pdf (886 KB) - PICES

pices.int
  • No tags were found...

pdf (886 KB) - PICES

Cultured Marine Photosynthetic CiliateMesodinium rubrum as a potential livefeed species for aquacultured animalsH. S. Kim 1 , W. Yih 2 , G. Myung 2 , & Y. G. Kim 21Kunsan Regional Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Office, MOMAF, Korea2Department of Oceanography, Kunsan National University, Korea


ClassificationCorliss (1979)Phylum CiliophoraClass KinetophragminophoreaOrder HaptoridaFamily DidiniidaeMesodinium rubrum (Lohmann, 1908)Myrionecta rubra (Jankowski, 1976)Lynn and Small (2002)Class LitostomateaOrder CyclotrichidaFamily Mesodiniidae


Mesodinium rubrum Size : 15 ∼ 50 μm Color : dark brown cell organelles :Oral tentacle, Cirri,Equatorial ciliary belt Motility : Max. 5mm/secVertical migration (>10m) Pigments :chlorophyll a & cα-carotene, phycoerythrin, alloxanthin


● Before 1985■ After 1985M. rubrum red tide


Confusion on Trophic Mode Phototrophy Phototrophy + phagotrophy(bacterioplankton) Uptake of amino acids Ingestion of particles Ingestion of cryptophytecells ? (Hargraves, 1991) Phototrophy +Cryptophyte “feeding”(Gustafson et al.,2000;Kim, 2002)


Bacterivoryof M. rubrum & Cryptophyte ?CryptophyteM. rubrum


M. rubrum Food WebZooplanktonBivalvesFish larvaeM. rubrumCryptophyteBacteria


Good live feed ? Manageable & novel laboratory strain,(MR-MAL01), from temperate waters Remarkable tolerance to T & S(0∼24℃, 3∼40psu) Non-toxic red tide species High N:C cellular composition(=high protein content)


Feeding experiments1.As live feed for young bivalves


Materials & Methods Predator bivalveo Scallop (Chlamys farreri)3.3±0.2cmo Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum)3.2±0.1cm Experimental density: 0, 2, 5 & 10 ind. L -1 Initial prey density: 3,500∼4,000 cells ml -1 Culture conditionso Scallop (15℃, 30psu)o Manila clam (20℃, 30psu)o 2 days of acclimation


M. rubrum strainSpeciesStrainMSD *(μm±SE)Volume 2(μm 3 ±SE)M. rubrumMR-MAL01 1 20.8±0.344,095±244.41MAL : Marine Algal Laboratory,Kunsan National University2Coulter Multisizer II (Coulter Co., USA)*MSD: mean spherical diameter


Ingestion of M. rubrum prey5000Scallop4000Manila clamM. rubrum (cells ml -1 )40003000200010000 ind./L2 ind/L5 ind./L10 ind./LM. rubrum (cells ml-1 )3000200010000 ind./L2 ind./L5 ind./L10 ind./L00 1 2 4 8 12 24Hours00 1 2 4 8 12 24Hours


Maximum ingestion ratesPredatorMax. ingestion rate(cells predator -1 min. -1 )Temperature(℃)Scallop 9.4 15Manilaclam22.2 20


M. rubrumM. rubrum85,400 cells ml -1 28,800 cells ml -12 hr


Gut (part)Gut contentsBursted cells


from a French M. rubrum bloom site(http://www.ifremer.fr/envlit/photos/Archive/200103/index.htm)


Feeding experiments2. As live feed for bivalve spat


Materials & Methods Predator shellfish spato Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum)oSize :Ⅰ) 0.46±0.03mm, Ⅱ) 0.84±0.08mm Experimental prey & densityo Isochrysis galbana : 1X10 5 cells ml -1o M. rubrum : 1X10 2 , 1X10 3 , 1X10 4 cells ml -1o constant prey concentration Culture conditions & experimental periodso 20℃, 30psuo 28 days (replaced with new water every 4d)


Growth of Manila clam spat2Ⅰ) 0.46±0.03mm Ⅱ) 0.84±0.08 mm5Shell Length (mm)1Shell Length (mm)430Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ ⅣI : I. galbana (1X10 5 cells l -1 ), II : M. rubrum (1X10 2 cells l -1 )II : M. rubrum (1X10 3 cells l -1 ), IV : M. rubrum (1X10 4 cells l -1 )2I Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ


Experimental Test(live feed for aquatic animals?)BivalvePredator Stage/Size ResultManila clam < SL 0.5mm Ⅹ> SL 0.5mm ○Scallop 3.3 cm ○Shrimp Flesh prawn Zoea ⅩFish Mudskipper Post-larvae ○Skewband grunt 〃 ○Flounder 〃 Ⅹ


Centrifuge-harvestedM. rubrum (MR-MAL01)


Marine aquacultural applications1. Live feed for ranching animal- spat & broodstock of bivalve- fish larvae with small mouth(Black scraperDotted gizzard shadSeven-banded grouper etc.)2. Enrichment of feed organismfor seedling production- Rotifer, ArtemiaBlack scraperDotted gizzard shadSeven-bandedgrouper3. Natural coloring agent- Salmon, Carp etc.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines