中 国 社 会 科 学 院 旅 游 研 究 中 心TOURISM RESEARCH CENTRECHINESE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES博 采 众 长精 益 求 精北 京 月 坛 北 小 街 2 号 100836 电 话 / 传 真 :86-010-68053991Email:email@example.com
CHINA’S TOURISM POLICYREADJUSTMENT & OUTBOUNDTOURISM DEVELOPMENTTourism Research CentreChinese Academy of Social Sciences
IChina’s Tourism in the PastDecade
• In the first decade of the new century, China’stourism has grown very fast against the unstableand changeable world political and economicsituation.• China has been one of the world topinternational tourism destinations, rankedaround 4 or 3 according to UNWTO, and one ofthe top source countries as well.• China’s rank has been upgraded from 71 in2007 to 39 in 2011 in Travel & TourismCompetitiveness Index prepared by WEF.
World attention to China’s tourismhas turned gradually from“CHINA VISIT”to“CHNIESE VISITOR”
• Economic Reform----high economic growth leadsto increasing income and foreign exchangereserves• China’s Open policy----relaxing control ofoutbound travels• Release of long-term accumulated tourismdemand• Improved world situation and bilateral diplomaticrelationship• Aggressive tourism promotions by the overseastourist destinations
• China’s economy keeps growing• Chinese currency remains strong againstthe US dollar and other main currencies• Active and successful promotions byforeign destinations towards Chinesemarket• New and attractive products created for themarket
IIRepositioning of NationalStrategy & Market Priority
Policy repositioning----National StrategyThe central government hasdecided to turn tourism into a pillarindustry with strategic importance tothe national economy and a modernservice industry that better meets theaspirations of the general public.
Readjustment of marketpriority order–stress on the development ofdomestic tourism–actively promote inbound tourism–develop outbound tourism in anorderly way
Readjustment ofpublic holiday arrangementLong-holidays– Spring Festival & National Day• Short breaks:– New Year’s Day /(Jan) / Qingming Festival (April )– May Day / Duanwujie (Boating festival, June)– Mid-Autumn Festival (moon festival, Sept.)• Paid Holiday:– 5 days for people working 1-10 years / 10 daysfor people working 11-20 years / 15 days forpeople working over 20 years• National & local tourism & leisure programs
OTHERE OUTBOUND TRAVEL-RELATED POLICIESPASSPORT ISSUANCEfrom tight control to free applicationFOREIGN EXCHANGE ALLOWANCEfrom tight control to free purchaseTRAVEL MODEGroup tours & independent travelsSOURCE REGIONSFrom a number of large cities to more cities ®ions in the countryPREFERABLE POLICIESto some specific destinations such as HK, Macau &Taiwan
IIIChina’s Outbound Tourism:Major Changes & its Future
From the government guidance to selfchosenby the residents----Special permission to HK, Macau & Taiwan----ADS agreement with specific countriesFrom short-haul destinations to long-haulonesFrom mass market destinations to up-marketonesFrom multi-country tours to longer stays inone or two destinations.
Group tours (with family or friends)• More countries per trip to the long-hauldestinations, and more cities to the shorthauldestinations• Cheap toursIndependent travels• Only one or two countries to the long-hauldestination, or one favorable place in a trip• DIY routes• Backpackers or self-driving tours
• Long holidays– week-long holidays known as “golden week” andvocations for special group of people such asstudents, especially after the annual universityentrance exams• Short breaks– special festivals for 3-day holidays• Pre- or post- golden weeks– for consideration of travel budget and comforts• Paid holidays– Extended public holidays
• Sightseeing is the most outstandinginterest to prove that “I have been there”,therefore the more countries, places,attractions to visit, the more satisfied;• Special interest, more people now wouldlike to gain some specific experience ofseeking knowledge, understanding, orleisure and health (event participants,honeymoons, shopping, medical &wellness tours, and etc.);
External factorsHot topic talked at the highrankinggovernmentleaders’ overseas visitsvisa issuesHainan Island developmentMega eventsMovie induced attractionsRight & interest protectionPublic expenditure on travelrestrictedForeign or joint-ventureoperatorsTourist demand• Quality product orcheap tours• Traditional productsor new products andthemed products• Up-market or massmarket• Shopping or noshopping• ……
• UNWTO’s earlier forecast– The world No.4 top generating country with100mn outbound visitors up to 2020• China’s forecast– 83 mn outbound visitors up to 2015• USA’s forecast– In the next decade, Chinese visitors mayincrease by over 150%• PATA’s forecast• …….
ITo Understand the Countryand People in General
China is a large country,with a long history, bigpopulation and vast area, anddiversified cultures, thereforethe Chinese people astourists have their ownfeatures in tourism demand.
As a large country, residents aredifferent from one region to anotherin terms of tourism demand and travelbehavior due to the difference ofNatural environment (tropical & cold; plain &mountains; vast grassland and desert, etc)Economic condition ( the east & west; coastal& inland; urban and rural;)Cultural & ethnic background (various ethnicgroups, religions, and traditions, languages anddialects)
As a large country, the Chinesemore love to see something hugein size, known as the world’s tops,or something very unique– mountains and rivers– temples, statues– National Parks and theme parks– Tall and large buildings and structures– Local culture
As an ancient country, Chinesepeople love to see something veryold and famous such as– World famous monuments– World heritage sites– Well-known palaces and other famedbuildings, sites exposed or mentioned inthe classic or modern movies, TV series,or best sellers, and something related towell-known celebrities or stars .
• As a developing country, theChinese people love to seesomething very modern andfashionable that might be difficult tofind at home.• As a country with large population,the Chinese love something jolly andnoisy, such as Disney-type themeparks, or bazaars, shopping streetsor malls.
IIChinese visitorsVs.the Westerners
Chinese visitors are rather different fromthe Westerners in tourism behavior----not veteran tourists, many are first timers havingnever been away from the home country;----not independent, loving to be with their familymembers, friends or some people they know;----conservative, for alien food and environment, notactive to communicate with strangers or other Chineseliving overseas;----not adventurers, often followers rather than pathbreakers;----less culture-oriented, more like sightseeing thanserious understanding;---ill-informed, lack of information and knowledge ofoutside world;
IIISome Hints andRecommendations
• Target market should be clear– Where• up-market----large cities (the national andprovincial capitals, and the eastern coastalregions)• Mass market----second tier cities or middle andwestern cities, particular for the sea-relatedproducts– Who• Youngsters, office ladies• Middle-aged• “Silver market”
• Up-market– Internet, websites– Special journals, such as specific periodicalsfor airline VIP lounges, clubs and goldcardholder newsletters• Youth market– Internet, websites, blogs– Language: Chinese, English– Fashion journals and magazine
• Family market– Local newspapers ( reportage & ads)– TV commercials– “framedia” (in the community, lifts, corridors)– “mobile tv” on the transportation means(public bus, metro, taxi)• “Silver market”– Local newspapers (evening papers )– Home-distributing brochures or pamphlets– Community “framedia” & “mobile tv”
• General tours– Long holidays (week-long holidays), suchSpring Festival, National Day Holidays, andsummer & winter school holidays– Short city breaks (for 3 days), short holidaysrelating to traditional festivals
• Special products– Wedding cerebration tours (local traditional orwestern wedding ceremonies, family gatherings, andother related services)– Birthday or marriage anniversary celebrations forthe aged– foreign festival tours, such Xmas Day, Valentine'sDay, Mother’s Day– Medical & wellness tours– Island tours• Special student exchange tours (with family)– University students and teachers– Secondary school students and family
Spring Festival in China 中 国 的 春节
• Price pitfalls– Shopping,wishful orforced?– Self-paidprogram: freechoice of thetourists or that oftour guides?• Security andsafety– natural disasters– social disorder– TerrorismNew destinations andvalue for moneyTourism enterprises:going abroad
Recommendations• More tourism offices in China• VISA : free, valid longer, multiple entry,aiming at independent & repeated visitors• More Information distribution channels• Quality products• Creative & themed tours (medical & wellnesstours, , wedding tours , for up-market)• Special products for Spring Festival (themost important non-religious festival in theworld• Incentive tours for some companies
Collaboration and cooperation amonggovernment organizations, businessoperators and academics is alwaysimportant for tourism development of thedestination and source countries. It isbelieved that tourism growth between ourtwo countries will remain constant,beneficial for both the country and people.
谢 谢 大 家中 国 社 会 科 学 院 旅 游 研 究 中 心