The Navy Vol_60_Part2 1998 - Navy League of Australia

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The Navy Vol_60_Part2 1998 - Navy League of Australia

JULY- ULY-SEPTEMBER 19985VOLUME 60 NO.3$3.50The Magazine of the Navy League of Australia


THE NAVYChinese visitors to Sydney. May I998. From top; guided missile destroyer QINGDAO.replenishment ship NANCANC and training ship SHICHANC. arriving on 4 May. (Photos - 8 Morrison)Front cover The Royal Australian Navy's second Anzac class frigote. ARUNTA. on trials in Port Phillip, early 1998.1Photo - Naval Photo Unit)Navy Needs Major Modernisation Urgendy 3Chinese Naval Task Group Visit to Australia 4Navy League of Australia; Statement ofPolicytCanada's Naval Forres Adjust Course 7New Tank Landing Ship for Singapore 9Defence Budget 1998-99 10New Zealand - Special Feature-After the 1997 Defence White Paper 18-Wasp Finale 20- SH-2F Scasprites Enter Service 21LARC V Makes a Comeback! 23IOWA'S Legacy - The Surface Action Group 25T1NGIRA (SOBRAON); Some early scenes 29What Is an EM! 30REGULAR FEATURESViewpointINaval News 11Observations 16The Old Navy 29Book Reviews 30Corporate MembersTHE AUSTRALIAN SHIPOWNERS'ASSOCIATIONCOMPUTER SCIENCES OF AUSTRALIAPTY LTDBTR AEROSPACE AUSTRALIAHAWKER DE HAVILLAND LIMITEDROCKWELL SYSTEMSAUSTRALIA PTY LTDSTRANG INTERNATIONAL PTY LTDThe NavyAll Letters to the Editor and contributions to:The Editor. Ross Gillett4 Dela Close.Dee Why. NSW. 2099Subscriptions and MembershipAll magazine subscriptions and membershipenquiries to:The Hon Secretary.NSW Division.Navy League of Australia.GPO Box 1719.Sydney. NSW. 1043National Email address:nasyleag@netspace.net.auInternet Home pages for Federal and StateDivisions:URL:http://www.netspace.netau/~navyleagCopy deadline for the next edition is9 August 1998.THE NAVYVIEWPOINTThe NavyNumber 3. 1998 is a pot-pourri'of news and articles from the World'sNavies.Most recently, for Australia, the first everPeoples Liberation Army - Navy(PLA-N)Task Group visit was successfullyundertaken in Sydney during the early partof May. This edition also features a specialNew Zealand feature, including a postDefence White Paper commentary, theveteran Westaland Wasp Helicopter Storyand an update on the 'new', interim SH-2FSeasprites, which are now flying.An 'oldtimer' making a comeback intoAustralian military service in the LighterAmphibious Re-supply Cargo Mk V. morecommonly referred to as the LARC V. Anumber of the 30-year-old Armywatercraft are being updated for serviceaboard the RAN's two modified LPAs.KANIMBLA and MANOORA. This reportalso includes the latest RANof the modernisedMANOORA.photographsThe Navy League ofAUSTRALIAFEDERAL COUNCILPatron In Chiet He Exceiency The GtMnor GeneralIMHnt Ge*»n M hhrrt. RFCVice-Presidents: RADM AJ Robertson AO DSC. RAN(Raft John CORE H^P Adam AH RAN (Red).CAPT HA (ogephs. AM. RAN (Rid)Hon. Secretary: Dcxi SdirapeLPO Box l3S.V\boJv*c,SA SOI I Telephone (08) 8347 1985 Fax: (08) 8347 3256NEW SOUTH WALES DIVISIONPatrore rts ExcelencyThe Go*mor of New SouthWales.President R O Albert. AM.RH1RDHon. Secretary: J C J jeppcsen. OAM, RFD GPO Box1719 Sydne, NSW 1043"Telephone: (02) 9570 8425 Fax (02) 9232 8383VICTOWAN DIVISIONPalronc His Exceiency The Gotemor of Vlaora.President J MWfcw RFD*ilin ilium. Trci mrrr-r- n iriBex HI Detwry Ceroe VIC 3128Telephone and Fax: (03) ">5«0 9927QUEENSLAND DIVISIONPatron: Ms Excelency. The Governor of QueensbndPresident IM Fraser. OAMHon. Secretary: R D ftxAcn. RFCl PO Box 170OevebndQId 4163 telephone (07) 3345 2174Calms A Cummecn PO B The Navy arethose of the authors and are not rmam^w those of theFederal Council of the Navy League of Australia, theEditor of The Navy or the Royal Australian NavySOUTH AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONPatron: Ha Excefcncy. The Gowmor of South AuseralePresident Abn Piesloa.RFO IS Sleeps Hi Dr*«.P»mm>SAS04l.Hon. Secretary: Mes J E GJ. GPO Box IS29. AddMdeSA 5001 Telephone(08) 8347 l«STASMANIAN DIVISIONPatron: Ha Excefcncy. The Gowmor of TavnanaPresident ML Cooper. OMQF5MHon. Secretary: Mrs J M Cooper 42 Arr^r RaidLlu*eston Tas. 7250 Tdephaie nj Fa>c(03) 6344 1531.State Branthea:Devonport P Oteary 11 Tasman Race. Oevonpon.Tas 7310 *Uephone(03) 6424 5064BunfeG DM. 40 Cherry Street 8umie.Tas 7320Telephone (03) 6431 4023.LauKeaton: Mrs ^ M Cooper.WESTBtN AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONPatron: His Exccfency. The Gownor of WesternAHHevJtcfHon. Secretary: ^Vs G Hewn. 23 Lar4er RoadAnadile.WA 6156. Telephone (08) 9330 3600.Genddton: E Bedcwth. 2 IteheJ Street. Range"* WA6530. Telephone (08) 9921 3768(H) (08) 9921 1200(8)AfcanpDBrv Lot 46 Fredend. Street G U m aAfce^WA 6330 Telephone (08) 9841 6542FEDERAL ADVISORY COUNCILF Geolfre)'Evans. 08E.VRQ CharmanNefl Bead. Oue nun Balrd RUomrsWnvBofcha AMAdmrtl MthaelW Hudson. AC. RAN (Rtd)VMMrtnl DM Laadv AC C8E.LVCHWB1Wee AdnWSrRldanl Peak. KBE.C& DSC RAN (Rtd)John Strang, Ovuriran Strang International Pty LtdPAGE I


In reply to the article in the January-March. 1998 edition concerning the fateof the former minehunter CURLEW. Iforward some additional information.The old mine warfare vessel was savedfrom the scrap mecal merchants about 14months ago by myself, an ex-submarinerPurchased for $40,000. CURLEW iscurrently berthed at the WoolwichMarina in Sydney, undergoing repairsbefore heading to Hobart. Tasmania inJune or July.The work to restore the vessel to heroriginal condition is a labour of love anddetermination, as a fine example ofworking Naval heritage. In 2003 it isplanned to steam the 50-year-oldCURLEW back to Montrose, whereshe was originally built for the RoyalNavy.Gary HamerFax: 03 6261 1614Editor: Gary is keen to hear from formercrew members, prospective crew and anyoneinterested in helping with the projectHMAS CURLEW (Photo -John Mortimer)THE NAVYSingapore Naval Base, prior to handover to ANZUK. On the right is HMAS SWAN, with aRoyal Fleet Auxiliary on the left (Photo - Bill Wilson)SingaporeDear Sir.The accompanying photograph was takenin Singapore Harbour in 1971. On theright is the destroyer escortHMASYARRA, units of the Royal Navy and aRoyal Fleet Auxiliary on the left.What about other readers sending intheir old photos so the rest of us can seethe Navy at work. I enjoy The Navy verymuch, keep up the good work.Bill WilsonKARRATHA 6714Preserving WarshipsDear Sir.I must agree with Mr. Genge (The Navy,January-March. 1998) regarding thepreservation of our warships.PAGE 2The class of frigate as exemplified byHMAS SWAN and variants was the mostsuccessful class of warship in moderntimes and should therefore be carefullypreserved for future generations.The arguments by bureaucrats andpoliticians against the cost ofpreservation are spurious when youconsider the millions they have spent onOld Parliament House as a nationalshrine to "hot air'. Doubtless, the samearguments were mooted againstpreserving HMS VICTORY. untiloverwhelming public opinion saved herfrom being scrapped.VICTORY remains the flagship of the C-in-C Portsmouth to this day and millions oftourists have visited her. Howmanywould have dived to her sunken wreck?The Americans have been keen toconserve examples of old warships, butthe RAN has shown little interest in itsold ships, while our governments showeven less concern.D. G. GwyerROCKINGHAM 6168Editor: Up to mid 1998 numerous formerRAN ships had been preserved. Theseinclude. ADVANCE. CASTLEMAINE.DIAMANTINA. JOHN OXLEY. KRAIT.VAMPIRE. WHYALLA, to name the largerunits, now open for public inspection.Indications are that one or two Oberon classsubmarines and the guided missile destroyersPERTH and BRISBANE will also be preservedin the next few years.'THE NAVYNAVY NEEDS MAJORMODERNISATION URGENTLYBy Navy LeaguerFor some five years now, the RANhas been pressing to have its sixAdelaide class FFGs upgraded.The need for this was confirmed by ananalysis of the new generation types ofmissile either already on the market orexpected to become available over thenext few years. The analysis then made anestimate of the number of missiles andlaunching vehicles (ships, submarines,helicopters and fixed wing aircraft)expected to be in service in the region.From this, the quality of defence likely to berequired by the RAN and the date by whichthat defence should be provided to keepthese ships combat worthy in our broaderregion was determined.The primary purpose of this upgrade is toprovide the ships with an effective selfdefence system against the new generationof anti-ship missiles. For some time, the wayto do this has been clear in principle.A newtype of missile and launching system mustbe provided. The new missile must beintegrated into the ships' combat system.Improved sensors must be provided.Technological advances will enable thesenew missiles and improved sensors to beused together with existing ships' systemsmuch more effectively than previously.Largely in parallel with the plans to upgradethe FFGs. the RAN began planning toimprove the war fighting capabilities of theeight ANZAC class frigates then underconstruction for the RAN.This would take advantage of the foresightwhich saw substantial room for additionalcapabilities designed into the ANZAC class.It was planned to retrofit some of theearlier ships with these improved warfighting capabilities and to build thecapabilities into the later ships whilst theywere still building.The first part of the improvements,involving surface warfare, are comparativelystraightforward. Final details have beenresolved. Detailed contract negotiations areunderway with the ships' builders (TenixDefence Systems). Harpoon missilelaunching equipment, a torpedo decoysystem and a mine avoidance sonar will beinstalled.The second part of the improvements isproving much more difficult, providingthe ANZAC class with a much morecomprehensive anti-air warfare capability.Firstly, the Anzacs are much newer than theFFGs so will remain in service much longer.During this longer period it must beexpected that the missile and aircraft threatwill develop to more capable weapons.To put this into perspective, surfacelaunched anti-ship missiles currently inservice in the region have a speed ofmach 0.9 and a range of some 40 nauticalmiles with active radar or infra-redhoming systems. The most flexiblepatterns (sea skimming etc) can make thedefence task more difficult. Some shipsare fitted with longer ranged missiles withmuch smaller warheads.Current plans - the fitting of evolved SeaSparrow missiles. Nulka active off-boarddecoys - will provide the Anzacs with asubstantial defence against these 0.9mach missiles. The FFG upgrade willprovide these ships with effective defenceagainst today's anti-ship missiles.Until their AAW war fightingimprovement program is complete, theAnzacs will also be incapable of defenceagainst today's anti-missiles.Before the end of the century (less thantwo years from now), a regional powerwill have major surface combatants inService armed with a surface to surfacemissile with speed of mach 2.5 (mach 4.0in the attack phase) and a range withactive/passive radar homing of nearly 90nautical miles.The simplicity and effectiveness of thiscomparison should not be diluted by thenumbers of additional types of missilesHMAS SYDNEY, at anchor in Jervis Bay. 1989.(Photo - RAN)PAGE 3operated over a wide range of missiletypes. Some of these are marginally moreeffective than those used for our basiccomparison.The worrying factor is that the firstupgraded FFG will not even start trialsuntil two years after the first regionalsurface combatant with new generationanti-ship missiles enters service.The FFG upgrade project has undergonea long series of examinations and reexaminations.The successive changes incapabilities, designs and plans forimplementation of the upgrade give theoutside observer the impression ofdithering over capability needs with theneed to get the design and capability rightbecoming bogged down in a wish to getthe paper process right.The Anzac war fighting improvementprogram AAW phase gives the sameimpression. A study has been followed byanother study.The fact is that the space limitations andother factors limit the degree ofupgrading of the FFGs.Due to the flexibility of their design, theopportunities for improvement of theAnzacs are much greater.There is room for an Aegis type phasedarray radar, another major radarinstallation, for a markedly more capablecombat management system, and formuch longer ranged anti-aircraftmissiles.The AAW phase of the Anzac programshould provide the RAN with a reallymodern long range AAW system.On top o' that, the Anzacs' combatmanagement system should be able toprovide the FFG's larger AAW missileswith an improved targeting data andguidance to enable the FFGs to play aneffective role in defence against new typesof anti-ship missile.However, the RAN will not have theAAW improved Anzacs until at least twoyears after the FFGs. That is until somefive years after the Mach 2.5 class ofmissile enters operational service with aregional power.If the FFG upgrade and Anzac war fightingimprovement program had progressedsmartly, the RAN would not be in theposition of receiving these vitallyimportant new capabilities until five yearsafter we may need this defence.However, that is not to be. This andsimilar delays will continue to occur untilit is recognised that it is more importantto get the ships right than it is to get thepaper process right.


THE NAVYCHINESE NAVAL TASK GROUPVISIT TO AUSTRALIAA Warm ...But Wet...Welcome tothe PLA NBy Graham DavisMore than 1000 people, many from thelocal Chinese community, braved leadenskies to provide a warm welcome toSydney to three ships of the PeoplesLiberation Army - Navy in May. It was thefirst ever visit to Australia by the PLA-N.Shouting "welcome, welcome" in Mandarinand Cantonese, the crowd, many of themchildren, lined Fleet Base East to greet thetwo-year-old guided missile destroyerQINGDAO (CAPT Fu Guosen). thereplenishment ship NANCANG (CAPT LiuWanglin) and the training ship cumhelicopter carrier SHICHANG (MDR YaoLiqiang).The three ships were manned by676 officers and sailors.Aboard the destroyer was Rear AdmiralHan Fangrun the Deputy Commander ofthe PLA-N North Sea Fleet, while RADMQu Jichun. the deputy commandant of theDalian Naval Academy was embarked inS HICHANGAs the three light grey painted shipsinched towards the wharf, the RAN bandstruck up. fireworks were deonated andtwo Chinese lion dragons began to dance.Chinese and Australian flags were wavedand a large banner declaring "WarmestWelcome" in Cantonese and Australianspread before the public viewing area.On a four day visit to Australia and arrivingfrom New Zealand, the trio of warshipswas met by the 4.720 tonne guided missiledestroyer HMAS HOBART ( CMDR SimonWoolrych). HOBART met the ships just offSydney Heads and led them, in line asternformation, to the Fleet Base East. As thetrio approached the Hornby Light the leadChinese ship fired off a salute. The SiriusBattery on South Head responded.Inside the harbour the four ships weremet by the high speed diving craft SEAL ofAUSDT One carrying a press contingentof 50 local and overseas linkednewspeople. Overhead three mediahelicopters videotaped the ships' everymove. Off Bradleys Head the visitorswere met by an escort of Naval and NSWWater Police launches and DefenceMaritime Services and civilian tugs.The presence of three unfamiliar ships,with hundreds of blue uniformed sailorsand cream garbed marines lining theirdecks, attracted much interest amongforeshore residents and ferrycommuters. The 0800 passage up SydneyHarbour was carried out in sunnyconditions but by 0900 heavy cloud hadbegun to appear in the southern skies.QINGDAO berthed just after 0900 wherethe RAN Band, the Sydney StandingGuard and a large group of RAN officerswaited. They were led by the MaritimeCommander Australia. RADM ChrisRitchie. With the gangway landed. RADMFangrun moved to the wharf where hewas met by RADM Ritchie, the ChineseAmbassador to Australia and Consul toSydney and several women from the localChinese community.With the guard commander inviting theRADM. in Mandarin, to review the guard,the senior Chinese officer movedthrough the lines of young men andwomen sailors followed closely by newscrews whose images were soon betransmitted across Australia and theglobe. RADM Fangrun moved to the daiswhere he joined RADMR Ritchie."On Ying"' declared the Australianofficer...which translated said "welcometo Australia.""It is a great please to to welcome youhere." He said the visit by the Chineseships was a first and was an "historicoccasion."RAMD Ritchie told the large crowd ofthe visit by Australian ships to China lastyear and the hospitality and welcometheir crew; had received."We hops that you will feel equally athome in Sydney." He said the Sydney visitreflected the bilateral relations betweenthe two nations."Your visit will strengthenthe bonds."RADMR Ritchie said the visitors andAustralians would exchange the"professional views of sailors."We also look forward to sportingcompetition. You are all very welcome.Thankyou for bringing these very fineships to Sydney." the Australian officerconcluded.In response RADMR Frangrun said ," weare honoured to pay this friendly visit toAustralia. We have received a very warmwelcome...Thank you." He re-iterated theneed for closer ties.Completion of the welcome speechessaw the RADM move along the wharf tomeet and greet the hundreds of Chinesefolk who had come along. To the calls of"welcome, welcome" he was soonshaking thrust out hands and talking forPAGE 2the crowd. Before attending a docksidepress conference with RADM Ritchie, hethanked the RAN band through its leader.LCDR Philip Andrews.At a crowded press conference. RADMFangrun was asked if. because of thesuccess of the present links between thetwo navies, if in the short, or long terms.Australian sailors might serve aboardPLA-N ships and vice versa. He said it was"possible" Australians would visit Chinesenaval establishments but stopped short ofsaying they would serve aboard his ships.He extolled the quality of his nation'snaval university.RAMD Ritchie said he welcomed the visitas he did the co-operation between thetwo Navies. The co-operation improvedthe stability in the region, he said. RAMDRitchie, under questioning from a US nev/sreporter, said he did not see a problemwith the Chinese ships visiting Australiaand perceptions of this in the UnitedStates. He pointed out that four Chinesewarships had indeed visited the US lastyear. The conference revealed that moreAustralian ships will soon visit China.Theirdestination had not yet been determined.The press conference came to an endwith RADM Ritchie pointing to the skybehind the reporters and declaring "weare going to get wet in a minute." He wasnot wrong.The heavens opened and morethan 400 people rushed for cover. Manysheltered in dockside facilities, othersunder umbrellas, but in a move not on theprogram, hundreds went up the gangplankand aboard the QINGDAO. The crew wass


THE WAVYSTATEMENT OF POLICYNavy League Of AustraliaThe strategic background to Australia'ssecurity has changed in recent decadesand in some respects become moreuncertain. The League believes it isessential that Australia develops thecapability to defend itself paying particularattention to maritime defence. Australiais. of geographical necessity, a maritimenation whose prosperity strength andsafety depend to a great extent on thesecurity of the surrounding ocean andisland areas and on seaborne trade.The Navy League:• Believes Australia can be defendedagainst attack by other than a super ormajor maritime power and that theprime requirement of our defence is anevident ability to control the sea and airspace around us and to contribute todefending essential lines of sea and aircommunication to our allies.• Supports the ANZUS Treaty and thefuture reintegration of New Zealand asa full partner.• Urges a close relationship with thenearer ASEAN countries. PNG and theIsland States of the South Pacific in allrelevant fields.• Advocates a defence capability which isknowledge based with a primeconsideration given to intelligence,surveillance and reconnaissance.• Believes there must be a significantdeterrent element in the AustralianDefence Force (ADF) capable ofpowerful retaliation at considerabledistances from Australia.• Believes the ADF must have thecapability to protect essential shippingat considerable distances fromAustralia, as well as in coastal areas.• Supports the concept of a strong AirForce and highly mobile Army, capableof island and jungle warfare as well asthe defence of Northern Australia.• Supports the acquisition of AWACSaircraft and the update of RAAF aircraft• Advocates the development ofamphibious forces to ensure thesecurity of our offshore territories andto enable assistance to be provided bysea as well as by air to friendly islandstates in our area.• Advocates the development ofequipment skills and experience in theADF for patrol and surveillance of theocean areas all around the Australiancoast and island territories, including inthe Southern Ocean.• Advocates the transfer of responsibility,and necessary resources, for CoastalSurveillance to the defence force.• Advocates the acquisition of the mostmodern armaments and sensors forour small defence force to ensure thatthe ADF maintains some technologicaladvantages over forces in our generalarea.• Advocates measures to foster a buildupof Australian-owned shipping toensure the carriage of essential cargoesin war.• Advocates that defence industry havethe ability to construct all types ofwarships and support vessels and toprovide their through life support• Advocates the need for defenceindustry to maintain a capacity toprovide systems and sensor integrationfor the ADF including through lifesoftware support.• Advocates that defence industry besupported by research capability withinindustry and DSTO to ensure theincorporation of technologies into theADF at the earliest opportunity.As to the RAN. the League:• Supports the concept of a Navy capableof effective action off both East andWest coasts simultaneously andadvocates a gradual build up of theFleet to ensure that in conjunctionwith the RAAF. this can be achievedagainst any force which could bedeployed in our general area.• Believes it is essential that thedestroyer/frigate force should includeships with the capability to meet highlevel threats.• Advocates the development of afloatsupport capability sufficient to provideafloat support for two task forces as wellas the capacity to support operations insub-Antarctic waters.• Advocates the acquisition at an earlydate of integrated air power in the fleetto ensure that ADF deployments can befully defended and supported from thesea.• Advocates that all Australian warshipsshould be equipped with some form ofdefence against missiles.• Advocates that in any future submarineconstruction program all forms ofpropulsion, including nuclear, beexamined with a view to selecting themost advantageous operationally.• Advocates the acquisition of anadditional 2 or 3 Collins classsubmarines.• Supports the development of the minecountermeasuresforce.• Advocates the development of amodern state-of-the-art hydrographic/oceanographic fleet hydrographicofficer supported by LADS aircraft• Advocates the retention in a ReserveFleet of naval vessels of potential valuein defence emergency, rather than theirdisposal.• Supports the maintenance of a strongnaval Reserve to help crew vessels andaircraft in reserve, or taken up forservice, and for specialised tasks in timeof defence emergency.• Supports the maintenance of a strongNaval Reserve Cadet organisation.The League:Calls for bipartisan political approach tonational defence with a commitment to asteady long-term build-up in our nationaldefence capability including the requiredindustrial infrastructure.While recognising current economicproblems and budgetary constraints, theLeague believes that given leadership bysuccessive governments. Australia candefend itself in the longer term withinacceptable financial, economic andmanpower parameters.THEH*¥YCANADA'S NAVAL FORCESby Antony Preston*In one sense there is no Canadian Navy,merely a naval element in the unifiedCanadian Forces of Maritime Command, butfor convenience it will be referred to as theCanadian Navy in this survey. To complicatematters further, it is no longer known as theRoyal Canadian Navy, but retains theprivilege of naming its ships HMCS grantednearly 90 years ago.As a staunch NATO ally and a notedparticipant in United Nations peacekeepingactivities for many years. Canadahas borne a significant military burden,and the end of the cold war has inevitablyweakened political support for themilitary.To put it succinctly, many of Canada'spoliticians question the need for balancedforces, and so projects such as thereplacement submarines are given a muchlower priority than, say, armouredpersonnel carriers. The former is'aggressive', the other is connected withpeacekeeping, and is therefore affordable.The truth is that Canada will be muchmore influential in the post-cold warworld if she has a balance of credibleforces.This was well demonstrated in the GulfCrisis in 1990-1991, when Canadian navalunits were able to share in Coalitionoperations with comparative ease.Destroyer escorts were hurriedlyupgraded with RGM-84 Harpoon missiles*?and Mk 15 Phalanx 20mm 'Gatlings'. Theships were also supported by Canadiansupport vessels.Strategically, the country has threemaritime flanks, the Atlantic and Pacificseaboards and the Arctic. The landfrontier with the United States presentsno more than a cultural threat and istotally open. The internal problems ofseparatism in French-speaking Quebecseem unlikely to cause any change inoverall defence strategy.Even if the 'nightmare scenario' ofQuebec's secession happens, the majorityof French-Canadians show little interestin acquiring a navy. Indeed, comparativelyfew French-Canadians appear to showmuch interest in joining the Navy.The naval element of the Canadian Forcescan. therefore, be very grateful that theSoviet Union was considerate in notcollapsing before the Patrol Frigateprogramme was well advanced.This has provided 12 City class ships, wellequipped for anti-submarine warfare(ASW) and anti-surface warfare (ASuW)over a period of ten years. The lastHMCS OTTAWA, was delivered last yearby Saint John Shipbuilding.Also delivered in the early 1990s werefour Tribal class destroyers converted toair defence ships (DDGs). The twoAnnapolis class destroyer escorts (DDES)and the two similar Improved Restigoucheclass will all be gone by 2002.Tribal class destroyer sails for RIMPAC exercises. (Photo - Brian Morrison)The oldest operational destroyer in theCanadian fleet, the improved Restigoucheclass destroyer HMCS TERRA NOVA, wasplaced in 'extended readiness' status inHalifax in July, l997,The specialised divingsupport ship HMCS CORMORANT, aformer Italian trawler acquired in 1975,was decommissioned after 19 yearsservice, also in July, having been declaredsurplus to requirements.Plans to build another four DDG variantsof the City design have been dropped, andit is hoped to upgrade four (presumablythe oldest) to DDGs. with Standard SM-2air defence missiles after 2002. These willreplace the Tribal class, reducing theescort force to a dozen frigates from itscurrent total of 20.Several notable deployments have beenundertaken by the patrol frigates in thelast 12 months. HMCS HALIFAX made arecent deployment to South Africa inAugust the first time a Canadian Navyship had entered a South African port formore than 40 years. On 22 September,the HALIFAX departed South Africabound for South America, where thefrigate and her Sea King helicopter weredue to participate in a multi-phaseinternational exercise Unitas '97, offthe coasts of Argentina, Uruguay andBrazil.The patrol frigate HMCS REGINAreturned to Canada from a six-monthdeployment as part of the UN MaritimeInterception Force in the Gulf in AugustDuring the deployment the ship wasresponsible for intercepting andinspecting Iraqi vessels coming and goingfrom Iraq in order to ensure that theycomplied with UN sanctions against thatcountry. REGINA also visited Hong Kong,Australia, New Zealand and several of theGulf States during her deploymentHMCS CHARLOTTETOWN. another patrolfrigate, joined in a series of exercises inthe Baltic with former cold waradversaries in September of 1996. Atotal of 26 ships, including HMCSCHARLOTTETOWN. participated in a'Partnership for Peace' exercise off thecoasts of Poland and Sweden.Together. HMC Ships ALGONQUIN.WINNIPEG. REGINA and conducted animportant two-month deployment in theWestern Pacific towards the end of 1996The deployment known as WESTPLOY,reflects Canada's growing interest in theAsia Pacific region, and saw the ships visitJapan, Hong Kong, the Philippines.Vietnam, South Korea and Russia and joinin Exercise RIMRAC '96Plans to replace the three 30-year-oldOjibwa class diesel electric submarinesPAGE 2PAGE 7


