SmartMarket ReportThe Business Valueof BIM in ChinaPremier Partners:Research Partners:School of Software TsinghuaBIM Research Group

Executive SummaryCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAInterestingly, in the areas of people and processinvestments related to BIM, almost twice as manyChinese contractors plan to invest in promotionincentives for staff use of BIM than do Chinese architects.BIM BenefitsChinese architects and contractors mostly agree on thedegree to which their projects are benefiting from BIM.■ Better design solutions and reduced errors andomissions in construction documents are in the toptwo for each.■ They are also aligned on the experience of greaterclient engagement resulting from BIM.■ Construction phase benefits of fewer field problemsand reduced rework are also highly rated by botharchitects and contractors, indicating an appreciationfor the downstream value of a BIM design.BIM and Trade ContractorsTrade contractors with good BIM skills are critical in orderto continue to strengthen China’s technological capabilityin model-based construction, which is a fast-growing BIMtrend throughout the world.Over half of Chinese general contractors believestrongly that trade contractors having BIM skillswill reduce project cost and duration, and increaseinnovation, project quality and contractor profit.Over half perceive steel and mechanical trades to havesatisfactory BIM skills, but many note that curtain wall,electrical, concrete and civil firms need to improve theirBIM skills.Non-UsersWhile the research for this report focused primarily onarchitects and contractors in China who are currentlyusing BIM, understanding the perspective of non-users isimportant to accelerate the pace of future adoption.Organizations not using BIM in China are generallyvery open to its use and positive about its potential.■ Most non-users (89%) are interested in BIM.■ In fact, a large percentage (39%) are actively underwayevaluating BIM, and only a few (11%) express nointerest in using it.Top Five Project Benefits Generated by BIM(By Percentage of Chinese Companies ReceivingBenefit at High or Very High Level)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsBetter Design SolutionsNon-User Attitudes Toward BIM(According to Chinese Architects and ContractorsWho6_2_ES_ProjBenefits_#01Do Not Use BIM)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015We are actively evaluating BIM.We believe BIM will be valuable forus but have not begun evaluating it.9%We are open to exploring BIM'spotential value for us.We have no interest inusing BIM.11%39%41%69%67%Reduced Errors and Omissions in Construction Documents66%74%More Client Involvement and Improved Understanding61%66%Reduced Number of Field Coordination Problems55%61%Reduced Rework52%59%4_1_NonUsers_Attitudes_#02Dodge Data & Analytics 5 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

RecommendationsObservations and RecommendationsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAChina is well on its way to integrating BIM-based technologiesand practices into its robust construction economy. Basedon the findings of this research, there are several areas ofrecommended focus to accelerate this positive momentum.Large ChineseOrganizationsShould EncourageSmaller Onesto Adopt andExpand BIMto Improve theEntire IndustryThe large architecturaland constructionorganizations in Chinagenerally have more BIMexperience than theirsmaller peers, and moreof them plan to use BIMon a higher percentage oftheir projects two yearsfrom now (see page 9).Research from all areasof the world shows thatthe benefits of BIM areincreased when moreteam members are skilledand engaged with it,which means the smallerorganizations need toget involved.Therefore, it is importantthat the leading usersmake efforts to encouragenon-users to adopt, andthose at lower levels ofimplementation becomemore deeply engaged.This will accelerate thealready impressive paceof BIM advancementin China.Develop 3DContent LibrariesThat Support theProject LifecycleThe most powerful futureuse of BIM will be tosupport the entire projectlifecycle. Therefore, 3DBIM content needs tobe created that will beuseful to stakeholdersfrom design through tofacilities managementand replacement.Content creation isa common investmentneed identified in many ofDodge Data & Analytics’BIM research studiesaround the world. Forexample, it ranked thirdamong all users in bothThe Business Value ofBIM in Korea SmartMarketReport (2012) and TheBusiness Value of BIMin Australia and NewZealand SmartMarketReport (2014).Chinese architectsand contractors needto work with productmanufacturers to urgethem to create usefullibraries of BIM contentthat can be easilyaccessed and used so thatcompanies can reducetheir need to developcontent internally.Embrace theAdvantages ofModel-DrivenPrefabricationThe use of coordinatedmodels to drive offsite andnear-site prefabrication ofassemblies that integratethe work of several tradesis one of the most highlyvalued BIM activitiesin many advanced BIMmarkets. Prefabricationimproves project schedulebecause assemblies canbe manufactured well inadvance, then broughtto a site ready-to-installat just the right moment.When built in a shopsetting, the quality can bemore carefully controlled,weather is not a factor, andthe working conditionsare usually safer. Thisapproach also reducesonsite material deliveries,storage, management andwaste, as well as loweringcost by using relativelyinexpensive shop laborinstead of more expensivefield labor.The findings in thisresearch among Chinesecontractors show arelatively low assignmentof value to increasedprefabrication as a factorthat would improvetheir ROI of BIM (tied fornext-to-last place out ofnine factors).The Chinese marketseems particularly wellsuited for greater use ofprefabrication. Chineseprojects are increasinglysophisticated andcomplex, which enhancesthe potential value ofprefabrication. Also, laborand material prices can beexpected to rise over time,again providing a benefitto prefabrication. As theymature in their use ofprefabrication, contractorsmay also be able to takeadvantage of the wealth ofmanufacturing expertiseavailable in China.All of this demonstratesthat contractors in Chinaneed to recognize thebenefits that prefabricationoffers to project cost,schedule and quality, andmore actively pursue theadvantages of modeldrivenprefabrication ontheir projects. Embracingthis trend is an excellentopportunity for them toadd value to the overallBIM process. nSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 6 www.construction.com

Data:Section IntroductionHed1THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAChina is possibly the world’s most importantconstruction market. Recent measures of the sizeof the market place it at well over 13 trillion RMB(over US$2 trillion). 1 While this includes a robustdegree of investment in horizontal infrastructure, such asdams and transportation projects, it also includes a stronginvestment in vertical building construction. In fact, Chinahas added 1.8 to 2 million square meters of floorspaceannually for more than a decade. 2 Clearly, when it comesto technologies and processes that improve efficiency andprofitability in the construction industry, China represents aunique opportunity.For almost a decade, Dodge Data & Analytics (DD&A,formerly called McGraw Hill Construction) has beenconducting research on the value and impact of buildinginformation modeling (BIM), not just in terms of thesoftware itself, but also in terms of its potential to improveconstruction processes through its ability to enable bettercommunication and collaboration among industry players.While the research initially focused on North America, inthe last few years, the study has expanded to include anexamination of the value that BIM brings in Europe, SouthAmerica and Asia, providing a global context across highlydiverse and unique construction markets.This new study, looking at the responses of architects andcontractors in China, builds on the broad context of DD&A’sprevious research to capture the unique perspective of theChina market on the current value and potential of BIM.While some BIM non-users were included in the study tounderstand the potential for wider use across the industry,the research focused primarily on the experiences of firmsalready using BIM.The study looks at the benefits firmsderive from its use and the types and levels of investmentsthey are making in BIM, including their perception of thedegree of return they are receiving on those investments.In addition to the quantitative research conducted amongarchitects and contractors, the study also features in-depthinterviews with five owners of construction projects inorder to capture the unique owner perspective on the useof BIM in China.Three case studies also provide specificexamples of the benefits gained from the use of BIM onprojects in China.The findings demonstrate that, while BIM is relativelynew in China, its utilization is growing rapidly, especiallyamong larger firms that can capitalize best on its valuecurrently. It demonstrates that the Chinese market isbeginning to experience the benefits of BIM and suggeststhe potential for China’s leadership in BIM use in the future.Note About the DataThe data and analysis in this report arebased on an online survey conducted with350 architects and contractors in China.Nearly all respondents worked for firmsdoing their work exclusively in China.Respondents were asked about theirlevel of BIM use. Those using BIM to createmodels or to work with models created byothers were identified as BIM users, andthose not using BIM at all were identified asnon-users. Each group was asked differentquestions and thus analyzed separately.■ BIM Users• Architects: 173• Contractors: 123■ BIM Non-Users• Architects: 33• Contractors: 21The primary focus of the research wasto understand BIM utilization in China,so BIM users were actively sought. Thus,this sample does not reflect the level ofcurrent adoption of BIM in China. Whilethe number of BIM non-users is relativelysmall, especially among contractors, thesample is sufficiently robust to demonstrateimportant trending differences among nonuserarchitects and contractors.BIM users were also analyzed based oncompany size according to annual revenue,type of company ownership and the typeof work conducted by their company. Formore information on these variables, alongwith more information about the researchconducted, please see the Methodology onpage 56.1. National Bureau of Statistics of China. “Total Output of Construction by Region.” China StatisticalYearbook 2013. Accessed 12 December 2014 at http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm.2. Yu S, Evans M. and Shi Q. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Analysis of the Chinese Market forBuilding Energy Efficiency. March 2014. Accessed 12 December 2014 at http://www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-22761.pdf.Dodge Data & Analytics 7 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Data:BIM UseBIM Implementation LevelsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAA company’s level of BIM implementation refers to thepercentage of its projects that involve BIM. In China,contractors are currently at higher implementationlevels than architects—and that gap is projected toincrease over the next two years.■ Nearly half (46%) of the architects are currently inthe lowest level of implementation (less than 15% ofprojects involve BIM) compared with under a third ofthe contractors (31%).■ Within two years, over half (52%) of the contractorsforecast they will be involved with BIM on over 30% oftheir work, compared with only about a third (36%) ofthe architects.China at the Forefront of anEmerging TrendAlthough architects typically lead contractors in BIMimplementation in most other global research byDodge Data & Analytics (DD&A, formerly McGraw HillConstruction), this finding in China corresponds to anemerging trend that was first identified in The BusinessValue of BIM in North America SmartMarket Report(2012), where the contractor BIM adoption level (74%)exceeded that of architects (70%) for the first timesince DD&A began its North American research studiesin 2009.Current and Forecasted BIM ImplementationLevels in China(According to Chinese Architects and Contractors)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Very High (Greater Than 60%)High (31%–60%)Moderate (15%–30%)Low (Less Than 15%)Architects14%35%46%5% 10% 6%16%19%26%36%39%25%2014 2016Contractors44%31%1_1_Use_ImplementationLevels_#0238%10%2014 2016Two-Year Forecasted Increase in Percentage of Contractors atHigh/Very High BIM Implementation Level(Those With at Least 30% of Their Projects Involving BIM)China Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM for Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013136%126%115%108%95%82% 86%95% GlobalAverage44%59%US Japan France Canada Germany China Australia South Korea UKSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 8 www.construction.com1_2_Use_GlobalImpIncrease_#02

BIM UseBIM Implementation LevelsCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAGrowth of BIMImplementation GloballyBIM implementation levels are very dynamic ineconomies around the world as BIM experience growsand companies become more familiar, confident andinnovative in their deployment of BIM.Over the next two years, the number of Chinesecontractors forecasting that they will be doing at least30% of their work with BIM more than doubles. Thisaligns with contractors’ predictions from a variety ofother regions published in The Business Value of BIMfor Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014). The chart (see page 8) shows the two-yearforecast for growth in the number of contractors that areat high/very high BIM implementation levels (at least 30%of their projects involve BIM).■ The 136% growth in the UK can be attributed to thegovernment mandate for BIM on centrally fundedprojects that will go into effect in 2016.■ South Korean and Australian contractors areactively advancing their use of BIM in response toeconomic activity.■ Regions where BIM is already more established (suchas US, Canada, France and Germany) show slowerfuture growth rates because many firms are alreadyhighly engaged.Years of Experience Using BIMTwo trends are consistent in most of the BIM researchconducted by Dodge Data & Analytics around the world:■ Although architects are typically the first disciplinein a region to adopt BIM, contractors now appearto be edging ahead of architects in implementationglobally. Often, this is influenced by the tangible benefitscontractors are able to achieve almost immediately fromusing BIM.■ Among both architects and contractors, BIM is typicallyadopted first by larger companies, and then spreads overtime to smaller firms. Larger companies often work oncomplex projects where the value of BIM is most easilyachieved and recognized. Also, those companies tendto have internal resources that can be deployed on newinitiatives such as BIM and to have previous experiencewith technology adoption and process change, whichprove valuable to successful BIM implementation.This pattern repeats itself in findings on how longcompanies have been using BIM in China.■ More architects report having over five years’ BIMexperience than contractors.■ Size is an important factor among architects, with almosthalf (46%) of large firms saying that they have been usingBIM more than five years, versus only 14% of small ones.■ Similarly, 29% of large contractors report more thanfive years’ experience, compared with very few (5%)small companies.Number of Years’ Experience Using BIMin China (By Size of Company)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015More Than 5 Years3–5 Years1–2 Years14%48%38%SmallArchitects(Less Than60 Million RMB)46%46%LargeArchitects(800 Million orMore RMB)85%8% 10%5%SmallContractors(Less than60 Million RMB)29%49%22%LargeContractors(More Than800 Million RMB)■1_5_Use_Years_#02Small architects show the highest percentage of recentadoption (38%), perhaps indicating a growing interest inthat segment of the industry.Dodge Data & Analytics 9 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM Use CONTINUEDBIM Expertise LevelsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATASince there is no accepted international standard for BIMexpertise, respondents in all Dodge Data & AnalyticsBIM research studies around the world are asked to selfdescribetheir expertise level as beginner, moderate,advanced or expert, relative to their perception of othercompanies in their area.While the Chinese contractors report a higher level ofBIM implementation, the chart shows that the architectsare claiming a slightly higher expertise level.■ 36% of architects are advanced or expert, comparedwith 33% of the contractors.■ More contractors (14%) perceive themselves at thebeginner level than architects (10%).Global Trends in BIM ExpertiseSince self-described expertise levels are relative onlyto the region where the respondent is working,comparisons between regions are only useful forgeneral trend analysis.■ Just 14% of Chinese contractors rate themselves asbeginners, which compares favorably to most othercountries, especially the UK (37%) where the pendinggovernment BIM mandate has created a recent influxof new users.■ Among architects, a comparison with research fromThe Business Value of BIM in Korea SmartMarket Report(2012) shows that roughly equal proportions in China(36%) and Korea (33%) believe they are at an advancedor expert level of expertise.BIM Expertise Level(Reported by Chinese Architects and Contractors)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Expert (Much Higher Than Other Firms)Advanced (Above Level of Other Firms)Moderate (About Same Level as Other Firms)Beginner (Lower Than Other Firms)7%29%54%10%Architects28%53%14%Contractors1_3_Use_Expertise_#025%Percentage of Contractors Describing Their BIM Expertise Levelas Moderate, Advanced or Expert (By Country)China Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM for Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 201363% 65% 65% 67%74% 77%86% 89%90%UK South Korea Germany France Australia Japan China US CanadaSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 10 www.construction.com1_4_Use_GlobalExpertise_#03

BIM UseCONTINUEDFamiliarity and Use of Level ofDevelopment (LOD) StandardTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAAbout Level of Development (LOD)The need to manually re-create information in multipletechnology tools by different stakeholders throughout theproject process is one of the most common inefficienciesof design and construction projects. It requires duplicatework and creates the opportunity for misinterpretations,errors and omissions, often causing expensive problemslater in the project lifecycle.One of the most efficient and transformative aspectsof BIM is the ability to enter project information once andthen allow many users to access it with speed, certaintyand reliability. Because BIM information is digital, itis machine-readable by other technology tools andtherefore capable of informing workflows by numerousparties throughout the process.The critical requirement for the industry to achievethis benefit from BIM is for all parties to understand whatinformation can reliably be expected to be containedin a model at any given point during its lifecycle. This iswhere an emerging reference standard called Level ofDevelopment (LOD) plays a vital role.According to a definition provided by BIMForum,“The Level of Development (LOD) Specification is areference that enables practitioners in the AEC (architect,engineer, contractor) industry to specify and articulatewith a high level of clarity the content and reliability ofBuilding Information Models (BIMs) at various stagesin the design and construction process.” Extensiveinformation about LOD is available from the BIMForumwebsite (www.bimforum.org/lod) as well as manyother professional organizations. (See page 13 for moreinformation on LOD.)Awareness of LOD in ChinaOver half of the respondents (52%) indicate a mediumor high familiarity with LOD, and only a few (13%)profess no knowledge of it whatsoever. The proportionsare almost equal between contractors and architects,so both types of companies are well underway withfamiliarization. However, as the chart shows, largercompanies are significantly more aware of LOD.Use of LOD in China by CompaniesFamiliar With ItAlthough the majority (87%) of respondents report atleast some awareness of LOD, there is low evidence of itsactual use on projects by these firms. The chart shows thereported use of LOD on projects by the companies thatAwareness of LOD in China (According toSmall and Large Companies in China)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Small Companies (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Large Companies (More Than 800 Million RMB)25%9%No Familiarity42%28%Low Familiarity39%31%MediumFamiliarityFrequency 1_6_Use_LODFamiliar_#02of of LOD by theChinese Companies Familiar With ItDodge Data & Analytics, 201576%–100%7%51%–75%25%–50%Less Than 25%13%Never Use LOD12%27%41%2%24%HighFamiliarity1_7_Use_LODUse_#02indicated having awareness of LOD.■ The largest percentage (41%) say they are using LOD onless than one quarter of their work.■ Only 20% say they use LOD more than half of the time.■ The average use of LOD across all the companies is on29% of their projects.■ Among architects, the large firms show above-averageuse (37%).Dodge Data & Analytics 11 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM UseFamiliarity and Use of Level of Development (LOD) Standard CONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAAn encouraging sign is that the companies with higherBIM implementation levels also report greater use ofLOD. As the chart shows, more than twice as many (33%)of the companies at high implementation levels useLOD more frequently than those at low implementationlevels (16%). This suggests that LOD use may grow inproportion to expanding BIM implementation.Future of LOD in the GlobalConstruction EconomyGoing forward it will be important for all architectsand contractors to embrace LOD for enhanced modelbasedcollaboration and integration, and to derive thebenefit of BIM for improved outcomes for all parties. Thiswill become especially important as more design andconstruction organizations expand beyond their nationalborders and work more frequently with foreign-basedpartners in their own countries.LOD AND BUILDING PERFORMANCE ANALYSISUnderstanding the LOD of a model also has a reciprocalrelationship with the ability to perform buildingperformance analysis, one of the most prominent waysin which the use of BIM can help support green buildinggoals on a project. Models at a high level of developmentmay contain building performance data, and inputtingbuilding performance data can help increase theinformation in (and therefore LOD of) the model.Therefore, a growing green market can help encouragewider use of LOD.Dodge Data & Analytics (DD&A) calculates thatthe green building marketplace in the US increasedfivefold between 2005 and 2008 and estimates that itwill continue to grow at a significant pace. Additionally,DD&A revealed notable green building activity and plansaround the world in the World Green Building TrendsSmartMarket Report (2013). As green building activityincreases, understanding the different types of practicesemphasized and incorporated into these projectsbecomes important for determining how best to reapboth the financial and environmental benefits.Use of Levels of Development (LOD) onProjects (By Level of BIM Implementation)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Use LOD on Less Than Half of ProjectsUse LOD on More Than Half of Projects84%16%CompaniesThat Use BIM onLess Than 30% ofTheir Projects67%CompaniesThat Use BIM on30% or More ofTheir Projects1_8_Use_LODUse2_#0233%SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 12 www.construction.com

Sidebar: Levels of DevelopmentLevels of Development—or Equivalent—in the US, UK and ChinaTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAEnhancing the ability to collaborate is one of the main benefits of BIM,but knowing with certainty exactly what information received fromothers can be relied on is critical. However, the development of standardsaddressing this has been a challenge tackled differently across the globe.LOD in the USIn 2008, the American Institute ofArchitects (AIA) released its firstBIM contract document—AIA E202Building Information ModelingProtocol Exhibit—which outlined five“levels of development” (LOD 100-500) for defining the amount of detailin a particular BIM model.AIA’s important work set the stage,and it also helped reveal the nextsteps needed to make the levelsof development more effective.The initial version included nographical representations and nodetailed description of them. Theyalso generally followed traditionalproject phases that 3D designrenders obsolete and did not pushcoordination and collaborationwith all stakeholders earlier into thedesign process.So began the long march towarddefining model exchange usingLODs, which define:• Who is responsible for eachelement of the model and to whatlevel of development?• What are authorized uses forthe model?• To what extent can users rely onthe model?• Who will manage the model?• Who owns the model?In the US, the BIMForum, aninterdisciplinary group of architects,engineers and constructionprofessionals, has published adetailed specification for each level,including a new “permitting” levelfor regulatory review. It utilizes thebasic LOD definitions developedby the AIA and is organized by CSIUniformat 2010.BIM Maturity Levelsin the UKThe UK does not use the termLOD. Instead, they employ the BIMMaturity Diagram to illustrate variousBIM maturity levels (0, 1, 2 and 3).Starting in the summer of 2012, theUK government began requiring thatprojects implement a Level 2 BIM atminimum, with all projects mandatedfor BIM use at that level for 2016.“We have created a standard calledPAS1192-2,” says Adam Matthews,head of EU & International Relationsfor the UK BIM Task Group. The TaskGroup was created by governmentinitiative and brings togetherexpertise from industry, government,public sector and academia to informthe industry about BIM. “[PAS1192-2] is a publicly available specificationwhich [through] consultation withindustry and government institutionscreate[s] a sensible and workableadoption of level 2 in terms of sharingof information ... It’s about creatingexchange points between client andsupply chain at key project stages.”Despite similarities in the overallgoals, there are also differencesin the US and UK approaches.PAS1192-2 is a governmentmandate, whereas in the US, theLOD specification is being createdvoluntarily by architects, engineers,construction professionals and eventrade contractors. While the UKstandard requires an assessmentof a firm’s adoption of BIM, theLOD specification stresses thatits definitions of developmentare model-specific and not areplacement for an individual BIMexecution plan for each project.LOD in ChinaIn China, the concept of defininglevels of a project for hand-off ineach stage was referenced in the12th Five-Year Plan for Developmentof Construction Industry issued bythe Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’sRepublic (MOHURD).MOHURD calls BIM a keytechnology for informationdevelopment in the Outline ofInformation Development ofConstruction Industry during2011–2015. The report alsorequests that constructionenterprises carry out research andapply BIM technology during theconstruction phase, whichit considers to be the primarystrategic goal.Government support of theadoption of LOD for BIM could havestrong implications. The totaloutput of Chinese constructionexceeded 13 trillion RMB in 2013,and mass adoption, via governmentmandate or otherwise, of a standardsuch as LOD could revolutionizeChina’s design and constructionindustries, supporting wider andmore effective BIM use in thisvast industry. nDodge Data & Analytics 13 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Interview:Thought LeaderProfessor Gu MingVice Dean of the School of SoftwareTsinghua UniversityTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAProfessor Gu first encountered BIM in 2008 and believes that it is morethan a design tool or 3D model. She has led her team in researchingoverseas experiences in BIM implementation and contextualizedthose experiences based on China’s practical needs to support thedevelopment of CBIMS (China BIM Standards) since its conception.What do you think is the bestway to encourage wider BIMadoption across the design andconstruction industry in China?GU: The best stakeholder to driveBIM is the owner, and the firstthing to do is to integrate BIM asa prequalification requirementfor consultants and contractors.Currently in China, Local DesignInstitutes and contractors canclaim that they are using BIM andbid projects. [However,] the owner[needs to] insist that BIM is notjust“good to have” but [that] theprocess and tool must be used torealize the intended values for theconsultants and contractors to takeBIM very seriously before theytender the project. This will then bea lesson learned and would changetheir attitudes about BIM, [whichwould] eventually diffuse to theentire ecosystem of the constructionindustry in China.The GSA [General ServicesAdministration] in the United Statesis a good example of driving [BIM usethrough] the owner. They update therules of the game because they seethe value BIM can bring to a projectin terms of cost, time and quality.That is what needs to be done inChina as well, starting with upstreameducation and mandates.How has BIM impacted thedesign and constructionindustry in China?GU: BIM brings a revolutionary oreven subversive transformation tothe industry, and the most criticalimpact is the enhancement ofconstruction processes with a higherdegree of digitization and integrationof information. [This will] helpform a truly industrial workforce. Inthe current China market, there isinsufficient training to elevate thequality of construction workers toa level similar to the manufacturingindustry. I think BIM is one of themeans to train this workforce, andthis transformation will be gradual.What challenges does theChina market present to widerBIM adoption?GU: The main challenge is to changethe mindset of people from both theexecution and management levelsregarding the concept of digitizationand leveraging of informationtechnology in their practice,which is the same challenge themanufacturing industry faced20 years ago.The AEC industry in China ismore conservative and closedmindedand perceives that someworkflows and limitations of eachdiscipline and trade are differentfrom each other, and this conflictswith the spirit of collaboration.[Also,] marketing campaigns onBIM have not been able to reallypromote the transformation.[Wider BIM adoption] requires acultural shift from decision-makersto site workers levels. For example,decision-makers may believe thatthey are using BIM since they arevisualizing design through it,but [BIM use] is not just aboutspending some extra money withconsultants or getting an internalteam to perform model authoring.The same change in culture andmindset needs to happen withproject managers, site engineersand site workers.We also need to create thesense of urgency by letting [theindustry] know that BIM is aninevitable trend. Companies andindividuals need to get a head startinstead of waiting it out; otherwise,the adoption is not going to progress.For software vendors, they needto package and customize BIMwith the local culture, which is verydifferent from the western countries.Continuing to promote BIM as asoftware tool will create a hugeongoing problem.How do you think BIM willchange the industry over thenext five years?GU: BIM will elevate the levelof standardization across theindustry; [it will] allow more precisemanagement of the constructionprocess, and prefabrication will befurther leveraged.China will continue to go throughan urbanization process in the next20 years, and hundreds of millions offarmers will be moving into the city.How are we going to train or educatethem to fit into this modern society?I believe the BIM industry can be agood option. nSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 14 www.construction.com

Sidebar: BIM StandardsChina BIM Standard DevelopmentTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINARecent government efforts to set BIM standards recognize the need forbetter articulation and documentation of design intent, increased controlof project budgets and schedule, higher-quality construction, and moreefficient government project approval and archiving with BIM.Current BIM Standardsin ChinaBoth local and national governmentsin China have recognized the valueof BIM standardization to promoteBIM adoption. Supporting BIMstandard development on a nationalscale, the China Academy of BuildingResearch (CABR) and severalother organizations establishedthe China BIM Union in 2012, withgoals of developing BIM standards,promoting BIM implementation andconducting research for the benefitof the national industry. With thesupport of many organizations, theMinistry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’sRepublic of China (MOHURD) hasled the development of severalnational standards.• The Unified Standard providesa wide range of general BIMstandards for design andconstruction disciplines, coveringtopics including terminology, modelstructuring, information exchangesand interoperability, classificationand coding, BIM deliverables, BIMstorage and project management.The Unified Standard has primarilybeen developed by China BIMUnion, in cooperation with majorpublic and private organizations andresearch institutions, such as theChina Association for EngineeringConstruction Standardization,China State ConstructionEngineering Corporation,Shanghai Construction Group andTsinghua University.• The Classification and CodingStandard, developed by the ChinaInstitute of Building StandardDesign & Research, providesan organizational frameworkfor standardizing the coding ofbuilding, design and constructioncomponents and processes, withreference tables for classifyingdesign and constructiondisciplines, building spaces andelements, work results, phases,tools and processes.• The BIM Delivery Standard,also developed by the ChinaInstitute of Building StandardDesign & Research, includescontributions from manyindustrial organizations andacademic institutions, over 40organizations in all, and regulatesLevel of Development (LoD), costestimation, BIM collaboration andinformation exchanges, and otherBIM deliverable requirements witha focus on the design stage.• The Storage Standard providesguidelines and processesfor establishing informationtechnology infrastructure tosupport BIM data management,and regularly archiving BIM datathroughout the project lifecycle.Alongside with the nationalBIM Standards, several cities suchas Beijing and Shenzhen havestarted to develop BIM standards.The Beijing Municipal Commissionof Urban Planning, in cooperationwith Tsinghua University and majorlocal design civil design institutes,released the Beijing BIM DesignStandard for Civil Building in 2014.This standard has popularizedBIM technology and driven itsrapid development, providing amodel for other cities to developtheir own standards.Using Standardsto EncourageBIM AdoptionThese standards will provide amature foundation, yet more isneeded to encourage BIM adoptionthroughout China. Increased BIMprofessional education and increasedadoption of supporting technologiesare important, but perhaps the mostcritical driver is the reformation oftraditional processes at the project,enterprise and governmental levelsto maximize the benefits of BIM.This includes restructuringworkflows to increase projectteam integration and collaboration,reallocating resources andresponsibilities to manage BIM,and systematizing the use of BIMthroughout the facility lifecycle.Addressing these challenges,universities are developing BIMtraining programs, and enterprisesand educational institutionsare driving BIM research. Thegovernment is also undergoing anextensive transformation underthe administration of President XiJinping, making China more readyto embrace and step forward intothe BIM revolution. nDodge Data & Analytics 15 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Data:BIM BenefitsExperience of Overall Value From BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAThe experience of value from BIM varies widely betweenusers depending on their skill and experience, and thelevel of understanding and expectations they have aboutits achievable benefits.Perspectives of Chinese Architectsand ContractorsChinese architects and contractors were asked to selectthe one statement among the four listed in the chart thatbest describes their perspective on the current overallvalue of BIM for their company. Approximately 60% ofpractitioners agree that they are getting a lot of valuefrom BIM and that there is still more to be gained. This isalso the most common response from BIM users in all ofthe Dodge Data & Analytics BIM research studies aroundthe world.■ Architects feel more strongly about this (62%) thancontractors (59%), with an especially enthusiastic votefrom large architectural firms (72%).■ Small architectural firms, who generally are lessengaged with BIM, weigh in below average (50%).■ Among contractors, a higher percentage of stateownedenterprises (68%) agreed with this statementthan private ones (47%).Experience of Business Value From BIM(According to Chinese Architects and Contractors)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsWe're getting everything out of BIMthat we believe it can provide us.7%3%We're getting a lot of value from BIM but believethere is more to be gained.62%59%We're just scratching the surface ofhow much value BIM can provide us.25%33%We're getting no meaningfulvalue from BIM.6%5%A larger proportion of contractors than architects feelthey are just beginning to experience the value of BIM.This aligns with the finding that architects in generalhave more years of BIM experience and therefore havehad the opportunity to experience more value. It alsocorresponds with the findings reported in The BusinessValue of BIM in Australia and New Zealand SmartMarketReport, where a higher percentage of contractors thanarchitects also report that they are just scratching thesurface on the value BIM can provide to them.■ Private construction companies (42%) greatlyoutnumber state-owned ones (26%) in ascribing tothis sentiment.■ Over a third (34%) of small architects feel thisway, compared with only half as many (17%) oflarge architects.It is notable that nearly all of the respondents (94%) feelthey are receiving at least some meaningful benefitfrom BIM, which is a very encouraging finding for a newtechnology and process.2_1_Ben_OverallValue_#02SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 16 www.construction.com

BIM BenefitsCONTINUEDBusiness Benefits of BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATADodge Data & Analytics (DD&A) consistently focuseson the business benefits of BIM in its research becausethese are the key factors that drive a new technology orprocess to become widely accepted and standardized.This research differentiates between two main types ofbusiness benefits:• Internal Benefits that accrue directly to the companydeploying BIM• Project Benefits that deliver a better, faster and/or lessexpensive end product for the ownerInternal Benefits Generated by BIMChinese firms were asked to rate the degree to which theyare receiving each of seven possible internal businessbenefits from BIM on a scale of one (no benefit) to five(very high benefit). Shown in the chart are the combinedpercentages of respondents who experienced a high orvery high benefit from BIM.One notable general trend is that a higher percentageof contractors than architects report each benefit.While, for the most part, the difference is not statisticallysignificant, the trend suggests that higher levels ofimplementation for contractors yield more benefits.ENHANCEMENT OF ORGANIZATION’S IMAGEAS AN INDUSTRY LEADERBIM is a fast-growing and valuable new approach toproject delivery that is attracting a lot of attention.Therefore it is natural that this ranks first overall as adirect benefit for the company using it.■ Interestingly, it is cited highly by more contractors(71%) than architects (62%), which corresponds withother findings that reveal Chinese contractors have ahigher BIM implementation level than architects.■ Among the contractors, an especially high percentage(88%) of those involved in institutional buildings namedthis as a highly valuable benefit, perhaps indicating agrowing demand among owners in that market.Internal Business Benefits Generated by BIM(By Percentage of Chinese Companies ReceivingBenefit at High or Very High Level)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsEnhancement of Organization's Image as an Industry Leader62%71%Faster Client Approval CyclesOffering New Services2_2_Ben_IntBenefits_#0248%50%Maintaining Repeat Business With Past Clients46%50%Marketing New Business to New Clients46%56%Increased Profits34%43%Reduced Litigation and/or Insurance Claims28%38%62%66%FASTER CLIENT APPROVAL CYCLESThis ranks very close to the top among internal BIMbenefits because expediting a client’s decision-makingprocess is more efficient for everyone.■ Large architects assign an above-average (69%) valueto this benefit, probably because their projects aretypically larger and more complex, with lengthierdecision-making cycles.Dodge Data & Analytics 17 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM BenefitsBusiness Benefits of BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATA■ More of the contractors involved with industrialprojects (74%) than building projects (59%) citedthis, perhaps indicating a greater value to expeditingdecisions on these projects.OFFERING NEW SERVICES, MAINTAININGREPEAT BUSINESS WITH PAST CLIENTS ANDMARKETING NEW BUSINESS TO NEW CLIENTSThese three benefits, which all fall into a general categoryof leveraging BIM capability to maintain and expand abusiness, are consistently rated highly by BIM users inthe DD&A BIM research globally.■ More private Chinese contractors (55%) ratedmaintaining business with repeat clients highly thandid those from state-owned companies (45%).■ Offering new services was noted as highly valuable bymore industrial/infrastructure contractors (70%) thanbuildings/interiors ones (46%), perhaps pointing tomore opportunity in those markets to leverage BIM forbroader offerings.INCREASED PROFITS AND REDUCEDLITIGATION AND/OR INSURANCE CLAIMSAlthough these benefits are rated lowest amongthe seven, they still score highly with over a third ofBIM users.■ More contractors than architects assign a high value toboth of these benefits, perhaps indicating their abilityto leverage BIM for these purposes because of theirgenerally deeper level of engagement.■ Among the contractors, reduced litigation/claims iscited as a top benefit of BIM by far more working onindustrial/infrastructure (65%) projects than buildings/interiors (22%), pointing to the inherently higher riskassociated with that work and emphasizing a criticalbenefit of BIM in mitigating it.Internal BIM Benefits for Large andSmall ArchitectsA general trend in the findings of this research studyis that larger firms in China are currently more engagedwith BIM than their smaller peers. This is not uniqueto China; in fact, it is consistent across all the marketsstudied by DD&A.The chart shows the differences between thepercentage of large and small Chinese architects whoreport that their firms are receiving each of these BIMbenefits at either a high or very high degree.Top Internal BIM Benefits(According to Large and Small Architects in ChinaReceiving Benefit at High or Very High Level)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Large Architects (800 Million or More RMB)Small Architects (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Enhancement of Organization's Image as an Industry Leader81%36%Faster Client Approval CyclesOffering New Services32%48%Marketing New Business to New Clients57%34%2_3_Ben_IntBens_Archs_Size_#0269%65%Maintaining Repeat Business With Past Clients46%52%Increased Profits28%39%Reduced Litigation and/or Insurance Claims20%39%SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 18 www.construction.com

BIM BenefitsBusiness Benefits of BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATA• Because they are often pursuing high-profile work,the large architectural firms benefit more from theenhanced image, and can most effectively use thatto market new business to major clients. With theirresources they are also in the best position to offernew services. Additionally, because they tend towork on longer and more complex projects, theability to expedite a client’s approval process isunderstandably valuable.• By contrast, smaller firms, because they do not pursueas much new business with new clients, show a greaterpreference for BIM’s ability to help them maintainrepeat business with their past clients. Interestingly,many more small architects are reporting increasedprofits and reduced problems after the project becauseof BIM.Global Perspective onInternal Benefits for ContractorsIn The Business Value of BIM for Construction in MajorGlobal Markets SmartMarket Report (2014), contractorsfrom 10 regions were asked to select their top threeinternal BIM benefits. Although that is a different ratingsystem than the one to five rating conducted for thisresearch, the comparison is useful for general trendanalysis. The top six benefits identified by the contractorsare shown in rank order in the matrix, includinghighest, lowest and average regional rankings.The ranking of these benefits by Chinese companies isincluded for comparison.■ All regions agree that the benefit of BIM capabilityenhancing the user organization’s image is the topinternal BIM benefit.■ Faster client approval cycles ranks #2 among Chinesecontractors, yet ranks last for the other regions, whichmay point to an emerging benefit that other regionscan learn to take advantage of.Percentage of Contractors Citing InternalBIM Benefits as One of Top Three for TheirOrganizationChina Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM forConstruction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013ChinaRank1GlobalRank13 26 34 45 52 6Internal BIMBenefitEnhancement ofOrganization'sImage as anIndustry LeaderMarketingNew BusinessIncreasedProfitsOfferingNew ServicesMaintainingRepeat BusinessFaster ClientApproval Cycles2_4_Ben_IntBens_Global_#02HighestRegionBrazilGlobalAverageLowestRegionJapan41% 32% 13%SouthKoreaFrance31% 19% 0%FranceSouthKorea39% 14% 7%SouthKoreaUK26% 14% 7%FranceSouthKorea32% 13% 4%GermanyUS22% 9% 6%Dodge Data & Analytics 19 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM BenefitsCONTINUEDProject Benefits Generated by BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAContractors and architects were asked to rate thedegree to which each of 11 BIM benefits is improvingtheir projects on a scale of one (no benefit) to five (veryhigh benefit).As with the internal benefits of BIM (see page 17),most of the project benefits are reported by a higherpercentage of contractors than architects, againsuggesting that the higher degree of implementation bycontractors yields more benefits.Top Three Benefits Identified byChinese Architects and Contractors■ Better Design Solutions: Both contractors (67%) andarchitects (69%) agree on the important contributionthat BIM is making to delivering better projects fortheir clients.• An even greater percentage (87%) of largecompanies cite this as a top benefit, perhapsreflecting their higher level of commitment to BIM thansmaller companies.• This finding is consistent with the findings in theBusiness Value of BIM for Owners SmartMarketReport (2014), in which the majority of BIMexperiencedowners surveyed in the US and theUK expressed high or very high agreement withthe statement that “BIM analysis and simulationcapabilities produce a more well-reasoned design.”■ Reduced Errors and Omissions in ConstructionDocuments: Contractors (74%) value this slightly morehighly than architects (66%).• More (80%) large companies name this as a highvaluebenefit, probably because they tend to workon larger, more complex projects where errors andomissions can have a devastating impact on cost,quality and schedule.• Among contractors, far more state-owned firms(81%) rated this benefit highly than did privateones (64%).• The high rating by contractors is consistent withthe findings of The Business Value of BIM forConstruction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014), which reports that reduced errorsand omissions is the top-cited BIM project benefit bycontractors around the world.• In the Managing Uncertainty and Expectations inBuilding Design and Construction SmartMarketReport (2014), design errors and omissions are citedas one of the top causes of uncertainty on projects,Project Benefits Generated by BIM (ByPercentage of Chinese Respondents ReceivingBenefit at High/Very High Level)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsBetter Design Solutions69%67%Reduced Errors and Omissions in Construction Documents66%74%More Client Involvement and Improved Understanding61%66%Reduced Number of Field Coordination Problems55%61%Reduced Rework52%59%Better Collaboration With Other Project Team Organizations51%59%Reduced Number and Need for ContractorInformation Requests to Architect49%54%Reduced Construction Cost44%52%Better Cost Control/Predictability43%49%Improved Safety42%Reduced Overall Project Duration38%52%50%SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 20 www.construction.com2_5_Ben_ProjBenefits_#02

BIM BenefitsProject Benefits Generated by BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAwhich negatively impacts cost, quality and schedule,and BIM is identified as a successful mitigating strategyfor reducing the incidence and severity of design errorsand omissions.■ More Client Involvement and Improved Understanding:This benefit is also favored by slightly more contractors(66%) than architects (61%).• In the Managing Uncertainty and Expectations inBuilding Design and Construction SmartMarketReport (2014), increased owner involvementthroughout the project is cited by architects andcontractors as the most effective factor to mitigateuncertainty and align expectations for the benefit of allteam members.• The exceptional visualization power of BIM is apotent means to involve owners and improve theirunderstanding. In The Business Value of BIM forOwners SmartMarket Report (2014), the topratedbenefit statement by all surveyed owners is“BIM visualization enables a better understanding ofproposed design.”Other highly rated project benefits in China listed in thechart on page 20 relate to several key themes.■ Reduced Number of Field Coordination Problems;Reduced Rework: The effectiveness of model-basedspatial coordination leads to greatly improved efficiencyon the project site, allowing teams to model what theywill build and to build what they have modeled.■ Better Collaboration With Other Project TeamOrganizations; Reduced Number and Need forContractor Information Requests to Architect: Moreintegration and effective sharing of informationbetween all project team members helps to improvemutual understanding and reduce uncertainty.■ Reduced Construction Cost; Better Cost Control/Predictability: The ability to predict and control costsmore effectively through BIM reduces the chance ofunanticipated cost overruns and helps a project stay onbudget. More sophisticated users of BIM have the abilityto actually reduce a project’s construction cost throughmodel-driven processes like prefabrication and byapplying lean principles that are facilitated through BIM.■ Improved Safety: Safety problems are often related tospecial “workaround” activities caused by coordinationproblems and by the rework required to replaceincorrect work. Therefore, as BIM reduces the incidenceof coordination problems and rework, it also improvessafety. Safety also improves as more prefabricationProject Benefits Generated by BIM for Largeand Small Chinese ArchitectsDodge Data & Analytics, 2015Large Architects (800 Million or More RMB)Small Architects (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Better Design Solutions57%2_6_Ben_ProjBens_Archs_Size_#0287%Reduced Errors and Omissions in Construction Documents80%61%More Client Involvement and Improved Understanding74%50%Reduced Number of Field Coordination Problems72%39%Better Collaboration With Other ProjectTeam Organizations36%65%Reduced Number and Need for ContractorInformation Requests to Architect61%43%work is done offsite and near-site in safer conditions,which requires less labor at the site. Interestingly,more of the small Chinese companies (57%) reportexperiencing this benefit at a high level than large ones(28%), in contrast to the general tendency toward higherreporting of benefits by large firms.■ Reduced Overall Project Duration: Although relativelylow among benefits for Chinese firms, reduced overallproject duration ranks sixth out of 11 project benefitsidentified by contractors in The Business Value of BIMfor Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014). This may indicate that Chinese firms canexpect to see growth in their experience of this benefitas their implementation of BIM increases.Dodge Data & Analytics 21 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM BenefitsProject Benefits Generated by BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAProject BIM Benefits for Large andSmall ArchitectsFocusing just on six project benefits that have aparticularly high impact on architects, the chart showsthe differences between the percentage of respondentsfrom large and small Chinese architectural firms whoreport that BIM is improving their projects in each ofthese six ways to either a high or very high degree.■ Large firms significantly outpaced small firms on everyproject benefit, probably reflecting their generallydeeper level of engagement with BIM.■ One key difference between large (65%) and small(36%) firms is for the benefit of better collaborationwith other project team organizations. This is probablybecause the larger firms work on more complexprojects with more team members, and therefore haveenjoyed this benefit to a far greater degree.■ Other differences, such as reduced number of fieldcoordination problems, are probably influenced by therelative complexity of large firms’ projects, where therisk of such problems is higher and more impactful.Global Perspective on Project Benefitsfor ContractorsIn The Business Value of BIM for Construction in MajorGlobal Markets SmartMarket Report (2014), contractorsfrom 10 regions were asked to select their top threeproject benefits from BIM. Although that is a differentrating system than the one to five rating used in thisstudy, the comparison is useful for general trend analysis.The top seven benefits identified by the contractors inthe global research are shown in rank order in the matrix,including highest, lowest and average regional rankings.The ranking of these benefits by Chinese companies isincluded for comparison. However, several of the projectbenefits studied in this research were not included inthe Global Contractor BIM study, so for comparisonpurposes, the China ranking in the matrix refers onlyto ranking among the seven project benefits that wereincluded in both research studies.■ All regions agree that the benefits of reduced errorsand omissions in construction documents, betterteam collaboration, reduced rework and reducedconstruction cost are the top four ways that BIM isbenefiting their projects.■ Chinese contractors rank the benefit of improved safetyhigher than the average of other regions, which maysupport a future role of global leadership in that area.Percentage of Contractors CitingProject BIM Benefits as One of TopThree for Their OrganizationChina Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM forConstruction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013ChinaRank1 12 (tie) 22 (tie) 34 (tie) 47 56 64 (tie) 6GlobalRankInternal BIMBenefitReduced Errorsand Omissionsin ConstructionDocumentsBetterCollaborationWith OtherProject TeamOrganizationsReducedReworkReducedConstructionCostBetter CostControl/PredictabilityReducedOverall ProjectDurationImprovedSafety2_7_Ben_ProjBens_Global_#02HighestRegionSouthKoreaUSUSBrazilGermanyFrance63% 41% 13%Japan45% 35% 20%Germany40% 31% 3%Japan46% 23% 13%SouthKorea44% 21% 11%GermanySouthKorea38% 19% 10%GermanyGlobalAverageLowestRegionUS22% 7% 2%■ The benefit of cost control and predictability is morehighly ranked by the other regions, which may point toan opportunity for Chinese contractors to learn fromthe experiences of their global peers.SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 22 www.construction.com

BIM BenefitsCONTINUEDFactors That Impact BIM BenefitsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAChinese contractors and architects were asked to ratea variety of factors for how each would improve thebenefits they are receiving from BIM. The charts showwhat percentage of users said that a factor would eitherhave a high or very high positive impact. The responsesfor large and small companies are shown separately as away to highlight the impact of the generally greater levelof BIM engagement reported by large companies.The factors are divided into two groups:■ Market and Industry Factors, such as BIM skills,demand for BIM and validation of its value■ Technical and Process Factors, such as softwareinteroperability and functionality, data mobility, 3Dcontent and modeling standardsMarket and Industry Factors ThatWould Improve BIM BenefitsMORE STAFF WITH BIM SKILLSThe fact that this ranks as the top factor in China for allrespondents is a direct reflection of the fast growth ofBIM and the resulting high demand for skilled BIM talent.■ The big disparity between small companies and largeones indicates the more rapid pace at which the largerfirms are expanding their BIM implementation.■ This finding should be an important message totraining and education providers that serve the designand construction industry in China about the demandfor training.MORE HARD DATA DEMONSTRATING BIM’SBUSINESS VALUERanking second overall, this speaks to the naturaldesire for companies to understand more of thequantitative benefits of a new technology and processto help justify the investment in BIM and be able tomeasure the benefits.■ The highest demand for this is coming from the largearchitectural firms (83%). Since architects initiallyauthor the models that are required to have a BIM-basedprocess, they are under pressure to expediently converttheir organizations from CAD-based systems to BIM.■ Contractors are somewhat less concerned (66%average) than architects. This aligns with findings fromThe Business Value of BIM in Australia & New ZealandSmartMarket Report (2014), which showed that 58%of architects from Australia and New Zealand citedthis as an important factor, yet only half as many (29%)contractors from that region concurred.Market and Industry Factors Most Likely toIncrease BIM Benefits for Users in ChinaDodge Data & Analytics, 2015Large ARCHITECTS (800 Million or More RMB)Small ARCHITECTS (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Large CONTRACTORS (800 Million or More RMB)Small CONTRACTORS (Less Than 60 Million RMB)More Staff With BIM Skills50%60%83%84%More Hard Data Demonstrating BIM's Business Value83%48%71%55%More Owners Asking for BIM45%50%More External Firms With BIM Skills48%More Readily Available OutsourcedModeling Services31%39%29%45%55%75%74%76%81%MORE 2_8_Ben_IncreaseBens OWNERS ASKING Market_#02 FOR BIMIncreased demand from owners is consistently identifiedin all Dodge Data & Analytics (DD&A) BIM researchglobally as a critical factor. This factor aligns with theneed for more hard data on the benefits of BIM, but with aspecial focus on its advantages for owners.Dodge Data & Analytics 23 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM BenefitsFactors That Impact BIM BenefitsCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAMORE EXTERNAL FIRMS WITH BIM SKILLSWhile this factor scores slightly lower with allrespondents than internal BIM skills, it is still veryhighly rated. This makes sense because as companiesbecome more deeply engaged with BIM, they realizethat, while at first it was important for their firm tomaster BIM skills, the true power of BIM is in thecollaborative efforts of multiple firms working togetherand efficiently sharing model-based data. As a result,the need for more of the companies working togetheron projects to have adequate BIM skills becomesincreasingly apparent and urgent.MORE READILY AVAILABLE OUTSOURCEDMODELING SERVICESOutsourced modeling services are a natural resource ifinternal staff or project team members are not adequatelystaffed to support BIM. The smaller companies in Chinaare expressing greater demand for these services thanthe larger ones. This likely reflects their relative lack ofinternal resources versus the larger organizations that arealready working on building internal BIM capabilities.Technical and Process Factors ThatWould Improve BIM BenefitsAs was true in the results for market and industry factors,the larger companies in China generally express a greaterdegree of belief in the potential positive impact of thetechnical and process factors on their benefits from BIM.IMPROVED INTEROPERABILITY BETWEENSOFTWARE APPLICATIONSSince 2007, DD&A has been studying the problem ofinteroperability between technologies in the design andconstruction industry. While improvements have beenmade in data standards that enable exchange of datasets(such as IFC), many practitioners still cite the lack ofinteroperability as a major challenge.■ Consistent with these China results, a large percentageof architects and contractors globally express thebelief that improved interoperability will enhance theirbenefits from BIM.■ The higher results from the larger Chinese companieslikely reflect their greater experience with collaborativeBIM-based processes on their larger and more complexprojects, therefore raising their awareness of the needfor better interoperability.Technical and Process Factors Most Likelyto Increase BIM Benefits for UsersDodge Data & Analytics, 2015Large ARCHITECTS (800 Million or More RMB)Small ARCHITECTS (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Large CONTRACTORS (800 Million or More RMB)Small CONTRACTORS (Less Than 60 Million RMB)Improved Interoperability Between Software Applications89%43%76%55%More Clearly Defined BIM Deliverables Between Parties89%45%71%55%Improved Functionality of BIM Software55%55%76%85%More 3D Building Product Manufacturer-Specific Content81%52%68%67%Integration of BIM Data With Mobile Devices/Apps72%52%75%65%MORE CLEARLY DEFINED BIM DELIVERABLESBETWEEN PARTIES2_9_Ben_IncBens_Technical_#03another direct example of the growing importanceof collaborative BIM processes, Chinese architectsand contractors cite more clearly defined deliverablesbetween parties as the second most important factor thatwould improve BIM benefits.SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 24 www.construction.com

BIM BenefitsFactors That Impact BIM BenefitsCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATA■ Large architects lead in their rating of this factor,reflecting their prominent role in authoring models thatare then exchanged among other parties for specificworkflows. The need for these models to reliablycontain specific information is essential to supporteffective collaboration and efficiency.■ The Level of Development (LOD) standard (describedon pages 11 and 13) is an important element to moreclearly defining deliverables between parties.IMPROVED FUNCTIONALITY OF BIM SOFTWAREThis is the factor most highly rated by smaller architects,likely indicating their current focus on building initialinternal BIM skills. Over time it can be expected that thesefirms will shift focus to more of the collaboration-orientedfactors cited by large companies.MORE 3D BUILDING PRODUCT MANUFACTURER-SPECIFIC CONTENTAll DD&A BIM research consistently finds more 3Dbuilding product manufacturer-specific contentimportant. Industry practitioners in China need to workwith building product manufacturers to have them createand make available this type of content with properattributes and appropriate geometric information.INTEGRATION OF BIM DATA WITH MOBILEDEVICES/APPSThis factor is cited by the largest percentage of smallcontractors, likely reflecting their tendency to haveminimal office staff and their need to travel a great dealin support of a higher number of concurrent smallerprojects, rather than having several staff memberspositioned at a single site for a large project.Single Most Important Thing About BIMAll respondents were asked to identify, with no responsesor prompts provided, what they believe is the singlemost important thing about BIM. The answers wereanalyzed and then aggregated around major themes. Thematrix shows the differences between the responses ofarchitects and contractors.■ The top focus for architects is bringing more structureto the BIM process through standardization andregulation, thereby enabling them to produce betterproject documentation with BIM.■ Contractors are focused on building the project;therefore improved quality and accuracy isnaturally their top benefit, followed by efficiencyand convenience.■ Cost/Profit ranks second for architects, which indicatesa focus on recovering the cost of implementing BIMthrough profit enhancement.■ All the respondents include the need to drive betterintegration with management systems, and to expandBIM awareness and usage among their top five mostimportant things about BIM; these sentiments areechoed by BIM users everywhere in Dodge Data &Analytics’ previous BIM studies globally.Top Selections of the Single Most ImportantThing About BIM(According to Chinese Architects and Contractors)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Top Five for Architects1. Standardization/Regulation2. Cost/Profit3. Efficiency/Convenience4. Increase BIM Awareness/Usage5. Project Management/System Integration2_11_Ben_MostImpTable_#02Top Five for Contractors1. Improve Quality/Accuracy2. Efficiency/Convenience3. Project Management/System Integration4. Increase BIM Awareness/Use5. Cost/ProfitDodge Data & Analytics 25 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

case studyEfficient Project Delivery of a Skyscraper With BIMShanghai TowerSHANGHAI, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAShanghai Tower willbe the tallest buildingin the Pudong skylineand in China.Image courtesy of ThinkstockCurrently underconstruction, ShanghaiTower is a 121-story superhigh-rise anticipatedto become a thriving office andcommercial center with a luxuryhotel. It will soon stand as the tallestand most sustainable skyscraperin China—and the world’s secondtallest building at 632 meters. BIMhas been used throughout the projectto improve efficiency, reduce errorsand streamline collaboration amonglarge and diverse project teams.The twisting curtain wall designand fabrication, and the sheer size ofthe tower, present complex designand construction managementchallenges. “The Shanghai Toweris a massive project with 576,000square meters of building space,”says Qing Ge, chief engineer andvice general manager for ShanghaiTower Construction & DevelopmentCo., Ltd. “The project complexitywould be very difficult to managesuccessfully with traditional projectdelivery methods and systems.”BIM Core TeamBIM played an important roleduring the design stage for buildingform definition, structural andenergy simulations, and curtainpanel rationalization.Early in the project designprocess, a BIM project manager wasappointed by the owner to definecontractual BIM requirementsand monitor project stakeholders’performance. As the projectprogressed to the constructionstage, a three-person BIM coreteam formed to oversee BIMimplementation and monitor itsimpact on overall project deliveryand schedule conformance. TheBIM core team also managedBIM knowledge and processimprovement, reflecting uponlessons learned during early projectphases to refine the BIM deliverablesand expectations within later subcontractoragreements.Enhanced GlobalCollaborationBIM provides the global team,consisting of nine teams fromChina and abroad, an effective andCONTINUEDSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 26 www.construction.com

case studyCONTINUEDShanghai TowerSHANGHAI, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAefficient means of collaboration.The global project team not onlycoordinated designs and deliveredthe project with BIM, but alsoeffectively transformed collaborativebehaviors and BIM practices amonginternational design firms, localdesign institutes and general andspecialty contractors.Reduce Reworkand ScheduleSince the beginning of construction,Mr. Ge’s team has been trackingrework from “passive change,” dueto documentation errors and/or lackof coordination. As of early 2014, theaccumulated rework cost is less than0.22% of total project cost.The control and mitigationof rework across the entire projecthas allowed it to be managedwith a staff of 15 people, muchlower than the typical managementstaff of 50 for another project ofsimilar or smaller size. BIM alsocontributed to the compressedconstruction schedule of 73 monthsfor 576,000 square meters, around30% faster than 70 months for atypical high-rise project of 380,000square meters.BIM for FacilityManagement andOperationsAfter construction is complete,BIM will still play a vital role forthe Shanghai Tower. Mr. Ge states,“We are planning to use BIM tosupport operations, but it is criticalto understand what the operationteam and processes most needto enhance.” He mentions, as anexample, that BIM may be able tosupport asset management andspace management, where hethinks the use of BIM may beable to “provide higher-qualityinformation and improvebuilding service.”He also sees wider applicabilityfor the model in terms of a broadervision for Shanghai as a city of the21st century. “More forward looking[into BIM for operations] would beconnecting the Shanghai TowerBIM with concepts like intelligentbuildings, intelligent hotels andintelligent cities.”The team has been researchingvarious case studies around theworld and is planning to engagesolution vendors in developinga customized BIM for operationsplatform. “The extent and depthof BIM’s application are dependenton the level of development andmaturity of the models. Therefore,in the initial phase we will limitthe application of BIM to certainlocations or zones to betterunderstand the demandon computer systems of BIMfor facility management andthe impact on staff training andcapabilities,” says Ms. Sujing Duan,BIM project supervisor.DeveloperCommitmentDespite most of the projectstakeholders using BIM for theirrespective scope and delivery, therelevant department submissionprocess relied on conventionalmethods used by other non-BIM projects. Mr. Ge states, “Wecannot ask for change overnight—this paradigm shift takes time.[By the end, though,] the involvedconsultants and contractors havechanged from users to believers, andthey are not turning back.” nstatsProject Factsand FiguresOwnerShanghai Tower Construction &Development Co., Ltd.EngineerThornton TomasettiTJADArchitectGenslerGeneral ContractorShanghai Construction GroupType of ProjectMixed-Use SuperHigh-RiseSize576,000 square metersEstimated Completion2015Project Cost14.8 Billion RMBBIM-Enabled Benefits■ ■Accumulated rework so faris less than .22% of totalproject cost■ ■Construction schedulecompressed to 73 monthsDodge Data & Analytics 27 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Data:BIM ROIPerceived ROI for BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAAlthough there is no single globally accepted method tocalculate the return on investment (ROI) for BIM, most usershave a perception of the degree to which they are receivingvalue for the time, money and effort they have invested.BIM users in China were asked to select one of sevenoptions describing their perception of the ROI they haveseen from their investments in BIM, which each fall intoone of three categories.■ Negative: The value they have received so far is lessthan the investments they have made.■ Break-Even: The value they have received isapproximately equivalent to the investments theyhave made.■ Positive: They feel they are receiving greater value thanthe investments they have made.Perceived Return on Investment (ROI) forBIM Users in ChinaDodge Data & Analytics, 2015NegativeBreak-EvenPositive15%45%40%14%45%41%The findings demonstrate an overall positive perceptionof BIM ROI:■ Only a small percentage of users (14%–15%) believethey are still at a negative ROI.■ A higher percentage of contractors experience apositive ROI than architects, probably because theygenerally receive a greater share of the financialbenefits of BIM (e.g., reduced rework, increased profits).Among architects, size of firm has a direct relationship toperceived ROI on BIM:■ An above-average percentage of large firms (51%)report positive ROI.■ About half (49%) of small firms perceive that they arejust breaking even.ROI by BIM Implementation LevelCompanies at low levels of BIM implementation typicallyexperience negative or break-even ROI on their BIMinvestments, especially smaller organizations for whichit takes longer to absorb the initial costs of software,hardware, training and development of content andbusiness processes to support BIM. However, BIM usersnaturally improve their ROI over time as they completemore projects, expand their skills and experience, andamortize the initial costs of getting established with BIM.The chart shows ROI reported by users at three levelsof BIM implementation:LOW (LESS THAN 15% OF THEIR PROJECTSINVOLVE BIM)■ These companies are roughly equal in proportions ofnegative (29%), break-even (41%) and positive (30%).ArchitectsPerceived Return on Investment (ROI) forBIM Users in China(By 3_1_ROI_PerceivedROI_#02Level of BIM Implementation)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015NegativeBreak-EvenPositive29%41%30%Fewer Than 15%BIM Projects5%Contractors57%15%–30%BIM Projects38%7%25%68%More Than 30%BIM Projects■ This breakdown is a natural result of the early-stage learning3_2_ROI_PerceivedROI_BIMImp_#02curve required for BIM, although it is important to note thateven at this low level of implementation, over two thirds ofusers are break-even or positive.SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 28 www.construction.com

BIM ROIPerceived ROI for BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAMODERATE (BETWEEN 15% AND 30% OF THEIRPROJECTS INVOLVE BIM)■ Once users reach a moderate level of implementation, thepercentage experiencing negative ROI drops dramaticallyto just 5%. This shows that it does not take long for users toshift from negative to break-even ROI.■ The group with positive ROI increases, but just slightly, to38%. This reflects that increased commitment (beyonda moderate level) is required for most firms to reach thisdesired level of ROI.Formal Measurement of BIM ROIHIGH/VERY HIGH (MORE THAN 30% OF THEIRPROJECTS INVOLVE BIM)■ It is at this level that commitment clearly pays off, with overtwo thirds (68%) reporting positive ROI.■ This supports the global trend reported in The BusinessValue of BIM for Construction in Major Global MarketsSmartMarket Report (2014), where half of the contractorsat a very high engagement level from 10 regions reportedextraordinary ROI in excess of 25%.Many companies around the world conduct formalmeasurement of their ROI on BIM at a project level in orderto assess their overall ROI against their total investmentat their company level. Chinese architects and contractorswere asked on what percentage of their projects theircompany formally measures its ROI on BIM.■ Most Chinese companies say they are measuring BIMROI, but the majority of those are only conductingmeasurements on less than 50% of their projects.■ A higher percentage of architects than contractors do notmeasure ROI, perhaps because measuring quantitativeperformance results (such as labor productivity andsafety) is generally more common among contractors.Additional analysis reveals more trends related to thefrequency of measuring BIM ROI.■ Measuring BIM ROI is a relatively recent activity.• Over half of architects (54%) and more than two thirdsof contractors (67%) report only one year to two years’experience doing measurements.• Only about a third of architects (34%) and even fewercontractors (29%) claim more than two years’ experience.■ Firm size is important for architects measuring ROI.• 41% of large firms are doing measurements on morethan half their projects, versus only 10% of small firms.• Many more large architects (47%) have over two years’experience measuring BIM compared with the averagefor all architects (34%).Factors Impacting the Frequency ofFormally Measuring BIM ROITwo factors relate directly to the frequency ofmeasuring ROI.Frequency of Formally MeasuringBIM ROI in ChinaDodge Data & Analytics, 2015Measure ROI on 50% or More of ProjectsMeasure ROI on Less Than 50% of ProjectsDo Not Formally Measure ROIArchitectsContractors15%15%29%38%47%56%3_3_ROI_FrequencyMeasured_#02■ ROI measurement frequency increases with BIMimplementation level.• Half of the companies highly engaged with BIM (greaterthan 30% implementation level) are formally measuringROI on most of their projects.• That frequency drops to 11% for the companies at amoderate BIM implementation level and only 3% atthe lowest implementation level, where, in fact, mostcompanies (61%) are never measuring their ROI.■ Increased frequency of measuring ROI relates directly tohigher levels of perceived ROI.Dodge Data & Analytics 29 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM ROIFormal Measurement of BIM ROI CONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATA• Less than one third (31%) of companies that report anegative ROI are actually measuring it, and only a tinyfraction (3%) measure it on the majority of their projects.Thus, most of the respondents reporting negative ROIare not basing their judgment on empirical evidence.• Conversely, 81% of users reporting positive ROImeasure it on at least some portion of their projects,and 28% do so on the majority of projects. This providesa reasonable basis for their positive ROI.Global Comparison of Contractors’Frequency of Measuring BIM ROIIn The Business Value of BIM for Construction in MajorGlobal Markets SmartMarket Report (2014), contractorsfrom 10 global regions were asked about their frequencyof formally measuring BIM ROI. Chinese contractors are inthe middle of the range for frequency compared with theirglobal peers. As a general trend, companies that measuremore also report higher overall ROI.Impact of Factors on Frequency ofFormally Measuring BIM ROI in ChinaDodge Data & Analytics, 2015Do Not Formally Measure ROIMeasure ROI on Less Than 50% of ProjectsMeasure ROI on 50% or More of ProjectsBy BIM ImplementationMore Than 30% BIM Projects13%37%15%–30% BIM Projects17%Fewer Than 15% BIM Projects61%Positive ROI19%72%Perception on ROI53%50%36%28%11%3%Measurement of BIM ROI(By Country)China Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM forConstruction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013Measure ROI on 50% or More of ProjectsMeasure ROI on Less Than 50% of ProjectsDo Not Formally Measure ROIBreak-Even ROI32%60%Negative ROI69%28%3_4_ROI_FrequencyMeasured_Trends_#023%8%26% 17%28%14%15%17%7%8%13% 13%74%80%69%65%56%50%58%53%46% 44%0%3% 3%21%29%33% 35% 39% 41% 43%France Japan Germany Australia/New ZealandChinaUKBrazil South Korea Canada USSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 30 www.construction.com

BIM ROICONTINUEDTop Benefits That WouldContribute to Increasing BIM ROITHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAChinese architects and contractors were shown a list ofBIM benefits and asked to rate how much an increasein each one would directly improve their company’sROI on BIM, on a scale of 1 (no impact) to 5 (very highimpact). Shown in the two charts on pages 31 and 32 arethe combined percentages of the top two ratings (highimpact or very high impact) in each case.The benefits are divided into two types:■ Processes Improvements: Enhancements to ongoingprocesses, such as better communication and fastercycle times for specific activities■ Outcome Improvements: Measurable impacts of havingcompleted a project using BIM, such as improvedsafety, lower cost or higher productivityProcesses Improvements That WouldIncrease ROI for BIMThe rank ordering of the impact of this category ofbenefits is the same between architects and contractors,although a higher percentage of contractors providetop ratings in each case, perhaps indicating a greaterintensity of desire for them.BETTER MULTI-PARTY COMMUNICATION FROM3D VISUALIZATIONThis benefit, which rates highest across both processand outcome categories with both Chinese architectsand contractors, also consistently scores very stronglyin all Dodge Data & Analytics’ BIM research aroundthe world.Supporting evidence is shown in The Business Valueof BIM for Owners SmartMarket Report (2014), whereleading owners in the US and UK cited a top benefitof BIM to be that “BIM visualization enables a betterunderstanding of proposed design” and stated the beliefthat “better team coordination/collaboration” is BIM’ssingle greatest benefit.IMPROVED PROJECT PROCESSES;REDUCED CYCLE TIME FOR PROJECTACTIVITIES AND DELIVERY;FASTER PLAN APPROVAL AND PERMITSThese three benefits reinforce each other to improve theoverall efficiency of the project delivery process.Certain government programs such as the CORENETe-Plan Check in Singapore are specifically focused onusing BIM to streamline the plan approval process.Processes Improvements That WouldIncrease ROI for BIM (Percentage of Users inChina Citing High/Very High Impact)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsBetter Multi-Party Communication From 3D Visualization62%Improved Project ProcessesReduced Cycle Time for ProjectActivities and Delivery39%Increased Prefabrication38%Faster Plan Approval and Permits36%3_6_ROI_Benefits_Processes_#0250%48%57%59%56%74%INCREASED PREFABRICATIONThis is one of the fastest-growing trends related toBIM, especially in markets where there is a relativelyhigh level of trade contractor BIM proficiency toimplement the activity.Findings from The Business Value of BIM forConstruction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014) show that model-driven prefabricationis the second most frequent BIM activity during theconstruction phase among contractors in the 10 globalregions studied. This is an opportunity for Chinesecontractors to take advantage of a growing global trend.Dodge Data & Analytics 31 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

BIM ROITop Benefits That Would Contribute to Increasing BIM ROICONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAOutcome Improvements ThatWould Increase ROI for BIMThe rank ordering of the impact of this category ofbenefits is very close to the same among architects andcontractors. However, as with process improvements, ahigher percentage of contractors provide top ratings ineach case, emphasizing a possible greater intensity ofdesire for increases in these benefits.POSITIVE IMPACT ON SUSTAINABILITYWhile the increasing focus on green building aroundthe world may be a strong influence on this statedneed from both architects and contractors in China,its relatively strong performance in China may also bedriven by China’s own sustainability efforts. In order toaddress pollution issues, China has made green buildinginvestments at a relatively aggressive pace. In addition,green building efforts play an important role in China’sefforts to address CO 2emissions.Contractors from 10 global regions surveyed for TheBusiness Value of BIM for Construction in Major GlobalMarkets SmartMarket Report (2014) report using BIMfor a variety of sustainability-related activities, suchas coordinating building systems to improve energyperformance, and creating tighter building envelopesthrough BIM-enhanced prefabrication.Outcome Improvements That WouldIncrease ROI for BIM (Percentage of Users inChina Citing High/Very High Impact)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsPositive Impact on Sustainability43%Improved Productivity of Personnel42%Lower Project CostImproved Jobsite Safety40%39%3_7_ROI_Benefits_Outcomes_#0253%53%51%50%IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY OF PERSONNEL;LOWER PROJECT COST;IMPROVED JOBSITE SAFETYIt is natural that these quantifiable measurements arerated more highly by contractors, who are held directlyresponsible for them.A number of US-based contractors are activelytracking labor productivity, cost and safety metrics,especially from projects with extensive use of modeldrivenprefabrication. (See Resources section on page 57for a link to BIM metrics published by Mortenson, a largeUS contractor.)SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 32 www.construction.com

3_8_ROI_Benefits_Global_#02BIM ROITop Benefits That Would Contribute to Increasing BIM ROICONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAGlobal Contractors’ Perspectiveson Benefits That Would MostIncrease BIM ROIAs part of the research for The Business Value of BIMfor Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014), contractors in 10 global regions were askedto select the three benefits that, if increased in frequencyfor them, would most improve their BIM ROI. This is adifferent survey approach than was taken for this Chinaresearch, where respondents were asked to rate eachbenefit on a 1–5 scale, but the comparison is useful toreveal general global trends.The chart shows the highest and lowest regions aswell as the average among all 10 regions for the topfive highest-rated benefits globally. The percentage ofChinese contractors giving a high or very high impactrating is also shown on the scale.Trends that appear in the findings include:■ Chinese contractors’ responses are near or abovethe global averages in all cases, indicating a generalcommonality to contractors’ interests worldwide.■ France, Japan and Germany already have extremelyhigh percentages (93% each) of contractors reportingpositive ROI. That may explain why they appear amongthose that have the fewest number of contractors highlyrating the three leading benefits.■ The focus of an emerging economy like Brazil is oftenopposite to that of an established economy such asJapan. This is highlighted in the reverse ratings for:• Improved productivity: This is most cited byBrazilian contractors reflecting the high volume of workunderway there and limited resources to perform it.Japan rates it lowest, likely because their economy is ina recession.• Lower project cost: This is highest rated by Japan,reflecting its tight economy, as compared with Brazil,where cost is least important as they currently face anenormous volume of work.Percentage of Contractors Rating Improvements That Would Most Impact onIncreasing ROI for BIM(China Compared With the Highest, Lowest and Average Among 10 Regions)China Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM for Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013Improved ProjectProcessesBetter Multi-PartyCommunication From3D VisualizationImproved Productivityof PersonnelReduced Cycle Timefor Project Activitiesand DeliveryLower Project CostFrance China Average US32% 59% 61% 73%Germany Average China South Korea42% 60% 74% 91%Japan Average China Brazil21% 36% 53% 54%South Korea Average Canada China21% 32% 48% 56%Brazil Average China Japan8% 29% 51% 55%Dodge Data & Analytics 33 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

case studyPortfolio Scale BIM:Amplifying Integration and CollaborationShanghai Disneyland ResortSHANGHAI, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAImage courtesy of Shanghai Disney ResortBirds-eye view of Shanghai Disneyland ResortOver a decade ago, whilemuch of the design andconstruction industry wasstill relying on traditionalmethods to deliver projects, WaltDisney Imagineering (WDI) firstused BIM in the developmentof roller-coaster projects at theDisney California Adventure Parkin Anaheim, California. Over theyears, WDI’s BIM implementationhas expanded to other project types,like hotels and attractions, and otherregions, including Hawaii, HongKong and Shanghai.BIM on a Portfolio ScaleShanghai Disney provided WDI witha valuable opportunity to integrateand apply BIM on a portfolio scale,with over 70% of the buildings in theproject relying on BIM for designauthoring, documentation and/or analysis. “Actually, BIM use ispart of the RFP requirements, andadditional details were defined andincluded in the agreements withthe awarded general contractors(GCs) and subcontractors,” saysRolando Mendoza, director ofproject integration at Walt DisneyImagineering Shanghai.Leveraging BIM throughoutthe portfolio has formed somesynergy among projects goingthrough design and constructionat similar times, and has increasedthe confidence of new or resistantBIM adopters when they see otherstakeholders benefiting from theBIM environment. Additionally, withall projects being nearly co-located,project teams can access and sharethe same resources and support,achieving some economies of scale.Program-Level ChallengesMendoza identified threemain challenges for this multiprojectprogram:■ More than 140 disciplines areinvolved in the overall designand construction process of theentire resort, and initially manyof them were not able to use BIMeffectively as a tool for design andcoordination. The input and voicesof each project and enterprisestakeholder needed to be balancedand treated with appropriate weightwhen adopting and implementingcollaborative BIM practices.■ Many of the awarded GCs arelarge and “vertically integrated,”reducing the number of awardedtrade subcontractors, but theworkers in the field are stillworking in a silo, disconnectedfrom managerial staff in the officewho can’t fully understand andoptimize onsite activities.■ Most of the field laborers areunskilled migrant workers fromremote provinces and villagesaround China, and are managed bylabor agents subcontracted by theGC. The labor agents dispatch theseworkers without clear planning andunderstanding of the critical pathand dependencies.Broad CollaborationThe key value of BIM is to enhanceintegration among WDI, localdesign institutes and contractors.This has several benefits. It notonly ensures that design intentis accurately captured and thatsystems are coordinated in BIMbefore construction onsite, but italso facilitates collaboration andknowledge transfer among anecosystem of BIM-enabled projects.BIM management tools areenabling web-based socialcollaboration, virtual meetings andcloud-based computing to bringCONTINUEDSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 34 www.construction.com

case studyCONTINUEDShanghai Disneyland ResortSHANGHAI, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAtogether dozens of team memberson opposite sides of the globe. Thisapproach allows them to achieve keyproject milestones and cultivate BIMknowledge sharing. Best practicesand lessons learned were effectivelycaptured and shared across thebreadth of projects to drive processimprovement on a portfolio scale.Owner-Driven BIMMendoza’s project integration teamstaff not only provided BIM trainingto local teams, they also managedconsolidated design models for3D coordination. In addition, theyprepared 4D construction sequencesimulations to share with the GCsfor their use in understanding WDI’sconstruction planning assumptions.Seeing the value of the ownerprovided4D simulations, some GCsadopted 4D for their own regularprogress reporting and visualizationof planned versus actual progress.The owner-led BIM effort, alongwith reinforcing language in projectcontract agreements, was critical toachieve GC buy-in on the portfolioscale, which in turn drove BIM useby subcontractors.Immersive VisualizationThe WDI creative team required amodel integration and coordinationplatform with more advancedvisualization beyond basic materials,color and shading. The projectintegration team supported byWDI’s Computer TechnologyGroup in Glendale, California, wereable to use BIM to better visualizetextures, materials and even specialeffects developed by the WDI showteam. The large video wall set uponsite also allowed all project teammembers to get “inside” the BIMthrough immersive stereoscopicvisualization. The use of the videowall supported the efforts to achieveeconomies of scale at the portfolioscale by allowing contractors frommany different projects to shareand leverage for coordination andconstructability reviews.Shorten ProgrammingProcessAn exemplary and innovative useof BIM is the early integration of theWDI show team’s input in one ofthe attraction projects that includesanimatronics and audiovisual specialeffects. Typically the show teamrequires eight months to developshow programming and calibrateequipment after the completion ofconstruction during the “dust-freestage,” which would not exist for theShanghai portfolio. The show teamshared and used the same BIM beingused by the GC for constructionefforts to coordinate and plan inadvance the timing of show effectsand placement of equipment withinthe model. This approach shortenedthe show programming processfrom eight months to one month andgreatly reduced the time required toperform installation onsite.Clash Detection andRework ReductionFor one park area, over a six-monthperiod before the issuance of thetendering package to prospectiveGCs, the project team identified 3,000clashes that were either resolved at“Big Room” meetings (integratedBIM-enabled meetings with broadteam attendance) and/or as part of160 Requests for Information (RFIs).Including the 200 RFIs generated bythe GCs during the tendering stage,there were only a total of 360 RFIs,which is substantially less than thetypical number of RFIs at this stage,usually around 3,000, according toWDI sources.The improved collaboration andintegration with BIM also greatlyreduced the risk of delay in thetendering stage, which is onlyallotted 90 days for the Shanghaiportfolio of projects.BIM for OperationsWDI intends to use BIM to supportfacilities operation and management.They will by first document as-builtconditions with laser-scanningtechnology and then internallyperform the necessary updatesand modifications to the GC’ssubmitted as-built models to providean accurate model of constructedfacilities. However, the exact usecases of BIM to support operations,and the required attributes andparameters, have not yet beendefined for the Shanghai portfolio. nstatsProject Factsand FiguresOwner and DesignThe Shanghai Shendi Groupand The Walt Disney Company(Public/Private Venture)Type of ProjectRides and attractions,retail, restaurants, hotels,administration and supportCostOver US$ 4.1 billionEstimated Completion2015Dodge Data & Analytics 35 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Data:BIM InvestmentsInvestments in BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATABIM programs require ongoing investments in hardware,software, training and processes in order to realize theirpotential value. Dodge Data & Analytics (DD&A) hasbeen tracking the categories of BIM users’ investments—both in terms of current spending and plans for futureinvesting—in its BIM research since 2009.The investments rated in this research are divided intotwo categories:■ Processes and People: Investments like collaborativeprocesses and staff training■ Technology and Content: Investments like hardware,software and BIM contentChinese architects and contractors were asked toidentify a forecasted level of investment over thenext two years, from no investment to high/very highinvestment (1 million RMB or more per year—roughlyequivalent to US$160,000). The two charts representthose planning high/very high investmentsin BIM.BIM Investments inProcesses and PeopleDEVELOPING COLLABORATIVE BIM PROCESSESWITH EXTERNAL PARTIESThis is highly rated by both architects and contractors(17% each), which is an important finding because itindicates an interest in leveraging BIM to improve theworking relationship between those types of companies.This also aligns well with other research findings, suchas the top benefit identified by US and UK owners in TheBusiness Value of BIM for Owners SmartMarket Report(2014), which is better team coordination/collaboration.BIM Investments in Processesand People in China(Percentage Planning to Invest More Than1 Million RMB Over Next Two Years)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsDeveloping Collaborative BIMProcesses With External Parties17%17%Promotion Incentives forStaff Use of BIM12%Developing InternalBIM ProceduresBIM Training12%13%12%5_1_Inv_Processes_#0216%20%INCENTIVES OF THE STAFF TO USE BIM BYPROMOTION; DEVELOPING INTERNAL BIMPROCEDURES; BIM TRAININGThese are all internally focused investments thatexpand a company’s BIM skills and encourage moreBIM implementation.■ Contractors are most committed to providingincentives to their staff to use BIM by promotion,reinforcing the growing career value of BIM skills forstaff in those organizations.■ As shown on page 28, a company’s BIM ROI increasesin direct proportion to its level of BIM implementation,so these types of investments should create tangiblebeneficial impacts.■ Internal training and collaboration processes areimportant, but less so than the focus on externalcollaboration. This speaks to the rapid maturing of BIMin China and growing acknowledgement that the truepower of BIM is in using models to improve workflowbetween project team members.SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 36 www.construction.com

BIM InvestmentsInvestments in BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATABIM Investments inTechnology and ContentSOFTWARE CUSTOMIZATION ORINTEROPERABILITY SOLUTIONS;NEW/UPGRADED COMPUTER HARDWARE;BIM SOFTWAREThese hardware/software investments will expandand strengthen the technical infrastructure oforganizations so that they can rapidly increase thescale of their BIM initiatives.■ The plan to invest in software customization andinteroperability is top among all investment typesstudied in this China research and is shared with equalintensity by both architects and contractors. Thiswas also identified as a top investment category by allusers in The Business Value of BIM in North AmericaSmartMarket Report (2013).■ More architects (26%) are planning serious investmentin hardware and software than contractors (19%). Thismay be because of their primary role in authoring andanalyzing models, which can require several types ofsoftware and enhanced computing power.BIM Investments in Technologyand Content in China(Percentage Planning to Invest More Than1 Million RMB Over Next Two Years)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractorsNew/Upgraded Computer HardwareSoftware Customization orInteroperability SolutionsBIM Software19%26%25%25%24%22%Developing Custom 3D Content Libraries18%21%DEVELOPING CUSTOM 3D CONTENT LIBRARIESThis is a common investment need identified in manyof the DD&A BIM research studies around the world.For example, it ranked third among all users in both TheBusiness Value of BIM in Korea SmartMarket Report(2012), and The Business Value of BIM in Australia andNew Zealand SmartMarket Report (2014).Chinese architects and contractors need to work withproduct manufacturers to urge them to create usefullibraries of BIM content that can be easily accessed andused, so companies can reduce their need to developcontent internally.5_2_Inv_Technology_#02Dodge Data & Analytics 37 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

case studyExpanding the Possibilities of Design With BIMPhoenix Media CentreBEIJING, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAIn 2008, the governmentownedBeijing Institute ofArchitectural Design (BIAD)was commissioned with thedesign of the headquarters ofChina’s largest private broadcaster,Phoenix Television, breaking a trendof foreign architects landing manyiconic buildings in Beijing over thepast decade.The building design is unique:a ballooning torus form, whichcontains 65,000 square meters ofmedia production and office spaces,including a dedicated visitors’pathway that winds through thebuilding’s broadcasting studios. “Inthe past, only overseas architectswere able to develop and execute thistype of organic architecture, but ouroffice was able to skillfully leverageBIM to execute the ambitious designwith exceptional quality,” saysMr. Weiping Shao, executive chiefarchitect of BIAD.Turning Risks toOpportunitiesShao admits that using such anon-linear form for the designconcept was a bold decision, as itwould demand advanced techniquesto develop and document the designbeyond the schematic phase. Thisleft the team with little choice butto use BIM to support the ongoingdesign process. In the early stage ofimplementation, the design teamexpected BIM only to resolve certaintechnical challenges, assist withdetailing work and help ensure thedesign development was progressingas planned. However, over time theteam realized the value of BIM wasmuch larger, and that the designintent and other issues would likelynot have been efficiently resolved andexecuted without the use of BIM. Byevaluating the project challenges anddeciding to adopt BIM early, the teammitigated many potential risks, savedtime and increased quality over theuse of more traditional methods on acomplex project.Image courtesy of BIADThe strking torus shape of the Phoenix Media Center was made possible by the use of BIM by the design team.CONTINUEDSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 38 www.construction.com

case studyCONTINUEDPhoenix Media CentreBEIJING, CHINATHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAGrowing Pains ofUsing BIMWhile BIM offered manybenefits, adopting it initiallyinvolved learning more about it.Mr. Shao states, “We continuouslyfaced different challenges fromthe start of involving BIM in theprocess. Before BIM was able tohelp us solve design issues, weneeded to first understand thestrengths and weaknesses ofthe tool.”The design team startedusing advanced parametricBIM capabilities immediately,defining complex geometriesand structural frames. BIMposed another challenge laterin the design phase as theteam commenced drawingsdocumentation. Many of thestaff involved were new to BIMand accustomed to the longestablished drafting conventionsand deliverables. Shao’s team hadto concurrently research and definemany unconventional workflowsto provide data interoperabilityand ensure a seamless transition ofinformation between designand construction.Facility ManagementBecause the team developeda comprehensive model withdesign and construction informationembedded, the model can berelied upon to support analysesof facility operation performance.“We have prepared the modelto simulate security and safetycontrol, make energy consumptioncalculations and organize activities.Using BIM to support facilityoperations has a very brightfuture” says Mr. Shao.Project Factsand FiguresOwnerPhoenix TelevisionArchitectBIAD UFO (Beijing Instituteof Architectural DesignUnforbidden Office)Type of ProjectMedia production facilities,broadcasting studios,office spacesSize65,000 square metersCompleted2012statsBIM StandardizationDue to their work on an earlyBIM project in China, the projectparticipants are uniquely positionedto understand key strategies neededin China for more effective BIM use.As BIM adoption grows, therewill be an increased demandfor detailed requirements andstandards, including enterprise andproject-specific BIM guidelines, aswell as industrywide standards. Mr.Shao is very optimistic about BIMadoption and its improvements toefficiency and quality, but he doessee the current gap between thequality and productivity achievedin the manufacturing sector, ascompared with the design andconstruction industry.With more universal BIMstandardized processes andconventions, this gap can benarrowed, and technology will bemore accessible and integrated,bringing more benefits throughoutthe industry. Mr. Shao points out, “ABIM manual is something we shouldorganize throughout our practice, butfor now we are only focused on BIMin some projects, though we have setup some BIM regulations, guidelinesand technical requirements.”BIM TransformationThe use of BIM on this projectdemonstrates the potential thatBIM holds for improving the designprocess for complex projects.Traditional design methods typicallydo not allow for non-linear andcomplex design possibilities to beefficiently defined and explored.BIM makes the evaluation of thesealternatives feasible. It opens upgreat potential in design creativity,while also supporting the abilityfor a complex project to achieveincreases in accuracy, qualityand collaboration.The increase in precision andreduction in errors and wasteenabled by BIM are in themselvessignificant benefits, even in moretraditional projects. However, thesebenefits also lend themselves toincreased value and a higher-qualityfacility for occupants. Based on hisexperience on this and other BIMprojects, Mr. Shao explains BIM’stransformative benefit: “In the longrun, BIM will expand our designboundaries, and maybe push theboundaries of project managementand facilities operation, presentingnew opportunities and benefits tomany project stakeholders.” nDodge Data & Analytics 39 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

