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Top-down and bottom-up attentional guidance - Center for the ...

Top-down and bottom-up attentional guidance - Center for the ...

Top-down and bottom-up attentional guidance - Center for the

Exp Brain ResDOI 10.1007/s00221-010-2326-zRESEARCH ARTICLETop-down and bottom-up attentional guidance: investigatingthe role of the dorsal and ventral parietal corticesSarah Shomstein • Jeongmi Lee • Marlene BehrmannReceived: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 4 June 2010Ó Springer-Verlag 2010Abstract Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that thesuperior parietal lobule (SPL) of the human cortex mediatesgoal-directed attentional orienting, while the temporoparietaljunction (TPJ) mediates stimulus-driven attentionalorienting. Here, we investigated these brain-behavior correspondencesby examining the performance of patientswith an attentional deficit following a right hemispherelesion. Patients completed two tasks, one sensitive tostimulus-driven attentional orienting and the other to goaldirectedattentional orienting. Based on the behavioralprofiles obtained on each task, patients were assigned todifferent groups and their lesion overlap explored. Patientswho exhibited difficulties with goal-directed attentionalorienting and showed concurrent ‘‘hyper-capture’’ presentedwith lesion overlap centered over superior portionsof the parietal lobule with spared inferior portions of theparietal lobule. Patients who performed normally on thegoal-directed orienting task, while remaining abnormallyimmune to attentional capture, presented with lesionoverlap centered over the inferior portions of the parietallobule but spared superior parietal lobule. The findingsfrom this study clearly suggest that (a) SPL and TPJ areanatomical regions that are recruited for the purposes oftop-down and bottom-up orienting, respectively, and thatdamage to SPL and TPJ leads to disorders of top-down andbottom-up orienting, and (b) albeit dissociable, top-downS. Shomstein (&) J. LeeDepartment of Psychology, George Washington University,2125 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052, USAe-mail: shom@gwu.edu; shomstein@cmu.eduM. BehrmannDepartment of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh, PA, USAand bottom-up orienting (and, by extension, SPL and TPJ)are not entirely independent mechanisms.Keywords Neglect Parietal cortex Attentional control Superior parietal lobule (SPL) Temporo-parietaljunction (TPJ) Top-down attention Bottom-up attentionIntroductionOver the past several decades, researchers have relied criticallyon neuropsychological studies of patients withhemispatial neglect to address key questions about attentionaldysfunction and its underlying neural substrate.Indeed, much progress has been made in elucidating issuessuch as the nature and extent of implicit processing on thecontralesional side of space (for example, Shomstein et al.2010; Van Vleet and Robertson 2006), the difference invisual extinction after right versus left hemisphere stroke(for example, Becker and Karnath 2007), and the nature ofthe hemispatial neglect as defined with respect to differentreference frames (for example, Medina et al. 2009). Oneissue that has received extensive consideration but stillremains hotly debated concerns the neuroanatomy ofhemispatial neglect and the possible differences in thebehavioral profile following lesions to different corticalregions. Whereas the view that dominated the field for a longtime considered parietal cortex as a monolithic entity and aunitary attentional deficit resulting from parietal damage asthe predominant impairment, more recently, there has beena fragmentation of parietal cortex into subcomponents, onthe one hand, and of the attentional disorder into differingsubprofiles, on the other. Here, we examine these brainbehaviorcorrespondences in attentional processing ingreater detail using a set of fine-grained psychophysical123

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