(SSKS) were delayed, and now theCanadian Navy was faced with theunhappy prospect of losing its submarinecapability altogether. The replacementplans were initially marred by what canonly be described as 'wild mood swings"Not long ago there was talk of a force of12 nuclear powered hunter-killers(SSNs). leading to a brutal strugglebetween the British and the French withthe Americans trying to scupper thewhole idea. In 1992 it was announced thatup to six modern SSKs would be bought,but then, that commitment was droppedNeedless to say. there was no longer anychance of SSNs. and even the modesthope of replacing the Ojibwa-class onefor-onewas fading.The best hope seemedto be the acquisition of the fourredundanc Upholder class SSKs from theUK Royal Navy, which were on offer at avery reasonable price. In fact thesepowerful SSKs would be ideal for theCanadians - the design was optimised forhigh submerged endurance and Arcticsurveillance operations. Finally, in 1998.the decision was announced that the fourUpholders would be acquired. (See NavalNews report)HMCS VANCOUVERTHE NAVYAn important programme which escapedthe axe was the Maritime Coast DefenceVessel (MCDV) project. This has resultedin the construction of 12 Kingston class byHalifax Shipyards - over half have beendelivered and the remainder will bedelivered by 1999. Intended to bemanned largely be reservists, these 55.3mvessels combine general patrol dutieswith an advanced mine countermeasurescapability.Half will be allocated to Maritime ForcesAtlantic on the west coast and the StLawrence River, the remainder going tothe Pacific Squadron at Esquimalt inBritish Columbia. The keel layingceremony of the tenth MCDV. the futureHMCS SASKATOON, took place on 05September 1997 at Halifax Shipyard Ltd.The same week, the first patrol on theGrand Banks off Newfoundland by aKingston class ship. HMCS GLACE BAY.took place. The patrols are designed tooffer support to Canada's Department ofFisheries and Oceans.The eighth 'Kingston' class vessel. GOOSEBAY. was launched on 04 September.1997. In August the third of the series.HMCS WHITEHORSE. departed HalifaxPAGE 8for its permanent homeport of Esquimalt.British Columbia.The ageing shipboard helicopter force isbecoming a serious worry. At present atotal of 23 CH-124 Sea Kings areoperated for ASW, ASuW, Search andRescue (SAR) and utility duties. Theseairframes are now very hard to maintainand replacements are urgently needed,but the procurement process has beendelayed by political indecision. A deal tobuy two versions of the Anglo-Italian EH101 Merlin wai wrecked by budget cutssome time ago, but the need for modernairframes will not go awayEarly in 1998 the Department of NationalDefence (DND) was reported to beclose to a decision on the procurementof 15 SAR helicopters at a cost ofCan$600 million. Subsequently, theWestland Cormorant was selected. Adecision was still awaited on an ASWhelicopter replacement.In the longer term the threereplenishment ships (AORs) will need tobe replaced after 2005. A more flexibledesign is proposed but no decision can beexpected for at least two years*With contributions from David Foxwell.THE NAVYNEW TANK LANDING SHIPFOR SINGAPOREThe Republic of Singapore Navy(RSN) has launched the first of anew class of locally-built LandingShip Tank (LST). At the launchingceremony held at the SingaporeTechnologies Marine, the lead shipwas christened RSS ENDURANCE.ENDURANCE is the first of four new LSTsacquired by the RSN to replace theNavy's existing ex-County class LSTs. Thecurrent five LSTs. acquired from theUnited States Navy in the 1970s, arebecoming highly uneconomical tooperate and maintain, having been inoperational service for more than 50years. In addition, the existing LSTs arereaching the limits of their capabilities inproviding expeditious and effective seatransportation of SAF personnel andequipment for overseas trainingdeployments.The new LSTs have been designed to fullymeet the island nation's requirements forsea transportation as well as carry outthe role of supporting the RSN'sMidshipman sea training deployments.Innovative features will allow the newLSTs to be operated by 65 personnel ascompared to the 130 personnel requiredto man the RSN's present LSTs. With alarger sea lift capacity and a higher cruisespeed of 15 knots, the new LSTs will beable to transport personnel andequipment to overseas training areasusing fewer vessels and personnel andmore quickly. This will result in greateroperational and cost effectiveness andefficiency.The new LSTs. like the RSN's Fearlessclass patrol vessels, were designed andconstructed by local shipbuilders.Singapore Technologies Marine, with allfour units scheduled to be completed bythe year 2001.Then the present LSTs willbe retired from service. The LSTs comeunder the command of the RSN's ThirdFlotilla of the Fleet.The main superstructure extendsforward from amidships, leaving sufficientspace for a large flight deck aft capable oftaking two 10-tonne helicopters orproviding space for a vehicle park. Fourlanding craft (two on either beam) arecarried on davits. Internal ramps and liftswill allow stores, equipment andpersonnel accommodated below-decksto be embarked and disembarked asappropriate from the flight deck, throughthe bow door and ramp, or from the welldock. Equipment handling facilities includea pair of 25-tonne capacity ship cranes,sited amidships.Construction of the ead ship began inearly 1997. with the keel of the first vessellaid down on 26 March last year. Oncompletion of outfitting and setting-towork.ENDURANCE is planned to beginsea trials in November. 1998. Delivery tothe RSN will follow in the first quarter of1999. with the ship expected to becomefully operational in 2000.Accommodation is provided for a ships'complement of 65 officers and crew (halfthat required aboard the old LSTS).Propulsion is provided by two Rustondiesels driving independent shafts.Maximum range is in excess of 5,000 nmat a cruising speed of 15 kt.SpecificationsLength : 141 metresBeam : 21 metresDraft: 4 metresSpeed : 15 knotsDisplacement: 6000 tonnesComplement: 65 officers and menThe new LST will be equipped withmodern shipboard and combatequipment and systems including :a. An Integrated Navigation andCommunication System to provide acentralised system for communicationwith various positions within the ship,other ships and shore units.b. An Integrated Bridge System mannedby one operator who will control boththe direction and speed of the ship.Presently in the older ships, it takestwo persons to perform these tasks.c. A Gun Fire Control System, featuring acomputerised system that calculatesPAGE 7the direction and elevation of the gunbarrel to increase probability of hits.| d. A Naval Gun of 76 mm calibre.J e. An Electro-Optic Director. This infraredvision device will be used to tracktargets.: f. A self defence weapon based on theMistral surface-to-air missile system.| The new ship's armament includes an! OTO Breda 76 mm Super Rapid gun| forward. 0.5in machine guns and surfacejto-air missiles.| The RSN's fleet of new and old LSTs isi operated by the 3rd Flotilla's 191Squadron. The vessels provide seatransportation for SAF personnel andtheir equipment, detached for overseastraining duties. LSTs are also used for; training cruises, as support ships, andduring peacetime, rescue and relief efforts.At the ceremony, Dr Tony Tan Keng Yam.Deputy Prime Minister and Minister forDefence spoke about the new class;| "This morning's launch of a new class ofI landing ship tank is another-demonstrationI of both MINDEF's and the SingaporeGovernment's commitment to ensuringthat strong fundamentals and politicalstability remain the bedrock of ournation's progress and prosperity.Singapore is a small country highlydependent on external trade for oursurvival. As such, external developmentsoften have far-reaching implications forus. Our consistent policy has been tostrengthen the fundamentals like defencewhich underpin our country's long-termcompetitiveness and security.With Singapore's limited land resources,the SAF faces the constraint of limitedtraining space for our soldiers, sailors andpilots. To enable realistic, i igorous andi demanding training to be carried out, theSAF actively looks for suitable overseastraining areas to offset local spaceconstraints. For many years Landing ShipTanks (LSTs) of the Republic of SingaporeNavy (RSN) have been transportingj vehicles, personnel and equipment for


training overseas. However, the Navy'sexisting LSTs were acquired from theUnited States Navy in the 1970s. Theyhave been in service for more than 50years. With upgrading, we have been ableto extend the useful lifespan of our LSTsbut they have increasingly becomeuneconomical and inefficient to operate.MINDEF has therefore decided toreplace the Navy's current landing shiptanks. ENDURANCE is the lead ship offour new LSTs to be acquired by theRSN These will replace the 5 aging LSTsthat the RSN currently operates. BeingChief of Navy.VADM D. B. ChalmersAO RANThe 1998-99 Defence budget of AUST$ 10.945 billion, announced by the FederalTreasurer, maintains the funding base atzero real growth - this outcome is inkeeping with the Government'scommitment to the level of Defencespending promised by the Prime Ministeron his election in 1996. This allocationrepresents 1.9 percent of GDP (the sameas in 1997-98) and 8.7 percent of totalCommonwealth outlays (an increasefrom 8 4 percent in 1997-98)Under the r.ew DRP (Defence ReformProgramme) structure, my allocation forNHQ (Naval Headquarters. Maritime andTraining Commands and allPNF/Reserves salaries is some $935million. Support Command has beenallocated $606 million for Navy LogisticsOperations. Overall these allocations equalthe 1997-98 expected budget outcome.A significant feature of this year's budgethas been the increased funding allocatedto specific Navy-related activities withinSupport Command. This equates toabout $440 million across the next fouryears to help address vital capability andpreparedness deficiencies. Areas toreceive particular supplementary fundingover the next four years, include NavalAviation ($80 million), funding to retainHMAS TOBRUK ($68 million), at a total of$27 million to ensure HMAS KANIMBLAand HMAS MANOORA will meet fulloperational status, and additional funds ofabout $90 million to correct Logisticsupport shortfalls across £ range ofimportant weapons systems and shipsmachinery/plant items associated withkeeping HMAS PLATYPUS in commissionuntil mid-1999. funding for the portservices and support craft contract andSeasprite helicopter training costs.THE NAVYlarger and faster, the new LSTs will befully capable of supporting the SAF'soverseas training requirements.Innovative and modern technologies willbe incorporated into the new LSTs toassure higher system reliability andavailability and allow greater automationof manual tasks.This means that, while thenew LSTs are larger and more complexthan the existing ones, they will requiresignificantly lower manpower and systemmaintenance requirements.As with their predecessors, the new LSTswill continue to provide support for theDEFENCE BUDGET 1998-99The Government has announcedapproval for stage 2 of a significant newmajor capital facilities project toredevelop HMAS ALBATROSS to meetongoing helicopter, maritime support andtraining requirements. This project isestimated to cost about $76 million andwill be completed over the next threeyears. A further $ I 3 million will be spenton the stage three development ofHMAS STIRLING, and within Canberra atotal of $65 million will be spent infinalising the Russell RedevelopmentPro|ect which includes the collocation ofthe service headquarters with theDefence Headquarters.Funding to meet milestones associatedwith capital equipment projects for theAnzac ship. Collins submarines. Huonminehunters. and Seasprite helicoptershas been continued. 1998-99 will see thedelivery of HMAS ARUNTA. HMASWALLER. HMAS HUON. HMASHAWKESBURY. HMAS LEEUWIN andHMAS MELVILLE into service. The yearwill also see the launch of out thirdm.nehunter (HMAS NORMAN) and thefourth of the ANZAC class (HMAS STUART).In addition, some $20 million will bespent in 1998/99 on the initial phases ofacquiring Penguin anti-ship missiles forthe Seasprite helicopters, upgrading thehydrographic survey suit' in the surveymotor launches, acquiring electronicchart display and information systems(ECDIS) for our surface combatants, andinitiating work to further enhance theweapons system of the Collins class.Theseare all significant measures designed toenhance our warfighting capability intothe future.From an organisational perspective, thisnext financial year will see the changesrequired to implement much of theDefence Reform Program start to impactPAGE 10RSN's operational and trainingcommitments, as well as act as seatraining platforms for the Navy'smidshipmen. The ships are capable ofdeploying to more ports and countries inthe region and beyond as part of theirtraining cruises. Such port calls have asignificant role in extending andfacilitating MINDEF's defence diplomacy.Such diplomacy helps to foster andenlarge bonds of friendship and mutualunderstanding.on the way we in Navy undertake ourbusiness, my focus is to ensure that theobjectives set out in my future directionsstatement are oursued with the vigournecessary to maintain safety standards atthe highest possible level, enhance ourcore warfighting skills throughout thefleet, particularly in ASW. A knownthroughout our region - we must beready to fight and win at sea. when and asrequired.The broader Defence aim is to achievethe optimum balance between capitalinvestment in equipment and facilities,operation and support costs, and fundingto meet personnel requirements.Efficiency in the delivery of our servicesand support is crucial if we are to free upthe resources necessary to enhance ourcapability and preparedness. This, ofcourse, was the primary reason forundertaking the Defence EfficiencyReview.The purpose of the Defence ReformProgram is to realise major expendituregains in order to fund measures such asthe Navy specified items identifiedabove. For this budget. Navy's DRPsavings target in 1998-99 is about $40million, to be funded mainly fromreductions in the total number of servicepersonnel to accord with DRP outcome.To achieve both the DRP aim and myown objectives for the Navy, we mustdevelop our workforce so that the rightpeople are in the right place at the righttime, in the right rank and with the rightprerequisite training and acquired skillsets. This will require a significantreshaping of our current workforce overthe next few years to ensure ourcapability and overall preparednessmeets our emerging needs.HMAS ANZAC'sNATIONAL AWARDOn 4 May. the Governor of WesternAustralia. His Excellency Major GeneralMichael Jeffery AC MC. presented theHMAS ANZAC with the Navy League ofAustralia Perpetual Trophy.Accepting the award was thecommanding officer of HMAS ANZAC.Captain Marc Bonsar. CSC. RAN onbehalf of the ship's company.HMAS ANZAC won this communityaward for 1997 from fierce competitionfrom other Fleet units and shoreestablishments from around Australia.ANZAC's win sees the prestigious shieldremain in the west as HMAS STIRLINGwon the trophy in 1996.ANZAC's nomination was for her heavyinvolvement with the Albany Children'sCancer Care Group, the ship's adoptedcharity. In an extraordinary effort sincethe ship's commissioning in May. 1996more than $8000 was raised in 12months for the charity.This money was raised throughinnovative fund raising activities includinga sponsored "Shave off" which saw 60people go under the clippers from theprevious commanding officer down tomale and female sailors.HAWKESBURYLAUNCHEDThe Royal Australian Navy's newcoastal minehunter (MHC) HMASHAWKESBURY was launched inNEWCASTLE on 24 April. 1998.HAWKESBURY is the second Huon classMHC to be built by Australian DefenceIndustries at their Carrington yard andthe second RAN warship to be namedafter the major river system, north ofSydney.In service the 720 tonne HAWKESBURYwill be crewed by 36 officers and otherranks and carry a defensive armament ofone 30mm gun. Her main role will beTHE NAVYTwo views of the new MHC HAWKESBURY.before and after her launching on 24 April,1998. (Photos - Brian Morrison)minehunting via a pair of BoforsUnderwater Systems Double Eagle minedisposal vehicles. To control the DoubleEagles, commands will be relayed fromthe MHC via fibre optic links to inside thevehicle.To counter hostile mines, each DoubleEagle will carry a disposal charge slungunder the vehicle or be fitted withmechanical cutters to sever the wireholding the moored mines.HAWKESBURY and her sisterships willalso embark mine clearance divers, ableto operate to depths of 90 metres.The Royal Australian Navy's current minecountermeasures force comprises twoBay class inshore minehunters(commissioned 1986-87) and fiveauxiliary minesweepers, converted 1988to 1994. after various commercialcareers. All are homeported to HMASWATERHEN. in Sydney Harbour.The lead and nameship of the new MHCclass. HUON. is expected to becommissioned into the RAN inDecember this year, followed byHAWKESBURY in late 1999. Othermembers of the Huon class also underconstruction include NORMAN,GASCOYNE, DIAMANTINA and YARRA»1Sjf-i imtPAGE I IJOINT EXERCISEThe Royal Australian Navy (RAN)and the Republic of Singapore Navy(RSN) conducted a MineCountermeasure (MCM) exercise,codenamed EX HUNTER 98, offthe coast of Newcastle, from 13 to24 Apr 98.The third in this series of bilateralexercises. EX HUNTER 98. was hostedthis time round by the RAN.EX HUNTER included planning for MCMoperations and the conduct of suchoperations at sea. The RAN deployedseven Mine Countermeasure Vessels(MCMVs); HMAS RUSHCUTTER andHMAS SHOALWATER and the auxiliaryminesweepers. BROLGA, WALLAROO.BANDICOOT. KORAAGA and BERMAGUI.Seven RSN officers together with theAustralian counterparts, participated inMCM plan ling, as well as undertakingcommand, control and umpiringresponsibilities.The exercise allowed the RSN to worktogether with the more experiencedRAN in the area of MCM operations, withthe two navies mutually benefiting.$30 MILLION BOOSTFOR WHANGAREINew Zealand Defence Minister MaxBradford has announced that up toan extra $30 million worth of workon the ANZAC frigate project hadbeen won by Whangarei."The announcement means that morethan half of the module constructionwork for the entire frigate project willnow be done in New Zealand, all of it inWhangarei." Mr Bradford said. "Thatmeans new jobs for Whangarei. thedevelopment of specialist shipbuildingskills, and a sizeable boost to the localeconomy."Mr Bradford's comments follow theannouncement by prime contractor forthe ANZAC frigate project. Melbourne'sTENIX Defence Systems, that it will bedoing construction and fitout work fortwo hull modules for each of ships 7.8.9and 10 at its site in Whangarei. Tenix willalso be spending an additional $3 milliondeveloping its existing Whangarei site toaccommodate the new work."All up. the hull module and sitedevelopment work will inject an extra$25-30 million into the loc?l Whangareieconomy - a very significant addition tothe $100 million worth of constructionand fitout work already being done thereon the superstructure modules of frigates2 to 10." said Mr Bradford.


THE NAVYTHE NAVYMr Bradford said it was important to alsobe aware that it was not just Whangareitaking dividends from the ANZACproject. "To date, the project hasproduced some $600 million worth ofwork for more than 500 New Zealandcompanies." he said."The project has brought new skills,technology and contract experience to thecompanies involved in it which in turn iswinning them a range of defence contractsoverseas, most notably in Australia."Defence-related exports are now earningNew Zealand some $70 million a year,much of it the result of the expertiseNew Zealand companies have picked upfrom the ANZAC Ship project. MrBradford said. Meanwhile. Mr Bradfordsaid he believed the Government wouldhave to look carefully in the comingmonths at the issue of a replacement shipfor HMNZS CANTERBURY, which was dueto retire in 2005."Logic says it should be another ANZACclass frigate, and if that option gets thego-ahead Whangarei can look forward tostill more work after frigate 10 iscomplete.' he said.SEAHAWK HELICOPTERUPGRADE CONTRACTThe Minister for Defence, Mr IanMcLachlan, announced in late Marchthat a contract for over $ 100 millionhad been signed to acquire andto integrate forward lookinginfra-red, electronic support andcountermeasures equipment forthe Navy's sixteen Seahawkhelicopters.Navy S-70B-2 helicopter at the recentlaunch of the Australian Post 50thanniversary postage stamp. (RAN)Mr McLachlan said the upgrade contractwith Hawker de Havilland Victoria Ltdwould provide a sensor suite to enhancethe protection and combat effectivenessof the Seahawk helicopters, whichoperate from the Royal Australian Navy'ssix Adelaide class frigates."The selected equipment will be fullyintegrated into the aircraft's weapon systemto provide a significantly improved ability todetect and identify potential threats, and toavoid or counter them." he said.These new systems will operate at overthe horizon distances, in all weatherconditions, at day or night Under anothercontract the same equipment will also beused for the new Super Seaspritehelicopters, which are being acquiredfrom Kaman Aerospace of the USA forthe Navy's ANZAC frigates.Hawker de Havilland Victoria Ltd will bethe prime contractor and will conductmost of the installation work in Australia.RLM Systems in Melbourne will conductmuch of the software integration for thehelicopter's weapon system and modifythe Seahawk software support centre.CSC Australia will complete themodification of the Seahawk simulator inNowra. Australian industry will also beinvolved in providing the through lifesupport for most of the procuredsystems.The new equipment is planned to beoperational in the Seahawk helicopters by2002.SECRETARY OF THENAVY NAMES THIRDSEAWOLF SUBMARINESecretary of the Navy John H.Dalton has announced his decisionto name the third and finalsubmarine of the Seawolf class forformer President Jimmy Carter.JIMMY CARTER (SSN 23) will honor the39th President of the United States.President Carter is the only U.S.president ever to qualify in submarines.He has distinguished himself by a lifetimeof public service, and has long ties to theNavy and the submarine force. He is a1946 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy,served as an officer aboard submarineswhile in uniform, and served ascommander-in-chief from 1977-1981while in the Oval Office.The three submarines of the Seawolf classare the most capable, multi-missionsubmarines ever built They combinespeed, stealth, a large and varied weaponsload and the latest in hi-tech electronicsto provide unlimited flexibility whileoperating "Forward.. .From the Sea." Theships have an overall length of 353 feet abeam of 40 feet displace 9.150 tons and acrew size of approximately 130.With mission and growth capability farbeyond previous submarines, the robustdesign uniquely supports missions such assurveillance, intelligence collection.special warfare, covert cruise missilestrike, mine warfare, anti-submarine andanti-surface ship warfare. In addition to itsformidable open ocean presence, theSeawolf class is also a highly capableshallow water warfare platform, settingthe standard for submarine technologyinto the next century. Its inherent stealth,coupled with state-of-the-art sensors andadvanced combat systems, make it thebenchmark for underwater excellence.JIMMY CARTER'S flexibility and impressivecapabilities will provide the Navy with anundersea weapons platform to operate inany scenario against any threat — fromunder arctic ice to shallow water.Armed with the battle-proven Tomahawkcruise missiles .JIMMY CARTER will be ableto safely conduct deep strike missionswhile submerged far off an enemy's coastJIMMY CARTER will also carry the Mark48 advanced capability torpedo, the mostreliable torpedo in the world for useagainst surface ships and submarines.With twice as many torpedo tubes and a30 percent increase in weapons magazinesize compared to the previous Los Angelesclass submarines. JIMMY CARTER will beeminently capable of establishing andmaintaining battle space dominance.Secretary Dalton hosted President andMrs. Carter at a naming ceremony for theboat on 27 April. No previous ships havebeen named JIMMY CARTER.UPHOLDERSUBMARINES GO TOCANADAThe Royal Navy's four redundantUpholder class submarines are toget a fresh lease of life with theCanadian Navy.The diesel-electric submarines will go toCanada as part of an eight-year leasingdeal, which includes a support andtraining package to provide work forBritish industry, plus an option for theCanadians to purchase the submarinesoutright.The government of Canada announced itsintention, subject to final negotiations, tolease all four of the Upholder classsubmarines for a period of eight years.Canada has chosen to acquire thesubmarines via a lease with an option topurchase as this is the most satisfactorysolution for them.In an arrangement worth some 610million Canadian dollars to the UK. workwill be generated for various UKcompanies in reactivating the submarinesand for GEC Marine at Barrow who willbe providing the technical and logisticsupport including the provision oftraining to Canada.This arrangement represents the mostpractical and cost effective manner ofsecuring the future of the submarines andis a strong indication of the closerelationship between the UK and Canada.FOURTH COLLINS CLASSSUBMARINE LAUNCHEDDECHAINEUX, the fourthsubmarine in the Collins class, andthe first to be built and outfitted atdifferent Australian shipyards, waslaunched in Port Adelaide on 13March.The Minister for Defence. Mr IanMcLachlan. in his keynote address,described the Collins class as having thepotential to be as fine a conventionalsubmarine as there is in the world today.Speaking during the ceremony at theAustralian Submarine Corporationheadquarters at Outer Harbour, theMinister referred to what he called"exaggerated" and "nationallyirresponsible" comments on the project"It is sometimes overlooked that theearly Fill fighter aircraft was beset withproblems, yet it turned out to be one ofthe great strike aircraft in the history ofaviation." Mr McLachlan said. "We have aclear plan to bring these submarines intoservice with a proven operationalcapability which will be enhanced on acontinuing basis."The Minister said that HMAS COUJNS hadbeen successfully deployed to Malaysiarecently, and he looked forward to WALLER(launched last year) and DECHAINEUXjoining their sister submarines."DECHAINEUX and her predecessorsare helping to keep Australia at theforefront of submarine technology andcapability well into the 21st century." MrMcLachlan emphasised the importance ofgovernment, industry and defenceworking together to further develop thetechnology, knowledge and industrialinfrastructure."It would be infantile to pretend, on aproject as complex as this, that somethings could not have been done better.These lessons - about projectmanagement about design, about how werun our acquisition system, all these areasand more can be used to improve howDefence manages future major projects.Certainly, we put a great deal of effortinto making sure we are able constantlyto improve our project management. Weneed to build a defence industry thatmeets or surpasses world standards onquality, value for money, besides deliveringa product on time." Mr McLachlan said."Australia has a strategic asset ofenormous importance in its submarinebuilding capability. We cannot afford tolet this capability disappear simplybecause the current submarine buildingcontract will come to an end.That is whyI announced in the Strategic Review thatthe Defence Department is developing anenhanced submarine design based on theCollins class. That work will provide thebasis for any future decisions Governmentwill make on acquiring even more capablesubmarines." the Minister said.The submarine was formally named at theceremony by Mrs Mary Purbrick. widowof the late Captain Emile Dechaineux.who died when HMAS AUSTRAUA was hitby a kamikaze bomber in the Leyte Gulfin 1944. The ceremony was attended byother members of the Dechaineux familyand by retired Navy personnel whoserved with the Captain during WorldWar II.ROYAL YACHT GOESTO EDINBURGHThe Royal Yacht BRITANNIA willbe preserved in the Port of Leithin Edinburgh, British DefenceSecretary George Robertsonrecently revealed.Subject to satisfactory negotiations.BRITANNIA will be sold to an independentcharitable trust being promoted by ForthPorts PLC. The trust will takeresponsibility for its preservation, andrunning it as a visitor attraction andvenue for prestige conferences.Mr Robertson said: "This has been anenormously difficult decision for me. BothForth Ports and the Manchester ShipCanal Company offered extremely good,well thought out and detailed ideas. Eitherwould have allowed BRITANNIA to bepreserved successfully and with dignity."I am grateful to both organisations forputting together such excellent proposals- but sadly there is only one Britannia."I was particularly impressed byEdinburgh's proposal to retain the yachtas a 'living' entity by using her for prestigeconferences, as well as the moretraditional public display. I haveconcluded, on balance, that the Port ofLeith, which hosts many visiting ships,including a large number of Naval vessels,is on balance the more appropriate restingplace for this historic national asset"BRITANNIA was expected to leavePortsmouth shortly after and. followingessential work to adapt her to her new role,will be open to the public later in 1988.HMAS NEWCASTLEHELLFIRE PASSThe Royal Australian Navy guidedmissile frigate (FFG), HHASNEWCASTLE sailed from theFleet Base East on 27 March for athree month operation throughsouth east Asia. The deploymentincluded participation at theHellfire Pass Memorial openingon the Burma Thailand Railwayby Prime Minister John Howardon 24 April.NEWCASTLE'S crew provided a fittingnaval tribute to the memorial openingwith a 40 strong contingent and acatafalque party dressed in fullceremonial uniform.Two weeks earlier NEWCASTLEhadarrived back in Sydney after a successfulSouthern Ocean operation resulting inthe apprehension of a foreign fishingvessel alleged to have been operatingillegally in Australia's Exclusive EconomicZone off Heard Island.HMAS NEWCASTLE rendezvoused inDarwin with the Western Australianbased FFG. HMAS CANBERRA, with bothships proceeding 'up top' to beginexercises with neighbouring Singaporeanand Indonesian Navies.HMCS ORIOLEEPIC JOURNEY TOSOUTH PACIFICThe Canadian Navy's sail-trainingship. HMCS ORIOLE has concludedher epic, 31,000-kilometre (17,000nautical-mile) journey to Australiaand New Zealand.For the voyage, the navy's oldestcommissioned vessel carried a mixedship's company of 22 personnel, including10 trainees. ORIOLE set sail 13 Octoberand returned seven months later, on 13May. 1998.The 15.000km route took the ketchriggedyacht south to San FranciscoCalifornia then west for 14 days to PearlHarbor Hawaii; south again to PalmyrahasIsland. Kiribati Western Samoa. FijiNew Caledonia, and Lord Howe Island;arriving in Sydney. Australia, overChristmas.PAGE 13PAGE I I


Commissioned in 1952. the 46-year-oldvessel is at home on the high seas, able tocarry 60 days of provisions for 22 crewand equipped to produce 500 gallons offresh water daily.Under the command of Lt.-Cmdr. MichaelBrooks, two separate teams of 10 navalcadets who have graduated from publicuniversities across Canada were trainedby 10 permanent crew members. Sailingin the steel-hulled training ship is a uniqueand memorable training experience.Moreover, the 90 tonne ship is one of themost cost-effective seamanship trainingvessels in the Canadian Navy - the voyagerequiring less than 500 gallons of fuel oil.After the crew change in Australia.ORIOLE participated in Tall Ships Australia1998, the largest gathering of tall ships inthe southern hemisphere since Australia'sBicentennial in 1988. The event featuredtall ships from around the world from Jan.19 to 25. It was a "grand spectacle ofinternational camaraderie".ORIOLE also represented Canada in theSydney-to-Hobart Australia Day' sailingrace, winning the event on I February, asthe first of the tall ships' to reach theDerwent River and Hobart.The ship thenattended the Bass and Flinders BicentennialMaritime Festival and in late Februaryarrived in Wellington. New Zealand, forthe International Festival of the Arts.With five naval cadet trainees from theRoyal Australian Navy, and five from theRoyal New Zealand Navy. ORIOLE beganher three-month trek homeward on 3Mar. En route she made port visits to;Chatham Island. New Zealand; FrenchPolynesia. Tahiti; Bora Bora; Kiribati; andPearl Harbor Hawaii.COSCOM'S PATROLVESSELS NOWOPERATIONALFour Patrol Vessels (PVs) of theRepublic of Singapore Navy's (RSN)Coastal Command (COSCOM)were commissioned on 7 February,1998, by the Deputy Prime Ministerand Minister for Defence, Dr TonyTan, at Tuas Naval Base.The commissioning of these four vessels.RSS RESILIENCE. RSS UNITY. RSSSOVEREIGNTY AND RSS JUSTICE, s:gnifiedthat the vessels were now operational.The RSN has to date acquired a series of12 PVs.The first six PVs had already beencommissioned and were operating underthe RSN's 189 Squadron. The vesselscommissioned in February were deployedunder the 182 Squadron of COSCOM.THE NAVYThe remaining two PVs of the series willbe commissioned later this year.COSCOM. set up in 1988. is responsiblefor the security of Singapore's territorialwaters and the conduct of all navaloperations in the Singapore Straits.Besides the PVs, COSCOM also operatesMine Countermeasure Vessels, inshorepatrol boats and a diving support vessel. Itworks closely with other governmentagencies such as the Maritime and PortAuthority of Singapore and the PoliceCoast Guard to ensure the security andsafety of Singapore territorial waters andthe Singapore Straits.In addition to the operational roles, oneof the PVs commissioned. RSS UNITY.has been assigned as a Naval TechnologyEvaluation Ship (NTES).The test ship willenable the RSN to conduct trials underactual operating conditions. This willcontribute to the RSN maintaining itscutting edge in naval operations.INDIAN ANDSINGAPORE NAVIES INASW EXERCISEThe Indian Navy (IN) and theRepublic of Singapore Navy(RSN)conducted a twelve-day AntisubmarineWarfare (ASW) exerciseoff Kochi (Cochin), South-westIndia, in March 1998.The exercise was the fifth in the series ofbilateral ASW exercises which wasstarted in 1994.It involved a series of graduated shoretrainingactivities and professionaldiscussions, followed by a series ofrigorous ASW exercises at sea. TwoMissile Corvettes. RSS VALIANT and RSSVALOUR, and two Anti-Submarine PatrolVessels. RSS BRAVE and KSS DAUNTLESS.from the RSN participated in the ASWexercise together with the IN submarine.INS SHALKI. and the IN Frigate. INSGODAVARI.The ASWexercise series reflects notonly the commitment of the RSN and INto train together for mutual benefit, butalso the good ties and cooperationbetween the two navies.SEARCH FOR THEMONITORNavy divers deployed for USS MONITORexpedition departed Little Creek.Va.. May25. for an expedition to the site wherethe Civil War ironclad USS MONITOR liessubmerged off Cape Hatteras. N.C.PAGE 14Aboard deep submergence support shipKELLIE CHOUEST. 40 Navy divers willwork with the National Oceanographicand Atmospheric Administration(NOAA) 230 feet below the oceansurface to stabilise the MONITOR Theteam will also recover artifacts as well asthe ship's rudder during the three-weekmission.The most significant naval engagement ofthe Civil War took place March 9. 1862.off Sewells Point between two ironclads,USS MONITOR and CSS VIRGINIA. Thebattle ended indecisively after severalhours of fire exchanged at close range.Shortly after this epic battle, theMONITOR sank off the coast of NorthCarolina while being towed to PortRoyal. SC.RFA SEA CHIEFTAINROLLS FORWARDThe first of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary's twoRoll-on Roll-off ships chartered by theMinistry of Defence from STENA FerriesLtd. has been named.RFA SEA CHIEFTAIN was officially namedby Mrs Carol Squire, wife of Cdre DavidSquire. Commodore RFA. at a Ro-Roexhibition and conference organised bySTENA in Gothenburg. Sweden.As Mrs Squire performed the naming inGothenburg, a champaigne bottlesimultaneously crashed against the ship'shull at the Societa Esercizio Cantierishipyard at La Specia. Italy, where she is inthe final stages of construction and fittingout. An Italian band played the nationalanthems as the event was show live at theexhibition on a giant video screen.SEA CHIEFTAIN will join RFA SEACRUSADER, chartered in 1996. inproviding the UK's rapid reaction forceswith an enhanced strategic sealiftcapability - transporting militaryhardware, vehicles and equipment atshort notice to support operations andexercises across the globe. She will enterservice in June, based at MarchwoodMilitary Port. Southampton.Welcoming RFA SEA CHIEFTAIN at today'sceremony. Cdre Squire said; "Thechartering of RFA SEA CHIEFTAIN - and asister vessel which is expected to replaceRFA SEA CRUSADER in November -provides a capable, cost-effective andimmediate answer to the UK's strategicsealift requirement for the forseeablefuture."USS MISSOURIGOES TO MEMORIALASSOCIATIONSecretary of the Navy John H. Daltonsigned the donation contract on 4 Mayofficially transferring the historicbattleship MISSOURI (BB 63) to the USSMISSOURI Memorial Association (MMA)of Honolulu. Hi.The Association planed totow the ship from Bremerton. Wash., toHawaii in mid-May to transform it into amemorial museum at Pearl Harbor."I am pleased to see this transfercompleted," commented Mr. Dalton."I amconfident that the MISSOURI MemorialAssociation and the people of the state ofHawaii will provide the battleshipMISSOURI with the honored position inhistory that she holds."Prior to her final voyage across the PacificOcean. MISSOURI was towed to amooring on the Columbia River atAstoria, Ore., where fresh watereliminated marine saltwater organismsthat had accumulated on the ship's hullover the years. The battleship wasexpected to arrive in her new home ofPearl Harbor by 22 June where MightyMo will be repainted and refurbished bythe MMA into the Battleship MISSOURIMemorial, scheduled to open to thepublic in January 1999.MISSOURI was commissioned on 11 June.1944. and served her country from 1944to 1955. In 1986. following herrecommissioning and modernization, sheserved for an additional six years to helpTHE NAVYprovide for an expanded 600-ship Navydemonstrating global U.S. naval presence.MISSOURI is best remembered as asymbol of peace. It was on her teakwooddeck on 2 September. 1945. that Gen.Douglas MacArthur officially acceptedthe formal "Instrument of Surrender"from the Japanese to end World War II.The importance of her role aspeacekeeper was highlighted by her lastoperational mission when she visitedPearl Harbor in honor of the 50th yearremembrance of those who died on 7December. 1941. It was a rare sight to seethe Arizona Memorial and MISSOURI,symbols of the "beginning and the end" ofU.S. involvement in World War II. in thesame port.OVERHAUL OFUSS NIMITZNewport News Shipbuilding has beenawarded a contract by the U. S. Navy toperform refueling and overhaul work onthe nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USSNIMITZ (CVN 68).The contract, valued atapproximately $ 1.2 billion, was signed byNavy and Newport News Shipbuildingofficials on 30 April. 1998.NIMITZ, the lead ship of the class, is alsothe first of its class to undergo this majorlife-cycle milestone. The ship arrived inlate May 1998. with the workperformance period scheduled to lastapproximately 33 months."This is a very significant contract forNewport News Shipbuilding." said NNSVice President for Aircraft Carriers MikePetters. "We are looking forward to theship returning to her birthplace for herone and only refueling in a 50-year lifespan."In addition to the refueling of both of theship's reactors, there will be significantmodernisation work. This includes amajor upgrade of the island house thatwill involve the shipyard removing the toptwo levels of the island house andreplacing them. This action is driven bythe installation of a new antenna mastthat runs down along the island and willprovide for better radar capabilities. Theshipyard is also integrating a new radartower aboard NIMITZ.Maintenance and repair work will beperformed below the ship's waterline toinclude the application of a new paint. Inaddition, the shipyard will be replacingnearly 3.000 valves and overhaulinganother 600 in various ship systems.More than 3,200 Newport NewsShipbuilding employees will be workingaboard NIMITZ during peak periods ofthe overhaul and refueling project,performance.USS NIMITZ was built by Newport NewsShipbuilding.The ship's keel was laid on 22June. 1968. the anniversary of the Battleof Midway. Christened on 13 May. 1972 byMrs. Catherine NIMITZ Lay. daughter ofthe ship's namesake. Fleet AdmiralChester W. NIMITZ. the ship wascommissioned in 1975. NIMITZ's firstdeployment began on July 7, 1976 whenit departed Norfolk. Va.. for theMediterranean Sea.HAMS TOBRUK. sails on another re-supply voyage to Bougainville. The ship departed from Sydney in midMay. loaded with both supplies and three cocooned helicopters. (Photo - LSPH Steve Gumett)PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYOBSERVATIONSFrom Geoffrey EvansSydney InquiryIn August 1997 the Defence Ministerrequested the Defence Sub Committeeof the Parliamentary Joint Committeeon Foreign Affairs. Defence and Tradeto investigate and report on thecircumstances of the sinking of HMASSYDNEY off the West Australian coast on19 November 1941. with particularreference to:the extent to which all availablearchival material has been fullyinvestigated and whether anyrelevant material has beenmisplaced or destroyed;- all relevant archival materialavailable from allied and formerenemy forces; the desirability andpracticability of conducting asearch for the HMAS SYDNEY andthe extent to which theCommonwealth Governmentshould participate in such a searchshould one be deemed desirableand practical;- the practicability of accuratelylocating the grave of an allegedbody from HMAS SYDNEY whichwas allegedly buried on ChristmasIsland:the identification of any scientificprocedures now available whichcould verify the identity of humanremains alleged to be those of acrewman of HMAS SYDNEYburied on Christmas Island if andwhen such remains were located;andmeasures which should be takento protect and honour the finalresting places, if and when located,of HMAS SYDNEY and KSNKORMORAN.The committee of inquiry formed tocarry out the task received numeroussubmissions from relatives and otherinterested parties and arranged to havehearings in Canberra and several Statecapitals.The writer spent several hours atthe Melbourne hearing when regrettablythe committee was short on numbers,the chairman C Senator DavidMacGibbon and one other member beingpresent while another was linked byconferencing telephone.It is not likely the real reason whySYDNEY, a 6" light cruiser, sank aftersinking KORMORAN. a well-armedmerchant raider, will ever be known as allSYDNEY'S people perished: while most ofKORMORAN'S ships company survivedand reports of the engagement wereobtained at the time, it is asking too muchto expect the memories of those whowere involved and are still alive today tobe absolutely reliable after 57 years. (Theactual engagement is described in somedetail - from reports by survivors -in "Australia in the War of 1939-45- volume I Royal Australian Navy1939-42")Surprise has been expressed that therewere no survivors from SYDNEY'Scomplement of 645 (a body recoveredsome months later from a carley floatbelieved to be from the cruiser is subjectof the present inquiry - reference 4).Many ships were lost with all handsduring World War II while HMS HOOD.with more than twice the complement ofSYDNEY, was destroyed in a matter ofminutes with only three survivors - threefrom over fourteen hundred.It is the writer's personal view that HMASSYDNEY was a casualty of war like a greatmany other warships and merchant shipsand should be left undisturbed wherevershe lies. One would not wish to see anAustralian version of the TITANIC disaster- a tragedy at the time and now acommercial money maker.The ABC Reaches BackFrom time to time ABC televisionpromotional ads have shown a line ofsailors against an HMAS BRISBANEbackground.The writer is reasonably surethat the "sailors" are in fact members of asea cadet contingent he took back toBritain in 1952 to represent Australia atthe 2nd Empire Training Course the lastof its kind so far as the writer knows.Despite a call to the ABC. the reason fora 1952 black and white photographappearing on television in 1998 remains amystery.MisleadingOn 7 April under the heading "Forces inturmoil as top brass resign" a Canberracorrespondent of The Age newspaperreported the appointment ofVice AdmiralChris Barrie as the next Chief of theDefence Force, replacing General Bakerwho was due to retire. The article wenton to say that the Chiefs of the Army andthe Air Force had resigned because "it isunderstood that both men left theAustralian Defence Force as a result ofAdmiral Barries appointment" (AdmiralBarrie - Vice Chief of the ADF and theService Chiefs were logical candidates forthe top job.)The ministerial press release announcingthe changes together with otherconsequential appointments did not sayanything about resignations. Simply thatthe appointments would take effect "onthe date of retirement of their respectivepredecessors". The three outgoingofficers, all of whom were thanked by theMinister for their distinguished service,were approaching the end of theirpreviously announced terms of office.The WaterfrontWhatever the outcome of the latestdisplay of bitterness in the seeminglyendless struggle for power on theAustralian waterfront, struggle in whichso far there have been no winners, onlylosers - not least the Australiancommunity - the extensive publicityattached to the display (not to mentionthe legal costs to the participants ) maypossibly have created an atmosphere, inwhich commonsense can play a part. Oronce media attention lapses will thepublic lose interest and allow a situationsapping Australia's well-being to continue?Although the adoption of an adversarialstance is customary in Australia - startingwith the parliaments, continuing throughthe legal system and into industrialrelations where in some industriesincluding the waterfront it has beencarried to extremes - it need notinevitably be so as an increasing numberof people appreciate the damage inflictedon their country by continuing feudsrooted in the past.The Australian waterfront - the writerincludes both shore-based and seagoingelements - is not a major user of labourcompared with many industries and giventhe value of the commodities that passthrough the country's ports, but it iscapital intensive, the providers of capitalnot unnaturally want a reasonable returnon their investment. For some time, twoor three major firms have handledcargoes employing labour supplied fromone organisation - the Maritime Union ofAustralia (MUA) which also looks afteressential members of the sea goingelement.With both the main political partiesdetermined to sell the AustralianNational Line and to depend even morethan at present on overseas shippinginterests to move Australia's trade, apolicy opposed by the MUA amongothers, further feuding on the waterfrontwould appear to be inevitable.Nevertheless there have been faint signsthat the futility of the existing situation isrecognised on both sides and that somechanges in long-standing practices areinevitable. The government should standback and encourage discussion that willalmost certainly require compromise ifthe foolishness is to end.B.A. SantamariaThe Navy League of Australia lost aninfluential supporter and the writer agood friend with the death of Mr. B. A.Santamaria in February this year.Mr. Santamaria's remarkable career,particularly in the areas of politics andreligion, has been well documented andneed not be repeated here.Perhaps not so well known was hisinterest and activities in defence and inmaritime affairs - in the Navy, theshipping industry and in the waterfront ingeneral - the latter no doubt because ofhis close involvement over many yearswith trade union matters.HMAS SYDNEYThe writer first met Mr. Santamaria morethan 25 years ago and over the yearsenjoyed innumerable discussions with thisunusual man, not least during the writer'speriod as Federal President of the NavyLeague. The last meeting - primarily todiscuss growing waterfront problems inMelbourne - took place in October1997. just before Mr. Santamaria wasadmitted to hospital for what proved tobe a terminal illness.Hopefully our association brought mutualbenefits - to the Navy League because ofMr. Santamaria's exceptional knowledgeof political and industrial affairs and thepersonalities involved in these spheres;and Mr. Santamaria I think benefited fromthe Navy League's range of contacts inthe maritime community.The Santamaria eloquence was well knowand demonstrated when he shared theplatform at meetings arranged by theLeague in Melbourne for twodistinguished visitors to Australia -Admiral Bud Zumwalt. former Chief ofUnited States Naval Operations, andAdmiral of the Fleet Lord Hill Norton,who had been Britain's Chief of DefenceStaff. Bob Santamaria was almost certainlyresponsible for the large audience onboth occasions and the resulting publicityfor the visiting speakers and the Navy.Intensively patriotic, an attribute admiredby the writer was Bob Santamaria's abilityto look ahead and to advocate solutionsto problems he believed likely to bedetrimental to Australia's future - even ifthe solution was unpalatable.Mr Santamaria was accorded a StateFuneral by the CommonwealthGovernment and it was a mostimpressive occasion in terms of aattendance and religious splendour. Thewriter could not help wonderinghowever what Bob Santamaria. a man heknew to be a genuinely humble person,would have thought about it all.PAGE 16PAC,F 17


NEW ZEALAND -SPECIAL FEATUREAFTER THE 1997DEFENCE WHITE PAPERBy Commander Richard Jackson RNZNNew Zealand's November 1997 DefenceWhite Paper outlined the government'splans for the future force structure of theNew Zealand Defence Force. The goodnews of the 1997 White Paper is thatNew Zealand's defence spending will rise,to cover new capital equipment, anincreased operating tempo and improvedpayOverall, the White paper confirms thatthe NZDF's force structure will include:a. a three frigate combat force for theNavy, and a commitment to the othernaval capabilities of MCM. NCS. sealift.RAS. hydrography and oceanography.b. maintenance of an air combatcapability, with the prospect ofreplacing the Skyhawks in the period2007/2010. As well the capabilities ofmaritime air patrol, air transport andtactical vertical lift are to bemaintained by electronic upgrades forthe Orions. a commitment to C-130Jsand extending the air frame life of theIroquois helo fleet.c. Reviving the Army's general landcombat capability by enlarging theinfantry battalions to four-companyunits (rather than the present three)and replacing the old M113 armouredpersonnel carriers, as well as acquiringnew reconnaissance vehicles, tacticalcommunications and infantry weapons.Generally these force structure policiesare sound, except for the RNZN. Thereduction to a three frigate Navy is ashock. Despite the words in the WhitePaper, the Navy's assessment was thatfour frigates are necessary to bothsustain deployments and provide thenecessary training capacity.However, the chain of events that led tothe three frigate decision, and - almostconcurrently - the decision to not ordera third Anzac frigate, were the stuff ofpolitical drama. It appears that the RNZNlost the interservice/Treasury argumentabout a four-frigate fleet during theDefence Assessment process even beforethe White Paper was agreed by Cabinet.The sacrifice of the fourth frigatereflected concerns by the other twoTHE NAVYServices that there would not be enoughcapital money to buy both replacementcombat aircraft and a fourth frigate. Butthen the extra blow, of not ordering athird Anzac by November 1997. was theresult of political position taken by thejunior coalition party.So the fleet now has to reduce to meetthe government's new policy of a threefrigate force: WAIKATO - already reducedto an alongside training ship at extendednotice - is to pay off in July 98:WELLINGTON will pay off as TE MANA isdelivered, but CANTERBURY will steam onuntil a third modern frigate (if ordered)can be deliveredThe other shock for the Navy from thenew Defence White Paper is the delay tothe conversion of the CHARLES UPHAM.the military sea lift ship. The UPHAM wasbought in late 1994, a Mercandian classNorth Sea Ro/Ro trader. On arrival inNew Zealand she was painted grey,given some additional communicationsequipment and commissioned in October1995. Then she was deployed for varioustrials and Army exercises. On returningfrom a South Pacific deployment, withvirtually no cargo, she was caught in astorm and found to roll sharply, tooquickly for personnel safety, while herhigh sides caught the wind and made hernearly unmanageable. Navy knew that tofunction properly as a military sea lift shipUPHAM would need extensive conversion- more water tight compartments fordamaged stability (which would alsoprovide accommodation for troops) awater ballast system and a flight deck(which like the British RFA ARGUS wouldbe built over a concrete slab thusreducing the metacentric height andhence the rate of roll).It is not that the UPHAM is unsuitable asa vehicle transport (after all a sister shipdoes the Wellington-Lyttelton run everyweek of the year) but in the longdistances of the South Pacific she cannotreasonably undertake passages in a lightlyloaded or empty condition, in her currentconfiguration.Coincident with this experience, theRNZN was at its nadir for marineengineers, so it was convenient in 1996 tolay the ship up pending conversion. Yet.although the design studies had beenundertaken. UPHAM's corversion hasnow been delayed to 2001/02; in theinterim she is being chartered outcommercially. She was decommissionedin March, ready for chartering. However,critics of the Navy take the UPHAM's fateas proof of 'manifestly inadequate advice'from the Navy, thus giving themammunition to undermine the RNZN'scredibility. Yet the ship was a high priorityfor the Army back in 1994. it could bevaluable to the ADF (in view of the LPAproject and the ADF's new emphasis inamphibious capabilities) while it wouldalso be a major deep draft commandopportunity within the RNZN. It appearsthat the timely conversion of the shipgained little joint service support duringthe Defence assessment process.But the White Paper does concede thatsome money has to be spent on theNavy; the plan for future capital projectsincludes the following:* Kauri Point ammunition storageupgrade* bridge training simulator" evolved Seasparrow. towed array sonarand torpedo modifications (ie a semi-WIP for the RNZN Anzac frigates)' a fifth maritime helicopter in 2003* a remote minehunting system* provision for the Anzacs' midlifeupgrade, and* a third surface combatant by 2006On the face of it, this may seem a goodlist. In fact it is just sufficient to keep theNavy ticking over by upgrading theAnzacs' weapons, ensuring there is anattrition aircraft available to thehelicopter force. continuing thedevelopment of our MCM capability andproviding for two key pieces ofinfrastructure. Inevitably, the inclusion inthe long term plan of funds for a thirdfrigate has already attracted adversepolitical comment.So what next for the RNZN. after the1997 White Paper? The Chief of NavalStaff has made it clear in one of hispersonal memos to the fleet as a whole(nicknamed WADS 'With All Despatch )that the RNZN's priority now has to betraining. HMNZS WELLINGTON has beendesignated as a training ship (ironically,fresh out of refit, she is now equippedwith Phalanx CIWS and other newequipment) while the training staff atHMNZS TAMAKI are seeking innovativeways to increase training effectiveness. Inthe meantime. MONOWAI will pay off inApril and TUI has already gone out ofservice; both are being replaced byRESOLUTION, with a consequentialvaluable saving in complements.HMNZS CANTERBURY, sails from SydneyNote l/it frigate's CIWS. fitted atop thehelicopter hanger(Photo - CMDR Richard jackson)Launch of the second Anzac class frigate. TE MANA.IPhoto - CMDR Richard jackson)THE NAVYHMNZS TE KAHA. (RNZN)HMNZS ENDEAVOUR.(Photo - CMDR Richard jackson)PAGE 19PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYWestland Wasp (RNZN)The specific bright spot in the RNZN atthe moment is the Sea Sprite helicopterprogram. The first of four SH-2FSeasprites has been delivered and testflown. These are ex-USN machines thatare entering service as our interimhelicopter, so that the Wasp could beretired in April (after 32 years' service!).The F-model Seasprites will operateoff TE KAHA and TE MANA as wellas WELLINGTON. CANTERBURY andENDEAVOUR, until the first of the G-model aircraft arrive in 2000, at about thesame time as the RAN Seasprites arrive.So it is not all gloomy for the RNZN.Theservice is determined that its individualships will be credible, both in terms ofweapons and sensors, and in terms ofwell trained ships' companies. I amconfident that after the shock of the 1997White Paper we can resume our placeamong the navies of the region. Back inWellington Naval Staff will have sometough battles to fight to get a third Anzacfrigate ordered, but I hope they don't losesight of making the case for a four-frigatefleet. Yet in the meantime the RNZN willhave to look ; nwards. concentrating ontraining and on its people - they remainthe greatest single factor.WASP FINALEby Lieutenont Andy J Nicholas, RNZNf From Navy Today. RNZN News)Asthe twilight years of the Wasphelicopter draws to an end let us brieflyreflect on a quite remarkable 32 years ofactive service in the Royal New ZealandNavy.The Westland Wasp was developed fromthe Saunders Roe P531 which first flew in1958. Originally named the Sea Scout, theWasp was always intended to be alightweight anti-submarine torpedocarrying helicopter for - use onboardsmaller warships such as frigates anddestroyers. As the primary ASW weaponsystem with no detection or trackingsystems, emphasis was placed uponattaining a real rapid response capabilityor put another way. being able to delivera torpedo in the shortest possible time.Prior to 1966. the Royal New ZealandNavy had operated ships without FlightDecks. The purchase of HMNZSWAIKATO in 1966 was the RNZN's firststep into modern Naval aviation. Ofcourse. New Zealand had been activelyinvolved with carrier-borne aircraftduring WW2. notably in the PacificTheatre but those aircraft were generallyintegrated into the units of the biggernavies, and New Zealand never operatedor manned its own air-capable ships.The first Wasps. NZ390I and 3902 werepurchased with WAIKATO and inconsideration of the RNZNs limitedexperience and size, provision ofmaintenance-support, and personnel andaircrew training was delegated to theRoyal New Zealand Air Force. Thisarrangement has continued successfullyto the present day with Naval SupportFlight (or more commonly Wasp Flight)being formed as part of 3 SquadronRNZAF. manned by RNZN pilots andRNZAF maintainers.Wasp NZ3903 was purchased withHMNZS CANTERBURY in 1970. and thesethree aircraft continued until 1973 when3903 ditched following an engine failureoff North Head and was subsequentlywritten off during the salvage operation.As a replacement NZ 3904 waspurchased in 1977 having been leasedfrom the Royal Navy since 1974.Perhaps the most famous incident whichinvolved an RNZN Wasp was inNovember 1978. In atrocious weatherconditions 260 miles south of Bluff, aninjured Russian sailor from the fishingvessel Ardatov was winched andtransferred to WAIKATO. The followingmorning to be flown ashore to Bluff againin the Wasp.Air support for hydrographic operationswing the introduction into service ofMONOWAI was initially undertaken bythe RNZAF, but it soon became veryclear that with its large flight deck andfacilities, an embarked Wasp couldsignificandy help support the ship movingstores and survey parties ashore. By 1979Wasp Flights were regularly embarked insupport of surveys. Notably, in 1980MONOWAI and her Wasp were deployedto the Pacific to assist with the surveyingfor the ANZCAN Pan-Pacifictelecommunications cable.The early 1980s also s?w four Armillapatrols to the Persian Gulf, two byWAIKATO and two by CANTERBURY, eachtime with a Wasp embarked.During 1982 and 1983. four more Wasps.NZ3905. 3906. 3907 and 3908 werepurchased with HMNZ ShipsWELLINGTON and SOUTHLAND, both ofwhich were air capable, bringing the totalnumber of Wasps to seven. The size ofWasp Flight similarly increased in lineresulting in four operational Flights tosupport the four frigates andhydrographic operations.In 1984 Wasp NZ3907 crashed atHobsonville airfield following an enginefailure and was repaired to an airworthycondition after sustaining significantdamage. Regular embarkation of WaspFlights into the Fleet tanker. HMNZSENDEAVOUR commenced after trials inmid 1988. In 1992 NZ3904 wasdestroyed after ingesting a boat cover inits rotor, an accident where the pilotswere lucky to survive. UnfortunatelyNZ3901 was lost when she ditched in theHauraki Gulf in April 1993, having lost tailrotor effectiveness. Being the oldest Waspand high in airframe hours it was deemeduneconomical to repair.With five now in service the mid 1980spurchase of ten ex RN airframes forspares was becoming very useful - theseten Wasps were surplus after the RNbegan to retire the aircraft. To make upfor losses the best and youngest of theseten Wasps was chosen to be rebuiltduring 1994. numbered NZ3909.1994 saw the final embarkation of Waspsto MONOWAI. The change in surveyingmethods reduced the demand for aregular embarked flight and the shortageof Wasps and pilots made this inincreasingly difficult task to support.Thereafter support has been provided bycivilian helicopters operating ashore.NZ3906 was withdrawn in 1995 becauseof ongoing excessive and incurablevibration problems.In 1996 WELLINGTON was to return tothe Persian Gulf as part of thepeacekeeping force, followed in 1997 byHMNZS CANTERBURY, each time withthe now desperately obsolete thoughindispensable Wasp embarked.1997 and 1998 witnessed the gradualreduction in the size of the Wasp fleet aspreparations for the retirement hasapproached. NZ 3902. with airframehours almost time expired waswithdrawn in early 1996 and is nowdestined for the Naval MuseumDevonportThroughout all this time the Wasp hasaccompanied RNZN Ships' deploymentsto the Pacific Islands including regularRaoul Island re-supply missions. Australia.Asia. The United States. Canada. TheMiddle East. The Indian Ocean. Europeand North Africa, through both the Suezand Panama Canals.The final four aircraft looking as good ifnot better than when they first arrived inNew Zealand and were flown togetherfor the last time in August 1997.incidentally, coinciding with the arrival inNew Zealand of the new frigate HMNZSTE KAHA. NZ3905 and 3909 werewithdrawn towards the end of 1997although this was not the end of theWasp's operational life when at shortnotice NZ 3907 was deployed withCANTERBURY to Bougainville in supportof the latest peace mission and painted inthe rather catchy orange colour schemetheflying baked bean! Thereafter. NZ3907continued ashore at Hobsonville. withNZ3908 embarked WELLINGTON untilApril 1998, when both aircraft wereofficially withdrawn from service.Whilst reminiscing on the remarkableservice that the Wasp has given us overthe last 32 years it is important to alsoremember that there have never been anyfatalities associated with Wasp service inNew Zealand. It is perhaps also fortunateto consider that the Wasp never sawaction whilst in New Zealand servicealthough in Royal Naval service in theFalklands War the Wasp achieved the onlyhelicopter submarine kill to date, cripplingthe Argentine SANTA FE with missiles.It is generally agreed that the Wasp is welldue for retirement, but it is probably lesswell known that the first utterings for thereplacement Naval helicopter began aslong ago as 1977. As the many peoplewho have been associated with the Waspsay a fond farewell with a tear in the eyeit must surely be agreed that the Wasphas performed well beyond theexpectations of 1966. Regrettably theRNZN is not going to have the honour ofbeing the last Wasp operator as this willgo to the Malaysian Navy.The Wasp has served us well and risen toevery occasion when called upon and forthat we can all be grateful. In reflectionthe condition, safety and availabilityrecord of the Wasp will be difficult tobetter and with this in mind, the RNZNcan and should feel very proud.SH-2F SEASPRITESENTER SERVICEThe Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN)has entered the interim phase of itsReplacement Naval Helicopter (RNH)project with the start of SH-2F Seaspriteflying training and the final retirement ofits obsolete Wasps.The SH-2F is intended to bridge the gapbetween the withdrawal of the Wasp andthe arrival of the SH-2G(NZ) SuperSeasprite - the definitive RNH - in late2000. It will also provide the NavalSupport Flight (administered by 3Squadron Royal New Zealand Air Force)with lead-in familiarisation and training inadvance of receiving the more capableSH-2G model.New Zealand announced the selection ofKaman Aerospace as preferred RNHtenderer in March last year. A $195million contract for the delivery of fourSH-2G(NZ) Super Seasprites was signedthree months later.The RNZN has chosen to procure newbuildSH-2Gs (rather than theremanufactured airframes contracted byAustralia for its SH-2G(A) variant) as arisk mitigation measure. Althoughremanufactured airframes are brought tozero-hours condition, the RNZNconsidered that unforeseen corrosion orfatigue problems in later life could impactmore seriously on the operability of itssmall fleetThe purchase agreement with Kamanincluded the supply of four SH-2Fs toreplace the Wasp in the short term.Having served with the RNZN for 32years, the Wasp is no longer economicallysupportable and will be formally retiredon 9 April.Arriving by sea last November, the firstSH-2F (NZ344I) was initially used fordeck interface trials aboard the newANZAC class frigate HMNZS TE KAHA.Theairframe subsequently completed acomprehensive restoration and inspectionprocedure (RIP) before a first check test-PAGE 20PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYLARC Y MAKES A COMEBACK!LARCV.The update of the four-wheel-drive andpropeller driven LARC V. is planned toextend their service lives by up to 10years.The project is one of ten LPA relatedactivities being conducted by the Army foroperations with the LPA. Total projectbudget is $ 15.247m with all elements duefor completion in late 1999. Other majorcomponents include minor modificationsto the LCM 8 landing craft, installing Armycommunications on the LPAs. lighterageequipment, trials and training, and cargoplanning. Industry estimates on the LARCre-engineering suggest a price-tag in theorder of approximately $2m.Army purchased the Americanmanufactured LARC Vs in 1964/65. Thevehicles proved both versatile anddependable craft, operating from thetropics t t the Antarctic. Each was capableof moving a 5 tonne payload of personneland cargo from ship to shore and transferpoints further inland. All were mothballedafter the Force Structure Review of 1991due to difficulty supporting the vehiclesageing 300 hp Cummins diesel enginebasedpower train.Wosp aboard HMNZS WAIKATO iRNZN)flight on 24 February. A formal roll-outceremony was held on 27 February.All three remaining SH-2Fs were deliveredin December. They are undergoing RIP.with reactivation expected to be completeby the end of July.Naval Flight Commander Lt Cdr JohnToon said: "The initial primary purposeof the SH-2F will be to train aircrew andmaintainers to operate the aircraft safely,both ashore and at sea as a front-lineoperational unit. Initially three aircrew -two pilots and one observer - will beconverted to type and invaluable supportmaintenance expertise will be providedfor our newly trained engineers."The establishment of an Observer Branchis a new departure for the RNZNbecause the Wasp was a pilot-onlyplatform. Although the RNZN is trainingits own observers, it has recruited twoex-UK Royal Navy observers to providea near-term capability."With a vastly improved range andendurance over the Wasp, the Seaspritewill effectively become the ship's eye inthe sky. able to search for. track andreport any surface contacts up to 100 nmahead." said Cdr Toon."Its primary role will be as a weaponsdelivery platform for anti-submarinewarfare, with the capability to carry two[Mk46] torpedoes, two [Mkll] depthcharges, or a combination of both. It alsocomes with a rescue hoist for search andrescue missions and has an impressiveexternal load-lifting capability."First-of-class flight trials aboardtheLeander class frigate HMNZSCANTERBURY - currently in the middleof an aviation upgrade - are due to startin early October. Trials aboard HMNZSTE KAHA are planned to start at the endof that month. The SH-2F is configuredwith a Canadian Marconi LN-66HPsurveillance radar, a Litton AN/ALR-66radar warning receiver and a TracorAN/ALE-39 chaff/flare dispenser.However, the SH-2F's limited lifespan islikely to mean constraints on missionsystemoperability."The facts are that in view of the shortservice life of the SH-2F - it will beretired when the SH-2G enters service -spare parts and support for the missionsystems will be limited and have to befunded from an already overburdenedoperating budget." said Cdr Toon."Careful prioritisation of support andeffort is the essence. It does notnecessarily follow, therefore, that all ofthe airframes will have all of thecapabilities all of the time." He added: "Itis important to keep the SH-2F inperspective in that it was only everintended as an interim solution to replacethe Wasp until the arrival of the SH-2G in2000."The aircraft is neither designed norconfigured to meet the capabilitiesintended ... for contributing to defenceoutputs as specified in the RNH purchaseagreement. Ultimately, the objective withthe -F is to hit the ground running withthe arrival of the -G at the millennium."The four SH-2G(NZ) aircraft will bedelivered with a mission system includinga Telephonies APS- I43PC radar. FLIRSystems' AQS-22 infra-red sensor andLitton LR-100 electronic supportmeasures. Alongside the existing range ofanti-submarine ordnance, the full-upRNH will also be equipped with theAGM-65 Maverick missile for anti-surfacewarfare operations.Following their withdrawal from service,the SH-2Fs will be broken down forspares. Long-term capital acquisitionplans, announced after last year's DefenceAssessment, call for the procurement of afifth SH-2G in the 2003 to 2005timeframe.The Army's veteran Lighter Amphibious type are being refitted to play a majorRe-supply Cargo Vehicle (LARC V) is role in the amphibious operations.planned to return to service by early nextyear in support of the Royal AustralianNavy's two 8000 tonne LPAs. KANIMBLAand MANOORA.Another 52 LARC Vs will be held inreserve. A Request For Tender for theupdated versions was issued on 5 March,the aim to replace the engine andOriginally built in the 1960s and ancillary systems in seven vehicles. Similarwithdrawn from service in the early 90sdue to supportability problems. 12 of theupgrades may be carried out on anotherthree to five LARC Vs.Four LARC Vs make group approach for a beach landing.Following the purchase of the two formerUSN Newport class tank landing ships,now redesignated LPAs. the need for alighter amphibious re-supply craft reemerged.In US service, the Newport classLSTs were designed to beach for thedischarge troops and equipment. Afterconversion to an LPA by Forgacs ofNewcastle, the vessels will not bePACS 11PAGE 23


THE NAVYHMAS MANOORA after refloavng in May. 1998. (Photo - ABPH Damian Pawcenko)beached, no longer expected to operateclose-in-shore. The original bow rampshave been removed, the bow doorssealed to provide additional space for thelarger flight deck, capable of operatingeither Army Chinooks. or storing LCM-8landing craft.The LARC V is the only piece ofequipment - land vehicle - in the defencePort quarter. HMAS MANOORA Changes made to the ship include a new helicopter hanger and midships superstructure, an enlarged flightdeck, flying control station, port and starboard quarter sponsons and remodelled stem (and LARC V entrance to the former deck). (Photo -ABPH Damian Pawcenko)inventory capable of crossing the surfline. It will be the first off the LPA. eitherby the port crane or stern gate, to supplya shore base. It will play a small butsignificant part in LPA operations. Theupdated LARC V prototype fit wasrequired by 30 June. 1988.. with trialscompleted by 14 September. The nextsix vehicles are for delivery byPAGE 2428 February. 1999. Minimum performancerequirements have called for a cruisingspeed of 8 knots in water and 50 km/hron land, with a cargo capacity of 4.536kg.and operating range of 128 km at sea and400km on lind. Occupational Health andSafety requirements introduced since theLARC Vs entered service more than 30years ago. have called for a reduction innoise levels to at least 85dBA at the rearof the vehiclesAs part of the programme. Army alsostipulated that the vehicles existingperformance on land and in water shouldnot be compromised by therefurbishment, with the craft required tomaintain the all important stability in themaritime environment. As well, the LARCVs new engine must remain supportablefor another 10 years, providing high levelsof craft availability, supportability andminimal downtime.MANOORA. the first of the convertedLPAs. is currently scheduled to return toservice in early 1999. followed byKANIMBLA. in mid year.After their return to service, the LARCVs will be stationed in the Townsville andCairns regions.• * • *THE NAVYIOWA'S LEGACYTHE SURFACE ACTION GROUPBy Mark SchweikertEasier to manoeuvre, cheap, verycapable and readily available themodern USN Surface Action Group(SAG) will usually be first on thescene when conflict flares. Thisreflects a greater emphasis andresponsibility assigned to surfaceships over more expensive supercarriers.Recently Australia played host to acollection of visiting USN warships butgiven the lack of an accompanying AircraftCarrier this visit went un-noticed by themedia. What they did not realise was thatthese ships form the backbone of theUSN and one of the most available anddeadly ship combinations in history. Theships, when operating together, form theUSN's current SAG. The ships visitingconsisted of a Ticonderoga class Cruiser,an Arhegh Burke class Destroyer, anImproved Spruance class Destroyer, aFFG-07 class Frigate, an Improved LosAngeles SSN and a support ship.During WW II the SAG concept sufferedat the hands of emerging land and carrierbased air power. This was evidenced bythe destruction of the US Pacific Fleet'sBattleships at Pearl Harbor, the sinking ofthe PRINCE OF WALES and REPULSE andthe sinking of the Japanese YAMATO SAG.Only now is the SAG starting to riseup out of the ashes of the WW IIexperience.Many would still write off the SAG infavour of the more glamorous CBG(Carrier Battle Group), much the subjectof movies and documentaries, but withthe US cutting back its carrier numbersmore emphasis and reliance will beplaced in the SAG to complete anunprecedented array of tasks. Those whowrite off the modern USN SAG would doso at their peril and possibly not realisehow technology has transformed thesurface combatant and the tasks that itcan now perform. But in order toappreciate the real firepower of themodern SAG one must concentrate onthe group as a whole and not as afragmented collection of individual ships.HISTORYOf the 32 gunned capital ships sunkduring WW II. only eight were sunk bytheir own kind, the rest by aircraft andsubmarines. Air power and Carrier poweradvocates used this fact to perpetuatethe ascent of the Aircraft Carrier andlater the CBG (Carrier Battle Group)concept as the centrepiece of navalwarfare. The employment of the CBGwith its flexibility and decisive firepower,confirmed the death of the SAG. Sincethen, a lack of air cover has always beenthe argument against sending surfaceships in harms way without a carrier.Surface ships were thus relegated topatrol work and escort duties. However,a revolution has occurred in naval warfarein the areas of C4ISR (Command.Control. Communications. Computers.Intelligence. Surveillance andReconnaissance) and weapons which hasprompted the re-birth of the SAG andgiven it a flexibility previously unheard of.The - e-birth of the SAG could be said tohave its origins in the same war thataborted the concept. The 1980s reactivationof the WW II Iowa classBattleships acted as the catalyst to the reformingof the SAG and gave it a newfuture. Only a Battleship (BB) couldprovide public and military legitimacy tothe SAG concept. With the right escorts,which technology was then providing, theSAG could conduct limited independentoperations even in the face of a moderateair threat.The BB formed the core unit ofthe SAG and its reason for existing.One of the principle tools that helped there-emergence of the IOWA'S, and theSAG. was the addition of cruise missilesto its impressive gun armament. This gavethe BB a long range precision strikecapability. Tomahawk could targetairfields. C2 (Command and Control)nodes, roads, bridges and any sort of warsustaining industrial infrastructure orpolitically sensitive vulnerability. The BBswere also fitted to act as flagships,providing the necessary C3 (Command.Control. Communications) cohesionneeded. Other weapons whichperpetuated the SAG came with theaccompanying Cruisers. Destroyers andFrigates. Weapons in the form of the longrange anti-aircraft Standard SM-2ER,ASROC and the LAMPS helicopter allprovided a means for the SAG to actindependently for limited periodsdepending on the threat.Given the IOWA'S new capabilities, andadvances in ASW and AAW technology, itmade sense to allow the SAG free run ofthe oceans. A SAG off an enemy shorelinewas bound to create as much confusionand fear as a CBG. It could thussupplement a CBG in certain situationsby providing the much-needed visualconfirmation of foreign policydetermination, not to forget a veryeffective tool of war if called upon.During 1983/4 the USS NEW JERSEY leadSAG provided televised proof of theirvalue and viability as a supplementaryforce by engaging enemy positions in thehills around Beirut, thus saving the navyfrom sending aircraft to attack thesepositions. This was an importantdemonstration of the SAG's capabilitygiven that two A-6 Intruders attacking thesame targets were lost weeks before.TheIOWA'S could engage targets from standoff ranges without exposing USNTiconderoga class guided missile cruiser. USS SAN JACINTO executes a high speed turn.1996. (USN)PAGE I I


personnel to danger The escortsaccompanying this mission also engagedenemy positions whilst still providingAAW and ASW defence to the SAG Longrange Tomahawks, anti-aircraft missiles,good ASW defence. NGS (Naval GunfireSupport) capability and flagship C3facilities ensured the place of the SAGconcept in the new surface warfaredomain.The next demonstration of the SAGconcept came during the 1991 Gulf War.The BBs WISCONSIN and MISSOURIpounded Iraqi positions with Tomahawks.16-inch and 5-inch HE shells. While thetwo BBs. and their escorts, conductedNGS operations off Kuwait they werefired on by an enemy shore based'Silkworm' ASM (anti-ship missile)Fortunately an escorting RN Destroyershot the missile down. This action wasinsignificant to the operation but bearsmention for the fact that since theFalklands conflict the ASM was expectedto have the same effect on the SAG asaircraft did during WW II.During the Gulf War a total of 288Tomahawk cruise missile were fired atTHE NAVYIraq from USN surface ships andSubmarines in and around the Gulf.This proved the valuable contributionthat surface ships could make to largescaleoperations in conjunction withCBGsBut with the decommissioning of the BBmany thought that the surface ship wouldgo back to its role of CBG escort andpatrolling. Without the BB forming thenucleus and public appeal what was left?But technology had advanced and duringthe time of the Iowa's re-activated servicethe Aegis combat system and Mk-41 VLS(Vertical Launch System) arrived. Thesetwo advances in naval warfare gave theSAG a new sting and viability.Aegis provided a computer basedcommand/decision combat system tocounter threats from surface, sub-surfaceand air simultaneously. Coupled with thefour megawatt SPY-1 radar system, itcould detect and track over 300 airbornetargets and engage them automaticallyusing any ship in the group, conduct IFFand maintain data exchanges with otherships. The SPY-Is ability to scan andRefuelling operations for the Arleigh Burke class guided missile destroyer USS MITSCHER. (USN)PAGE 26monitor events at incredible ranges(quoted as being to the edge of space) isan awesome advantage and warningsystem for the SAG. During the Gulf war.Ticonderogas' operating in the northerngulf detected and tracked Iraqi Scudsbeing launched against Saudi Arabia. Morerecently Aegis ships have been used tomonitor Syrian and North Koreanballistic missile tests.The Mk-41 VLS provided a stockpile ofready to fire missiles of any combination,including cruise. The addition of the Mk-41 to three of the SAG's ships provided afirepower replacement for the IOWA'S.The SAG concept thus remained a part ofthe USN's maritime response despite thedecommissioning of the BBs. The Mk-41VLS's adaptability is the key :o the currentSAG. Depending on the mission, the shipscan embark any kind of missile needed forthe task in any combination. Much like agolf bag contains different clubs forspecific needs depending on the course.Alternately the VLS could employ onemissile exclusively as the USS SANJACINTO (CG-56) did with cruise missilesduring the Gulf War.TODAYWith the USN experiencing a downwardspiral in Aircraft Carrier numbers, and thetraditional US response to internationalsituations being maritime, it will have torely on its surface ships and Submarinesmore often than not. This means thatSAGs will have to supplement for theCBG in engaging the growing number ofhostile international 'bandits'.Apart from conducting its ownindependent operations the SAG can preemptthe arrival of superior forces andprepare the battlespace. This couldinvolve intelligence gathering (eitherpass've collection or engaging the enemyto fight for it), ASW sanitisation, cruisemissile strikes on vital air bases. SAM sitesor military installations, fixing an enemy'sposition or as a taste for what is to come.A SAG preparing the battle space alsogives the follow up force the ability todata link into the AO in real time viasatellite. Preparing the battlespace isimportant if the follow up naval forces areto fight through it. such is the case withjoint or amphibious operations.When viewed as a combined force thecurrent USN SAG is indeed a powerfuland exceptionally flexible group. Usually itconsists of a Ticonderoga class Cruiser forcommand and control of the group and asan anti-air warfare specialist. An ArleighBurke class Destroyer for strike warfarecommand, secondary SAG leader andanti-air warfare. An Improved Spruanceclass Destroyer for strike missions andASW An FFG-07 class Frigate for AAWand ASW. An Improved Los Angeles classSSN for scouting, intelligence gathering.ASW ASuW and strike and a fleetsupport ship for sustainability in thecombat zone.The tasks and roles this combined surfaceteam can complete are amazing,everything from CBG re-enforcement,merchant fleet escort, sanctionsenforcement. NGS. strike missions. C4ISRand flag showing. Some of the keyelements in the concept include;interoperability with each other inmachinery, weapons, systems andelectronics. Aegis, battle group C4ISR.large volume of missiles and availabilityover CBGs. to mention a few.The flexibility and combat power ofmodern independently operational USNSAG was tested in September 1996 whena patrolling SAG in the Persian Gulf firedits Tomahawks at targets in Iraq on twoseparate occasions within days of eachother. The ships were the TiconderogaSHILOH. the Arleigh Burke s LABOON andRUSSELL the Improved Spruance HewittTHE NAVYSpruance class destroyer. USS KINCADE. (USN)and the SSN JEFFERSON CITY. None ofthe ships were specifically equipped oremployed for these specific missionsbefore taking up station in the Gulf andfired what they normally carry. Since thenSAG's have fired on targets in Bosnia andIraq at short notice and with good results.Individually the ships of the SAG areimpressive surface combatants. Whencompared together the statistics are evenmore impressive.SAG firepower;• 278 VLS cells (plus 12 in SSN forTomahawk only).• 2 Aegis combat systems.• 2 SPY-1 Radar fitted ships.• 3 air search radars.• 4 surface search radars.• 28 RGM-84 Harpoon missiles (Sub-Harpoon carried by SSN not included).• 5 127 mm Naval guns.• 7 Phalanx CIWS.• I Mk-13 launcher for 36 StandardSM-IMR.• I Octuple Sea Sparrow for pointdefence. 8 missiles plus reloads.• 5 SH-60 ASW/OTHT Seahawks.• 5 passive towed array sonars.• 20 324 mm torpedo tubes for Mk-46torpedoes.• 4 533 mm torpedo tubes for 26 Mk-48torpedoes. Sub-Harpoons and orcruise missiles.In order to appreciate how many missilesthe SAG has at its disposal, if all Mk-41VLSs and Submarine VL tubes wereloaded to fire cruise missiles they wouldhave more missiles dian what was fired atIraq during the entire duration of the GulfPAGE I IWar. The VLS is so flexible that theImproved Spruance class Destroyer in theSAG can carry and fire Standard SM-2MRmissiles for designation by the Aegisequipped ships. This means that whendeliberately going into a hostile airenvironment the SAGs total VLS capacitycould be up to 278 anti-aircraftStandards, assuming that one missile typewas used exclusively (this does not takeinto account the SM-IMR and SeaSparrow missiles of the FFG andSpruance). Not many countries have airforces to throw against this sort offirepower.CONCLUSIONSince the end of the cold war SAGoperations have been common andalthough the technology behind themodern SAG looks like its replacing theAircraft Carrier, sadly it cannot. Despitethe near 278 anti-aircraft weapons itcould theoretically embark, plus the 36SM-IMR from the FFG and Sea Sparrowform the Spruance. it suffers from notbeing able to engage attacking aircraftbefore they launch their anti-ship missiles(due to the curvature of the earth).However, the USN is experimenting away to do just that.There is currently a program investigatingways of engaging hostile air threats irombeyond missile release point The CEC(Co-operative Engagement Capability)program is experimenting ways to enableunits to fire on air threats and have asecondary source illuminate the target.Recently a Ticonderoga. involved in theCEC program, successfully shot down a


THE NAVYTHE NAVYTINGIRA (SOBRAON)Some Early ScenesSchool work below decks.The young boys are beingtaught by instructors fromthe Department of PublicInstruction. Following theirtime aboard SOBRAON. theboys were placed in a job ortrade ashore.Prior to her service as the training ship TINGIRA with theRAN. SOBRAON was utilised as reform school ship.moored in the upper reaches of Sydney Harbour, nearCockatoo Island.Some of the ship's staff and young boys attached toSOBRAON. Note the ship's dog in the foreground.• P I P W r ^ —j j ^rvrOV T " V\ * V Vr ~ ^ o '•Vm«-v 'V** J r * hLos Angeles class fast attack submarine, part of the SAG. (USN)sea-skimming drone from a positionwhich it was unable to see or detect it.The Aegis Cruiser fired on information itreceived from a secondary source with aland-based illuminator tracking the droneand facilitating the kill.This advance couldgo some of the way to ensuring that aSAGs missile magazines are notexhausted firing at anti-ship missilesrather than the launch platforms, whichincidentally are re-useable and harder toreplace. However, the secondary detectionand illumination source will have to bedeveloped. This could be a helicopter.AEW&C aircraft or even a blimp butthere is still a long way to go yet.Another vulnerability of the SAG involvesits major domain, the littoral. During theGulf War the littoral environmentdemonstrated its potential fordestruction when the ships TRIPOLI(LPH-10) and PRINCETON (CG-59) hitIraqi mines. Until the accuracy of thecruise missile, its range and lethality areincreased significantly the SAG will alwayshave to operate in the littoralenvironment to engage targets inland.This is significant given that 80% of theworld's nations have littoral borders.Diesel-electric submarines have alwayscalled the littorals their home and to anavy use to hunting SSNs in deep waterthis becomes an unknown and dangerousfoe. Currently the USN is in the processof re-tuning their ASW sonars for huntingin the shallow water environment foundin littorals. But even so the small dieselsub is still an elusive and threateningweapon to the SAG's dominance of thelittoral.Many of the worlds super bandits' willchallenge US regional influence in theirlittorals by attacking patrolling USN SAGs.The SAG is certainly capable of defendingitself and inflicting damage but therealisation, practice and technology offighting hurt' will have to be developed ifthe group is to remain in the littoral battlespace, which the enemy will initially havecontrol of. until re-enforcement's arrive.Further, in a shooting war the SAG willhave to be relived sooner than a CBG asits missile stocks dwindle. Another SAGwill have to take up were the last left offimmediately in order to sustain offensiveoperations or maintain the momentum.This would require many SAGs to achieveas one draw back of the VLS is its inabilityto be reloaded at sea. However, for limitedperiods and in many cases, a SAG cansupplement an expensive and large CBG.The future of the SAG and the surfacecombatant is looking bright.The new DD-21 land attack Destroyer, being designedfor the USN. will alleviate some of themissile supply problems by providingmore ready to use missiles. The CECprogram will help in one key area of SAGvulnerability and advances in minecountermeasures and shallow waterASW will hopefully give the SAG theoverwhelming influence it needs in anenemy littoral.The USN's future goal for the SAG is "anoffensive maritime force that conductsprecision land attack and theatre airdominance as part of joint, allied, andcoalition forces". The new DD-21.together with Aegis equippedTiconderogas and Arleigh Burkes, willsoon be able to establish theatre airdominance over the battle space with anew Patriot style anti-ballistic missiledefence system based on the currentStandard SM-2MROther advances for the SAG includes arange of precision guided weapons forland attack out to 1500 miles. NGS andland attack capabilities being studiedinclude a naval version of the US armyTACMS (TACtical Missile System, a largesurface to surface missile carrying 950anti-personnel bomblets over 170 km).An Extended Range Guided Munition(ERGM) fired from a modified Mk-45 gunand a 155 mm naval gun in either astandard turret form or verticallaunched/mounted form.The SAG will certainly become a part offuture history as the Aircraft Carrieralready has. As the cost and complexityof the USN CBG rise the SAG willincreasingly take over in many of theworlds trouble spots as a show andinstrument of US foreign policydetermination. Naval warfare is about tobecome more dynamic. Stay tuned!The entire ship'scomplement paradeon the upper deck,with the ship's bandto the left andguard, upper left .Another deck scene; the bandploys on the poop, as otheryoungsters practice theirphysical training skills.* M 1 ,-••• r- ' ; l U m m '1 > •mi »f f• *-y .; i 1 •>./ im^ 4 t lim iB | \ V 1Cutlass drill on the upper deck of the school ship.After classes, the accommodationdeck was filled with hammocks.PAGF 28PAGF 29


'THE OLD NAVY'? WHAT IS AN ...EM ?The 'What is a ... ' navy people senes wasoriginally written in the late 1950s. The setwill be re-produced in 'The Navy' during1998An EM is an Electrical Mechanic andknows all about electricity, ohms, watts,currents, and shocks. (NOTE:The "shock"comes when an electrical item worksagain, following repair by an EM).The EM carries a little black bag with himeverywhere he goes, looking quite like adoctor on his way to make a delivery.Thisbag holds all an EM needs for his day'scigarettes, matches, pencils, sweat rags,tombola tickets, and such sentimentalitems as the first fuse he pulled, and apiece of wire used in short circuiting themain switchboard. The bag can also beused during the day as a pillow.Whenever the EM on duty at the mainswitchboard feels lonely he blacks out asection of the ship so that he will receivesome phone calls. This occupies him formost of his watch. No matter howcarefully you may gather the details ofsome electrical fault and have itregistered, the EM at the mainswitchboard is able to:1. forget about it;2. repair something else;3. say that the Naval Store does not havethe spares; or4. say."just going to ..."In the tropics the EM really makes thefullest use of his fine and intensivetraining. He manages to be able toeffectively reduce the amount of cold airpassing through the fens,thus overheatinga compartment and causing theoccupants to sweat. In cold placeshowever, the EM is equally able toincrease the flow, thus causing theoccupants to freeze.Another exacting duty the EM has toperform is known as the "fuse pull". Thisduty is invariably carried out just at thecrucial moment. Just as you get to the bitwhere John has taken Eva to the riverbank, and the two are laying down - "fusepull" - all you see are dots.(NOTE: If the ventilating EM is everrequired he can be found on the GDP -ventilating.)A more obscure Electrical Mechanic isknown as the Romeo EM.This type is rareand is usually radioactively engaged onbuilding television sets and car radios. Litdeis actually known of this type althoughone or two have been seen entering andleaving compartments in the ship. It isthought they may have had a "ping".THE NAVYHMAS ANZACRECEIVESNATIONAL AWARDThe Governor of Western Australia. HisExcellency Major General Michael JefferyAC MC. presented the Royal AustralianNavy frigate HMAS ANZAC with the NavyLeague of Australia Perpetual Trophy in anonboard ceremony on Monday. May 4Accepting the award was thecommanding officer of HMAS ANZAC.Captain Marc Bonser. CSC. RAN onbehalf of the ship's company.HMAS ANZAC won this communityaward for 1997 from fierce competitionfrom other Fleet units and shoreestablishments from around Australia.ANZAC's win sees the prestigious shieldremain in the west as HMAS STIRLINGwon the trophy in 1996.ANZACs nomination was for her heavyinvolvement with the Albany Children'sCancer Care Group, the ship's adoptedcharity. In an extraordinary effort sincethe ship's commissioning in May, 1996more than $8000 was raised in 12months for the charity.This money was raised throughinnovative fund raising activities includinga sponsored "Shave off" which saw 60people go under the clippers from theprevious commanding officer down tomale and female sailors.Amongst the guests at the presentationwere Commodore Fleet Bases.Commodore Paul Kable; NationalPresident of the Navy League of Australia.Commander Graham Harris; Mr Arthurand Mrs Gwen Hewitt, WA StatePresident and Secretary of the NavyLeague; Mrs Annette Knight (and husbandTom), previously the Mayor of the Townof Albany, Mrs June Hodgson and Ms ValChisholm. President and Secretary of theAlbany Children's Cancer Care Group.The Governor of Western Australia. MajorGeneral Michael Jeffery. presents the NavyLeague Shield to Captain Marc Bonser.Commanding Officer. HMAS ANZACPAGE 30V \ yBOOKREVIEWSCOMBAT FLEETS OFTHE WORLDEdited by: A. D. Baker IIIPublished by: The United States NavalInstitute (Email address:customer@usni.org)Reviewed by: Ross GillettCombat Fleets of the World 1998-99. TheirShips. Aircraft and Systems is a muchwelcome addition to the range of navalliterature currently available to the navalbook market.In one volume, the editor. A. D. Baker III.has provided readers with oneauthoritative naval reference book. Theone thousand two hundred and twentypages, including 4.600 photographs and150 line drawings, is highlighted bydetailed descriptions of the individualships and classes, making Combat Fleets,the most comprehensive naval referencebook currently available to the navalmarket.COMBAT FLEETSOF THE WORLD 1998-1999iTheir ShipsflircrallandSystemsA 0 Baker IIITo produce such a monumental work, theeditor has secured the services of over100 naval experts worldwide, providingboth up-to-date information and data, aswell as the all important variety ofillustrations. The book describes onehundred and eighty countries andterritories, including the numerous coastguards, major marine water police forcesand customs services. Army and Air ForceMarine sections.Mr. Baker has now been editing CombatFleets since 1978. each edition growing inscope and size from its original Frenchancestor. After service as an officer in theUSN from 1963 to 1967 and as a civilianwith the Department of the Navy from1967 to 1997. Mr. Baker, can proudly boastof his current editorial achievement, asthe result of nearly forty years of studyinto the world's navies. Today, in 1998.Combat Fleets can rightly claim its placeon thousands of bookshelves around theworld, from leading libraries, through toacademics and naval enthusiasts and theall important youngsters, just interestedin reading and researching about theSenior Service'.As the sub-title suggests. Combat Fleets ofthe Wodd includes sections on the navalair arms and shipboard armament,electronics and future ship constructionprograms. The main difference betweenCombat Fleets and the historicallypopular Janes, is the former's greaterTHE ROYAL NAVYIN FOCUS 1970-79By. LCDR Ben Warlow RNPublished by: Maritime Books(e-mail marbooks@aol.com)Reviewed by: Ross GillettThe eighth of the 'In Focus' pictorialbooks from Maritime Books, The RoyalNavy in Focus 1970-79 is now available.The new work is a follow-on from theearlier 1930-39. 1940-49. 1950-59. 1960-69 and World War II and two special FleetAir Arm editions.For many readers, the years 1970-79 maynot seem to long ago. but the vintages ofships depicted between the covers, willstill bring back many memories forformer naval personnel. Some of theolder ships still operating in the seventiesincluded the 1944 vintage destroyerCAPRICE, the 1943 frigate GRENVILLE, the1938 MAIDSTONE and the repair shipHARTLAND POINT from 1945. Each of theillustrations is accompanied by aTHE NAVYamount of general and technicalinformation. In recent years.Janes appearsto have reduced its amount ofinformation, while Combat Fleets, growswith each edition. One particular part ofthe United States of America sectionwhich this reviewer likes to keep up todate with is the Military Sealift Commandor MSC. Combat Fleets devotes over18 pages to the MSC. while Janes coversthe ships in just under a half that number.The naval air arm and armament/electronic sections are a book withinthemselves, negating the need for thereader to refer to other annuals. Aircraftincluded range from the carrier basedfront line combat machines, through toland based patrol aircraft, trainers andhelicopters. Squadrons and numbers heldare listed, plus new designs on thedrawing boards for future use with the airwar at sea.But more than anything else. CombatFleets, is a good read, the whole book setout in an 'easy to use' two column format,most photographs a half or full pagewidth, the technical line drawings providedwith a key numbering system to identifythe important armament and fittings. Atotally new format for the book presentsthe ships and craft classes in a consistentorder, from new to old within each type.It would be impossible tc highlight thevast amount of new information in the1998-99 volume. However the Russianwell researched and lengthy caption,outlining a brief ship career, including itsfinal fate.For the first time, colour is included as aspecial 16 page supplement, with a totalof 18 colour and 143 black and white B5size photographs included. Some of thefiner images depict Royal Navy ships inrough sea conditions, including thefrigates ARETHUSA and BACCHANTE.PAGE 31section has improved greatly over thepast years, with the release of valuablenew and updated data on the formerSoviet era warships and auxiliaries,obtained from both official and privatesources. Generally speaking, each page ofthe 1998-99 edition of Combat Fleets'bulges' with new data and generalcommentary, even the recently retired,decommissioned or sold ships are givendue credit to complete the story oftheir naval careers, via disposal or saledetails.A number of years ago I wrote about anearlier edition of Combat Fleets of theWorld. 'By far the most impressive bookof its type available and an automaticselection for any naval enthusiast orprofessional who needs accurate and upto-dateinformation...'. Nothing haschanged!A CD-ROM version of Combat Fleets isalso available for US $ 129.95 for use withMicrosoft Windows 3.1 or newersystems.Combat Fleets of the World (the book) isavailable direct from its publisher, theUnited States Naval Institute for US $ 150plus post and packing (refer e-mailaddress above). For such a smallinvestment, the naval enthusiast can investin a truly remarkable piece of warshipliterature.carrier ARK ROYAL and minesweeperHUBBERSTON. Another interesting photois the converted Battle class destroyerMATAPAN, modified for use as a trials shipin 1973.The Royal Navy in Focus 1970-79 isavailable direct from Maritime Books. Fulldetails of all of their naval book'are available on the web at;http://members.aol.com/marbooks/


FLAG 4By: Dudley PopePublished by: Chatham PublishingReviewed by:Joe StraczekMost people are familiar with the navalwar in the Mediterranean. Names such asTaranto. Matapan and Cape Spada bringforth vivid pictures of aircraft carriers,battle ships and cruisers engaged in adesperate struggle for naval supremacy.Less well known are the exploits of thesmaller craft, the submarines, minewarfare craft, MTBs and MLs. It is theactivities of this last group, MTBs andMLs. which are covered in Flag 4.Flag 4 covers the role of these smallwooden craft and their daring crews fromthe desperate evacuation of Tobrukthrough daring attacks on enemy convoysand finally covert operations in along theYugoslavian coast. Dudley Pope's bookread like an adventure story. But whatmakes this adventure story morereadable and interesting, is that the eventsportrayed are factual not the concoctionof a Hollywood scriptwriter.Flag 4 is also the story of men engaged ina life and death struggle for survival. Unliketheir larger counterparts, these small andflimsy craft offered no protectionwhatsoever to their crews. Survivaldepended on the skill and determinationof the crews and a good deal of luck.THE NAVYTo all those who enjoy reading historyFlag 4 is a must. If Tom Clancy were ahistorian, this is the book he would havewritten.NO EASY ANSWERSThe Development of the Navies ofIndia and Pakistan. Bangladesh andSri Lanka 1945 - 1996By: James GoldrickPublished by: Lancer Publishers with thesupport of the Royal Australian NavyMaritime Studies ProgramPr,ce: S28 00Reviewed by: Geoffrey EvansThis book, a treatise by James Goldrick. aserving officer in the RAN. is timely giventhe uproar following India's decision tocontinue nuclear testing in May. It will beof interest to anyone interested in therather tortured politics of the newnations created as a result of partition ofthe Indian subcontinent in 1947 andCeylon's independence in the same year,as well as to those interested in naviesand maritime affairs.Divided into nine chapters - a preamble,two each for India and Pakistan, one foreach of the other three and a summaryreflecting on fifty years following partition- the book has a very large number ofnotations quoting the source ofstatements made and conclusionsreached by the author. It is easily readand well illustrated with photographs ofships.All the navies had as their genesis vesselsof the Royal Navy or rather, what hadbeen the Royal Indian Navy and theirdevelopment was largely influenced bytheir dislike or fear of one another or. inthe case of Ceylon/Sri Lanka, by theproblems of militant minorities and theincursion of Tamils from the SouthernIndia province of Tamil Nadu.Not surprising the new navies were atfirst orientated towards the Westernpowers especially Britain, but faced attime by uncooperative attitudes by thesepowers turned towards the USSR. India inparticular became adept in terms ofequipment at taking the best of what eachsides had to offer. Eventually Britain, theUnited States. France. Russia. China.Norway and Israel were among thepowers bidding to supply ships andequipment to one or another of theSouth Asian nations.No Easy Answers is a book well worthreading and will be a most usefulreference tool for all those interestedin a restless and very important partof the world, a part moreover whereevents will surely influence Australia'sfuture.THE NAVYAf ter a number of years service as a tourist submarine with the Australian National Maritime Museum, the former Soviet Navy Foxtrot classsubmarine was removed from her Pyrmont berth, alongside ex HMAS VAMPIRE The submarine was shifted to Cockatoo Island before beingtowed to the USA for further use as display. (Photo - B. Morrison)PAGE 32


HMAS WESTRALIA, under (oW of civiliantugs after her onboard fire in May. 1998Four crew members lost their lives in thetragedy An RAN S- 706-2 helicopter hoversaboy* the aft flightdeck to drop-off rescuepersonnel /Photo • RAN)


sOCTOBER-DECEMBER 1998 VOLUME 60 NO.4 $3.50LdThe Magazine of the Navy League of Australiafir 1


Tlie ADf l Inter-Service Cooperation 3RIMPAC 98IIThe Fleet Air Ann Celebrates SO Yean ISThe Kidds. Opportunity only knocks— 18Oceera Governance and Maritime Strategy 23Super Seasprite 24Navy Week 96— Sydney Programme and Map 28Naval Review - The Philippines 29Savlr* the MIDWAY 31What Is .Scores Assistant) 32REGULAR FEATURESViewpointIFrom Our Readers 2Naval News 5Observations 14The Old Navy 32Book Reviews 33Corporate MembersTHE AUSTRALIAN SHIPOWNERS'ASSOCIATIONCOMPUTER SCIENCES OF AUSTRALIAPTY LTDBTR AEROSPACE AUSTRALIAHAWKER DE HAVILLAND LIMITEDROCKWELL SYSTEMS AUSTRALIAPTY LTDSTRANG INTERNATIONAL PTY LTDThe NavyAll Letters to the Editor and contributions to:The Editor. Ross Gillett4 Dela Close.Dee Why. NSW. 2099Subscriptions and MembershipAll magazine subscriptions and membershipenquiries to:The Hon Secretary.NSW Division.Navy League of Australia.GPO Box 1719.Sydney. NSW. 1043National Email address:navyleag@netspace.net.auInternet Home pages for Federal and StateDivisions:URLhttp://www.netspace.neLau/~navyleagFront cover: The Royal Australian Navy's newMinehunter Coastal (MHC) HUON during trialsoff Newcasde in July. 1998.(Photo - Naval Photo Unit)Copy deadline for the next edition is9 November 1998.THE NAVYVIEWPOINTThis edition of The Navy marks theanniversary of both the Royal AustralianNavy (87 years) and the Fleet Air Arm (50years).For the Fleet, the Navy will celebrate theformer with a major open day at the FleetBase East in Sydney on Sunday. 11October. Five surface combatants (onedestroyer and two frigates), the veteransubmarine ONSLOW and the landingship TOBRUK will be available forinspection. To promote 50 years of theFleet Air Arm. four examples of currentday helicopters will also be on hand,parked on the wharfside for allmembers.familyA major Air Day is also scheduled forHMAS ALBATROSSat Nowra on Sunday. INovember. The previous day, the Fleet AirArm will celebrate with a Freedom ofEntry Parade through Nowra. including anRAN Historic Flight flypast.The Sunday AirDay will begin from 1030. preceded by thededication of a new FAA Monument.other aviation news, this edition ofNavyInThemagazine includes reports from theSuper Seasprite project and plans in theUSA to preserve the veteran aircraftcarrier USS MIDWAY,for the last time in 1987.which visited SydneyOther reports discuss the decision not toacquire the four Kiddclass guided missiledestroyers from the United States and aninterview with Commodore Flotillas(RAN) regarding the recent RIMPAC 98exercise. Pictorially. we look at the NavalReview held in the Philippines, with manySecond World War, ey4JSN warships, stillsurviving in fcpnt thehost navy.Ross GillettThe opinions or auertioifalqfi<djFi Navy arethose of the authors end are not^tt^arm those of theFederal Council of the Navy League of Australia, theEditor of The Navy or the Royal Austmhan NavyThe Navy League ofAUSTRALIAFEDERAL COUNCR.PatronhCMatl: Gretwn M Ftamj. RTO: RADMAJ Robertson 4Q DSC RAN(Rid) Join Brt. CORE HJP Adarm AM. RAN (Rtd)CAPTHA. jOMptv, AMRAN (Red)Hon. Secretary: Don Sdnpd.RO Bo IJS.VMxrf*.SA 5011 -Undone (08) 8347 1985 Fa* (08) 8347 3256NEW SOUTH WALES DIVISIONPatron: He Excafcncy.The Gowncr a/ Ne* Southt R OAKmh. AM.RFORDHon. Secretary:) CJ)tpp»«i.aAM.RFnGPOBe*!7l9.SyA*yNSW 1043^eiephone (02) 9570 8425 Fax (02) 9232 8383VICTOMAH DIVISION —-Patron: Hb Excdcncy. The Governor of Victors.PmkfcneJMWlMRro'Hon. Secretary TEKiurn.MBE.VWr.POta. 1303Bat Hi Dehery Centre VIC 3128Telephone and Fax (03) 9560 9927QUEB4SLAND DIVISIONPatron: Ho Exralency The Gonemor of QuearafcndPlcakfae. IM Fraser.OAKHon. Secretary: RDfaAmRfQ CO BCK 1700*»rxl Qld 4183 Ttfcphone (07) 3345 2174Caere A Gmmeen PO 8oc 1009. Cain* Qld 4870-Mephone (07) 4054 1195Tuwnev«e: I McDo^lPOBtx l478.Tc»nsv«e.QU4810 Telephone: (07) 4772 4588Macfcay: K MfeerdPO Best 5527. Qld 4741.Telephone (07) 4942 1965.Bundaber^ I LoteePO Bo* SI4l,Bunttaber^ WtacQta4670. Teleftane (07) 4151 2210.SouthporelVFoo °0 Ba, 944 Soudvoa Qtd 4215TMtphone (07) 5532 2447SOUTH AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONPatron: Fte FxceAency The Go«nw at South Ksnla.P n e m Afan Pntaa RFQ1S Stop. Hi Dthe.hnorama SA504I.Hon.Secretary: hbJEGt GPO Bn IS29. Add-*SA 5001. Tdepnonr (0B) 8347 1985Patron: Hb Cxctfcncy The Gownorof "EsnraiPreddent ML Coopw.OAnQfWHon. Secretary: Mn JM Coops-. 42Any RoodlauKeHon Tat 72SO HMo* exile* (03) 6344 IS3I.Dewmport R 01a*> 11 "6ewi ftee Dewnport.las 7310 Tefcphonc (03) 6434 5064bifcCDK 40 Cherry Sueet.BuTM.las 7320IHephone (03) 6431 4023.Lamceattat hks | M. Cooper.WESTON AUSTRALIAN DIVISIONPbiUL Hb Cxccfcncy The GOMCTOOT of VSfcnemAHHe^tfHon. Secrewy: Mn G HeMtt. 23 Lanier ReadAnadde-WA 6156 TekfTnne (0B) 9330 3600GcriMtan: E BedwAK 2 Pccchd Street. RvpMfi WA6530 Tekphone(08) 9921 3768(H) (08) 9921 1X0(8)Afceny: D Brar. Lot 46 Frederldi Street GMmtdiAbar^ WA 6330 V^honefOB) 9841 6541FHIStAL ADVISORY COUNOLF Geotay Evans. OBE-VRCtOaenenNel Bard. Chairman Bard PubbcaoonsWm. Boidxx AM.Atharal rtdedWHufcav AC RAN (Rid)Vke ArMal Deed laath. AC C8E. LWOl RANfflVkeAAreal Sir Richard FWtKBE.CS. DSC RAN (Rid)john Strang, Charman Strang International Pty LtdPAGE I


THE NAVYcommencement of our new Patrol Boatconstruction programme here in WA. Ienclose details of the craft now beingconstructed by Austal Ships at their yardssouth of Fremantle WA.THE NAVYTHE ADF & INTER-SERVICECO-OPERATIONRxhard ColemanAs a Navy League member of many yearsstanding and always look forward toreceiving my copies of The Navy.Whilst I have never served under theWhite Ensign I have had an interest inthings naval since childhood, having grownup with a step father who |Oined theRAN in September 1939 and who had avery interesting time serving on a numberof ships and in a number of theatresthroughout the WarI have been an amateur military historiansince my early teens and a member of theNaval Historical Society since the sixties.I have had a lot to do with the RANduring my twenty odd years in theAustralian Customs Service, also a proudservice with a direct line of descent fromthe British Royal Charter of AD 732.It is in my capacity as a member that Ienclose some material, which althoughnot strictly Navy, could be of interest tomany of your readers. With the| DARLINGTON WA 6070Patrol VesselsDear SirFirst and foremost. I would like tocongratulate you on the excellentpublication The Navy.Are any fellow readers able to assist mewith information regarding to WW2Patrol Vessels (particularly US PTs &British MTBs) that still maybe inexistence here in Australia.I have particular interest in obtaininga motor from one of these vessels,namely a Packard unit, to transferthis information on to a friendwho is requiring it for an upcomingproject.If any reader can assist me withinformation. I can be contacted03 9484 9498.M.AHandreckPRESTON VIC 3072onReader Dennis Ford sent in this oldphotograph of a navy diver. He asked whenand where the photograph was taken. Canany former members of the ClearanceDiving Teams assist?By Navy LeaguerInter^Service cooperation in theAustralian Defence Force hasachieved various levels of effectivenessand ineffectiveness in the past.In general, the three Services havecooperated effectively at the operating levelin the field, those who have to fight togethertrain for that so to the best of their ability,regardless of the colour of their uniform.The nearer the need for cooperation andunderstanding get to the major equipmentand force structure decision levels, thegreater become the difficulties anddisagreements. At these levels, the PublicService has become involved. Each of thefour groupings in Defence, the threeindividual Services and the Public Service,have participated in decision making anddebate, often with one eye on the sectionalinterests of their grouping.Relations between the RAN and the RAAFwere at a low at the time of the decision toacquire the F/A-18A/B tactical fighter forceand to abolish the fixed wing Fleet Air Arm.Between the RAAF and the AustralianArmy, relations were at a low when it wasdecided that the newly ordered BlackHawk troop lift helicopters would bemanned and operated by the AustralianArmy. The RAAF managed the acquisitionof the aircraft for the Army.Some years earlier, the decision that theRAN would man and operate theBalikpapan class heavy landing craft(originally ordered for the Army) wasdeeply resented by many in the Army.Each of these issues clouded relationsbetween the Services involved for manyyears afterwards.In recent years, strenuous efforts have beenmade by successive Defence Ministers.Chiefs of the Defence Force andSecretaries of the Department of Defenceto reduce inter-service stresses and toensure that the three Services operate andtrain to fight as one Australian DefenceForce, with the added objective of achievingthe maximum value for the defence dollar.These changes have resulted in theestablishment of operational joint servicecommands, such as Northern Command,and the establishment of the post ofCommander Australian Theatre. Additionaljoint force commands have beenestablished temporarily for particularoperations and excercises.Within the Department of Defence, a triserviceorganisation has been establishedto manage the key functional areas. Theserange from personnel through intelligenceand strategic planning to force structure. Itis in the latter case that the friction canbecome particularly damaging. It is necessaryto stay the right side of the fine linebetween the professional debate necessaryto ensure that all factors involved in akey decision are considered and thecounter productive effects of destructivecriticism.In recent times, many key force structureissues have enjoyed the support of allServices, the acquisition of an airborneearly warning and control aircraft is an^ A U S T A LSHIPS35.0m CUSTOMS PATROL VESSELGeneral arrangement plans of the new LPAs, HMA Ships MANOORA and KANIMBLA. (Courtesy Naval Engineering Services)Design of the 35.0m customs patrol vessel, to be built in Western Australia.PAGE 2PAGE 3


THE NAVYTHE NAVYexample The acquisitions of light tacticaltransports to succeed the Caribous areanother, where the RAAF will acquire, manand operate the new aircraft Ninety percent of their cargoes will be carried forthe Army.However, the impending ADF blockobsolescence problem will test the abilityof the Department of Defence to worktogether in the best interests of thecountry.During the next decade, decisions will benecessary on whether and how to replacethe RAAF's Tactical Fighter Force (F/A-I8A/B strike fighters), strike andreconnaissance group (F-1 lis andmodifications thereof) and maritime patrolgroup (AP-3C Orions).A decision will alsobe necessary on successors to the RAN'sAdelaide class FFG7 surface combatants.All of these projects will involve multibilliondollar purchases.There are a number of smaller, but nonethe less expensive - prospective purchases.These include successors to the C-I30HHercules and Boeing 707 transport and airto air refuelling aircraft fleet support ships,mid-life updates for the Collins classsubmarines, successors to the Army'sLeopard tanks and a number of others.RAAF F-111 and RAN guided missile destroyerThe need for all of these pro|ects. in someform or other, can be argued strongly onthe grounds of the maintenance of thenation's independent position in a regiongrowing not only in economic but alsotechnological strength. Australia hassurvived in defence terms through itstechnological edge That edge is beingeroded. We must redouble our defenceeffort to maintain this technological edgeThere are those who argue that an increasein the defence budget is necessary.However, no Australian Government couldaccept this without rigorous examination Itwill be tempting to allocate funds on apriority basis, allowing some capabilities tolapse not as the result of a consciousdecision but as a particular successorprotect is repeatedly delayed until theexisting capability is no longer effectiveAnother temptation will be to modifythreat assessments to reduce theexpenditure necessary to meet themInevitably, these decision making processeswill strain inter-service relations. Thesehave to be overcome without the badaspects of the ma|or historical decisionslisted earlier in this article.Particular areas are the tactical fighter andstrike aircraft replacements (regarded bythe RAAF and many others as essential tomaintain an independent air force withregional credibility as a fightingforce.Another is the successor to the RAN'sAdelaide class frigates. The RAN and manyothers regard the operation of a substantialmajor surface combatant force as essentialfor an Australian maritime force withregional credibility.One opportunity that must not beforegone is that of arming our "platforms",the ships, submarines, military units andaircraft to their maximum capability.Examples include providing the RAN'ssurface combatants and submarines withsurgical strike land attack missiles and theRAAF's strike fighters with effective andmodern "beyond visual range" air to airmissiles.Both RAAF and RAN needs are essential tothe maintenance of a balanced AustralianDefence Force offering the AustralianGovernment a range of options in meetinga wide variety of threat levels andrequirements to participate in internationalpeace keeping and natural disasteroperations.The key to success is making the rightdecisions in selecting the most suitable andcost effective equipment available toprovide the balanced force.GAWLER BACK ON THEJOBHMAS GAWLER is back at sea (August1998) after eight months' repair andmaintenance in a Darwin shipyard.GAWLER was damaged last year when theDarwin naval base synchrolift failed. TheNavy took the opportunity while she wasunder repair to carry out major plannedmaintenance that had been scheduled for1998Total cost of the repair was $1.2 million,most of which has been spent in theDarwin area, either with Darwin ShipRepair and Engineering at Francis Bay orwith associated contractors.GAWLER conducted sea trials and relatedactivities for the remainder of Augustbefore her operational assessment inSeptember The boat then deployed toSouth East Asia until November when sherecommenced regular patrol in NorthAustralian waters.HMAS TORRENSRETURNS FOR LASTTIMEThe River class destroyer escort HMASTORRENS (DE-53) berth at HMASSTIRLING at 10am on Friday. August 14 atthe return from her final operationaldeployment before decommissioning.TORRENS had been absent from WesternAustralia for three months, during whichtime she visited Surabaya. Manila, SanFernando. Hong Kong. Singapore.Sandakan, Ambon and Port Moresby.Enroute to Stirling she also paid farewellvisits to Newcasde. Sydney. Melbourne,Devonport and Adelaide, where sheexercised her right to the Freedom ofEntry for the last time.A team of cyclists from HMAS TORRENSconducted a 19 day charity bike ride fromNewcastle to the Ship's sponsoredcharity. St Anne's School for children withspecial needs in Adelaide.The Western Australian public were givenone last opportunity to look over theship when she held an Open Day. six daysbefore she left the Fleet.Built at the Cockatoo Island Dockyard,Sydney and commissioned on January 19,1971 the 2750 tonne TORRENS has beenbased in Western Australia since 1991and has steamed in excess of 800,000nautical miles in her lengthy career.TORRENS was the last of the six Riverclass destroyer escorts which haveserved Australia so well over the past 38years. Anti-submarine ships, two of them.DERWENT and SWAN, still serve thecommunity in other roles. DERWENT wasscutded west of Rottnest Island in 1994after a series of survivability tests andtoday is a very successful fish attractiondevice. SWAN was scutded as a divewreck off Dunsborough late last year andis proving a most popular touristattraction. Of the others, the formerlyWA-based STUART was scrapped as werePARRAMATTA an * YARRA.There has been no decision madeon the future of TORRENS afterdecommissioning.Two views of the final arrival of HMASTORRENS in Sydney. (Brian Morrison)DEFENCEAMMUNITIONINGFACILITIESThe Defence Department announced inlate August its intentions to furtherinvestigate options for the site of itsproposed armament facilities onAustralia's east coast in line with aParliamentary Public Works Committee(PWC) report tabled on 30 June this year.The PWC asked Defence to examine anoption that provides for separatelocations for the explosive ordnanceimport and Navy's ammunitioningfunctions. The report cited the PWC'sconcern at the distance of Point Wilson inVictoria, where ordnance is imported,from Navy's Fleet Base in Sydney and theNavy's exercise area in waters adjacent toJervis Bay.Because the requirement for theammunitioning of ships no longerincludes ammunition storage facilities,Defence has begun feasibility, cost andenvironmental assessment studies of asite at Twofold Bay, on the NSW southeast coast. This area was previouslyexcluded on the grounds of cost involvedin relocating part of the woodchippingfacility established there. whenammunition storage, and the associatedsecurity precautions, was part of therequirementAs Twofold Bay cannot accommodate theEO import function, the PWC has askedDefence to examine the potential for useof Port Alma near Rockhampton.The Navy's ammunitioning operation inSydney Harbour will close by the end of1999 and it is intended that the currentPoint Wilson Facility will be used as aninterim arrangement until alternatefacilities are identified.ANZAC SHIP UPGRADEMOVES FORWARDThe Minister for Defence. Mr IanMclachlan.has announced the release of aRequest for Proposals to upgrade theRoyal Australian Navy's ANZAC classfrigates under Project SEA 1443 AnzacWarfighting Improvement Program.The request was issued to fourcompanies: ADI Limited, the AustralianSubmarine Corporation Pty Ltd. BritishAerospace Australia Limited, and TenixDefence Systems."This project contrasts with the flawedapproach of the previous Governmentwhich launched the ANZAC Ship Projectwith the vessels fitted "for but not with"essential sensors and weapons systems."Mr McLachlan said."It is a further step in implementing theCoalition's policy of enhancing combatcapability within the ADF'The four companies were asked to submittheir proposals by 22 Decembertoupgrade the anti-ship missile defence andair warfare capability of the ANZAC classships to better allow them to contributeto Australia's defence in the 21 st century.PAGE 4PAGE I I