5_3_Trade_ ImportanceForSelection_#02Data:Trade ContractorsTrade Contractor Proficiency in BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAImportance of BIM Expertise inSelection of Trade ContractorsChinese contractors were asked how important asubcontractor’s level of BIM expertise is in selecting thatcompany for a project. The chart below shows the resultsfrom Chinese contractors in combination with findingsfrom contractors in a variety of global markets, originallypublished in The Business Value of BIM for Constructionin Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report (2014).■ Chinese contractors are in step with other contractorsfrom major construction markets around the world,with a third (33%) saying they require BIM skill fromsubcontractors and over half (55%) encouraging it.■ The highest proportion of contractors who requireBIM from their subcontractors is found in Germany(39%) and France (37%), areas where BIM has been anestablished process for many years.■ As participants in a fast-growing economy, a largenumber of Brazilian contractors (37%) have alsomandated BIM from their subcontractors, and very few(13%) are completely unaffected by BIM proficiency.■ The number of UK contractors requiring subcontractorproficiency is bound to increase dramatically as thecentral government BIM mandate goes into effectin 2016.Contractors’ Importance Rating of BIMSkills for Specific Trades in ChinaDodge Data & Analytics, 2015None Low Medium High Very HighSteel Fabricator/Erector7% 18% 39%3%Mechanical/Sheet Metal/Plumbing9% 17% 41%1%Curtain Wall Fabricator/Installer10% 24% 35%2%Electrical Contractor11% 25% 32%2%Concrete Fabricator/Contractor7% 12%25%Civil/Site/Geotechnical Contractor6% 13% 30%34%36%33%32%29%30%22%15%5_4_Trade_ImportanceofBIMSkills_#02Importance of BIM Expertise in Selection of Trade ContractorsChina Data: Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015; Other Country Data: The Business Value of BIM for Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarket Report, Dodge Data & Analytics, 2013We require companies be experienced in BIM.We encourage BIM expertise but do not require it.BIM expertise does not affect our decisions.39% 37% 37% 33% 33% 31% 30% 30% 28%21%35% 37%50%48%55% 57%52%63%56%64%26% 27%13%19%12%18%11%7%16% 15%Germany France Brazil Canada China South Korea US Japan Australia/New ZealandUKSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 40 www.construction.com

Trade ContractorsTrade Contractor Proficiency in BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAContractors’ Importance Rating ofBIM Skills for Specific Trades in ChinaThe chart on the right on page 40 represents contractorratings of the relative importance of trade contractor BIMskills by trade.■ Steel and mechanical contractors are both top rated.This makes sense because of the extensive modelingthat is increasingly being done by these trades,especially to facilitate prefabrication.■ Curtain wall and electrical are the next most valuedand only receive 2% rating for no importance.■ Concrete and civil contractors have less advanced BIMskills, so it is natural that they are not perceived at thesame importance level as the others. However, only 7%of contractors rate them as having no importance at all.Contractors’ Satisfaction With the BIMSkills of Specific Trade ContractorsThe chart at right shows the comparison of generalcontractors’ ratings of the importance of the BIM skills oftrade contractors with their assessment of the actual BIMskill level of those trades through:• The percentage of Chinese contractors who say BIMskills from that trade is of high/very high importance• The percentage of Chinese contractors that rate BIMskills from that trade as satisfactory• The average percentage of general contractors from 10global regions who rated BIM skills from that trade intheir region as high/very high, as originally published inThe Business Value of BIM for Construction in MajorGlobal Markets SmartMarket Report (2014)Trends that appear in the findings include:■ BIM skills of steel and mechanical trades are the mostimportant, both in China and across the globe.■ Mechanical shows the closest alignment betweenimportance and competency among all trades.■ Curtain wall and concrete show the greatest disparitybetween importance and competency in both Chinaand the global regions.Contractors’ Satisfaction With BIM Skills ofSpecific Trade Contractors(China and Average of 10 Global Regions)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Contractors in China That Rate Trades' BIMExpertise to be of High/Very High ImportanceContractors in China That Rate Trades' BIMExpertise to be SatisfactoryContractors in 10 Global Regions That Rate Trades' BIMExpertise to be High/Very High in Their MarketsMechanical/Sheet Metal/PlumbingSteel Fabricator/ErectorCurtain Wall Fabricator/InstallerElectrical Contractor33%30%35%Concrete Fabricator/Contractor30%23%Civil/Site/Geotechnical Contractor36%29%45%56%52%50%55%56%55%63%61%74%71%The Benefit to General Contractors ofTrade Contractor BIM ProficiencyTo determine how valuable subcontractor BIM expertiseis to Chinese general contractors, they were asked to ratethe degree to which they experience a number of specificbenefits as a direct result of trade contractors’ BIMexpertise. The percentages below represent contractorswho gave either a high or very high rating to the positiveimpact of trade contractors’ BIM proficiency.■ Increases Project Quality: 64%5_5_Trade_Satisfaction_#02■ Increases Innovation: 55%■ Reduces Overall Project Duration: 53%■ Reduces Cost: 52%■ Increases General Contractors’ Profit: 51%Dodge Data & Analytics 41 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

7_1_REG_USE_#010Data:Regional DataRegional Variations in BIM Use,Benefits and Value DriversTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAInteresting regional differences across China about BIMemerge as adoption and implementation continue to growand users experience varying levels of benefits.Forecasted Growthof BIM Implementationby RegionThe chart below shows the currentpercentage of users who are at highor very high implementation levels(meaning that more than 30% oftheir projects involve BIM), and thepercentage who predict that they will beat that intensity two years from now.■ Shanghai (32%) currently leadsimplementation among the regions,but North China (28%) and SouthChina (26%) are close behind.■ The Beijing and Central Chinaregions predict dramatic growth.Each is currently at less than aquarter (20% and 23%, respectively),and both will nearly triple (to 58%and 65%, respectively) over the nexttwo years. This indicates a greatopportunity for the companies inthese regions to benefit from apowerful surge of BIM use.Variation in Benefits andValue DriversBIM users in China express a widevariety of perspectives on the level ofbenefits they are currently receiving,what factors will increase their BIMbenefits and what benefits willimprove their ROI on BIM.The matrix on page 43 summarizesthe differences between BIM usersin the seven regions from whichthere was a sufficient response tothe survey to support a regionalanalysis. The matrix also providesthe overall averages as a comparison.Benefits are divided betweenbusiness benefits (those that directlyimpact the user’s organization) andproject benefits (those that improveproject outcomes).■ The urban centers of Beijing andShanghai feature the greatestpercentages of users who arereceiving both business andproject benefits at a high or veryhigh level. This would suggest thatthe best practices of these usersshould be disseminated to otherregions so that the entire Chineseeconomy can rapidly expand theirenjoyment of BIM benefits.■ North China is the highest-scoringregion nationally in several keybenefits, and is worthy of studyto see if practices there can bescaled to other regions, includingreduced errors and omissions(83%), reduced number and needfor contractor information requeststo architect (74%), reduced rework(69%) and maintaining repeatbusiness with past clients (54%).BIM Implementation by Region (According to Architects and ContractorsWho Report More Than 30% of Their Projects Use/Will Use BIM )Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015201426% 26%201617%35%10%40%32%48% 49%28%20%58%23%65%South China East China SouthwestChinaShanghai North China Beijing Central ChinaSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 42 www.construction.com

Data: Regional DataCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINABenefits and Drivers of BIM by Region(According to Architects and Contractors Selecting High/Very High for Each Category Indicated)Dodge Data & Analytics, 201580%–100% Selected High/Very High60%–79% Selected High/Very High40%–59% Selected High/Very High39% or Fewer Selected High/Very HighBIM Benefits With High/Very High Contribution to Future ROIBeijingShanghaiSouthwestChinaSouth ChinaEast ChinaCentralChinaNorth ChinaAverage(All Respondents)Better Multi-Party Communication andUnderstanding From 3D Visuals80% 72% 67% 62% 62% 71% 63% 67%Improved Project Process Outcomes(e.g., Fewer RFIs and Field Coordination Problems)78% 80% 50% 54% 46% 52% 63% 58%Improved Productivity of Personnel43% 40% 40% 47% 42% 55% 51% 47%Positive Impact on Sustainability50% 40% 40% 54% 42% 42% 46% 47%Reduced Cycle Time for Project Activities and Delivery45% 28% 33% 54% 35% 48% 47% 45%Factors With High/Very High Importance for Increasing BIM BenefitsImproved Interoperability Between Software Applications83% 88% 70% 69% 65% 68% 66% 72%More Clearly Defined BIM Deliverables Between Parties85% 76% 67% 59% 65% 65% 71% 69%Improved Functionality of BIM Software83% 84% 70% 67% 58% 61% 71% 69%More Hard Data Demonstrating Business Value of BIM78% 80% 63% 56% 63% 68% 63% 67%More Owners Asking for BIM88% 80% 70% 64% 57% 55% 71% 67%More 3D Building Product Manufacturer-Specific Content78% 72% 60% 59% 65% 58% 63% 67%More Internal Staff With BIM Skills85% 80% 63% 67% 63% 74% 74% 66%More External Firms With BIM Skills73% 88% 60% 59% 57% 55% 60% 64%Internal Business Benefit Experienced at High/Very High LevelEnhancement of Organization's Image as an Industry Leader 90% 88% 67% 67% 51% 71% 54% 66%Faster Client Approval Cycles68% 84% 57% 62% 54% 58% 71% 54%Marketing New Business to New Clients58% 68% 40% 46% 43% 51% 56% 50%Offering New Services58% 68% 47% 54% 39% 36% 49% 49%Maintaining Repeat Business With Past Clients48% 48% 47% 51% 37% 52% 54% 48%Project Benefit Experienced at High/Very High LevelBetter Design Solutions85% 80% 63% 80% 55% 58% 71% 69%Reduced Errors and Omissions in Construction Documents83% 76% 63% 69% 55% 61% 83% 69%More Client Involvement and Improved Understanding 78% 84% 43% 62% 60% 52% 60% 63%Reduced Number of Field Coordination Problems68% 80% 50% 54% 42% 45% 72% 57%Reduced Rework48% 52% 60% 62% 48% 42% 69% 54%Better Collaboration With Other Project Team Organizations 65% 60% 46% 53% 52% 55% 51% 54%Reduced Number and Need for Contractor InformationRequests to Architect58% 56% 47% 64% 34% 36% 74% 51%Regions Identified inthe Charts:■7_2_REG_MATRIX_#01Southwest China: IncludesSichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Tibetand Chongqing■ South China: Includes Guangdong,Guangxi, Hainan, Guangzhouand Shenzhen■ East China: Includes Shandong,Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujianand Jiangxi; excludes Shanghai■ Central China: Includes Hubei,Hunan and Henan provinces■ North China: Includes Tianjin,Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia;excludes BeijingDodge Data & Analytics 43 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Sidebar: InfrastructureUse of BIM for Infrastructure Projects in ChinaTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAWhile the private sector may have led the push for BIM adoption in the verticalbuilding construction space, the Chinese government has now set out toestablish national standards for BIM utilization in different infrastructure areas.One infrastructuresegment in China thathas embraced BIM is thehydropower business.Experts say about 10% of the newand upcoming hydroelectricityprojects have a significant BIMelement. Two other sectors, therailways and municipal and cityplanning areas, are using BIM in 2%to 3% of new projects. The least useis in the road and highways sector,where less than 1% of new projectsuse BIM.Hydropower“Hydropower designing iscomplex business. It requiresinnovative approaches and is bestdone using 3D. This is why there isneed as well as demand for BIM,”explains Harry Luo, who deals withclients in the infrastructure side ofAutodesk’s business in China.The task of adaptation anddesigning major hydropowerprojects is led by the KunmingHydropower Design Institute,which is owned by the ChinaPower Construction Group, but isregarded as a national institute.“The Kunming Institute has foundcreative ways to use BIM. Theindustry is keenly watching whatthey are doing,” says Yi Sun, anAutodesk expert.Use of BIM in hydrological projectsis very important for the government,as it wants hydropower to partiallyreplace coal-fired electricitygeneration. China is committed toreduce carbon emission by 15% inthe next decade and would like touse this software in a wide range ofcarbon-cutting applications.RailwaysThe China Railway Corporation(CRC) has set out to create nationalstandards for using the softwarein some challenging areas liketunnel design, bridge planningand line alignments.“There is a push in favor ofBIM since the reorganization ofthe railway administration,” agovernment official says. The railwayadministration has realized that 2Dis not sufficient for tunnel and linealignment work, and 3D solutionsare required. BIM’s capability forclash detection and curbing wasteare particularly prized by the railwaysbecause of the ability to tackleproblems like overshooting projectcosts and avoiding costly rework.“The government is pushing therailway authorities to expand thenetwork, complete the process oftrack modernization and quicklyswitch over to a high-speed system.Design institutes won’t be able tocope with the pressure if they persistin traditional ways. This is what isproducing demand for BIM,” one ofthe software’s vendors say.Other SectorsThere is also growing use ofBIM in city planning and urbaninfrastructure development projectslike water works and waste waterdisposal systems. The ShanghaiMunicipal Design Institute is leadingthe process of adapting BIM codesto local requirements, industrysources said.However, awareness of BIM isvery low in the road and highwaysector. Most planners believe thatthe 2D method is good enoughbecause roads do not have majorchallenges, except on rare occasionswhen a tunnel is required. Few usefultemplates fusing BIM and Chinesedesign standards are available forready use, industry sources say.ChallengesFor the majority of infrastructureprojects in China, BIM is not yetwidely used. One challenge isthat most executives are highlyconcerned with the confidentialityof project information. Therefore,concentrating project data intocentralized models presents aperceived security risk, which willneed to be addressed.Given the logistical challengesfaced by Chinese construction firms,from building massive dams on themountain ranges of Tibet to cuttingthrough boulders to make roads,bridges and railways that connectcentral Asia with its western provinceof Xinjiang, the advantages of usingcloud-driven BIM should ultimatelydrive its use. nSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 44 www.construction.com

Data:Non-UsersNon-User Attitudes Toward BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATASurvey respondents who report neither authoringmodels nor working with models authored by othersare identified as non-users of BIM in this analysis.Their perspective provides insight into the potential forincreased use of BIM in China.Non-BIM users in China are very open to using BIMand generally positive about its potential. When askedto indicate which of five statements best describedtheir attitude toward BIM, 48% of the architects andcontractors not using BIM selected one of two positivestatements about the use of BIM:• We are actively evaluating BIM (39%).• We believe BIM will be valuable for us but have notbegun evaluating it (9%).A high percentage of non-BIM users are more neutral butare still open to exploring BIM’s potential value (41%). It isalso notable that none of the non-users in China indicatedthat they had actually tried BIM and decided not to workwith it again. Thus, the only negative response comesfrom those who are not interested in BIM. These findingsdemonstrate that there is strong potential for wider BIMadoption in China.The only notable difference between architects andcontractors is that a higher percentage of contractors(48%) are actively evaluating BIM compared witharchitects (33%). This suggests that the use of BIM islikely to increase more steeply for contractors than it isfor architects in the near future and is in keeping withthe global trend of rapid adoption among contractorsreported in The Business Value of BIM for Construction inMajor Global Markets SmartMarket Report.Parallels With Non-Users inNorth AmericaThese findings are consistent with the findings inNorth America by the series of Dodge Data & Analyticsstudies that showed that a relatively high percentageof non-users were neutral about BIM in 2009, whenthe use of BIM was still emerging in the market. Whenit became more established by 2012, the percentagewho were neutral dropped significantly, as more firmswere exposed to BIM and had an opinion about its valuefor their company. Interestingly, the percentage with apositive attitude also dropped, likely due to the fact thatmany of those had, by then, become BIM users. It is likelythat the China market will follow a similar pattern.Non-User Attitudes Toward BIM(According to Chinese Architects andContractors Who Do Not Use BIM)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015We are actively evaluating BIM.We believe BIM will be valuable forus but have not begun evaluating it.9%We are open to exploring BIM'spotential value for us.We have no interest inusing BIM.11%4_1_NonUsers_Attitudes_#0239%41%Dodge Data & Analytics 45 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Non-Users CONTINUEDMost Important Reasons for Not Implementing BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAChinese architects and contractors who are not using BIMwere asked to rate the importance of several differentpotential reasons in their decision not to use it, and thechart represents the reasons rated as having a high/veryhigh influence on their choice.The expense of upgrading software/hardware wasthe only reason considered very influential by a highpercentage of both architects and contractors. PreviousDodge Data & Analytics (DD&A) studies in NorthAmerica and Australia/New Zealand have also found thatnon-users have concerns about the expense of initiallyengaging in BIM. Interestingly, architects in China show ahigher degree of concern about the expense, although itstill ranks as the second highest factor for contractors.Other than the cost of implementing BIM, architectsand contractors have very different perspectives on themost influential reasons for not using BIM.ArchitectsThe ability to work effectively with the rest of the industryif they adopt BIM is a clear concern for Chinese architects,demonstrated by the other top two reasons that they arenot using BIM currently.■ Not Enough Demand From Clients/Other Firms:The second highest percentage of Chinese architects(45%) consider this factor influential, a finding consistentwith architects and contractors from North Americaand Australia/New Zealand in previous BIM researchconducted by DD&A. This finding demonstrates theimportance of industry and owner leadership in drivinggreater BIM use. The surprising finding, in fact, is howfew contractors note that this is an influential factorpreventing them from adopting BIM.■ Poor Interoperability With CAD Applications:Within an architect’s firm, better interoperability betweenCAD and BIM would aid in the initial onboarding of thesoftware. However, since BIM is still emerging as a widelyused technology in China, this finding may also reflectconcern among architects that use of BIM may createproblems with dealing with project team members whohave not yet adopted BIM.Most Important Reasons for Not Adopting BIM(According to Respondents Who Do Not Use BIM)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractors*Too Expensive to Upgrade Software/Hardware55%33%Not Enough Demand From Clients/Other Firms on Projects10%Poor InteroperabilityWith CAD Applications19%Software Too Difficult to Use33%10%Insufficient TrainingInsufficient BIM-CompatibleContent Available30%14%Current MethodsWe Use Are Better27%19%Functionality Doesn't ApplyWell Enough to What We Do27%29%45%42%33%38%*Small Sample Size—Represented for Trend Analysis Only4_2_NonUsers_ReasonsNotAdopt_#02SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 46 www.construction.com

Non-UsersMost Important Reasons for Not Implementing BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAContractorsThe top concern for contractors, selected by a higherpercentage even than those concerned about the costof implementing BIM, is insufficient training. Thisfinding should serve as a strong message to the industrythat more training is a critical factor in increasing BIMadoption in China.The only other reason considered highly influentialby more than 20% of contractors is the perception thatBIM functionality doesn’t apply well enough to whatthey do. This finding suggests that training on BIM skillsis not sufficient; the industry must also increase overallawareness of the effectiveness of the use of BIM on arange of project types and sizes.Perhaps the most striking finding, though, is howfew contractors consider any of these reasons tobe particularly important, with no more than 40%of contractors rating any of these reasons as highlyinfluential. This finding is unique; in the DD&A researchamong non-users in North America and Australia/New Zealand, while the priorities of architects andcontractors may vary, roughly the same percentageoverall found many of the reasons for not adopting BIMto be influential. This finding, combined with their overallpositive attitude toward BIM (see page 45) may suggestthat little is actively standing in the way of increasedcontractor use of BIM in China, should it become morewidely known and its full benefits better understood.Perception of Competitors’ and Clients’ Use of BIMChinese architects and contractors who are notcurrently using BIM were asked the degree to whichthey believe their competitors and clients are using BIM.Both groups share the perception that BIM is not beingvery widely used.■ A high percentage are unsure about BIM use in theirindustry, especially among their competitors (41%).■ Only 29% believe that their competitors are using BIM,and even fewer (19%) think that their clients are.These findings suggest that currently, some Chinesearchitects and contractors are not feeling competitivepressure to adopt BIM.The finding is also markedly different from whatnon-users report in North America and Australia/NewZealand, where over 70% believe that competitors andclients are using BIM.Overall, these findings suggest that strategies toencourage wider adoption of BIM in the Chinese marketneed to focus on the ability to provide new benefits toclients, rather than on the need to ensure that they aremaintaining their competitiveness in their market.Perception of Competitor andClient Use of BIM(According to Chinese Architects andContractors Who are Not Using BIM)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015CompetitorsClients5% 2%Use of BIM on15%–50% ofprojects24%41%Use of BIM on22% 17%Less Than 15%of Projects30%No BIM Activity59%Not Sure4_3_NonUsers_CompClientUse_#02Dodge Data & Analytics 47 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Non-Users CONTINUEDBIM Benefits and Factors That Would ConvinceNon-Users to Consider Adopting BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAThe decision to adopt BIM often hinges on externalfactors and the perception of specific benefits that BIMwill provide. The chart represents benefits and factorsconsidered highly/very highly influential on their decisionto adopt BIM by architects and contractors in China.The findings demonstrate that architects andcontractors who currently do not use BIM would beinfluenced to adopt BIM by very different factors.Top Influential Benefits for ArchitectsChinese architects are most influenced by BIM’s abilityto help them communicate with and convey their ideasmore effectively to other members of the project team.■ Improved Communication Between All Parties inDesign and Construction: Over half of architects(52%) find this factor influential. This emphasis onimproved communication echoes the results of otherBIM studies conducted by Dodge Data & Analytics, suchas collaboration being selected as a critical benefit ofBIM by global contractors in The Business Value of BIMfor Construction in Major Global Markets SmartMarketReport (2014).■ Better Understanding by Client of Proposed Design:Considered influential by nearly half (46%). In theBusiness Value of BIM for Owners SmartMarket Report(2014), the highest percentage of owners in the US andUK agree that the ability of BIM visualization to allowthem to better understand a project’s proposed designis a critical benefit.The other top benefit that architects consider to behighly influential is improved construction schedule,which is the only top three benefit for architects alsoselected by a relatively high percentage of contractors.This suggests that BIM adoption would benefit frommore case studies and other data that demonstrate BIM’spositive impact on project schedule and can justify theresources and effort required to implement it.Top Influential Benefitsfor ContractorsWhile architects place more emphasis on communicationand collaboration, contractors are more influenced byowner demand and BIM benefits that improve their costsand processes, thus yielding greater productivity.■ Improved Budgeting and Cost Estimating Capabilities:While reducing construction costs is selected asinfluential by nearly half of Chinese contractors (48%),Benefits and Factors That Would Be Influentialon Decision to Adopt BIM (By Percentage WhoFind Them Highly/Very Highly Influential)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractors*Improved Communication Between All Parties inthe Design and Construction ProcessReduced Construction Schedule33%46%48%Better Understanding by Client of Proposed Design46%N/AReduced Number of Field Coordination Problems43%38%More Accurate Construction Documents42%38%Reduced Construction Costs42%48%52%Less Time Spent Drafting/More Time Spent Designing42%N/AMore Design Options/Better Design Results42%N/AMore Owners Demanding BIM on Their Projects36%52%Reduced Number of and Need for Information Requests27%48%Improved Budgeting and Cost-Estimating CapabilitiesN/A*Small Sample Size—Represented for Trend Analysis Only62%SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 48 www.construction.com

Non-UsersBIM Benefits and Factors That Would Convince Non-Users to Consider Adopting BIMCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAan even higher percentage (62%) selected improvedbudgeting and cost estimating capabilities. Being ableto depend on a reliable margin is even more importantto contractors than cutting costs.■ Reduced Number of and Need for InformationRequests: This is influential for nearly half ofcontractors (48%). Waiting for answers decreases theefficiency of project sites and can influence other factorslike schedule.■ More Owners Demanding BIM on Their Projects: Ahigher percentage of contractors (52%) say ownerdemand could be influential in their future adoptionof BIM than architects (36%). However, a higherpercentage of architects agree that lack of ownerdemand is a factor in why they are not using BIMcurrently (see page 46). This may suggest that architectssee owner demand as a requirement, but contractorsview it as more of a business opportunity.Comparison of the Influence ofBenefits and Factors in China,Compared With Other CountriesSome interesting trends emerge when comparingresponses in China with other countries.■ In general, architects and contractors in China are lessenthusiastic than those in other countries about thedegree to which benefits and factors would influencethem to adopt BIM. In Australia/New Zealand and in theUS, eight of the benefits/factors included in the surveywere selected by over 50% of architects and contractors.This is in sharp contrast to the Chinese responses,where most are selected by less than 50%.■ Contractors and architects in Australia/New Zealandand the US both place nearly equal weight on theimportance of improved communication between allparties in the design and construction process, whilethe percentage of contractors who consider this highlyinfluential in China is much lower than the percentageof architects. It is possible that strict rules about theroles of architects and contractors in China influencethe degree of importance that contractors place on thisbenefit, compared with other construction markets.Importance of BIM in the Next Five YearsMost Chinese architects and contractors (61%) whoare not currently using BIM expect it to be at leastmoderately important to the construction industry inthe next five years. In fact, the majority of those (39% ofthe total architect and contractor non-users) expect it tobe very important.This finding, especially when considered in light of theoverall positive attitudes of non-users toward BIM (seepage 45), suggests the likelihood that BIM will be morewidely used in the Chinese market in the next five years.Even though non-users currently see BIM use by othersas relatively low (see page 47), these findings suggest thatthey are expecting to feel market pressure in the future toadopt BIM in order to stay competitive as its importancein the Chinese construction industry grows.It is also worth noting that only a small percentageof non-users (11%) think BIM will not be important,underscoring the generally positive expectation.Importance of BIM to the ConstructionIndustry in the Next Five Years(According to Chinese Architects and Contractors)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015High/Very High ImportanceModerate ImportanceNo/Low ImportanceNot Sure28%11%22%39%A much higher percentage (28%) of non-users areunsure, suggesting the need for more education on thecompetitive benefits of BIM among Chinese firms.Dodge Data & Analytics 49 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Non-Users CONTINUEDFactors Delaying the Decision to Use BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAArchitects and contractors in China who are currentlynot using BIM were asked to rate the impact of a series offactors that could potentially be delaying their decision touse BIM, from not causing a delay at all to causing a high/very high degree of delay.A high percentage of Chinese architects andcontractors note that delays are being caused by factorsthat can be addressed through interventions like moreeducation, policy changes and better data.■ Lack of Internal Understanding of BIM: Selected by58% of architects and 38% of contractors. This findingsuggests the need for wider education about BIM andthat focusing on the education of people who can serveas BIM champions within organizations could be avaluable approach to increasing overall BIM adoption.■ Unresolved Issues Regarding Model Ownership andMaintenance: Selected by over half (55%) of architectsand one third (33%) of contractors. This issue can beaddressed by clearer policy regarding model ownershipand maintenance in the industry, offering a criticalopportunity to allow more firms to begin using BIM.■ Lack of Objective Documentation of BIM Benefits:Selected by nearly half (46%) of architects and over onethird (38%) of contractors. Policy and education canboth help address this, as is evident from the effortssurrounding the launch of the national BIM mandates inthe UK and Singapore. In addition to mandating the useof BIM, both of these governments are also providingresources to demonstrate the positive impacts of BIM aspart of their overall strategy to see wider BIM adoptionin their construction industries.The largest difference in the responses of architectsand contractors is on the impact of the perceptionthat BIM is less efficient for smaller projects, with arelatively high percentage of architects (42%) notingthis as an important source of delays, compared with alow percentage of contractors (14%). Non-user designfirms will need to see more examples of how BIM can beeffective on smaller projects.Factors Causing a High/Very High Delay inthe Decision to Use BIM(According to Non-BIM Users)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015ArchitectsContractors*Lack of Internal Understanding of BIM38%Unresolved Issues Regarding ModelOwnership and Maintenance33%4_7_NonUsers_FactorsDelaying_#0258%55%Lack of Objective Documentation of BIM Benefits46%38%Cost Required46%43%Seems Less Efficient for Smaller Projects42%14%Training Time Required29%Unclear Roles/Change in RolesCaused by Introducing BIM30%24%39%*Small Sample Size—Represented for Trend Analysis OnlySmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 50 www.construction.com

Non-Users CONTINUEDMost Important Factors Encouraging BIM AdoptionTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINA DATAArchitects and contractors in China who currently do notuse BIM were asked an open question about the singlemost important factor that would encourage them toadopt BIM. Even though the number of respondents whoprovided an answer is relatively low, some interestingtrends emerge in factors that have the potential tomotivate architects and contractors to adopt BIM.ArchitectsIncreased client or market demand for BIM wouldhave the greatest impact on encouraging architects touse BIM, with 35% offering this as the single mostimportant factor. This corresponds to the previousfinding that lack of client demand has a high impact onthe decision of 45% of the architect non-users to notadopt BIM thus far (see page 46).The other factor mentioned by a relatively highpercentage of architects (27%) is the opportunityBIM offers for increasing efficiency and improvingwork. This suggests that unbiased data on the processimprovements associated with BIM need to be mademore widely available to the architectural communityin China.Budget/growth and innovation were mentioned byless than 20% of architects.Most Important FactorsEncouraging BIM Adoption(According to Non-BIM Users)Dodge Data & Analytics, 2015Architects1. Client/Market Demand2. Efficiency/Improving Work3. Budget/Growth4. InnovationContractors1. Budget/Growth7_2NonUsers_MostImportantMatrix_#012. (tie) Efficiency/Improving Work2. (tie) Client Demand2. (tie) Company DecisionContractorsFor contractors, the impact on their own profitability andability to grow as a company, selected by 26%, outweighall other factors—even client demand—as drivers for BIMadoption. Again, this demonstrates the need for unbiaseddata in China on the ways that BIM has helped contractorsto maximize their budgets and grow their businesses.However, the highest percentage of contractors (33%)stated that they do not know what would increase theirinterest in BIM adoption in the future or mentioned someunique factor not discussed by others. This finding,combined with the findings that point to interest by theircompany leadership as the key driving factor, suggeststhat a notable percentage of the contractor non-userrespondents have not fully considered the potentialof BIM for their companies. This could imply that theChina market for BIM has the potential to grow if moreinformation could be made available to contractors aboutwhat BIM offers.Dodge Data & Analytics 51 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Sidebar: Government-Driven BIMGovernment-Driven BIM in ShanghaiTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAShanghai is leading the way in local government effortsin China to encourage companies to use BIM.Standardization toAccelerate BIM AdoptionBIM has been in use by the localShanghai design and constructioncommunity for over a decade. It hasbeen primarily applied on a selectivebasis by larger design institutions,construction firms and steel andcurtain wall subcontractors. It isalso common for BIM consultantsto manage the authoring andintegration of project models andlead the coordination efforts of multidisciplinaryproject teams.Though local designers andbuilders may be familiar with the valueproposition of BIM and are eager toexpand their BIM use, widespreadadoption remains slow to develop.Many are reluctant due to the lack oforganized and systematic guidelinesand protocols to standardize BIMcollaboration and project delivery.Government Promotionof BIM StandardizationAddressing this need, theShanghai Urban Construction andCommunications Commission(SUCCC), which oversees urbanplanning, quality and safetymonitoring of construction projects,has led an assessment of thestate of BIM practice in Shanghai.The assessment covers BIM useand development in design andconstruction companies, BIMconsultants, software vendors andresearch institutions. The outcomewill be an SUCCC BIM guideline,which promotes the piloting of BIMuses and development of standardsalong a well-defined timeline.• By the end of 2016, policy andstandards will be in place tosupport and guide the growingmarket for BIM, in particular,leveraging BIM for facilitymanagement and operation.• By the end of 2017, projects withgovernment investment above100M RMB or building areaabove 20,000 square meters willbe required to implement BIM.The mandate will initially focuson government-funded projects,facilitating the diffusion andpromotion of BIM in local industry.The SUCCC recommendsfive major steps to expandingBIM adoption in Shanghai’slocal industry:• Encourage a wide range of pilotprojects to demonstrate BIMvalue and promote adoption ofBIM applications.• Establish standardized protocols,processes and requirements.• Improve governmental projectmonitoring and approval process.• Enhance BIM implementationcapabilities through training andimproved software effectiveness.• Encourage diverse BIM applicationthroughout the project lifecycle,such as industrywide BIM objectlibraries and energy analysis tosupport sustainable design.The Shanghai BIM mandate willreference other successful globalexamples of government-drivenBIM adoption, such as efforts bySingapore’s Building ConstructionAuthority (BCA); the US GeneralServices Administration (GSA); andthe governments of Finlandand Norway.Expanding theLifecycle of BIM DataSUCCC is coordinating withother Shanghai governmentaldepartments to ensure that BIMis used at all points of the facilitylifecycle, starting with designexploration in project planning,through design and construction,and leveraging the data of the final,as-built BIM for efficient facilityoperation. This intra-agencycooperation will help identify waysto simplify permitting approvaland submission procedures withBIM, including using rule-basedmodel checkers for evaluatingcode compliance and establishingthe information technologyinfrastructure to accept, store andreliably access BIM submissions.Importance of theGovernment inDriving BIMThe standardization and regulationof BIM by the Shanghai governmentwill increase the confidence andwillingness of hesitant companiesand institutions to expand theirBIM implementation and helprealize the transformation of theconstruction industry. nSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 52 www.construction.com

