michele Gorman, “What Teens Want,”School Library Journal 48, no. 8 (2002): 47.21. Mackey and Johnston, “The Book Resisters.”22. Krashen, The Power of Reading.23. Chia-Hui Lin, “Literacy Instructionthrough Communicative and VisualArts,” ERIC Digest no. ED477612 (2003).24. Crawford, “A Novel Approach.”25. Gretchen Schwarz, “Graphic Books forDiverse Needs: Engaging Reluctant andCurious Readers,” ALAN review 30, no. 1(2002): 55.26. Kean, “Get Ready for Manga Mania.”27. Schwarz, “Graphic Books for DiverseNeeds;” Rocco Versaci, “How ComicBooks Can Change the Way Our StudentsSee Literature: One Teacher’s Perspective,”English Journal 91, no. 2 (2001): 62.28. Alleen Pace Nilsen and Kenneth L.Donelson in Schwarz, “Graphic Books forDiverse Needs,” 54.29. Gorman, “What Teens Want;” Versaci,“How Comic Books Can Change.”30. Muller, “I Hate Reading.”31. Robin Brenner, “Graphic Novels: Whereto Start?” SelectioNotes, Apr.–Jun. 2004.Accessed Apr. 5, 2005, Stephen C. George, “Comics with Class,”Better Homes and Gardens, June 2003.Accessed Apr. 5, 2005, Kean, “Get Ready for Manga Mania.”34. Kan, “Getting Graphic.”35. Jackie French, Rocket Your Child intoReading (Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins,2004).36. Teresa Méndez, “Hamlet Too Hard? Trya Comic Book,” Christian Science Monitor,Oct. 12, 2004. Accessed Apr. 5, 2005,; Krashen, The Power of Reading;Crawford, “A Novel Approach.”37. Versaci, “How Comic Books CanChange.”38. Stringer and Mollineaux, “Removing theWord Reluctant.”39. Nina Marie Paxton, “Rounding up ReluctantReaders,” (Master’s thesis, PacificLutheran University, 2003).40. Bonny Norton, “The Motivating Powerof Comic Books: Insights from ArchieComics Readers,” The Reading Teacher 57,no. 2 (2003): 143.41. Marilyn Reynolds in Méndez, “HamletToo Hard?”42. Michelle Galley, “Going ‘Graphic’: EducatorsTiptoe into Realm of Graphic Novels,”Education week 23, no. 23 (2004): 6.43. Ibid.44. Tom Bell, “Racy Fluff or Reading Aid?”Portland Press Herald, Mar. 14, 2005.Accessed Apr. 5, 2005, Méndez, “Hamlet Too Hard?”46. Lebrun, “From Pre-Teens to Teen.”47. Krashen, The Power of Reading.48. Kean, “Get Ready for Manga Mania.”49. Kay Haugaard. “Comic Books: Conduitsto Culture?” The Reading Teacher 27(1973): 54.INDEX TO ADVERTISERSAverStream Press 21BWI/Follett cover 4DC Comics cover 3Diamond Comics 8Farrar, Straus & Giroux Books cover 2Full Cast Audio 29Harcourt 3Orca Book Publishers 51YALS ● SUMMER 2005 45

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE¿Es Un Pájaro? ¿Es Un Avión? . . .¡Es Supermán!Spanish Comics for American LibrariesLucia Cedeira SerantesSince Art Spiegelman’s Mauswon the Pulitzer in 1992, comicart seems to be winning respectand taking the place it deservesin the cultural world, includinglibraries. Graphic novels and comic bookshave proven helpful in bringing youngpatrons to libraries and keeping theminside! Comic books serve two differenttypes of readers:●●Reluctant readers—The combinationof image and text (visual language)and themes such as action,superheroes, and adventure are veryattractive to readers. Jim Trelease,a specialist in reading promotion,explains that when reading a comic,for example Tintin, you are readingeight thousand words. The bestthing is that the kids do not realizethat they are actually reading somany words. 1Gifted and adult readers—Graphicnovels present important themes,especially social and historical.Works like Persepolis, Maus, or Pedroand Me are perfect examples. Comicbooks also promote creativity andnew ways of expression, create newmythologies, and mix old topics inliterature and new formats, like NeilGaiman’s Sandman.University of Salamanca graduateand MLIS at the University ofPittsburgh, Lucia Cedeira Serantes currentlyworks at the Young Adult Libraryand the Research Center part of theCenter for Children’s and Young Adults’Literature (Fundación Germán SánchezRuipérez) at Salamanca, Spain.In Spain, discovering this positiveinfluence is taking longer