Interesting view of the new survey ship NUSHIP LEEUWIN as she proceeds to sea for builder's trials. In the background is HMAS FLINDERSberthed at HMAS CAIRNS at the completion of another survey. FLINDERS decommissioned in early September, 1998.RAN auxiliary minesweepers on exercises off Newcastle, New South Wales.QUOKKA SAILS NORTHAfter14 years in service in WesternAustralia, the 110 tonne naval tugQUOKKA (DT 1801) departed fromHMAS STIRLING on 14 July, for her newhome port of Darwin.The tug now supports naval movementsand activities in northern waters, with herfirst task being to tow targets during theFleet Concentration Period. QUOKKA isnow owned and manned by the DefenceMaritime Services (DMS) organisation.The larger 260 tonne DMS manned tugTAMMAR remains at HMAS STIRLING.The upgrade will involve significant andcomplex change to their radar, weaponscontrol, and command and controlsystems.After studying the proposals fromindustry, Defence will makerecommendations to the Government onupgrade options that are suitable forimplementation.The recently painted WA based tugs QUOKKAand TAMMAR, after their transfer to DefenceMaritime Services. The former sailed fromHMAS STIRLING for the Darwin Naval Basein July.PAGE 6DIAMANTINA: KEELLAIDADI has formally laid the keel ofDIAMANTINA. the fifth of the six Huonclass minehunters for the RoyalAustralian Navy.The 720 tonne coastal minehunters arebeing built at ADI's Newcasde facility, apurpose-built shipyard opened four yearsago. The HUON project costing $1 Billion,is on schedule and within budget. ADIreported. HUON commenced sea trialslast June and the second ship.HAWKESBURY, was launched in April.DIAMANTINA s keel was laid by thesecretary of the Department of Defence,Mr Paul Barratt at a ceremony onTuesday. 4 August Managing director ofADI. Mr Ken Harris said the laying ofDIAMANTINA's keel continued theminehunter project's excellentperformance."The commencement of HUON's seatrials emphasised the successful on shoreintegration and setting to work of theHuon class combat system." he said."While the combat system has to bevalidated at sea. a major achievement ofthis project has been that we have beenable to install it on HUON. is alreadytested and co-inciding with thecompletion of the ship's platform trials."Mr Harris said the outstanding progressof the minehunter contract wasunderpinned by the excellentrelationships between ADI and itssubcontractors, high quality projectmanagement and the capabilities of theproject's workforce.The Huon class ships will be distinguishedby the most advanced mine warfaresystem of any ship in the world today,according to ADI.Workmen at ADI in Newcastle work on theinner hull of the coastal minehunterDIAMANTINA.The first HMAS DIAMANTINA. a River classfrigate. In this view she has been convertedto the survey-oceanographic role.Selecting the electronic systems that willdefine modern warships, the HUONs willbe equipped with a minehunting sonarthat can simultaneously search, detect,classify and route survey in depthsexceeding 150 metres along with fibreopticlink controlled mine disposalvehicles carrying searchlights, closedcircuit TV camera and a disposal charge.HUON and HAWKESBURY are in thewater. NORMAN. GASCOYNE and nowDIAMANTINA are under constructionwhile yARRA is still in plans. YARRA isexpected to be launched in September2001 and commissioned in August of2002. HUON should be commissioned atthe end of this year. Each minehunter willhave a company of 36.RE-DEDICATION OFPROTECTORThe former submarine trials andrescue vessel HMAS PROTECTORwas re-dedicated (re-named)SEAHORSE HORIZON at HMASCRESWELL on Wednesday I July1998.The vessel, which is part of the DefenceMaritime Services (DMS) fleet, willundertake junior officers seafamiliarisation training, diving and minewarfare support as part of DMS's ten yearcontract providing maritime support toTHE NAVYthe Royal Australian Navy. She is 42 m inlength, has a beam of 9.5 m and displaces670 tonnes. It is fitted withaccommodations and a classroom fortraining purposes and has a ten tonne 'A'frame derrick and a large amount of cleardeck space aft for cargo and equipment.HORIZON has two main diesel enginesdeveloping I220hp each and fourthrusters providing precise positioningcapability. The Master of the vessel.Mr Ross Davey has a permanent DMScrew of five. When undertaking officerstraining the vessel is manned by a Navalcrew of nine, under the Command of theSea Training Officer. LEUT Ian McPhersonRAN.HORIZON forms another component ofthe DMS waterfront operation at HMASCRESWELL, which began supporting theNavy under contract in January this year.DMS now has 20 staff, two major vesselsand ten minor support craft at CRESWELLand provides a wide range of services,including sail training, practice weaponsrecovery, boat transfers and rangeclearance operations, to name a few.Excerpts from the Handover speech bythe new Commanding Officer;This day marks a very special occasion forDMS and the ship.Today. I July, marks theformal start date of the Defence MaritimeServices Port Services and Support Craftcontract. It is fitting and appropriate theship designed to familiarise new entry andother junior officers with their first tasteof life at sea should be formally inductedtoday.There certainly is a new dawn breakingon the horizon. The ships secondary roleis to provide assistance to the minewarfare and clearance diving community.SEAHORSE HORIZON may also be calledupon to supplement other DMS activitieswhen not being used in her major roles.I have come to DMS and the NavySupport contract from the merchantmarine and in my short time working withmy Navy counterparts I have enjoyedwhat I believe is a most refreshing andprofessional attitude to the job. I amlooking forward to a long and closerelationship with the Navy. I am sure wein DMS and the Navy have much to learnand pass onto each other especially oursea going knowledge in our specialistfields. HORIZON'S crewing will be slightlydifferent from other DMS and navalvessels, she will have two crews, oneDMS. one Navy, both based at HMASCRESWELL In general terms when sheoperates as the sea familiarisationplatform she will have a naval crew withDMS inputWhen the ancient mariners peered at thehorizon they wondered at the newworlds, adventures, commerce andlearning which lay ahead. As we look attodays horizon, both the ship and thatpast Point Perpendicular, we can restcomfortable in the knowledge that ouryoung and future mariners will receivethe benefits of those ancients and othermariners who have sailed to the horizonand returned triumphant and safe, havingovercome their fears and the ravages ofthe sea.SEAHORSE HORIZON, ex HMAS PROTECTOR, was re-dedicated on I July, at a ceremony atHMAS CRESWELL in Jervis Bay. (RAN)PAGE 7


THE NAVYPAGE 8NUSHIP LEEUWIN fitting outprior to builder's trials.New personnel launch operatedby Defence Maritime Serwces onSydney Harbour. I&rian Morrison)Another new of the newminehunter coastal,NUSHIP HUON.ILACN Smyth MAF)ROYAL NAVYENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONIn the crystal waters of Scapa Flow.HMS ROYAL OAK is leaking oil.Now. experts from Naval SupportCommand have revealed innovative plansto protect the environment against oilleaking From HMS ROYAL OAK. They havediscovered a unique way to harnessnatural forces of wind and tide, releasethe oil into a container and bring itashore.The idea was inspired by Royal Navydivers working on the wreck to gathersamples of the leaking oil ready forlaboratory analysis. They rigged atemporary tent over the leak whichfunneled the oil droplets into a container.It worked so well that engineers havebeen asked to develop a permanentversion, using natural force rather thanman-made pumps to collect oil that iscirculating within the hull. They will alsobe asked to investigate ways of safelyaccelerating the rate of oil leakage fromspecific locations. Over the coming yearsteams of RN divers will return tomonitor the rate of oil flow, with thepossibility of further action as the resultsbecome clear.Back in 1996, following the discovery ofoil ashore on the Orkney coast, theOrkney Islands Council called in the RoyalNavy to try to solve the problem, amidfears that the leak was getting worse. By1997 the hull was filled with a large metalpatch, giving the project team valuabletime to seek a longer term solution whichmet the needs of the local environmentand respected the war grave.Months of diving work, surveys, computermodelling and environmental assessmentsfollowed, during which the project teamretrieved the original ship's plans fromthe Royal Naval Museum at Greenwichand combined them with data fromTHE NAVYmodern day diving teams working outsidethe hull to create a three dimensionalcomputer model of the HMS ROYAL OAK.More than 50 years after she was sunk,the ship was rebuilt on screen, completewith its bulkheads and compartments. Itis now possible to take the ship apartdeck by deck, revealing each complexlayer of the structure of her hull, withoutthe need to enter the ship at all.Environmental surveys also used computergenerated wind and tide models toestablish the likely effect of any oil leak.The marine environment, flora and faunawere all taken into account in anindependent report, and the findings ofthat report were taken into accountwhen deciding the way to stop the oil.Orkney is home to a large population ofover wintering sea birds such as grebesand divers. Scapa Flow houses 9% of theUK seal population, and shellfish andsalmon are both caught or farmedcommercially nearby. To the west of theROYAL OAK lies a Site of Special ScientificInterest.This solution is designed to offerprotection to them, and is to be carriedout at times when the environment is atits least vulnerable.Oil collection and removal will includecontinued monitoring, a very controlledHMS ROYAL OAK. (RAN)PAGE I Ioperation which may last many years. It isanticipated, though, that it may bepossible to manage, and possibly toaccelerate, the rate of oil flow from HMSROYAL OAK by using tfiis method. Thedesign for the oil collector is now out totender Once commercial engineers havereturned their designs, the most suitablewill be chosen and divers are expected toinstall it late in the summer of 1998.THAI CARRIER - ALOCAL REPORT CARDThe new Thai aircraft carrier CHAKRINARUEBET was bought for the Thai Navyin the early nineties because "it was theirturn to have something". Now in the late1990s. the Navy has no use for a carrier. Itonly engages in coastal defence and wouldnot venture beyond land-based air cover.The main reason given by theGovernment for a carrier is that it willgive them the edge in a scrap over theSprady Islands (some islands offVietnam (Ithink!) which are hotly disputed, althoughabout half of them are underwater at hightide!). However, it is understood thatThailand is about the only country in theregion which does not lay claim to all orpart of them!As well, the Thais also bought a numberof former Spanish AV8A MatadorHarriers to go on it which many areclaiming are basically junk. Sincecommissioning last summer the ship hasonly left port twice (both in 1997). Hercurrent status is a tourist attraction, withthe ship's company conducting tours andselling souvenirs at the Sattahip NavalBase.The Asian economic crisis has also playedhavoc with Thai defence procurementpolicy (cancellation of eight F/A 18s, losingonly their $75M deposit). PresidentClinton waived the cancellation charge ofThai aircraft carrier CHAKRI NARUEBET. (USN)


$250M.The operations policy is going thesame way with attempts to slash costs allover the place, so the chances of CHAKRINARUEBET going to sea. or even of hergetting proper upkeep in the short tomedium term are slim.DD 21The United States Navy's new land-attackdestroyer of the 21st century. DD 21,entered Phase One development ofsystem concept on 17 August with theaward of a $68,500,000 agreementmodification to the DD 21 Alliance.The Alliance, comprised of GeneralDynamics' Bath Iron Works Corporation(BIW). Bath. Maine, and IngallsShipbuilding. Pascagoula, Miss., is led byGeneral Dynamics, who will execute thePhase One agreement. The use of two.independent design teams will ensurethat DD 21 benefits from intense andaggressive competition during this criticalconcept development phase. Work will beperformed by two competing teams: the"Blue Team." led by General Dynamics'BIW, with Lockheed Martin GovernmentElectronic Systems. Mooretown, N.J.; andthe "Gold Team." led by IngallsShipbuilding, with Raytheon SystemsCompany. Falls Church. Va. Eachcompeting team is responsible fordeveloping an independent competitivelyrobust total ship design and life cyclesupport concept for the DD 21 System.The 21st century Destroyer is the firstsurface combatant founded entirely uponpost-cold war thinking and strategicUSS MISSOURI. (John Mortimer)THE NAVYconcepts, supporting joint servicerequirements in the littoral. Armed withan array of land-attack weapons. DD 21will provide offensive, distributed andprecise firepower at long ranges insupport of forces ashore. Equipped withstate-of-the-art information technologies,DD 21 will operate with forwarddeployedjoint forces, emphasizing"sensor-to-shooter" connectivity inorder to provide a Naval or Joint TaskForce Commander with the missionflexibility to both counter any maritimethreat and to destroy a variety of landtargets.Additionally. DD 21 will use advanced"stealth" features to make these warshipsless noticeable to potential adversariesand more survivable to enemy attack.Currently, there are 32 ships planned forthe DD 21 ship class. The first ship of theclass is expected to arrive in the fleet in2008.USS MISSOURIThe USN's most famous warship, thebatdeship USS MISSOURI (BB 63) wasgently guided and delicately docked to aPearl Harbor Pier on 21 June after a2.300-mile voyage across the Pacific fromBremerton, Wash., that began 3 June."Welcome Batdeship MISSOURI to yournew home port — die best home portin the Navy." RADM WilliamSutton.Commander Naval Base Pearl Harbor,told the crowd at the "Aloha Mighty Mo"MISSOURI is tied to pier F-5 on"Battleship Row" 300 hundred yardsbehind USS ARIZONA. She will residethere for a maximum of three yearsbefore moving to a permanent site at themost seaward end of "Battleship Row" atpiers F-2 and F-3.The grand opening forMISSOURI and her memorial museum isscheduled for January 1999"These two ships together make a moresignificant statement about our countryand the spirit of our Americanservicemen and women than each shipcould make by itself." Sutton said."Together they symbolize the beginningand end of World War II and the sacrificesmade by tens of thousands of our youngmen and women during that war. Theytogether remind the world of the Honor.Courage and Commitment that isAmerica's character."She was recommissioned in both 1944and 1986. fought in three Wars. (WorldWar II. Korea and the Gulf War), and wasdecommissioned twice (1955 and 1992).Now. the "World's Most FamousBattleship" has returned to the place shestarted her illustrious career when shejoined the Pacific Fleet in 1944MISSOURI'S teak wood decks hosted thesigning of the "Instrument of Surrender"by the Japanese in Tokyo Bay in 1945.Kihune said. "It's the last ship the Sailorssee as they leave Pearl Harbor and it's thefirst ship they'll see when they return.And I think it will be a reminder of all theSailors who have gone before them andhave paid the price for liberty."THE NAVYCOMFLOT AT RIMPAC 98An interview conducted withCOMFLOT (Commodore RussShalders) and CTG (Captain LouRago) during Exercise RIMPAC 98What is COMFLOT's role atRIMPAC 98?I'm the Sea Combat Command for theMulti National Force (MNF). working forCommander Carrier Group Three. Myfunction is to co-ordinate all surface andunder sea warfare for the IVINF. I'm alsoinvolved in maritime interception anddefensive warfare as well as small shiphelo co-ordination. This means I haveresponsibility for most areas of warfarewith the exception of air defencewarfare, and command and controlwarfare. Essentially, I look after the seaand undersea warfare responsibilitiesassigned to the IVINF Commander.What benefits does the RoyalAustralian Navy receive byparticipating in RIMPAC 98?The RAN receives substantial benefitsfrom RIMPAC. We have been coming toRIMPAC since it started: in fact this is our16th appearance. We always make aneffort to get as many ships as we can overhere and we've been coming for a longtime because we do get such a lot ofbenefit from the exercise. The biggestbenefit is enhancing interoperability,working with other nations, particularlythe US but with all the other nations aswell. A level below that is the greattraining benefit we get from working inRIMPAC's complex scenarios with lots ofships and advanced weapons firings,which in some cases we do not get achance to do in Australia. The generalstructure of RIMPAC means we get topractice every element of warfare with alarge number of other forces operating ina complex and dynamic scenario. Sobriefly improving interoperability is the keybenefit. The opportunity to work in multiwarfare environment is a close second.What is the Australian Navy'scontribution to RIMPAC 98, andwhat is the major purpose ofAustralia's involvement?In the RAN Task Group itself we have1000 young men and women at sea.However, the total is over 1200Australians participating when youinclude the personnel involved in supportcrews for the three P3C Orion aircraft aswell as the Australian support staff ashoreand embarked in USS CORONADO andCARL VINSON. We have a lot of peopleinvolved and have expended significantresources because we get such excellenttraining value from the exercise.The valuewe get from RIMPAC makes the time,effort and money well worth it.Interaction between junior officers andsailors of other navies during varioussocial and sporting activities also helps usto understand what the other nationscultures are and what environments theywork in. We really enjoy the interactionbetween the different nations.How does the Australian TGoperate in RIMPAC?The Australian Task Group is split forRIMPAC 98; we are not solely working asan 'Australian Task Group' because we arefully integrated across the full range ofRIMPAC activities. For example HMASONSLOW and DARWIN are working withthe Opposition Force; the CommandingOfficer of HMAS PERTH (Captain LouRago) is the Surface Action Group (SAG)commander with no other Australianships in his SAG.The other two Australianships. HMAS MELBOURNE and DARWIN,are in completely different SAGs. Havingthe Australian Task Group split gives usTribal class destroyer sails for RIMPAC exercises. (Photo - Brian Morrison)much greater better training benefitsthrough integration with units from othernations. In answer to your specificquestion we are not operating as aseparate Australian Task Group inRIMPAC at all. which I believe, is a muchbetter way to conduct the exercise.How does RIMPAC rank to otherexercises that the RAN participatesin?RIMPAC ranks very high up on ourpriorities because of the professionalvalue we get from it. We exercise a lot inour region but. of the standing exercisewe do. RIMPAC would be top of the tree,only just ahead of some of our regionalexercises. For example the Five PowerDefence Arrangement exercise called ExSTARDEX. where we work with Malaysia.Singapore. New Zealand and the UnitedKingdom, is also very important to us. Interms of professionalism, RIMPAC is theone we value the mostHow is Australia's role differentfrom past RIMPAC exercises?The 1998 exercise is not that muchdifferent from 1996, although theRIMPAC scenario has changedconsiderably over the years. In the pastwe have worked as an Australian TaskGroup and as the Opposition Force.When RIMPAC involved two aircraftcarriers, the Australian TG worked inopposition to one of the carrier groups.What are your personalexpectations for RIMPAC 98?My key hope and objective is that we havea professionally rewarding exercise. Wehave come a long way and spentconsiderable money getting ourselveshere. What I hope to get out of it is agroup of Australian ships and a widerRIMPAC community that achievesprofessional results. That's what we areall about. Almost equal to thatprofessionalism goal is a safe exercise. Wehave spent a lot of time thinking aboutsafety. RIMPAC is a very complex activityand potentially very dangerous. Each ofthe Commanding Officer's and all theship, submarine and aircraft personnel willendeavour to ensure it is a safe exercise.The third goal is that people enjoythemselves. This is a really goodopportunity to understand how otherpeople work and to really practice ourtraining. Professionalism is the key. safetyis shortly behind that and thirdly I hopeour people really enjoy it and have fundoing it We love coming here to Hawaiiand I think if you asked the averageAustralian sailor what he would like todo. going to RIMPAC and visiting HawaiiPAGE 10PAGF I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYWhen we finish RIMPAC we don't gostraight back home but put the shipsthrough a series of exercises andactivities culminating in our FleetConcentration Period in Darwin wherethe ships from RIMPAC meet up withanother TG. which is deploying to SE Asia.The ships don't actually get back toSydney until 23 September.What happened on the passage overto RIMPAC?HMAS SUCCESS and an American oilerwould be high on the list. Sailors spend alot of time at sea getting here, on exerciseand getting home again but theattractions of Hawaii seem to really makeup for itHow does RIMPAC test the RAN?RIMPAC provides a test of how we aregoing. From a Ship's Captain point of viewit is a very good measure of the ship andcrews performance. You can test yourselfby yourself as much as you want butunless you can base-line against otherunits in an asset rich environment youdon't get the same sort of results. Theamount of quantitative information thatyou have to process in such a largeexercise, with SO odd ships, keeps youextremely busy. The information flow ispart of the complexity of RIMPAC In myview, if you always do simple operationsthen that is all you will ever be able to do.Every now and again we need to practicein a really complex environment. We do anumber of complex activities on our ownbut we just don't have the assets andresources that RIMPAC gathers togetherThat's the opportunity that RIMPACprovides us.How long is the Australian TG awayfrom home?TheTG is away for a long time.just underfour months from Sydney to Sydney.On the way over the TG received amessage from RCC Honolulu that afishing boat captain had been lost at seafrom a ditched helicopter. We were closeto the area, so as all mariners will do. wewent to the aid of someone at sea with aproblem.TheTG searched for over 12 hrsbut the decision was taken, when theperson was not recovered, to proceed toHawaii Only a couple of days out of PearlHarbor HMAS MELBOURNE wasdetached and conducted a search for asunken vessel Their helicopter locatedthe liferaft which was subsequently foundto be empty as the passengers hadalready been rescued. It is part of our jobto help our brethren on the oceans. And.it is one of those things we train for. Inthe course of a two week passage it wasmost unusual for two SAR incidents tooccur. The first incident was 40 miles offour track to Hawaii, and the TG had highThe USS CARL VINSON passes the former USS MISSOURI (now museum ship) and USS ARIZONA (war memorial) as she arrives in PearlHarbor for RIMPAC 98. (USN)passage speed of lb knots. Spending 12hrs on task meant that the TG had tocatch that time up. It was unfortunatethat the first incident did not have thatsame successful outcome as the second.What pre-exercise activities havethe Australians been involved in?One of the great advantages of coming toRIMPAC is the use of the range andsupport facilities at Hawaii. All our shipshave been through our Foracs rangetesting and sensor measurement andthey have conducted torpedo firings. Thesensor testing, ranging and torpedo firingswere pre RIMPAC activities, which havebeen very valuable. So there are actuallytwo reasons for being here, one is tocheck our weapons systems and theother is to participate in the exercise. It'sa good learning process. It will probablybe the last time that we do the testingand ranging here in Hawaii as we haverecently built equivalent ranges inAustralia.Waikiki beach whilst watching theaircraft, boats and people with a coldbeer in your hand at Dukes bar. It's one ofthe world's great places. The onlydisappointment of this trip has been theinability to visit some of the other islands,which we have had the opportunity to doin previous RIMPACs. mainly due to thebusy program this year. Fortunately therehas been sufficient block leave periods forsailors to fly to MAUI and some of theother islands in their spare time.What aside from RIMPAC areCOMFLOT's duties?COMFLOT has two functions; theprimary one is the Sea Training Group(STG) function.When a ship comes out ofrefit, the STG puts the ships through awork up process, culminating in anassessment of its capabilities. The STGcomprises a number of experts who searide. They spend a lot of time workingwith the ships and putting them througha number of evaluations. Whilst the STGfocus is on single ship capability, it thenbecomes the CM's responsibility to workup theTG as a group of ships.The overallTG readiness becomes his responsibility.The second function of COMFLOT. iswhat I'm doing here at RIMPAC and thatis to exercise tactical command in agroup of ships. Basically I have two roles:STG and Tactical command.US Navy LCAC (Landing Croft Air Cushion) during the amphibious phase of RIMPAC 98PAGE 13What are some of the Australiansfavourite places in Hawaii?Waiamea fall and Hanauma Bay. the barsand karoke in Waikiki. lots of mountainbike riding opportunities are just some ofthe favourites. I reckon there is not manybetter sites in the world than watchingthe sun go down over Diamond Head andHMAS MELBOURNE in Pearl Harbor. July, 1998 The frigate was the final warship depermedat the naval dockyard. (RAN)PAGE I I


OBSERVATIONSFrom Geoffrey EvansNational Shipping Line Sale MovesThe Australian Government, in its effortsto dispose of the Australian National Lineproposes to sell the company in threepieces - the liner trade (preferred bidderCompagnie General Maritime [CGM];selfdischarging vessels (preferred bidderAuscan Self Unloaders) and shore-basedactivities consisting of containermanagement, freight forwarding etc.While ownership of the first two partsoverseas the land activities, depending tosome extent on the successful purchaserof the liner trade business, will possibly besold to one of the large Australiantransport companies.If they go ahead as planned the sales willmean the end of yet another once proudAustralian shipping company.The ANL was never a giant among theworlds shipping companies but as anactive and innovative participant providedAustralia with an influence in an industryof absolute importance to the country.Australians may one day regret the shortsightednessof their governments.UK Shipping DeclineAustralia is not the only country withmerchant shipping problems. The Augustedition of The Melbourne Log. journal ofthe Melbourne Branch of the Companyof Master Mariners carried the followingitem:"National Statistics has announced thatBritish Shipping contributed (poundssterling) 4.45 bi"ion in 1997 ( 4.68 bn in1996), whereas expenditure in foreignshipping aggregated 5.17 bn (reduced by0.04 bn since 1996 NUMAST describesthis as ridiculous at a time of rising worldshipping, for an island nation"NUMAST is the organ of the Union ofBritish Merchant Officers. It is hard torealise that not so long ago Britain wasthe world's major shipping nation.SYDNEY InquiryThe inquiry by the Defence SubCommittee of the Joint ParliamentaryForeign Affairs. Defence and TradeCommittee into the loss of HMASSYDNEY in 1941. completed its capital cityhearings and nominated cut-off dates forwritten submissions mid-year.Altogether 79 witnesses appeared beforethe sub committee in Canberra, Perth.Melbourne. Sydney and Brisbane, whileTHE NAVYover 360 submissions, half of which weresupplementary submissions amending theoriginal, some three, four or five times,were received.Transcript of the hearings and the writtensubmissions have been published, thelatter in 16 volumes. The variety oftheories concerning the loss is quiteremarkable, but the writer gained theimpression that even if SYDNEY islocated and the probable cause of herdestruction is determined. theoverwhelming feeling is to allow the shipto be as she is - a war grave.The defence sub-committee is alsoinquiring into military justice proceduresin the ADF. At the time of writing it isnot known when its findings on either ofthe inquiries will be presented to theParliament.The rurgotten CampaignsAs readers of this column will be awarefrom comment in previous issues of TheNavy, for several years a group of formernaval personnel who served in HMAships involved in the Malayan Emergencyanti-terrorist campaign and the Vietnamwar, have been seeking recognition andsimilar benefits accorded to theircolleagues in the Royal Navy andAustralian Army and Air Force.The quite reasonable request of thegroup has so far been only partiallysuccessful despite voluminouscorrespondence with a variety ofauthorities and representations topolitical leaders and others which itwould seem difficult to reject.Perhaps those who advise ministers andofficials are unaware of the turmoil thatengulfed much of southern Asia in theaftermath of World War II, and the effortsof British Commonwealth countries tomaintain order in newly liberatedEuropean colonies. If so reminders wouldappear necessary.Former WA President HonouredLong time member of the Naval Reserveand the Navy League of Australia. CaptainLen Vickridge OBE VRD* was honouredin this year's Queen's Birthday HonoursList and became a member of the Orderof Australia (AM) for service to thecommunity.Len Vickridge joined the RANR in 1934and served throughout World War II.Demobilised in 1946 he remained in theReserve and finally retired in 1973. LenPAGE 14joined the Navy League in 1954 and formany years served as the State Presidentand Western Australia's representative onthe Federal Council. He is a life memberof the Navy League.Len has also been involved in a widerange of community activities. Hiscolleagues extend their congratulationsto Len on a well-deserved award.Admiral Sir Victor SmithFor the second time this year the writeris faced with the sad task of commentingon the death of a long-time and influentialsupporter of our Navy League*Admiral Smith's wartime experiences andprofessional achievements, especiallythose in the latter part of his career -Flag Officer Commanding HMA Fleet;three Naval Board Appointments, the lastas First Naval Member and Chief of NavalStaff; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff- are well known to former navalpersonnel and were well documented inthe obituary columns of mainstreamnewspapers at the time of his death.Not so well known was the Admiral'sacceptance of the fact that the Navycould no longer be "the Silent Service"and that it must have the support of thecivilian community if it was to prosper.To gain support Admiral Smith looked inthe first instance towards former navalpersonnel. As CNS in 1969 he invitedFederal and State Leaders of the NavalAssociation and the Navy League toCanberra to meet the Naval Board and todiscuss, in particular, ways of repairing theRAN's image which had been badlydamaged as a result of several disastersinvolving the Navy in the nineteen-sixties.The writer was one of those whoattended the meeting and it marked theThe late Admiral Sir Victor Smith.beginning of an association, indeed afriendship, that lasted until Sir Victor'sdeath 29 years later.It was obvious the Navy's supporterscould be of very little help to theirformer service unless they were familiarwith its problems and needs; this requiredfrankness and a close and continuousrelationship between the leaders of Navyand the organisations involved. AdmiralSmith agreed and honoured theagreement to the full during theTHE NAVYremainder of his term as Navy Chief and,in a broader tri-service sense, while hewas Chairman of the Joint Chiefs.It can of course be argued that Serviceleaders who preceded Admiral Smithwere equally conscious of the need forpublic support for the armed forces butso far as the Navy is concerned, the wayhe set about "closing the gap betweenNavy and the civilian community" (as heput it in a letter to the writer) wasunusual and perceptive.It remains to be said that Admiral SirVictors successors have, by and large,followed his example and so far as theNavy League is concerned have "engagedin regular dialogue".Upon retirement Sir Victor was made alife member of the Navy League andPatron of the ACT Division.* Mr. B. A. Santamaria, The Navy July -September 1998 issue.THE FLEET AIR ARM CELEBRATES 50 YEARSEARLY YEARSAustralians were involved in flyingoperations during the Great War (1914-1918), with all personnel serving with theBritish Royal Naval Air Service.Operations were conducted with anumber of Australian warships, includingthe battlecruiser HMAS AUSTRALIA, andthe cruisers SYDNEY. MELBOURNE andBRISBANEIn the early 1920s the Australia builtseapiane carrier HMAS ALBATROSS waslaunched at Cockatoo Island, foroperations with RAAF aircraft Seagull IIIamphibians. In 1938 ALBATROSS waseventually transferred to the British inexchange for the new cruiser HMASHOBART.Throughout World War II the RoyalAustralian Navy operated improvedRAAF Seagull V and Walrus amphibiansfrom its three heavy, three light and twoarmed merchant cruisers. Following theThe Australian Naval Aviation Museum during a recent air day.successes achieved by British andAmerican aircraft carriers in the batdesagainst Japanese forces, the AustralianGovernment decided to form its own FleetAir Arm based on an aircraft carrier force.The first documented move by the RANto acquire a fixed wing carrier force wasin 1944 when the then CNS presentedhis submission to the War Council. Hewas seeking a gift of an aircraft carrierfrom the Royal Navy. However, whilstmany Australians were involved in earlynaval flying operations. Australia wouldnot form its own naval aviation force until1948. although many attempts had beenmade previously to achieve just thatSubsequently, in October 1945, thecarrier acquisition debate increased. Aproject officer was sent to England toevaluate the RAN's air requirements for aFleet Air Arm and to propose a planbased on the then Royal Navyorganisation.PAGE I IA FLEET AIR ARMThe naval aviation plan originallysubmitted required two ex-British LightFleet Carriers, three Carrier Air Groupsand two Naval Air Stations for trainingand support functions. Recruitment wasto be achieved by volunteers fromGeneral Service, civilians and experiencedFAA personnel from the RN. In effect, theearly FAA consisted of almost 50% ofex-RN personnel.The plan was approved in August 1947.The carriers MAJESTIC and TERRIBLE wereacquired, to be renamed MELBOURNEand SYDNEY and two Carrier Air Groups(CAGs), the 20th and 21 st - with Firefliesand Sea Furies. The two Naval Air Baseswere identified at Nowra and Schofields.ALBATROSS located at Nowra, on theNew South Wales south coast eventuallybecame the one and only Naval AirStation, with NIRIMBA acquired fortechnical training purposes. Initialtechnical and aircrew training courseswere carried out in the UK.The 20th CAG, comprising 816 and 805Squadrons, was formed at RNASEGLINGTON in Northern Ireland on28 August 1948. HMAS ALBATROSScommissioned on 31 August 1948 and thefirst of the RAN's aircraft carriers, HMASSYDNEY was commissioned at Plymouthin the UK on 16 December 1948. Thefirst of the light fleet carriers arrived inJervis Bay on 25 May 1949 with the 20thCAG embarked as deck cargo.In April 1950 the 21st CAG comprising817 and 808 Squadrons wascommissioned in the UK for transport toAustralia aboard HMAS SYDNEY.The second of the new carriers.HMAS MELBOURNE, incorporated manyimprovements over the earlier SYDNEY.The new ship became the firstoperational aircraft carrier in the world


Grumman S-2E Tracker of the Historical Flightto incorporate steam catapults, an angleddeck and a mirror landing system.MELBOURNE arrived in Australia in May.1956 with 816 and 817 (Gannets) and808 (Sea Venom) Squadrons embarked.Fixed wing carrier operations in the RANreached a new crossroad in 1959.Discussions were held regarding thedisbanding of the fixed wing elements ofthe Fleet Air Arm in 1963. when a majorand expensive upgrade was expected.Decisions were being made to reduce theFAA to a purely anti-submarine rotarforce, with the planned acquisition of 27Wessex helicopters from 1961. The FAAexperienced another foui year period ofuncertainty, but with the decision toretain MELBOURNE as a fixed wingcarrier, the ship went on to operatesuccessfully in major internationalexercises across the world. In April 1963the carrier achieved her 20,000th decklanding since commissioning in 1956.A third aircraft carrier. HMAS'/'6NCEANCF was also operated by theRAN in uie early 1950s. The ship wasloaned from the Royal Navy during theperiod 1953-1956 to fill the gap until thearrival of MELBOURNE The SycamoresVENGEANCE delivered were the firsthelicopters to be purchased by the RAN.Embarked fixed wing carrier operationscontinued throughout the Korean andVietnam war periods, as well as numerousmajor international exercises until 1982when the 27-year-old MELBOURNE wasdecommissioned, on 30 June. Fixed wingoperations continued for another twoyears, after which the FAA was reducedto a predominantly helicopter force.THE NAVYNAVAL AVIATION TODAYThe Naval Air Squadrons now based atHMAS ALBATROSS continue to supportthe Fleet at sea. with most of the RAN'sprincipal frontline and support shipshaving the capability to embarkhelicopters.The three squadrons at HMASALBATROSS include:816 Squadron with 16 Seahawk antisubmarinewarfare helicopters foroperations from the six guided missilefrigates (FFGs);817 Squadron with eight Sea Kings nowconverted to the medium lift utility roleand;with a mixture of sixSquirrel helicopters for training, five Bell206"s for survey duties and training and. apair of HS 748's for the all importantECM training.Also at HMAS ALBATROSS is No 2Squadron, a RNZAF Skyhawk Unit oncontract to the Australian DefenceForces for Fleet Support and Air Defencetraining duties and Pel Air, a civilcontractor operating Lear Jets, also oncontract for Fleet Support duties.In January 1997 orders were placed foreleven Kaman Super Seaspritehelicopters armed with the Penguin air tosurface missile system to operate fromthe new ANZAC class frigates nowentering service with the RAN. Thearrival of the Super Sea Sprites from earlynext century will bring with it. anotherera of helicopter operations for the FleetAir Arm.The RAN Fleet Air Arm has beeninvolved in three significant wars since1948 and numerous peacekeepingcommitments.KOREAN WARThe participation by SYDNEY and herCAG from 31 August 1951 was anamazing feat as she sailed off to war afteronly two and a half years from the firstflight of a Sea Fury in Australia.Interior view of the large vintage aircraft display area at the Australian Naval Aviation Museum.PAGE 16Preserved Hawker Sea Fury above HMASALBATROSS.Vietnam WarCALLING ALL EX-FAA PERSONNELTHE NAVYFour helicopter contingents, each of 12months duration (Helicopter FlightVietnam) joined the US 135th AssaultHelicopter Company for land basedoperations in a very different type warfrom October 1967HMAS SYDNEY, converted to atroopship/stores role embarkedhelicopters on a number of her 24 resupplytrips from Australia to SouthVietnam. The Vietnam experience was aharrowing experience for both theaircrew and groundcrew alike, with manyfatalities and wounded in operations in apermanent hostile environment. TheRAN Helicopter Flight Vietnam wasdisbanded in June 1970 ending aremarkable FAA chapter.The Gulf WarShips of the RAN with helicoptersembarked were dispatched to the PersianGulf in August 1990 and participated inthe US led coalition war agzinst Iraq. It isextraordinary to note that the Seahawkhelicopter, just delivered to the RAN,continued introduction trials on a warfooting - with outstanding success.In all three wars the RAN found itselflearning new 'tricks' to deal with vasdydifferent and rapidly developing scenarios.In addition and on a regular basis. RANhelicopters regularly make headlinescarrying out daring rescue missions andassisting in flood relief in one extreme, tobush fires in another.We are holding our Golden Jubilee Reunion it HMAS ALBATROSS - 28 OCTOBER - 2 NOVEMBER 1998 and we are trying to locate allsurviving ex FAA sersonnel to invite them to this significant occasion. The 50th Anniversary of HMAS ALBATROSS(31 August 98) is also being commemorated in a folnt celebration during the period, with the following programme:DateActivityWednesday 28 Oaobei 1000 - Registrations open at MuseumThursday 29 October 1200 - Registrations - continueDivisions NAS 1830 - Combined Cocktail Party. Beat Retreat MuseumFriday 30 October 0800 - Registrations - Museum1000 - FAA AGM-PTS TheatreAir Day Rehearsal all day1100 - Base Tours Museum Tours1230 - BBQ Lunch1400 - FAA History - Review1500 - Launch History BookPM - Mini Branch ReunionsDolphin Watch1900 - SOth Anniversary Ball "A" HangarSaturday 31 October 1100 - Freedom of Entry Parade with RANHistoric Flight flyoverPrivate aircraft "Fly In"Spring FestivalMini ReunionsKangaroo Valley ToursRace Day - Nowra Racecourse1900 - BBQ MuseumSunday 1 November 0830 - Ecumenical Service- Monument Dedication - Museum1030 - HMAS ALBATROSS Air DayMonday 2 November - Mixed Bowls Competition and Golf Day- Sydney Tour (All day)Would you please forward your details below (and those of known ex FAA ship mates) In order that we can make contact and forwardan invitation in due course to Join us and make this a worthy and memorable occasion.NamePhone Fa* / Email .AddmsAlternatively, please send a fax to *4I (02) 4421 1999 or hardcopy to:MikeLehanSecretaryFAA 50th Anniversary CommitteePO Box AISNAVAL PONOWRA NSW 2540tman may be sent to: anam{gozemail.com.auPAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE KIDDS, OPPORTUNITYONLY KNOCKS ...specifications were larger than normalair-conditioning and dust filtration unitsfor use in the Persian Gulf, by coincidencethis also makes them suited to Australia'stop end.THE NAVYBy Mark SchweikertIn a decision that can only bedescribed as illogical the ADFrejected the RAN's best opportunityto once again become a crediblenaval power when it turned down aUSN 'gift' of four Kidd classDestroyers. History will record thisas the greatest strategic blundersince the loss of the aircraft carrierMelbourne.In October of last year the USN informedAustralia that a window of opportunityexisted to purchase its four Kidd classdestroyers. USS KIDD. CALLAGHAN.SCOTT and CHANDLER, which were beingwithdrawn from service prematurely.Regrettably, despite the A$30 millionprice of each and the fact that these arepowerful and impressive destroyers, theoffer was declined. Had the Kidds beenaccepted the RAN would have been themost powerful Navy in the South WestPacific. South East Asia and possibly theSouthern Hemisphere, restoring it to alevel not seen since the loss of theAircraft Carrier MELBOURNEThe Kidd class has had a varied andinteresting career and its earlydecommissioning has nothing to do withtheir capabilities but rather USNeconomies. But Australia's decision not toproceed with the offer not only defieslogic but contradicts the recent "StrategicReview" which called for a strong Navyto defeat ships and aircraft in our air-seagap. Unlike us. other enlightenedKidd class guided missile destroyer USS KIDD. (USN)countries are lobbying to have the Kiddoffer extended to them. Most notablythe Greek Navy who recently conducteddetailed surveys of all four ships.The level of USN RAN interoperabilitygained by purchasing the Kidds. inparticular with their CBGs. would beunsurpassed by anything in the RAN.This would have allowed the RAN toelectronically 'plug into' joint or alliedoperations giving it the ability toexploit the USNs impressive C4ISR(Command. Control. Communications,Computers. Intelligence. Surveillance andReconnaissance) capabilities and join themaritime RMA (Revolution in MilitaryAffairs) club.HISTORYIn 1979 an Iranian order for four US builtAAW destroyers was cancelled as aresult of the Ayatollah Khomeini comingto power. The USN then purchased thestill-in-build destroyers and renamedthem the Kidd class, after Rear AdmiralIsaac Kidd killed aboard the USSARIZONA at Pearl Harbor.The Kidd class reflex s what the Spruancewas meant to be but a lack of fundingaltered the design slightly. The onlydifferences between the two lie inweapons and sensors as the Kidd wasdesigned for general warfare with aparticular emphasis in AAW. according tothe original buyer's intent. Anotheradvantage of the original buyer'sThe main weapon system of the Kidd classconsists of two Mk-26 twin armlaunchers for Standard SM-2MR in placeof the Sea Sparrow and ASROC launchersof the Spruance. The forward magazineholds 24 Standards while the after holds44. a total of 68 in all.The Kidd's radar suite is also impressivewith a SPS-48E 3-D air search radar, anSPS-49 air-search radar (as used on theRAN's FFGs and Anzacs). two SPG-SI firecontrol radars for the SM-2MR. one firecontrol radar for her two Mk-45 127 mmguns (as used in Anzac) a short rangetrack while scan fire control radar, asurface search and navigation radar.Her C3 (Command. Control.Communications) capabilities areimpressive and provide the class with aflexibility only seen in more expensiveAegis equipped ships. On many SAGdeployments they have performed therole of group command ship whilst stillconducting defensive or offensiveoperations. One such case was the class'sperformance during the 'Tanker War' inthe Gulf. The class not only acted asflagships but also provided defenceagainst attacks from Iraqi and Iranian airand surface threats.Before the arrival of Aegis equipped shipsthe Kidd class constandy formed theAAW defence and C3 element of CBGsand BB lead SAGs.Two of the class. USSSCOTT and KIDD. saw action in the GulfWar as escorts to the EISENHOWERCBG and MISSOURI SAG respectively,complementing and supporting the Aegisescorts of the groups.During the UN operation "RestoreHope" in Somalia the USS CHANDLERmade a 30 knot transit from the PersianGulf to Somali. Operating within visualrange of Mogadishu airport for nearly amonth. CHANDLER provided sole airtraffic control services for civilian andmilitary aircraft of all types from manynations for the entire country.More recently the class has been used forcounter narcotics operations with greatsuccess. On September 27 1997 the USSCAllAGHAN, operating in the EasternPacific, chased a large ocean racing boatand seized 3.500 kg's of cocaineestimated at US$ 165 million. On March 5of this year the USS SCOTT assisted inseizing 1.800 kg's of cocaine off the coastof Honduras whilst on anti-drugsurveillance operations.USS CHANDLER arrives in Sydney, 1994. (Brian Morrison)These examples demonstrate the class'sflexibility. The Kidd class destroyer can bedescribed as a blending of the bestfeatures of the Spruance class destroyerand the combat systems and weapons ofthe Virginia class nuclear powered guidedmissile cruisers. This formula makes theKidd class one of the most lethal afloat.THE QDR AND USNSURFACE COMBATANTSTRENGTHThe Kidd class was originally due todecommission in 2017 however, therecent US QDR (Quadrennial DefenceReview) called for an all Aegis fleet andthe total number of US surface combatantsto fall from the current 128 to 116. Howthis figure was arrived at and why itaffected the Kidds has nothing to do withthe class whatsoever, ie. age ortechnological deficiencies, as detractorsof the offer to the RAN inaccuratelyportrayed.A US General Accounting Office reporton Surface Combatants released in May1997 foreshadowed a number of reasonswhy the parameters used to plan surfacecombatant numbers would fall. Firstly,with more capable and flexible ships, ie.Aegis and Tomahawk equipped, coming offthe slips. 116 surface combatants wasviewed as being appropriate to meetcurrent mandates of US military strategy,that being able to deal with twoMRC's (Major Regional Conflicts)simultaneously. However, (the reportstated) "this figure was derived largely frombudget-driven objectives rather than anPart of the classes impressive radar suite.From top to bottom, the SPS-55 surfacesearch radar, the navigation radar, the SPS-49 air search radar, the SPQ-9A anti-missiletrack while scan radar and the SPG-S IDStandard fire control radar. Also visible oneof the ships two Phalanx guns.analysis of war fighting crisis response, andoverseas presence objectives".It should be noted that if the MRCrequirement were reduced to one then afurther 45 surface combatants would bewithdrawn cutting into the USN'sTiconderoga class cruisers. Consequentlythe early withdrawal of the Kidds is notplatform based as the same fate couldhave been suffered by the Aegis andTomahawk equipped Ticonderoga class.With ship numbers set, the USN iscurrently clearing out the 'less new' tomake way for the 'new'. That 'new'consists of more flight IIA Arleigh Burkeclass destroyers with Aegis andTomahawk. Aegis equipped ships areviewed as being far more capable, flexibleand survivable in the littoral battlespaceenvironment which the US is increasinglybeing engaged in due to the end of thecold war. Aegis and Tomahawk allow aship to establish theatre air dominanceand influence events ashore through theapplication of precision long-rangefirepower. Both these USN objectives arenot required by the RAN.Further, the model used for numberrequirement generation has also changed.Basing distances on the location of recentnaval engagements, redefining the numoerof months between deployments andchanging the point of origin of ships todeployed areas has contributed to therevised ship numbers.Another facet of the revised figure is theexpected contribution to USNoperations of countries like Canada, theUK and Australia etc. US Chief of NavalOperations Admiral Jay Johnson stated inthe 1997 edition of 'Force 2001:Vision...Presence...Power* that it isessential to provide "allies or likely coalitionpartners with US equipment, training andlogistics support (to improve) interoperabilityand common infrastructures among our ownforces". Further to this the USN SecretaryJohn Dalton said in September 1997 "ournation cannot shoulder alone the burden ofundergirding peace and stability throughoutthe world". One could surmise that USNstrategy calls for the acquisition of Kiddsby the RAN not only to help itself butalso Australia.PAGE 18PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYThe bow of the USS CHANDLER on her lost visit 10 Sydney. From left the Mk-26 twinlaunchers for the 74 km SM-2MR and one of the two Mk-AS 127 mm naval guns (as usedon HMAS ANZAC)KIDDS IN THE RANApart from new Order of Battle Posters',four new names, some new ammunitionand electronics stocks nothing morewould be required to fit the Kidds intothe RAN. except some manpower, budgetand program re-allocations. Most of theships systems, electronics and weaponsare common to the RAN including theirLM-2500 gas turbine propulsion plants.The major difference being the Kidd'srange of 8.000 nautical miles at I7kt"scompared to Anzac's range of 6.000nautical miles at the same speed. Thisequates to less out of area supportrequired by the Kidds. particularly alongour long coastline, and thus a forcemultiplier.ASW torpedoes, helicopters andhelicopter handling systems are the same.Many of the radars and consoles alongwith communications equipment arecommon. However, what is not commonis the class's superb 3-D air search radar,its C3 capabilities and its Standard SM-2MR anti-aircraft missiles, whichincidentally the RAN is hoping to use ona WIP Anzac.The SM-2MR is essentially the only hardkill counter to the sjpersonic SS-N-22'Sunburn' ASM (Anti-Ship Missile) nowentering the Chinese Navy. It alsoprovides a means of defeating attackingaircraft armed with ASMs beyond theirmissile release point. Having the SM-2MRcapability now is vital given that morethan 75 countries now possess over 90different types of ASMs. These threedifferences of the Kidds would haveenabled the RAN to mount virtually anytype of maritime operation required andin a safe and effective manner anywherein the world.CONCLUSIONInside the RAN the battle over the Kiddoffer was somewhat divisive. Many at thesharp end were in favour of acquisitionbut some dry docked CanberraAdmiral's' opposed it. Industry is certainlyworried as acquisition of the $ 120 millionKidds was seen as an alternative to the $ Ibillion FFG upgrade, as it was widelybelieved that four of the older FFGs woulddecommission to make way for the Kidds.Although this may seem a waste of fourFFGs which have served the RAN wellone should consider that the FFGs weredesigned as disposable warships at theheight of the cold war, with a life span of23 years without major modification(USN figures). Given this philosophy it isnot surprising that doubts about theRAN's earlier FFGs hull integrity arealready starting to emerge. The Kiddshowever, are large 9.000 ton warshipswhose life expectancy is over 35 years,consequently they will last a lot longerthan our FFGs despite the fact they werecommissioned around the same time.Thisfact also means that a replacement willnot be needed as soon thus affording asaving.At this point one should question whythe Kidds were rejected in favour of theFFG upgrade. For $1 billion the FFGs willgain another fire control radar, a shortrange air/surface search 3-D radar, a newcombat data system, a new hull mountedASW sonar, a mine avoidance sonar andan eight cell VLS for Evolved Sea Sparrow(Tenix proposal).It is not receiving SM-2MR or anysignificant upgrade in its long-range radarcoverage as compared to the Kidds. Norwill it receive the same C3 capabilities,the ASW potential, the NGS capability orthe range, speed and survivability of theKidds. Some of the more disappointingelements of the FFG 'upgrade' are thePAGE 21retention of the SM-IMR missile and nofleet wide C3 capabilities.To add insult to injury both contenderspropose fitting some equipment to theFFGs already found in the Kidds. but eventhe application of this technology, and the$1 billion, will not produce a warshipanything near the Kidds. A potentiallydebilitating and frightening aspect of the'upgrade' is that much of the new combatsystem, like the Collins class SSKs combatsystem, is untried and unproven. It is alsorumoured that both proposals nowexceed the $ I billion budget.Detractors argued that the Kidd offerwas another second hand junk sale.Nothing could have been further fromthe truth. Two of the Kidds have recentlybeen laid up in reserve and the other twoare still fully operational and deployed.But the stigma of second hand equipmentis still somewhat strong based on the LSTacquisition experience. However, itshould be noted that KANIMBLA andMANOORA. regardless of their problems,still represent a significant capabilityenhancement and saving over new buildships. One should also remember that inthe past the ADF has profited fromsecond hand equipment such as the F-IIIGs. HMAS SHROPSHIRE, DUCHESS.SUPPLY. JERVIS BAY. GOLDSBOROUGH toname just a few.Criticism of the offer also includes theprovision of through life support. TheUSN Spruance class destroyers are alsobeing decommissioned early but forscrap. If the RAN had repeated the verysuccessful Goldsborough exercise with twoSpruance class cut up for Kidd sparesthen through life support could beachieved for as little as $10 million(remembering the virtually identicaldesign of the two).Another problem cited with Kidds werecrew numbers as each ship's complementis approximately 350. As the DDG'screws have already been earmarked forAnzacs, crews would have to come fromfour decommissioned FFGs. ADELAIDE,CANBERRA. SYDNEY. DARWIN. As eachFFGs complement is only 190 this leavesonly 760 to fill a total complement of1400. But some in the RAN suggestedthat a figure of 250 per Kidd could beachieved through modifications to theship's weapons and sensors, such asreplacing the two Mk-26 twin armlaunchers with Mk-41 VLS. as on theimproved Spruance which shares theKidd's design. This would have reducedcrew numbers and significantly improvedthe already impressive firepower of theKidds.One area that the $ I billion from the FFG'upgrade' could have been re-directedThe aft Mk-26 twin arm launchers fo r theStandard SM-2MR. As ASROC has beenwithdrawn this leaves the class with a missileload of 68 Standards.into was improving the Kidds evenfurther and investing in a new programstill currently underway in the USN. The'Smart Ship' project is investigating waysof reducing manpower onboard shipswhich in turn produces significantfinancial savings, approximately US$2.8million p.a. per ship for a one-off US$8million investment.The US study team's initial findings werethat crew reductions could be madebased on greater use of internalcommunications, bridge and watchmanning policy changes, increased use ofGPS and digital charts, a self monitoringcondition assessment system and acomputerised damage control facility.Thereport on the program stated that "thesmart ship initiative was a success and canprovide a significant return on a modestinvestment in technology", and that theprogram can produce "long term benefitsof positive crew moral and increasedretention of quality personnel". Recently, aspart of this program the Ticonderogacruiser YORKTOWN went to sea todemonstrate the concept and wascertified combat ready, operational andsafe with 50 enlisted and four officersless.Initial elements of this new program arealready being integrated into all USNships and submarines. The question theRAN should have asked itself was. if thesemodest changes were applied to amodified Kidd of 250 personnel howmany would then be required to crew?Possibly 200 or the same as an FFG?In 1961 the RAN took a bold step andacquired the Charles F. Adams class DDG.At the time these were the first US madeships in the RAN. Logistically the fleetwould be under some pressure as up untilthis point the fleet was comprised ofBritish made ships and equipment. All theequipment on the DDG would beexclusive to them thus requiring anexpansion of the fleet's logistic system.However, this did not influence thedecision.The ships were assessed on theirmerits. However, today the RAN isdifferent. Some of the uncommonequipment of the Kidds was cited asplacing too much strain on the fleet'slogistic system. However. I would pointout that if the Kidds had been introducedthe older DDGs could have been retiredimmediately thus making way for the oneoffequipment of the Kidds by taking theplace of the greater number of one-offsof the remaining DDGs. Rememberingthat the Kidds are significantly morecommon to the FFG and Anzac than theDDGs.It is unfortunate that our bureaucracyand force structure is so rigid andinflexible that an opportunity like theKidd offer cannot be given the attentionit deserves. A senior Admiral has publiclystated that Navy did not bother toinvestigate the offer (also evidenced bytheir inaccurate criticisms) given theplans in place for the current forcestructure. It is also regrettable that somewould prefer to invest a billion dollars ina somewhat pointless 'upgrade' on sixfrigates instead of $120 million in fourrecently updated operational destroyers.This is particularly poignant given that theRAN is currently at its lowest ebb inliving memory and is set to get worse.One of the impressive features of this classis its SPS-48E 3D air search radar with arange of 402 km. Below it is the SPG-60fire control radar for the Mk-45 127 mmnaval guns.PAGE I IThe bow of an improved Spruance classdestroyer showing its 62 cell Mk-41 VLS. Asthe Kidd class shares the same design theycould also be modified with the VLS toimprove the ships firepower and reduce thenumber of crew.The three DDGs will start todecommission next year withoutreplacement, at least one FFG will be inmajor refit and modernisation each yearand the Anzac WIP will not provide adeployable ship for nearly eight years.Matters are made worse by the fact thatCollins is well behind schedule.With two Indian Ocean powers sabrerattling with nuclear weapons and ballisticmissiles to deliver them, it would havemade sense to have four of the worldsmost powerful destroyers inserted intoan order of battle of an island nationsharing that same ocean. It would have alsomade sense to include the Kidds into theRAN now as any future DDGreplacement under project SEA 1400 willbe nowhere near the capability of theKidds and cost an astronomical amount. Itwill also come at a time of incredible stressfor the ADF due to block obsolescence inthe RAAF. Army and RAN.As mentioned the Kidd class destroyeroffer was rejected. The FFG upgrade' isless of a capability enhancement as a $ Ibillion Ministerial confidence investmentin industry. When the history of the RANis re-written the Kidd offer will end up asa footnote. But it was more than that Itrepresented one of the greatestopportunities presented to the RAN toonce again become a credible worldmaritime power. History will record thismissed opportunity as the greateststrategic blunder since the loss of thecarrier MELBOURNE. So much for theStrategic Review.