Interview: Thought LeaderLuo Wen BinDeputy Director of the Institute of Building Product Applied TechnologyResearch, China Institute of Building Standard Design & Research (CBS)THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAMr. Luo is the chief editor of Architectural Engineering Design InformationModel Classification and Coding, and his focus is to promote BIM adoptionin China through the use of standards to address fundamental industryconcerns, such as information loss, liability and intellectual property.What do you think is the bestway to encourage wider BIMadoption across the design andconstruction industry in China?LUO: Countries are using differentstrategies to encourage BIMadoption. For example, in Singapore,the government offers an allowanceto encourage BIM use in the overalldesign and construction industries.In China, the government providesguidance, but it is not offering anyallowance to support [BIM]. However,in some regions such as Shanghai,they require a BIM model and somedocumentation to keep on record forconstruction submittals.I think the best method is marketdriven. In a market-driven approach,whether a firm is a designer, owneror contractor doesn’t matter; theyhave to achieve the benefits ofusing BIM.BIM is still in a starting phase inChina. There are many applicationsto use for design, but I think BIM isstill considered a support tool andnot commonly used.What challenges does theChina market present to widerBIM adoption?LUO: There are many challenges.BIM has changed many things.[For] traditional 2D drawings, wehave a complete procedure andrelated phasing [for a project]. Also,the responsibility for work wasclearly divided. When we turn to 3Dmodeling, it changes everything,including the roles of individuals.Second, BIM implementation isalso challenging. There are manycountries using their own softwareto solve their problems. We arestill behind on this. Therefore, the[challenge of implementing] BIM isthe problem of what applications touse. Generally speaking, there aresafety and security issues in China.The use of software from othercountries is a challenge forthe government.Coordinating standardization isalso a challenge. If we implementBIM without a standard, we willwaste time and effort promoting it.BIM is all about data and process. Forthe whole construction process, itkeeps all the data for applications andsolutions. If there is no standard tosupport it, this will be a challenge.What role do you see yourorganization playing in the use ofBIM in the next five years?LUO: We have a few directionswe will take in the next five-yearplan, which may be different fromother Local Design Institutes. We[are focused on BIM in four areas]:design, construction, operationsmanagement and also publicresources. We are promoting thesefour with different departmentsfor implementation.For public resources, [our mainfocus] is a BIM standard. We will alsouse 3D and BIM components, andother library resources, to become anintegrated and standardized service.We may announce a public resourceplatform next year, [which will]allow everyone to access thestandard drawings and informationfrom suppliers.From the design [perspective], weare still using BIM professionally fordesign services. We also provide BIMconsulting services on some projects.We also take construction projectsas part of our service to implement,including the level of control,improving BIM, tools, material andcapital flows, etc.We are also heading inthis direction for operationsmanagement. We have a hospitalproject that is using BIM [for]operation management.How do you think BIM willchange the industry over thenext five years?LUO: This is a very difficult question.I think that the change needs tooriginate in how people understandBIM. If we do not change ourperspective of BIM and only useit as a tool, it is difficult to realize asubstantial transformation.We have all seen the movieThe Matrix where one can domany things in a virtual realityenvironment, and I believe wecan do similar things in futurebuildings. We have been talkingabout a digital city and an intelligentcity, and we will continue to putmore efforts in this area. We maybe able to virtually walk arounda beautiful Beijing from home inthe future. nDodge Data & Analytics 53 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Data:Owner Perspectives on BIMPerspectives of Building Owners andDevelopers in China on BIM UtilizationTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAInterviews with four building owners and developers and one ownerrepresentative reveal no clear consensus from an owner’s perspective of thedegree of implementation of BIM in the market. However, many do agree onthe challenges faced and steps needed to encourage wider BIM use in China.Owner recognition ofthe value of BIM canbe a critical driver forBIM adoption in themarketplace. In order to understandowner engagement with BIMin China better, Dodge Data &Analytics interviewed four buildingowner/developers and one ownerrepresentative, all of whom haveBIM experience and have engagedin a high volume of work in mainlandChina, to explore the perspective ofChinese owners on BIM.State of BIM in theChinese MarketThe perspectives of the fiveparticipants in the research varywidely on the level of BIM use in theChinese market. One developer,who spoke anonymously, butwhose company has developedover 20 million square meters ofbuilding space, sees rapid growth inBIM and a bright future. “We haveobserved a rapid revolution of BIMwithin China, such as the adoptionof BIM capabilities within LocalDesign Institutes (LDIs), just overthe last two years.” He affirms, “Thetransformation from 2D to BIM is anunstoppable trend, and it is likely tobecome an industry standard in thenext two to three years.”The remainder of the respondentsare more tempered about the currentadoption level of BIM in China. Mr.Ma Shen Dong, BIM leader of theCultural Tourism Planning & ResearchInstitute, is concerned about thelimited degree of implementationof BIM in China, while Mr. ZhongWenwu, BIM director for YMCI,believes that BIM “will eventuallybecome an essential element in thefuture for the construction industry.”However, Mr. Zhong also points outthat “there are quite big discrepanciesamong individuals and organizationsin terms of understanding the valuesand uses of BIM.”Most of the owners affirm thattheir own organizations are still inthe early stages of BIM use, andnone of them are currently usingit for building operations andmaintenance. Mr. Ma makes a tellingpoint in this regard: “We just startedthe learning journey of BIM, so havenot planned for our college educationwhen we are still in kindergarten. Inother words, we have not defined theneeds of BIM during operations, andso have not acted on it yet.” However,two owners report that they areactively exploring this issue.Challenges to Wider UseSome owners note that sufficientknowledge about and skill withBIM is a challenge impeding widerBIM use in China. Mr. Zhong states,“Human capital with the right mix ofexperience and skills is the challenge[BIM faces in further expansion.]”The lack of a better understandingof the value BIM brings to projectsand firms is also seen to createchallenges for its wider adoption. Forexample, Mr. Ma states, “Resistancefrom conservative design firms,LDIs, contractors and real estatemanagement agencies who donot see BIM as a value-addingtool and process to their currentpractice is another major challengewe are facing.”Mr. Sheng Cheng, vice generalmanager at Shanghai JiankeManagement Co. Ltd., summarizesthe general consensus that lack ofknowledge is a major impediment.“Leaders and managers talk aboutBIM, but seldom know exactly whatBIM capabilities and benefits areavailable. Those advocating forBIM ... are often not in leadershipor decision-making positions.Therefore, human, material andfinancial resources cannot beadequately allocated to support BIM,making implementation of BIM inmainland China very difficult.”Mr. Zhong is optimistic butnotes similar concerns: “BIMwill certainly be a critical tool andprocess for the future constructionindustry. However, it will take along time before the industry cancome to consensus on the valuesof BIM in the context of China, andthen increase the preparednessof stakeholders along the entireproject lifecycle to adopt thistechnology and process.”In addition, one developerreports that “many projectstakeholders are hesitant toshare their models ... the hiddenconcern of ... maintaining theintellectual property of modelauthors is a major challenge.”SmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 54 www.construction.com

Data: Owner PerspectivesCONTINUEDTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINAEncouraging WiderUse of BIM in ChinaTwo owners, Mr. Ma and Mr. Zhong,find that the market has a strongerinfluence on driving BIM than thegovernment. Mr. Ma states, “Mostorganizations use BIM simply toincrease their competitiveness inthe market and [their] managementeffectiveness internally. Thegovernment does not providemuch support in BIM products andsolutions development.” However,he does see a role for governmentin the future in overcoming theresistance and lack of knowledgenoted by many as a challenge toBIM adoption. “More conventionalenterprises and organizationsrarely disrupt the current “working”process. This is when governmentmandate and support is critical inpushing beyond the hump.”Mr. Zhong, on the otherhand, prefers that the governmentavoid mandates, allowing themarket to drive adoption. “Thecurrent situation is ideal, withthe government only givingout recommendations, but notmandatory requirements.” Hebelieves mandates do not takeinto account the differing needs ofcompanies that will impact how andwhy they choose to use BIM.Mr. Y.Y. Yip, the deputy generalmanager at Henderson LandDevelopment, believes thegovernment should do more toencourage BIM adoption, noting theabsence of “tactical next steps toencourage owner, LDI and contractoradoption, such as streamlining thesubmission and approval processvia BIM.”The government can also provideneeded data on BIM benefits. Theowners’ agent, Mr. Cheng, states,“Many owners have asked mewhether or not there is an exampleof the successful use of BIM and saythey would consider using it if such acase were presented. It could work ifthe government launched a few pilotprojects to demonstrate the use ofBIM ... The statistical data of thesetest projects could push the industrytoward using BIM.”A few of the owners also findthat owners can play a direct rolein encouraging wider BIM use. Mr.Zhong states, “We can collaboratewith large enterprises and use theirprojects as case studies... documentthe lessons learned, effectiveworkflows and use cases, and thenshare them with the entire industryas practical guidelines.” Mr. Maagrees that owners should sharesuccesses and lessons learned tohelp the industry mature faster.Benefits of BIM UseOwners report a wide range ofbenefits from BIM use that theycould share with the industry. Costreductions are the most commonlyreported benefit. For example, Mr.Zhong notes that the top benefit ofBIM is the “reduction of constructioncosts through design optimizationand construction simulation,”and another developer states thatBIM reduces costs “by minimizingunbudgeted changes and rework.”In addition, process improvementsare an important benefit of BIM.Mr. Zhong reports that BIM resultsin “the enhancement of theenterprise efficiency throughdigitization, standardization ofinformation and the processorientednature of BIM managementprocedures [which allow for] a moretransparent review and validationprocess that can inform us onfuture improvement opportunities.”Another points out that BIM‘sinteroperability with their EnterpriseResource Planning System, whichthey have just begun to implement,is expected to yield greaterefficiencies, not just duringprocurement and construction butalso during building operations.Mr. Ma cautions about a onesize fits all vision for BIM benefits.He states, “whether BIM can besuccessful is highly dependent onhow one uses it and their needs. Itis not about what BIM can offer buthow BIM is being applied.” nDodge Data & Analytics 55 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report

Methodology:Building Information Modeling in China Study ResearchTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM IN CHINADodge Data & Analytics (formerlyMcGraw Hill Construction)conducted the 2014 BuildingInformation Modeling in Chinasurvey to examine the use of BIM byconstruction and architecture firms.The research in this report wasconducted through an onlinesurvey of Chinese constructionand architecture firms betweenSeptember 10th and October 8th,2014. The survey was open to all suchfirms doing work in China, regardlessof their level of BIM use.Definition of BIM Usein the SurveyFor the purpose of the survey BIMuse was defined as: BIM being usedto either author models or work onmodels authored by another firm (orboth). Those who indicated eitherauthoring, using or doing both werenoted as BIM users and those whonoted they were not engaged withBIM at all were noted as non-usersof BIM. Each group answereddifferent questions about BIM andits use in China.Survey ParticipantsThe survey had 350 completeresponses:■ 144 respondents fromconstruction firms■ 206 respondents fromarchitecture firmsA quota was set for each groupto ensure that at least 60% ofrespondents were involved withvertical building projects, as opposedto exclusively industrial constructionor civil infrastructure.The total sample size (350) usedin this sample benchmarks at a 95%confidence interval with a marginof error (MOE) of 5.23%. For theconstruction firms, the MOE is8.16%. For architecture firms theMOE is 6.82%.CLASSIFICATION OF BIM USERSAND NON-USERSOf the respondents, 296 wereclassified as BIM users and 54 asnon-users of BIM.• More BIM users were sought astheir perceptions of the value ofBIM in China was the primaryfocus of the survey.• A smaller sample of non-userswas included to get an idea of whysome firms don’t use BIM andwhat might lead such non-users tobegin working with it.For BIM users the MOE is 5.69%.The smaller sample results in a MOEof 13.3% for BIM non-users.Variables Used inthe AnalysisThe large sample size of BIMusers allowed for comparisonsacross different subgroups, whichthe smaller sample size of non-usersdid not permit.SIZE OF COMPANY(BY ANNUAL REVENUE)Roughly 9% of each respondentgroup selected “Don’t Know,”and they are not included in theanalysis by size.■ Large Firms (Revenue of 800 Millionor More RMB)• 29% of architect respondentswork for large firms.• 37% of contractor respondentswork for large firms.■ Medium Firms (Revenue of 60Million to Under 800 Million RMB)• 34% of architect respondentswork for medium firms.• 33% of contractor respondentswork for medium firms.■ Small Firms (Revenue of Less than60 Million RMB)• 28% of architect respondentswork for small firms.• 21% of contractor respondentswork for small firms.OWNERSHIP■ Architects• 51% work for state-owneddesign organizations.• 41% work for private designfirms/partnerships.• 8% work for other types of firms,including foreign companies.■ Contractors• 47% work for state-ownedconstruction enterprises.• 49% work for privateconstruction enterprises.• 4% work for other types of firms,including foreign companies.TYPE OF WORK■ Architects• 60% primarily work on buildings/interiors projects.• 34% primarily work on industrial/civil construction projects.■ Contractors• 65% primarily work on buildings/interiors projects.• 30% primarily work on industrial/civil construction projects.Roughly 5% to 6% report that theywork primarily on building typesother than the ones listed above.Comparisons WithOther RegionsFindings from the 2014 BusinessValue of BIM for Construction inMajor Global Markets SmartMarketReport, which includes data on BIMuse by contractors in 10 countries,are used to provide contextsfor comparisons with Chinesecontractors throughout this report. nSmartMarket Report Dodge Data & Analytics 56 www.construction.com

ResourcesOrganizations and websites that can help you get smarter aboutthe business value of BIM in China, as well as globally.SmartMarket ReportACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:The authors wish to thank our premier partners Autodesk and Glodon for theirsupport and participation in helping us bring this information to the market.Dodge Data & AnalyticsMain Website: construction.comDodge: construction.com/dodgeResearch & Analytics:construction.com/dodge/dodge-market-research.aspArchitectural Record: archrecord.comEngineering News-Record: enr.comSweets: sweets.comSmartMarket Reports:construction.com/market_researchSuccessful completion of the research in this report would not have beenpossible without the invaluable help of our research partners. We wouldlike to thank Calvin Kam and all of his team at bimSCORE. We also thank JinLiang, Xuan Zhang and Wentao Liu from Tsinghua University.We thank all the owners who participated in the in-depth interviews forgenerously sharing their insights and expertise. In addition, we thank thosewho participated in the case studies and were willing to share their resultsin order to demonstrate the benefits of BIM. We thank our two thoughtleaders, Professor Ming Gu from Tsinghua University and Luo Wen Binfrom the China Institute of Building Standard Design & Research, forsharing their insights on BIM in China.Autodeskwww.autodesk.comGlodonwww.glodon.comIntroduction to Tsinghua BIM Research GroupFounded in 2009, the BIM research group at TsinghuaUniversity—consisting of Jiaguang Sun, academicianof the Chinese Academy of Engineering, ProfessorMing Gu and relevant experts as well as doctoral andmaster students—has completed several BIM researchachievements, including the “Chinese Construction IndustryInformation Technology Development Strategy research,”the “Chinese BIM Standard Framework Research,” the“BIM Implementation Standard Guidelines for DesignEnterprises,” and the “BIM Implementation StandardGuidelines for MEP Contractors.” They also formed theProducedChinese BIMwithStandardsupport(CBIMS)fromSystem. CBIMS directs theresearch and preparation of Chinese BIM standards throughdevelopment of the methodology and epistemology tocreate a solid theoretical foundation. Tsinghua BIM researchgroup is mainly involved in the preparation of the first BIMstandard China promulgated—the Beijing local “BuildingDesign BIM Standard”—and also involved in the promotionof the Chinese construction industry, railway industryand other local industry BIM standards preparation.The Tsinghua BIM research group has developed a numberof enterprise-level and project-level BIM implementationstandards, and participates in BIM application atboth of these levels. They are pioneers and leaders inthe Chinese BIM standard research and practice.Research PartnersbimSCORE: www.bimscore.comTsinghua University: bim.thss.tsinghua.edu.cn/Resources in ChinaChina BIM Union: www.chinabimunion.org/ andwww.bimunion.org/html/yw/index.htmlInternational Resources:Australia National Guidelines for Digital Modeling:www.construction-innovation.info/images/pdfs/BIM_Guidelines_Book_191109_lores.pdfBIMForum: bimforum.orgbimSCORE: www.bimscore.comBIM Task Group (UK): www.bimtaskgroup.orgbuildingSMART International: www.buildingsmart.orgMortenson Construction, VDC Journey:www.mortenson.com/vdc-journeyNational Institute of Building Sciences: www.nibs.orgNational Institute of Building Sciences “The COBieGuide”: www.nibs.org/?page=bsa_cobieguideRICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors):www.rics.org/us/knowledge/bcis/about-bcis/forms-and-documents/bim-downloads/Singapore, Building and Construction Authority, BIMGuide: www.corenet.gov.sg/integrated_submission/bim/BIM/Singapore%20BIM%20Guide_V2.pdfU.S. General Services Administration, BuildingInformation Modeling: www.gsa.gov/bimUS National BIM Standard:www.nationalbimstandard.org

■ Design and Construction IntelligenceSmartMarket Reportwww.construction.comDodge Data & Analytics SmartMarket ReportsGet smart about the latest industry trends.For more information on these reports and others, visitwww.construction.com ⁄market _ research

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines