Investigations within Deaf Institutions - National District Attorneys ...

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Investigations within Deaf Institutions - National District Attorneys ...

V CONCURSO NACIONAL DE MONOGRAFIARegulamentoO CESA – Centro de Estudos das Sociedades de Advogados promove oConcurso Nacional de Monografia destinado a alunos de cursos de graduação emDireito, visando estimular o estudo e a pesquisa do tema, promovendo premiaçãoao mérito dos três melhores trabalhos monográficos apresentados, que observaráo seguinte REGULAMENTO:A – Participantes:O Concurso é aberto a estudantes que estejam cursando a partir do segundo anode graduação em Direito em Faculdade brasileira reconhecida pelo Ministério daEducação e que ainda não tenham concluído o curso. Os estudantes deverão estardevidamente matriculados no respectivo curso de graduação na data da aberturado Concurso, bem como por ocasião do depósito da monografia.B – Inscrição:Os interessados serão considerados inscritos mediante mera apresentação (porportador ou por correio com aviso de recebimento), na sede do CESA, situada àRua Boa Vista, 254, 4º andar, sala 413, CEP: 01014-907, São Paulo, SP, entre osdias 01/09/2011 a 17/10/2011, do trabalho monográfico com cópia impressa emenvelope lacrado endereçado ao CESA, juntamente com uma cópia eletrônica emsuporte do tipo CD, em arquivo Word, identificado externamente, na parte detrás, com o nome, endereço, número do telefone, fax e endereço eletrônico doparticipante. O envelope deve conter ainda, devidamente preenchido e assinado,o Termo de Compromisso mencionado abaixo, bem como breve curriculum vitaedo participante e documento comprobatório recente de registro, não inferior a 03(três) meses, na Faculdade em que cursa.Não serão aceitas monografias fora do prazo previsto para apresentação. Seráaceita como válida a inscrição que possa ser comprovada mediante documento depostagem que identifique a data em que a mesma ocorreu.O texto do Termo de Compromisso encontra-se disponível no website do CESA,www.cesa.org.br, e por ele o participante declara aceitar todas as disposiçõesdeste Regulamento e cede, gratuitamente, ao CESA os direitos autorais referentesà exploração econômica irrestrita do trabalho monográfico, de maneira que oconteúdo da monografia possa ser utilizado ou publicado pelo CESA, emqualquer forma ou meio de divulgação, eletrônico ou não, sem limitações


with this individual, make all possible attempts to utilize thesame interpreter throughout the life of the case.2. Do not use the organization’s staff to interpret or “assist” anyinterviews with children or youth. This is not to imply that routineinterviews of any involved or knowledgeable staff shouldnot take place. Rather, investigators should avoid using any personwhose obligation is to the employer to assist in any waywith another party’s statements or testimony.3. Keep in mind that offenders are almost always close to their victims.Chances are that the abuser is a teacher, coach, familymember, neighbor, aide, para-professional staff (lunchroom,groundskeeper, bus driver, etc.), peer of the victim, older child oryouth. Absolutely do not allow any family members or “friends”to interpret in any way that will involve them or allow them tosee/hear the victim’s statements.4. Be aware that all communications with an agency/organization/institutionshould focus on obtaining specific facts: who,what, when, where, how, etc. It is typical for public and privateentities to be more invested in their funding, licensing and reputationthan in finding and punishing offenders. Do not shareconcerns, and do not ask more questions than absolutely necessary.5.As in the hearing world, not all abuse or molestation is perceivedby the victim as painful or negative. Skillful abusersgroom their victims and know each victim’s needs. Gifts, specialtreats or trips, compliments, attention, and physical activity thatappears to be “loving” or “sexy” may be received as positive andappropriate by the victim(s).6. Most kids and youth attending or living in residences outside oftheir home have little or no power over any activities or eventsin their lives. Staff, religious authorities, older children, sportsprofessionals and medical professionals know almost everythingabout them, and often they do not maintain confidentiality. As aresult, it can be very seductive and powerful for an abused child oryouth to refuse to disclose the nature of their abuse, simply because theynow have power. It is important for investigators to acknowledgethe power held by the child, and explain why disclosure isimportant for the child and potential future victims.ConclusionKeep in mind that when anyone is suspected of having beenabused or molested, the issue at hand is the abuse and molestation.The danger in situations of abuse with deaf children is that the difficultyin communicating and working with the deaf child willinstead become the central issue. Information gathering, rapportbuilding and a thorough investigation and prosecution of the casemust not be hampered because of a communication issue. Beforecases appear, multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs) should know whereand how to obtain ASL interpreters and other services or equipment,so that a lack of knowledge and an inability to communicatedo not become the primary challenge to the detriment of thechild victim.1 Executive Director, Deaf Abused Women and Children Advocacy Services.For more information on DAWCAS, go to www.dawcas.org.TTY (518) 386-6172.The author can be reached at mwambach@dawcas.org.2 Ruth Tiechroeb, Abuse and Silence: Examining America’s Schools For the Deaf,Seattle Post-Intelligencer, November 27, 2001 accessed July 14, 2005 athttp://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/48233_deaf27.shtml.3 Press Release, Centers for Disease Control, Rubella No Longer Major PublicHealth Threat in United States (March 21, 2005) accessed July 14, 2005 athttp://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r050321.htm4 Id at supra note 2.5 Id.6 “Mainstreaming” refers to the idea of educating deaf children through community-basedservices and in their own home and school environments ratherthan in residential settings.There are widely disparate opinions on the virtuesand drawbacks of mainstreaming. Proponents believe that the quality of amainstream education is better, and point out that children are less at risk forabuse and molestation in their homes as opposed to residential settings.Opponents believe, among other things, that Deaf Culture will suffer becauseof mainstreaming since elements of Deaf Culture, history and language havebeen most strongly promoted in the institutional setting. Most deaf peopleagree that the mainstreaming model is very new, and remains in need oftweaking, funding and public support. It should be noted here that Deaf activistsand leaders formally decided to adopt a capital D when referring to individuals whosedeafness was from birth, prior to acquiring spoken language, and often in tandem withinstitutional education. In a broader sense, many people who identity as “deaf” do notutilize the capital D, and may not feel that their hearing loss is a “cultural characteristic.”Torespect both groups, this article has utilized the capitalized “Deaf” term whenreferring to Deaf Culture, and will otherwise use the small case, which is intended torefer to all persons who identify as being deaf.7 ASL, or American Sign Language, is a full visual language that has its ownsyntax, vocabulary, idioms and colloquial usage. It is not based on English,and actually has more in common with other languages that require identificationof the subject before a description of it. ASL is modified by speed,placement, size, repetition, facial expressions, and body language. PSE, orPidgin Sign English, is a signing mode that is somewhat between ASL andEnglish. PSE utilizes many ASL signs in a syntax that is more similar toEnglish, and also uses less visual modification techniques. Deaf people whodo not have a formal language (signed, written or verbal) are said to useMLS, or minimal language skills communication, sometimes referred to as“gestural communication.”American Prosecutors Research InstituteNational Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510Alexandria,Virginia 22314www.ndaa-apri.orgNon ProfitOrganizationU.S. PostagePAIDMerrifield,VAPermit No. 768The National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse is a programof the American Prosecutors Research Institute, the non-profit research,training and technical assistance affiliate of the National District AttorneysAssociation.This publication was prepared under Grant No. 2003-CI-FX-K008 from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, USDepartment of Justice.This information is offered for educational purposesonly and is not legal advice. Points of view in this publication are those ofthe authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the USDepartment of Justice, NDAA or APRI.

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