despite the country’stalented comic authors and qualityproduction. Librarians and bookstore ownersare starting to discover the potentialand importance of this medium, especiallyto young adult users—a group always difficultto attract to libraries and bookstores.Some institutions are trying to improvetheir comic collections and develop programsthat work with comics. The followingare three such projects:●●●Comicteca de la Biblioteca Regionalde Murcia ( More thantwenty-five hundred comics andgraphic novels have their specialplace at the library. Comicteca is aword that is a combination of theSpanish words for comic and library.Biblioteca Tecla ( free bimonthly bulletin coveringdifferent topics related to thecomic book world; new acquisitions,reviews, and articles featuring authorsor works. . It is free and availablethrough electronic subscription.Entre Viñetas ( An itinerant exhibitioncreated and coordinated by theInternational Center of Children’s andYoung Adults’ Literature. This exhibitiontries to show the different stylesin comics—American, French/Belgian,and Spanish, among others, as well asimportant works and authors.Comics in Spanish: Why?The U.S. Census 2000 shows thatHispanics are the fastest growing ethnicgroup in the United States, becoming thelargest minority in the country. This factsupports the increasing attention thatthis population is receiving from differentinstitutions. Libraries are also addressingthe issue of serving this burgeoninggroup of patrons. Materials in Spanishare being bought, Web pages in Spanishbuilt, and activities and services developedto reach out and answer the needsof the Hispanic population.So, what do comics and graphic novelshave to do with all this? As we establishedbefore, graphic novels and comicbooks collections have the potential toentice young adults into the library. Isthis also true when librarians work withHispanic young adults? “Yes” would bethe right answer, and Spanish comicbooks can be helpful to libraries in creatingnew and exciting ways of furtherreaching out to Hispanic youth.There are four important facts aboutthe Hispanic population that librariansshould have in mind: 2●●●Youthfulness—While 35.0 percentof Hispanics are younger than eighteen,just 25.7 percent of the totalUnited States population is youngerthan eighteen; the median age ofHispanics is 25.9, almost ten yearsyounger than the entire United Statespopulation.Language use—75 percent ofHispanics speak a language otherthan English at home, and 99 percentof the time that languageis Spanish.Education—Compared with the restof the population, Hispanics are lesslikely to have completed at least highschool or college, although this situ-46 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

CEDEIRA¿ES UN PÁJARO? ¿ES UN AVIÓN?●ation is changing with second- andthird-generation immigrants andnative-born Hispanics.Future—In 2020, 24 percent of thefive-to-nineteen-year-old populationwill be Hispanic: around sixteenmillion. In the same period of time,the second largest minority groupof youth, African-Americans, is notprojected to grow, maintaining itsnumbers at around ten million. 3Indeed, the Hispanic populationis large, young, and bilingual. So comicbooks can become an important playeron enticing Hispanic young adults to thelibrary, as well as supporting literacy andaddressing some of their reading tastes. 4Moreover, not only Hispanics will benefitfrom Spanish comics purchased; Englishspeakingpatrons can also use thesesame resources to explore and learn theSpanish language.Activities andMarketing StrategiesTheatre Inspiredby Comic StoriesSome recommended works to base thetheatre activity on are Mujeres Alteradas,Mafalda, or La Parejita, comic booksinspired by daily life situations that alsolook at these actions with a sense ofhumor. Encouraging youth organizationsand schools to participate and helporganize and coordinate this activity willhelp to establish relationships with thosewho work with the targeted audience.Superheroes with a SpanishFlavor ExhibitThere are many Spanish comic authorsthat had to immigrate to the USA todevelop their career. Most of them areworking in classic superhero series, likeFantastic Four or Robin. Some authorshave had the opportunity to develop theirown series. Some examples that would beappropriate for this exhibit are:●David López: Batman: Legends of theDark Night (DC Comics #190, #191),Fallen Angel (DC Comics)●●●Marcos Martín: Batgirl: Year One(DC Comics) and Breach (DCComics)Carlos Pacheco: Fantastic Four(Marvel, #35–#41, #44, #46, #47, and#49), JLA/JSA: Virtue and Vice (DCComics), Arrowsmith (DC Comics),Superman/Batman: Absolute Power,vol 3. (DC Comics)Javier Pulido: Human Target: FinalCut (DC-Vertigo), Catwoman (DCComics, #17–#19), Hellblazer: SettingSun (DC Comics), Robin: Year One(DC Comics)Same Art, DifferentLanguage ExhibitOver the years some Spanish comics havebeen translated into English and alsomany well-known American comics canbe found in Spanish through publishersin Spain. Libraries can create exhibits thatdisplay the same issue in both Spanishand English. Patrons can choose the languagethey are most comfortable reading,or they can check both out together tocompare the original to the translationor challenge their comprehension skillsin another language. This activity can behelpful to encourage bilingual readers toread in English.Core CollectionWhen we refer to comics in Spanish,two other words can be used: tebeo andhistorieta. Historieta is a generic termfor any kind of comic creation. Tebeo isa word that was coined in 1968 when itbecame part of the dictionary of the RealAcademia Española de la Lengua. Tebeocomes from a children’s magazine namedTBO, which began publication in 1917and became a best seller, with 200,000issues sold in 1935, just before theSpanish Civil War. Tebeo is used to referto comics created just for children. Inthe ’70s, cómic was introduced to refer tocreations for adults. 5 Nowadays, in dailyconversation, these three words are usedas synonyms with some connotations:Tebeo usually refers to Spanish creations,and cómic is a generic term to refer toforeign publications.Spain has several established publishersof comic books and graphic novels:Norma Editorial, Ediciones B, Planeta deAgostini, Ediciones La Cúpula, EdicionesGlénat España. There are also some newcomerslike Astiberri, De Ponent, SinsEntido. American buyers now have easieraccess to some of these works throughPublic Square Books, the exclusive UnitedStates distributor of Spanish-languagecomics published by Norma Editorial, byfar the largest comic publisher in Spain.While Spanish graphic novel andcomic book publication has a long historythat, by most accounts, startedaround the end of the nineteenth century,the following is a selective list whosepurpose is to represent the best works inSpanish from the last fifteen years. Thelist includes not only classic authors butalso those whose stories and styles mightappeal to Hispanic American audiencesas well as a wider group of library users.Altuna, Horacio. Hot L.A. Barcelona:Norma, 2000.This work was originally writtenas two stories for the magazineTop Comics. It is presented in blackand white, something that helps tohighlight the plot about racism andviolence based on the riots that happenedin Los Angeles in 1992. It isexpected to be published in USA byPublic Square in April 2005.Breccia, Alberto. Mort Cinder. Barcelona:Planeta De Agostini, 2002.This volume is considered a masterpieceof Argentinean comic productionand Breccia’s masterwork. Themain character is a prisoner that issupposed to be dead but is immortal,and has lived through several historictime periods. He meets an antiquedealer who is amazed and intriguedwith the prisoner’s stories. TheEdiciones Colihue edition is availablethrough Amazon.Díaz Canales, Juan. Blacksad: Un LugarEntre Las Sombras. Illus. JuanjoGuarnido. Barcelona: Norma, 2004.Awarded Best Work at the 2000 Salóndel Comic de Barcelona, this comicbook takes place in an American cityin the ’40s. Detective John BlacksadYALS ● SUMMER 2005 47

¿ES UN PÁJARO? ¿ES UN AVIÓN?CEDEIRAis investigating the death of anactress he used to date. This seems tobe a typical detective story until yousee that the characters are anthropomorphosizedanimals. I Bookspublished an edition in English thatis available through Amazon.Díaz Canales, Juan. Blacksad: ArticNation. Illus. Juanjo Guarnido.Barcelona: Norma, 2003.This time John Blacksad has to finda young girl that has been kidnappedby a white supremacist group: ArticNation. This volume won the BestArt Award at the 2004 AngoulemeInternational Comic Festival. AnEnglish language edition was publishedby I Books and is availablethrough Amazon.Durán, Luis. Caminando por las Colinasde Arena. Bilbao: Astiberri, 2004Playing with westerns topics, LuisDurán tells the story of Caballo Locoand his search for bravery and courageduring the war against the newinvaders: the white man.Fontdevila, Manel. La Parejita S.A.Barcelona: Ediciones El Jueves, 2004.This comic book is a collection ofstories that depict contemporarydaily life of a young couple living ina Spanish city. Always with a greatsense of humor and clean lines in hisdrawing, Fontdevila presents typicalstories like Christmas Eve dinnersand fights over who will take the garbageout.Giménez, Carlos. Los Profesionales.Barcelona: Ediciones Glénat España,2000.Giménez uses the beginning of hiscareer and the careers of other comicartists as inspiration for this work.The stories are set in the ’80s, theperiod where democracy was beingestablished again in Spain.Giménez, Carlos. Paracuellos. Barcelona:Ediciones Glénat España, 2000.Considered Giménez’s masterwork,Paracuellos presents the story of agroup of kids in an orphanage afterthe Spanish Civil War. The story isbased on memories of the author,who lived in one of these institutions.This comic book was available inEnglish through Eclipse Books, butthis edition seems to be out of print.Ibáñez, Francisco. El Sulfato Atómico.Barcelona: Ediciones B, 2003.This volume is considered bythe critics to be the best story ofMortadelo and Filemón, the classiccharacters of the Spanish comic production.These funny secret agentshave to take from evil hands a spraythat makes insects grow to giganticproportions.Jan. Monster Chapapote. Barcelona:Ediciones B, 2004.Superlópez, the protagonist of thisstory, was born in 1973 as a parodyof Superman. This story mixeshumor with social critique as whenSuperlópez tries to stop a monsterrepresenting the oil spill that happenedin the Northwestern Spanishcoast in 2002.Maitena. Mujeres Alteradas 1. Barcelona:Lumen, 2003.Women, daily life situations, family,and love are the main themesin the stories of this Argentineancomic author. Her stories wereoriginally published as comic stripsin newspapers around the world.An English edition of the first issuehas been published by RiverheadTrade. The Argentinean edition bySudamericana is available throughAmazon.Prado, Miguelanxo. Trazo de Tiza.Barcelona: Norma, 2003.Diverse characters meet on an islandin the middle of the ocean, a simplestory that obtained the Alph ArtAward at Angoulême and Best Workat the Salón del Còmic de Barcelonain 1994, and was nominated asBest Painter at the Will EisnerAwards and Best Foreign Work atthe Harvey Awards in 1995. An editionin English has been publishedby Nantier Beall MinoustchinePublishing and Graphic No Edition,and it is available through Amazon.Quino. Todo Mafalda. Barcelona: Lumen,2003.This is a collection of stories aboutMafalda, a little girl with a specialsense of humor, hates soup and has acurious group of friends. It was writtenin the ’60s and ’70s, but manyof the social issues presented hereare still relevant. The Argentineanedition from Ediciones de la Flor isavailable through Amazon.Torres, Daniel. Roco Vargas. Barcelona:Norma, 2004.Roco Vargas is a futuristic privateinvestigator who fights crime—aclassic plot reinvented with the brilliantand original style of Torres.An edition in English was publishedby Dark Horse, and a limited numberare available through Amazon.However, other Roco Vargas comicsare available. ●WEBLIOGRAPHYLa guía del cómic: www.guiadelcomic.comTebeosfera: www.tebeosfera.comSalón del Cómic de Barcelona (BarcelonaComicon): www.ficomic.comSalón del Cómic de A Coruña (A CoruñaComicon):, Eric. Guía básica del cómic. Madrid:Nuer, 1999.Historietas, Comics y Tebeos Españoles. Toulouse:Presses Universitaires du Mirail,2002.Merino, Ana. El Cómic Hispánico. Madrid:Cátedra, 2003.Vergara, Bernardo. Entre Viñetas. Salamanca:Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez,Centro Internacional del Libro Infantil yJuvenil, 2003.REFERENCES1. Stephen Weiner, “Creating a GraphicNovel Collection for the Public Library,”Voice of Youth Advocates 15 (Dec. 1992):270.2. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanicsin the United States (Washington,D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004).3. Hispanics: People in Motion, Trends 2005(Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center,2005), 70–89.4. Stephen Cary, Going Graphic: Comicsat Work in the Multilingual Classroom(Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 2004).5 Pablo De Santis, La Historieta en la Edadde la Razón (Buenos Aires, Argentina:Paidós, 1998).48 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

THE UPDATEThe UpdateYALSA Announces 2005Alex AwardsYALSA has selected ten adult books thatwill appeal to teen readers to receive the2005 Alex Awards. The Alex Awards wereannounced by YALSA and Booklist as partof National Library Week, April 10–16,2005. The 2005 Alex Awards are:● Almond, Steve. Candyfreak: AJourney through the ChocolateUnderbelly of America. AlgonquinBooks of Chapel Hill, $21.95 (1-56512-412-9).● Cox, Lynn. Swimming to Antarctica:Tales of a Long-Distance Swimmer.Knopf, $24.95 (0-375-41507-6).● Halpin, Brendan. Donorboy. RandomHouse, $12.95 (1-4000-6277-2).● Kurson, Robert. Shadow Divers.Random House, $26.95 (0-375-50858-9).● Meyers, Kent. Work of Wolves.Harcourt, $24 (0-15-101057-9).● Patchett, Ann. Truth and Beauty: AFriendship. HarperCollins, $23.95(0-06-057214-0).● Picoult, Jodi. My Sister’s Keeper.Atria, $25 (0-7434-5452-9).● Reed, Kit. Thinner Than Thou. TomDoherty Associates, $24 (0-765-30762-6).● Shepard, Jim. Project X. Knopf, $20(1-4000-4071-X).● Sullivan, Robert. Rats: Observationson the History and Habitat of theCity’s Most Unwanted Inhabitants.Bloomsbury, $23.95 (1-58234-385-3).“The list created by the 2005 AlexAwards Committee is a diverse group ofboth fiction and nonfiction titles thatwill entertain, captivate, and challengemany teens,” said Kimberley Hrivnak,chair of the 2005 Alex Awards committee.“These titles speak to realities thataffect all of us: unconditional friendshipand love, pushing or being pushedbeyond one’s limits, learning aboutsociety’s norms and mores, dealing withadversity, and exploring the world thatsurrounds us.”The Alex Awards were created to recognizethat many teens enjoy and oftenprefer books written for adults and toassist librarians in recommending adultbooks that appeal to teens. The awardis named in honor of the late MargaretAlexander Edwards, fondly called Alexby her closest friends, a young adult specialistat the Enoch Pratt Free Library inBaltimore. She used adult books extensivelywith young adults to broaden theirexperience and enrich their understandingof themselves and their world.In addition to selecting titles forthe Alex Awards, the Alex Committeepresents a program at the ALA AnnualConference. This year’s program highlightedhow to booktalk the Alex winnersto young adults.An annotated list of the Alex Awardwinners is available on the YALSA members-onlyWeb site, in the April 1st issueof Booklist, and in the 2005 edition ofALA’s Guide to Best Reading. The listwithout annotations is available on theYALSA Web site: 2005 Alex Award Committee:Chair Kimberley Hrivnak, AlleghenyCounty (Pa.) Library Association; LaurenAdams, Newton, Mass.; Terry Beck, Sno-Isle Libraries, Wash.; Peter Butts, Holland(Mich.) Public Schools; Angela Carstensen,Staten Island (N.Y.) Academy; MaryHastler, Harford County (Md.) PublicLibrary; Ellen Loughran, Pratt Schoolof Library and Information Science,New York; Karlan Sick, New York PublicLibrary; Ann Theis, Chesterfield County(Va.) Library; and administrative assistantDavid Hrivnak, Peoples Library, Pa.Teen Read Week’s 2005Web Site Launched“Get Real! @ your library®,” the themefor Teen Read Week (TRW) 2005, seeksto encourage teens to read for the fun ofit by promoting nonfiction, biographies,documentaries, realistic fiction, and more.The dates for this year’s celebration areOctober 16–22, 2005. TRW is sponsoredannually by the Young Adult LibraryServices Association (YALSA), a divisionof the American Library Association.The TRW Web site,, includes lists of recommendedreading for teens, tips for planning andpromoting TRW events locally; TRWproducts available for purchase, links tothe Teens’ Top Ten; professional resourcesfor librarians, teachers, and parents; andmore. New this year, participants whoofficially register for TRW on the Website can download the official Get Real! @your library® logo.Now in its eighth year, TRW is anational literacy initiative of YALSA. Thenumber of school library media centers,public libraries, and bookstores that celebrateTRW has grown steadily since itsinception. In 2004, more than thirteenhundred participants registered on theTRW Web site.“By encouraging teens to becomemore avid readers, Teen Read Week seeksto stem the tide of falling test scores andlower graduation rates among today’steens,” says YALSA president DavidMowery. Mowery continued, “Programsand activities planned by past Teen ReadWeek participants have helped to spreadthe message that teens should ‘Read forthe Fun of It.’”Kids Can Press, Scholastic, andLerner Publishing Group are TRWsponsors. Orca Book Publishers andPam Spencer Holley are official Friendsof TRW. TRW’s nonprofit supportingorganizations include: AmericanAssociation of School Administrators,American Booksellers Association, Cablein the Classroom, KIDSNET, Kids Care,National Association of Secondary SchoolPrincipals, National Council of Teachersof English,, NationalEducation Association, National SchoolYALS ● SUMMER 2005 49

THE UPDATEBoard Association, PBS, Speak Up Press,International Reading Association,TeenInk, and The N/Noggin.For more information, contact theYALSA office by e-mail at,or by phone at 1-800-545-2433, ext. 4387.YALSA’s NewStrategic PlanThe information below was taken fromYALSA’s new strategic plan, which wasadopted by YALSA’s Board of Directorsat the 2005 Midwinter Meeting. Thefull strategic plan can be viewed in the“About YALSA” section of the YALSAWeb site, This planidentifies key goals and objectives thatYALSA will be working towards over thenext few years.Ten-to-Thirty-Year PlanningHorizon: Core Ideology andEnvisioned FutureCore ideology describes an association’sconsistent identity that transcends allchanges related to its relevant environment.It consists of two elements:core purpose—the association’s reasonfor being, and core values—essentialand enduring principles that guide anassociation. Envisioned future conveysa concrete yet unrealized visionfor the association. It consists of a bigaudacious goal—a clear and compellingcatalyst that serves as a focal pointfor effort—and a vivid description—vibrant and engaging descriptions ofwhat it will be like to achieve the bigaudacious goal.Core IdeologyCore Purpose: To advocate for excellencein library services to the teen population.Core Values:●●●●●●Visionary and passionate leadership.Commitment to member service.Absolute integrity.Open, inclusive, and collaborativeenvironment.Excellence and innovation.Equity of access for young adults.Envisioned FutureBig Audacious Goal: To be the drivingforce behind all excellent young adult servicesin every library serving teens.A Vivid Description of the DesiredFuture:The Library● There will be a young adult librarianin every public and secondary schoollibrary.● Every public library has a line itemfor teen services.● Library staff will value teens asessential library users.● Every public library has designatedspace set aside for teen activities.YALSAYALSA is recognized as the expert inyoung adult library services.● YALSA is recognized as the “networkinghub” for all young adultlibrarians.● YALSA is the largest division in ALA.● YALSA has wide visibility in themedia.● YALSA provides advocacy training.● YALSA has the best leadership training.● ALA leadership consistently comesfrom YALSA.● YALSA is more financially independent.Teens● Teens are the most active group inpublic libraries.● All teens are library users and advocates.Communities●●Communities recognize that youngadult librarians are the go-toresource.Young adult librarians are moversand shakers in the community.Three-to-Five-Year PlanningHorizon: Outcome-OrientedGoals, Objectives, andStrategiesThe following thinking represents goalareas for the next three to five years. Theyare areas in which YALSA will explicitlystate the conditions or attributes it wantsto achieve. These outcome statementsdefine “what will constitute future success.”The achievement of each goal willmove the organization toward realizationof its vision. The goal areas are not inpriority order.Strategic Objectives and Strategiesprovide direction and actions on how theassociation will accomplish its articulatedgoals. Strategic Objectives are consideredin the three-tofive-year planning horizonwhile Strategies are considered withinthe one-to-three-year planning horizon.Strategies are reviewed annually by theYALSA leadership.Goal Area: AdvocacyThe value of teen services within thelibrary has increased as the result ofYALSA member advocacy.Strategic Objectives:●1. Increase advocacy tools for YALSAmembers.Strategies:● Create talking points for YALSAmembers to use in giving presentations.(FY05)Develop online advocacy trainingmaterials. (FY06)2. Increase association resources allocatedto advocacy.Strategies:●●Develop a plan outlining theadditional staff, financial, andvolunteer resources to createan effective advocacy program.(FY05)Develop and offer a leadershipinstitute for YALSA members.(FY07)3. Increase advocacy within the localcommunity.Strategies:●●Refocus more resources on creatingpartnerships with strategicnational organizations with localaffiliations. (FY05)Develop workshop materialsfor use within the local communityto explain the valueof library services for teens.(FY06)4. Increase advocacy within the libraryinstitutions.50 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

THE UPDATEStrategies:● Communicate to library schoolsthe need for expanded courseofferings in young adult services.(FY06).Goal Area: MarketingAs a result of YALSA’s marketing efforts,the profession of librarianship understandsthe value of the organization’sproducts and services.Strategic Objectives:1. Increase member knowledge aboutYALSA’s products and services.Strategies:● Conduct research to assess successof current marketing andcommunication activities and●strategies. (FY06)Create and implement an integratedand strategic marketingplan to communicate to membersabout YALSA products andservices. (FY07)2. Increase awareness of YALSA tolibrary decision-makers.Strategies:●●Collect anecdotal evidence andsuccess stories to support thevalue of young adult librarians.(FY05)Create boilerplate packages touse for PR. (FY05)3. Increase communications to targetedYALSA member prospects.Goal Area: ResearchYALSA members and ALA recognizethe organization as a clearinghouse forlibrary relevant teen research.Strategic Objectives:1. Refocus YALSA’s ResearchCommittee to align withobjectives and strategies of thestrategic plan.Strategies:● Compile a bibliography of existingresearch relating to teenlibrary issues. (FY05)● Develop an annual researchagenda. (FY06)Don TrembathRooster wants to graduate —he just doesn’t want to work for it. YALS ● SUMMER 2005 51

THE UPDATE● Identify gaps in existingresearch. (FY06)2. Increase YALSA’s ability to successfullypursue grants.Strategies:● Pursue appropriate grants foridentified research projects.(FY06)3. Increase consolidation of YALSAresearch data.●Strategies:Create centralized clearinghousefor association research projects.(FY07)4. Increase communication and collaborationwith other ALA researchentities and activities.Strategies:●●Identify board liaison to interactwith other ALA divisions onresearch projects. (FY05)Communicate with known datagatherers about our data needs.(FY05)Goal Area: Continuous LearningYALSA’s continuing education opportunitiesare more accessible to a wider audienceof members.Strategic Objectives:1. Increase participation in educationalprograms.Strategies:● Conduct member and memberprospect research to determineeducation and informationneeds. (FY05)● Research and pursue appropriatecollaborative opportunities withother CE providers. (FY05)●Develop regional institutesoffered several times per year.(FY07)2. Increase visibility of YALSA as aresource for continuing education.Strategies:●Investigate the opportunity toprovide distance learning programs.(FY05)Goal Area: Association SustainabilityYALSA is self-sustaining as a result of revenuegrowth.Strategic Objectives:1. Increase revenue from existing programsand services.Strategies:● Create new professional developmentopportunities thatgenerate revenue over expenses.●(FY05)Add publications that will generaterevenue over expenses.(FY06)2. Increase revenue from new productsand services.Strategies:●●Create a “Friends of YALSA”donor opportunity to establisha permanent endowment forYALSA operations. (FY05)Create program to obtain corporatesponsorships. (FY05)3. Increase membership.Strategies:●●●Create a targeted strategy toincrease member retention.(FY06)Develop a targeted campaign tosolicit new members. (FY07)Create member-only productsand services that will attract newmembers and retain existingmembers. (FY07)Check the Update each issue for theNew Member Honor Roll to see who hasjoined YALSA for the first time! YALSAwould like to welcome the following newmembers who joined in February.●●●●●●Free Spirit Publishing, MinneapolisLerner Publishing Group,MinneapolisOakwood Friends School,Poughkeepsie, N.Y.Delania Adkins, Pike County PublicLibrary District, Pikeville, Ky.Melissa Artman, Springdale, Ariz.Lori Benton, Harcourt, New York●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●Kerri Bottorff, Celebration, Fla.Lise Braden, San FranciscoStacy Cameron, Prosper, Tex.Lisanne Carlson, Clarendon Hills, Ill.Jennifer Cook, IndianapolisMarjorie Corey, Seminole, Fla.Arystine Danner, ChicagoRose Dawson, Washington, D.C.Donna Fry, Canton, OhioLinda Greenbaum, Old Bethpage,N.Y.Gina Harrington, Dayton, Ohio.Jennifer Huddler, Wilson, N.C.Elizabeth Kidnay, Littleton, Colo.Barbara Kiefer, Columbus, OhioMelissa Lang, Fayetteville, N.C.Heather Lauer, Gainesville, Fla.Katherine Lester, Brighton, Mich.Rita Lipof, Hollywood, Fla.Carl Lund, Wichita, Kans.Linda Lundquist, Naperville, Ill.Cecilia McGowan, Bellevue (Wash.)Regional LibraryKaren McKibben, Lincoln Park,Mich.Dawn Mendel, Parker, Colo.Gail Miller, Tucson, Ariz.Catherine Mitchell, Saline, Mich.John Pace, Baltimore, Md.Deanna Rabago-Lechman, Concord,Calif.Lanell Rabner, Springville, UtahCynde Reid, PhiladelphiaCathy Rettberg, Menlo School,Atherton, Calif.Patricia Richardson, Riverhead, N.Y.Sarah Savage, Washington, Mich.Jennifer Schulz, FPO, AEOlivia Sparks, Chandler, Ariz.Valerie Suttee, APO, APTerry Taylor, DePaul University,ChicagoKathy Washington, Stone Mountain,Ga.Virginia Weil, ChicagoSandy Wise, University of Georgia,Athens ●52 SUMMER 2005 ● YALS

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