THE NAVYOCEANS GOVERNANCE ANDMARITIME STRATEGYThe latest seminar in the biennial seriesrun by the RAN's Maritime StudiesCentre in conjunction with the Universityof Wollongong's Centre for MaritimePolicy and Tenix Defence Systems,(formerly Transfield). took place inCanberra from 18 to 19 May 1998. Thesubject was Oceans Governance andMaritime Strategy and the seminarattracted a wide audience from Austr jliaand the Asia Pacific region.Overseas speakers, mainly fromUniversities, represented China, the USA.Korea and Samoa, while addresses werealso given by local authorities from theUniversities ofWollongong and Tasmania,the Department of Defence, the RAN.the CSIRO Maritime Research Division,the ANU Strategic and Defence StudiesCentre. the Attorney General'sDepartment, the East-West Centre.Environment Australia, the HQ AustralianDefence Force, the Bureau of ResourceSciences and Tenix Defence Systems.The keynote address was given byProfessor Ed Miles of the University ofWashington who opined that the Law ofthe Sea Conference, which took 10 yearsto negotiate, represented the bestbalance between competing approachesthe world was likely to achieve, and thatwe must make it work. Many countriesincluding his own had failed to satisfy theLaw of the Sea and this was a concern,not least in view of the huge claims ofsuch countries as China (most of theSouth China Seas) and Chile (in theSouth-East Pacific Ocean). There wassome conflict between the Law of the Seaand certain local agreements such as theAntarctic Treaty.This latter banned miningbelow 600 S but the new Law of the Seaallows deep ocean bed mining.Commander Dick Sherwood, theDirector General Maritime StudiesProgram, followed Professor Miles with asuccinct historical outline of thedevelopment of Oceans Governancefrom the times of Ancient Greece, and itsimpact on Maritime Strategy including thegrowing legal limitations on naval mobility.He concluded with a thoughtful quotefrom Professor D F O'Connell's work onThe International Law of the Sea:The History of the law of the sea has beendominated by a central and persistenttheme: the competition between the exerciseof government authority over the sea and theidea of freedom of the seas. The tensionbetween these has waxed and wanedthrough the centuries, and has reflected thepolitical. strategic and economiccircumstances of each particular age. Whenone or two great commercial powers havebeen dominant or have achieved parity ofpower, the emphasis in practice has lain uponthe liberty of navigation and the immunity ofshipping from local control; in such ages theseas have been viewed more as strategicthan as economic areas of competition.When, on the other hand, great powers havebeen in decline or have been unable toimpose their wills upon smaller States, orwhen an equilibrium of power has beenattained between a multiplicity of States, theemphasis has lain upon the protection andpreservation of maritime resources, andconsequently upon the assertion of localauthority over the sea.Professor Choon Kun Lee of the KoreanInstitute for Maritime Strategy spoke onSea Power and Security at the Close of the20th century. Korea has now established aMinistry of Maritime Affairs and wishes tobecome a leader in the diplomatic fieldcovering Oceans Governance in her localarea. He oudined the concerns now felt inEast Asia, particularly since the end of thecold war. Oceans Governance was lesseffective now than in previous centuries.US hegemony was now not as great asthat wielded by the Portuguese. Spanish.Dutch and B tish before her. US Strategyseems to have changed, with a massivereduction of the US Navy and its resultingEast Asian presence. There was nowdoubt as to its capacity to govern theoceans. Asian countries now worry overthe security of the sea lines ofcommunication. There has been a 39%increase in spending on Navies and AirForces in East Asia since the end of thecold war. With no land threat from theSoviets, China was now moving towardsbecoming a maritime power. There wasalso concern in Korea over Japan and herocean claims.The Director of the Chinese Institute forStrategic Studies in Shanghai. Professor JiGuoxing, emphasising he was presentinghis own views, oudined the problem ofthe world's growing population andscarcity of resources. He felt maritimeco-operation could act as a catalyst and abridge for security co-operation. Therewas a trend to an irreversible increase innaval power in East Asia and a lack ofpolitical will to solve the growingarguments between East Asian countriesover disputed islands and ExclusiveEconomic Zones. There needed to be aresolution of maritime claims, andagreements on dealing with incidents asthey arose. China had huge maritimeinterests. 25% of her oil and gas wasoffshore; within 12 years. 10% of her GDPwould come from fishing. China wasdeveloping her Oceans Policy.RADM Chris Oxenbould, the RAN'sDeputy Chief of Navy, outlined theextensive Regional Security Co-operationbetween Australia and East and SE Asiancountries and the nations of the SouthPacific in many fields of naval and airactivities. He felt that this contributedto stability in the areas concerned.Possible improvements might includeconcentrating on greater interoperabilityof forces, more warfighting exercisessuch as Mine Counter Measures,increased training, exercises with Aseannaval forces involving Maritime Patrolaircraft and inter-action with submarines.There was also some further potentialfor pooling some efforts with NewZealand.Dr Rosemary Balkin of the AttorneyGeneral's Department spoke onResponsibilities and Obligations underIntentional Law and oudined the variousLaws and Conventions to which Australiais now committed, including the LondonDumping Convention regulating dumpingat sea. the Basle Convention ontransboundary movement of wastes; theMarpoll Convention on MaritimePollution; the Intervention Convention onCoastal States intervening on the highseas in the case of accidents causingpollution; and the Convention on OilPollution.Dr Marcus Howard of the University ofTasmania outlined outstanding issueswith Regimes for Oceans Governance,stating that time was required forimplementation and there was a need forthe harmonising of national laws in awhole range of subjects.In covering Maritime EnvironmentSecurity, Mr Alan Dupont of the StrategicDefence Studies Centre Canberra,oudined the major impact on the seasderiving from the great populationgrowth of Asia, concentrated mostly incoastal areas. 80% of sea pollution camefrom the land and there were increasingproblems of human and industrial waste,oil pollution, radio-active waste pollutionand the degradation of land and coastalareas. The capacity for fishing now far:exceeds the biological replacement offish. The world fishing take was thereforefelling, and some fisheries had alreadybeen almost destroyed. Hunger forvarious types of resources increases theprominence of maritime disputes.Dr Mark Valencia of the East-WestCentre emphasised the energyvulnerability of a number of Asian nationsand their growing dependence on energyfrom ocean areas. Competition couldexacerbate maritime problems. The EastChina Sea was the last low latitude area inthe world not yet explored, and therewere overlapping claims. 85% of Japan'senergy was imported. Requirements forenergy by China. Korea and ASEAN stateswere increasing at a major rate. Problemswere arising all over E and SE Asia due tooverlapping claims in the offshore areas.Problem areas included the SpratleyIslands, the South China Sea. the Gulf ofTonkin, the Takeshima/Tokdo Islandsinvolving Japan, South and North Korea;the Senkaku/Dia O'yu Islands and theOkinawa Trench/Continental shelfdisputes between Japan and China. Onesolution might be joint development insome areas, as arranged in the agreementbetween Australia and Indonesia over theTimor Sea. However, there did not appearto be the political will for a solution ofthe East Asia disputes.Other speakers covered fisheries andhighly migratory fish species, pollution,THE NAVYdumping and Maritime accidents;jurisdictional issues for navies; SWPacific Regional Co-operation; andOceanography and Hydrography.There is now a complex array of lawdeveloped since the UN Conference onLaw of the Sea 1982. This brought with itnew challenges for navies in policing theHigh Seas with limited resources. Duringthe coming century there would be anincreasing need to control activities onthe High Seas beyond normal nationaljurisdiction. Some recent regimeschanging the ancient Freedom of the HighSeas concept include:-• the 1988 Vienna Convention on drugswhich allows boarding of ships beyondthe 12 nautical mile Territorial Sea• the Rome Convention on MaritimeTerrorism• the HMS and Straddling Stocks(fisheries) Agreement which allowsboarding in International Waters• the CCAMLR covering the Antarcticin which there are no enforcementarrangements• the IMO Marine EnvironmentalConventionSo far there has been little co-ordinationinternationally on such matters as Piracy,the Slave Trade and Stateless Vessels.However, the United Nations is currentlyreviewing whether conventions could beHMASTORRENS; 1971 to 1998.832,796 nautical miles; 61.590 hours underway. BZdeveloped on Deep Sea Bed Mining.Marine Protected Areas and RefugeeFlows.Clearly there are huge changes inactivities and responsibilities taking placein the ocean areas around us. Thepressures created by the populationexplosion, advances in technology, thedemand for food and minerals andchanges in international law are making itof growing importance that we inAustralia look to our ocean frontiers. Wenow have responsibility for one of theworld's largest exclusive economic zones,stretching 200 nautical miles from ourcoasts and island territories, togetherwith the adjacent continental shelf.During the conference it was announcedthat the Government was about tolaunch an issues paper for publiccomment on Australia's Oceans Policy. Thepolicies contained in this document willbe of considerable importance to ourfuture as "the nation at the centre of theworld's oceans". Whatever the content, itseems quite clear that we will have todevote increased resources tosurveillance, and to enforcement of ourown and international laws in the areasfor which we hold responsibility.RADM A J Robertson AO DSC RAN(Rtd).Federal Vice-President Navy League ofAustralia.PAGE 22PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYThe Royal Australian Navy (RAN)and Royal New Zealand Navy(RNZN) have ordered II SH-2G(A)s and four SH-2G(NZ)s fromKaman Aerospace Internationalunder contracts valued at in excessof US$600 million and US$185million respectively.The SH-2G Super Seasprite is anupgraded derivative of the earlier SH-2Fmodel, with power provided via twinGeneral Electric T700-401 engines. TheSH-2G has been operated by the USNaval Reserve since February 1993 withtwo squadrons with 14 aircraft each, oneeach stationed on the east and westcoasts. These helicopters carry a LittonCanada LN-66 surveillance radar andASN-150 tactical navigation system, plusan anti-submarine warfare (ASW) suite ofsonobuoys, magnetic-anomaly detector.Computing Devices Canada AN/UYS-503acoustic processor and Mk 46 or Mk 50lightweight torpedoes. As well. Kaman isfitting kits in six of the east coast aircraftso that they can carry the Magic Lanternlaser-based mine-detection system.The Australian and New Zealand SuperSeasprites are planned to operate in thesurveillance and anti-ship roles ratherthan for ASW (using only two crew). TheRAN's Super Seasprites have beenacquired under Project Sea 1411. likethose for Egypt, use refurbished ex-USNavy airframes taken from desert storagein Arizona. Deliveries of the 11 aircraftunder firm contract are due to span fromSeptember 2000 to mid 2002. to equipthe ANZAC class frigates, while NewZealand has elected to procure newlybuilt aircraft, using some existingcomponents, for delivery from June 2000.They will fly from ANZAC and Leanderclass frigates.Both the RAN and RNZN have selectedthe Telephonies AN/APS-143 PC radar,which will incorporate an inversesynthetic-aperture radar (ISAR) mode inthe case of the Austi alian aircraft, but theremainder of the sensor, avionics, andweapon fit differs.Each SH-2G(A) will carry a LittonGuidance & Control Systems IntegratedTactical Avionics System (ITAS). with fourcolour multi-function displays, and anautomatic flight-control system. DualLitton LN-I00G ring-laser-gyro inertialnavigation systems, each featuring aGlobal Positioning System (GPS) receiver,replace the earlier Doppler radar.Australia has chosen the Hughes AircraftAN/AAQ-16 turret-mounted forwardlookinginfrared set (FLIR). operating inthe 3-5 mm band, to provide the requiredrange when operating in the hot andhumid conditions encountered aroundAustralia's northern coast. This is avariant of the unit that Hughes issupplying for theV-22 tilt-rotor program inthe US. with three (rather than two)fields of view. Elisra is supplying its AES-210 electronic support measures (ESM)suite, which additionally manages operationof the Israeli company's LWS-20 laserwarner. Northrop Grumman AN/AAR-54missile approach warner. and AN/ALE-47countermeasures dispensing system.The SH-2G(A) model helicopter will bearmed with two Kongsberg Penguin Mk 2Mod7 anti-ship missiles, one on thestarboard pylon, with provision for asecond round to port. A Link 11 terminalwill be fitted for the exchange of targetingand other information. The SH-2G(A)swill be fitted with a composite main rotorblade (CMRB2) with a I S.OOOh fatiguelife, developed by Kaman under USNcontract. Across the Tasman Sea. theRNZN selected a standard rather than a'glass' cockpit. Each New Zealandhelicopter will be armed with twoAGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles,one per side, on new outboard weaponpylons.As an interim measure the RNZN alsoordered four ex-USN SH-2Fs as interimreplacements for the aging WestlandWasps, until the newer Super Seaspritesare delivered.The first F model arrived inlate 1997 with flight trials from February,1998 and first shipboard deployment,aboard TE KAHA planned for June.After the delivery of the SH-2G(A)s.the older SH-2Fs will provide a sourceof spares.The RNZN is expected to buy anothersingle Super Seasprite to operate fromadditional platforms, with the RAN havingoptions to increase its SH-2G(A) fleetwith the commissioning of newhelicopter equipped ships. Kaman hasalso proposed a land-based version, tocarry up to eight fully armed troops foran Army reconnaissance and fire-supporthelicopter for use in the north of thecountry. The Department of Defence isexpected to issue an invitation to registerinterest in June, with a request fortenders in June 1999. Contract award isplanned for July 2000, with deliveriesfrom January 2003.A helicopter designed over 40 years agois being remanufactured into a 21stcenturyfighting machine for severalforeign navies. Kaman AerospaceCorporation's long-lived H-2 Seasprite, inits SH-2G Super Seasprite configuration,has been rescued from a well-deservedretirement by aggressive Kamanmarketing and new avionic technologiesthat have transformed the shipboardhelicopter into an even more formidableextension of a ship's combat systems.TheEgyptian Air Force and the Australian andNew Zealand Navies all have contractedwith Kaman for remanufactured SH-2s.and the navies of several other nationsare considering purchases of the SuperSeasprite.Kaman's first SH-2 for an overseascustomer rolled out of the company'sBloomfield, Conn., plant on 21 October.The first of 10 SH-2G(E)s for theEgyptian Air Force was welcomed in aceremony by Gen. Hazim Awad. chiefprocurement officer for Egypt, who saidthat the SH-2G(E) "adds an importantnew dimension to my country's ability todefend its coastal waters." He gave specialpraise to the SH-2's anti-submarinewarfare (ASW) system. "This is anoutstanding aircraft and we are lookingforward to its becoming a part of Egypt'sdefense system."Charles H. Kaman. Kaman Corporation'schairman and CEO. called the rollout "amilestone event for the SH-2G SuperSeasprite as it marks the beginning of itsnew mission in international militaryservice. We are very proud to have Egyptas the lead international customer for theSH-2G and we look forward tosupporting this aircraft for the life of theprogram." The value of the Egyptianprogram to Kaman is more than $150million for the aircraft and supportTHE LONG-LIVEDSEASPRITEKaman's Seasprite first flew in July 1959.By the end of 1965. the U.S. Navy hadreceived 190 single-engine UH-2A/Butility and rescue models, most of whichwere upgraded during the late 1960s and1970s with a second General ElectricbuiltT58 turboshaft engine, an upratedtransmission, and a four-blade rotor. Thesecond engine gave the HH-2C, HH-2D,YSH-2E, SH-2D. and SH-2F conversionssubstantially increased load-capability andsurvivability.The advent of the light airbornemultipurpose system (LAMPS) during thelate 1960s changed life forever for theSeasprite. The LAMPS, a successor to theless-than-successful QH-50 drone antisubmarinehelicopter (DASH), centeredaround the use of a light helicopter toextend the horizon of a warship's sensorsand weapons.The idea behind the LAMPSconcept was to use the Seasprite to tracksubmarines and attack them withtorpedoes, and. in the anti-ship missiledefenserole, to provide warning of cruisemissile attack. The helicopter's yeomanFirst RNZN SH-2F Sea Sprite above Auckland city. (RNZN)usefulness in the rescue and utility rolesremained, of course, and the LAMPSconcept took off.After concept trials with HH-2Dconversions, the Navy selected theSeasprite in October 1970 as the LAMPSMk I.Twenty H-2s were converted to SH-2Ds, equipped with sonobuoys. Mk46torpedoes, a search radar, an active sonarrepeater, a UHF acoustic data-relaytransmitter, and an electronic surveillancemeasures (ESM) receiver.In March 1971. the Navy committedalmost all of its remaining Seasprites tothe LAMPS Mk I program. The SH-2Fversion - with a more powerful upgradeof the T58. the improved Kaman 101rotor, a towed magnetic anomalydetector (MAD), avionics upgrades, and atailwheel moved forward (to facilitateflight operations from smaller decks) -long reigned as the standard LAMPS Mk Iaircraft, eventually equipping six fleet andthree reserve squadrons. A total of 104Seasprites. including 16 of the SH-2Ds.were converted to SH-2Fs.The introduction of the Sikorsky-builtSH-60B Seahawk (LAMPS Mk III) inPAGE 25PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVY1983 apparently marked the beginning ofthe end of the SH-2. but the relativelydiminutive size of the SH-2 ensured itslongevity as long as the Navy retained theKnox class (and earlier) frigates, and theshort-hull Oliver Hazard Perry classguided-missile frigates. The naval buildupof the 1980s kept the demand for LAMPShelicopters high; to meet that demandand replace attrition, the Navy orderedthe Seasprite back into production after a16-year hiatus, a rare occurrence inaviation history. Starting in fiscal year1982. Kaman built 54 new-constructionSH-2Fs for the Navy. In 1987. to improvesurvivability in the volatile Persian Gulfregion, many Seasprites were upgradedwith ALQ-144 infrared countermeasuresequipment. AAQ-16 forward-lookinginfrared (FLIR) sets. ALE-39 chaff andflare dispensers, and M60 7.62 mmmachine guns.AN END AND ABEGINNINGFollowing trials of the YSH-2G. the Navyordered six new SH-2G Super Seasprites.powered by two General Electric-built'J-vSns&S!?"'W i a H BT700-GE-40I engines. The SH-2Gfeatured a dramatically expandedcapability over the SH-2F, made possibleby a 99-channel Computing Devices-builtUYS-503 acoustic processor, a LittonbuiltARN-150 tactical navigation system,a Mil-Std 1553 data bus. and an auxiliarypower unit. However, the end of the coldwar led to cancellation of plans toremanufacture about 115 SH-2Fs to SH-2Gs; ultimately, only 18 such conversionswere completed. The rapid retirement ofthe six fleet SH-2F squadrons - and oneof the three reserve SH-2F squadrons -during the early 1990s accompanied thewithdrawal of Knox class and short-hullPerry class frigates. The SH-2G neverentered service with the Navy's activedutyforces, but replaced the SH-2Fs inthe two remaining reserve light antisubmarinehelicopter squadrons (HSL-84and HSL-94).The process of turning an SH-2F into anSH-2G is not a mere airframerefurbishment and systems upgrade: itrequires a complete stripping of theairframe and remanufacture ofcomponents that need replacement. Newengines are installed, moving parts are• A* fSmjS-•ftf^J r ' iT®••J©* •L ylja^MUnited States Navy SH-2F Sea Sprite. (Kaman)-JgiSI/arestored or replaced as needed, andobsolete wiring is removed. Modularterminals for new avionics systems alsoare installed.The Seasprite had never served in aforeign air arm. The proposed sale of fiveSH-2Fs to Portugal in 1990 did not gothrough. A 1994 Foreign Military Salesplan to provide Turkey 14 SH-2Fs for useon board its Knox class frigates was puton hold by Congress because of tensionsbetween Turkey and Greece. The U.S.Naval Reserve SH-2Gs soldiered on.though, and occasionally were deployedto interdict drug runners. The KamanbuiltMagic Lantern minehunting lasersystem, tested on board an SH-2F duringthe Gulf War. became fully operationalthis year after two sets were delivered toone of the reserve squadrons. HSL-94 atNaval Air Station Willow Grove, Pa.The fact that the Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk(or its S-70 equivalent) had been sold toseveral foreign navies did not deterKaman. which saw new opportunities forthe Super Seasprite. which can operatefrom ship's helopads that are too smallfor the larger SH-60/S-70. The availabilityof small anti-shipping missiles gave newpotency to light helicopters, and theincreasing miniaturization of avionicsmade possible a lightweight dipping sonar,the Allied Signal Ocean System's ASQ-I8A. that the small SH-2 could handle.Half a decade after Super Seaspriteproduction ceased, Kaman enteredforeign competitions for shipboardhelicopters. In 1996 and 1997, itsmarketing efforts paid off with orders forremanufactured Seasprites from Egypt.Australia, and New Zealand.EGYPTIAN AIR FORCE -DEEP-DIPPING SONARKaman's first foreign model, the SH-2G(E). is the first and. as of lateNovember. 1997, was the only version ofthe Super Seasprite planned to be fittedwith the 1,500-foot-depth ASQ-I8Adipping sonar instead of a sonobuoydispenser. A U.S. Navy SH-2G was usedas an evaluation platform for a new digitalhover coupler designed by Kaman. TheVista Controls-built coupler (automaticstabilization equipment, or ASE) wastested at the Naval Air Warfare CenterAircraft Division at Patuxent River. Md..to evaluate its capability in automaticapproach, hover, sonar cable-angle hold,and departure. The ASE reduces pilotworkload, enables the helicopter tolaunch torpedoes while in a hover, andprovides a night automatic hovercapability. Like the U.S. Navy SH-2Gs, theEgyptian versions are operated by threecrew members: two pilots and a sensoroperator.The 10 SH-2G(E)s purchased by Cairowere delivered to the Egyptian Air Forceat a rate of one per month through July1998. The first three are temporarilybased in Pensacola. Fla.. for crew training;actual deliveries to Egypt began in April1998. The Egyptian Air Force will deployits Super Seasprites on board theEgyptian Navy's Knox class frigatesDamyat and Rasheed and Oliver HazardPerry class guided-missile frigatesMubarak and Taba. (Egypt is expected toacquire two more Perry class ships andtwo more Knox class ships.)RNZN - DELIVERY IN2000Last year. Kaman Aerospace InternationalCorp. announced a contract to providefour SH-2G(NZ) Super Seasprites to theRoyal New Zealand Navy (RNZN).Deliveries are expected to begin in 2000to replace four SH-2Fs that Kaman willdeliver to the RNZN to serve as interimreplacements for the Westland-builtWasp ASW helicopters on board theRNZN's Leander class frigates and newMeko 200 ANZAC class frigates.The RNZN plans to operate the SH-2G(NZ) with a two-man crew, a pilot anda tactical coordinator (TACCO).The SH-2G(NZ) version will be configured to firethe AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surfacemissile. Test-firings of the optically guidedMaverick were conducted from a U.S.Navy SH-2G in February 1996. but NewZealand will employ the infrared versionfrom its SH-2G(NZ)s.The New ZealandGovernment has chosen the AAQ-2 FLIRand LR-100 ESM systems for the SH-2G(NZ)s. which will be capable ofrecovery on board ship using theHarpoon decklock system.The $185 million Super Seaspritecontract with New Zealand includescosts for spare parts, missiles, andtraining. Teaming with Kaman to supportthe New Zealand and Australiancontracts are Safe Air Ltd. (NewZealand); Litton Guidance & Control andGE Aircraft Engines (United States); andTransfield Defence Systems, CSCAustralia Pty. Ltd.. and ScientificManagement Associates (Australia). On 5November, Telephonies (Farmingdale,N.Y.) was awarded a contract fromKaman for the APS-l43B(v)3 seasurveillanceradar (with inverse syntheticapertureradar capability) to be used onthe New Zealand and Australian SuperSeasprites.Delivery of the first SH-2G(NZ) isexpected in June 2000. The New ZealandDefense Force and Kaman AerospaceInternational have completed reactivatingthe second of four Kaman SH-2FSeasprite helicopters, which will serve onan interim basis until the year 2000. whenthey will be replaced by more advancedSH-2G Super Seasprites.The first two aircraft are being used fortraining pilots and ground crews of theRoyal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) forthe advanced "G" version. These aircraftwill be used for "first of class trials" onthe RNZN's new ANZAC class frigate TEKAHA, after which they will continue in anoperational status.The SH-2Fs were obtained from theUnited States, where they had been indesert storage. In New Zealand, theaircraft each undergo intensive "nose totail" reactivation to bring them back tooperating standards. Reactivation of allfour SH-2Fs was scheduled to becompleted in the August-Septembertimeframe.The SH-2F can be used in both Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). Anti-SurfaceWarfare (ASuW). Search and Rescue, aswell as for carrying up to 4.000 pounds ofexternal cargo. It carries a crew of three- pilot, observer and sensor operator.AUSTRALIA - "GLASSCOCKPIT" UPGRADEKaman Aerospace International Corp.also announced a $600 million contractto provide eleven SH-2G(A) SuperSeasprites, as well as 10 years of training,technical, and spares support, to theRoyal Australian Navy (RAN). The SH-2G(A)s, scheduled for delivery betweenearly 2001 and mid-2002, will operatefrom the RAN's eight Meko 200 ANZACclass frigates currently entering serviceand. according to Kaman officials, "will beable to operate from any helicoptercapableship - large or small - in theAustralian Navy and will be interoperablewith their allies' ships." The SH-2G(A)can recover on board ship using arecovery-assist traverse (RAST) system.Like the RNZN version of the SuperSeasprite, the Australian version willoperate with a two-man crew. Instead ofthe Maverick, Australia chose the AGM-II9B Penguin Mk2 Mod 7 anti-shippingmissile to arm its Super Seasprites. TheSH-2G(A)s will be equipped with theLitton Guidance & Control Systems-builtIntegrated Avionics System (ITAS),a"glasscockpit" that, according to Kamanofficials, will make the SH-2G(A) the"most sophisticated, most integratedrotary-wing platform flying." Australiaselected the AAQ-16 FLIR and AES-210ESM systems for the SH-2G(A). which willfeature rotor blades built of compositematerial. Delivery of the first SH-2G(A) isscheduled for September 2000.TECHNICALFitted with two General Electric T-700engines (similar to those fitted in theRAN's Seahawk helicopters) the SuperSeasprite will be an extremely capableand flexible helicopter in its normaloperating configuration. The principalcharacteristics and capabilities of the SH-2G(A) Super Seasprite in summary are:• Maximum All Up Weight(MAUW)• Maximum Take Off Weight(MTOW)•Useful Load• Cabin Volume• Rescue Hoist Load Capacity• Range• Endurance6.166kg6.123kg1.823kg5.3cu m272kgAbout 680kmAbout 3.8 hours• Maximum Speed About 140 knotsFollowing delivery and introduction intoservice, the helicopters will be largelysupported by a purpose designed andconstructed Support Centre locatedclose to the Nowra Naval Air Station.TheCentre will provide a wide range oftechnical and logistics services, managethe repair and overhaul of engines, majorcomponents and avionics equipments andwill warehouse the majority of helicopterspares. In addition the Super SeaspriteFlight Simulator and the SoftwareSupport Facility will both be located atthe Centre. The technical, logistics,training and software upkeep services willbe conducted by industry with only asmall Defence personnel presence. Sucharrangements, which are consistent withthe ongoing Commercial SupportProgram initiatives, represent a new wayof supporting naval aviation and areexpected to provide increased helicopteravailability at a reduced cost.A contract for the helicopters andsupporting infrastructure was signed on26th of June 1997. The first fourhelicopters will be fully assembled in theUSA with the remaining helicopters beinglargely assembled at the Nowra Naval AirStation.The first of the Super Seasprites isplanned for delivery during the first halfof 2001 with all deliveries completed bymid 2002.PAGE 26PAGE I I


THE NAVYNAVY WEEK 98 - SYDNEYTHE NAVYNAVAL REVIEW - THE PHILIPPINESPROGRAMME OF OPEN DAY,SUNDAY 11 OCTOBER, 1998TimeActivity1000 Fleet Base Opens. Cowper Wharf Road. WoolloomoolooHMA Ships Open for Inspection;- Logistic Landing Ship HMAS TOBRUK- Guided Missile Frigate HMAS MELBOURNE- Guided Missile Destroyer HMAS PERTH- Guided Missile Frigate HMAS NEWCASTLE(with continue;» huge' Navy video wall and photographic exhibitions)- HMA Submarine ONSLOW- Fleet Oiler HMAS SUCCESS- To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Fleet Air Arm.four Naval helicopters available for inspection on wharfside including;Sea King. Seahawk. Squirrel and 206B-1.Australian Naval Aviation Museum display opensThe former USN Auk doss minesweeper RIZAL (PS74), built foroperations in the Second World War and transferred to thePhilippines in 1965. Stricken in 1994, the patrol ship was refittedand returned to service from January, 1996. She is crewed by 100personnel. The ship is armed with two 76 mm guns and four 40 mm,four 20 mm and two 12.7 mm guns. (Brian Morrison)1000 Shoreside displays open, including;- Task Force 72 model warships- National Flags- Defence recruiting van- Naval Historical Collection display- Australian Naval Aviation Museum- Photographic Displays- Naval Reserve Cadets- Fleet GymnasiumDYNAMIC DIVINGDISPLAY AREABLD 902Toilets(Disabled access)BRP (Ship of the Republic of the Philippines) RAJAH HUMABON wasoriginally built for the United States Navy in 1943. Shecommissioned as the USSATHERTON (DE 169) and after servicewith the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force was transferred tothe Philippines in 19 78. Although stricken in 1993. RAJAHHUMABON was restored to operational service. The 55-year-oldpatrol ship (PS) is expected to remain active until the early 21stcentury. (Brian Morrison)1100 Navy Band performance1130 Diver display in Woolloomooloo Bay1300 Navy Band performanceAuk class patrol ship QUEZON during the 1998 Naval Review. Thetwo twin 40 mm guns are visible above the afi 76 mm gun. All ofthe original anust-^marine weapons have been removed during the1995-96 refit (Brian Morrison)1400 Diver display in Woolloomooloo Bay1530 Ceremonial Sunset performed bythe Naval Guard and Band1600 Ships' gangways close to visitors1630 Last visitors off ships1700 Fleet Base closesDisplay MarqueesToilets(Please note:This programme mayalter subject to ships' availability)FerryAnother view (port bow) of the RAJAH HUMABON at the 1998Naval Review. Her main armament comprises three single 76 mmdual purpose guns. (Brian Morrison)Fine broadside of the Auk class vessel RIZAL This 53-year-old ship isone of ten Second World War vessels (one frigate, nineminesweepers) currently forming the PS force. (John Mortimer)PAGE 28PAGE I I


&RP EMIUK JACINTO, the former Royal Navy Peacock class patrolvessel, transferred by sale in April, 1997. Built as HMS PEACOCK in1983, the ship operated with her sister ships as part of the HongKong squadron, until the handover of the colony to mainland Chinain June. 1997. (Brian Morrison)THE NAVYOne of the recent 78 foot class patrol boats in service with theNavy. PG378 HILARIO RUIZ was completed in 1995, as one of 24units accepted between 1990 and l998.The 56.4 ton vessel ismanned by ten crew and carries four 12.7 mm machine guns andtwo 7.62 mm machine guns. (John Mortimer)THE NAVYSAYING THE MIDWAYOn I July, 1998 the U.S. Navy officiallyannounced its intention to award thedecommissioned USS MIDWAYaircraft carrier to the San DiegoAircraft Carrier Museum (SDACM).In a letter to SDACM's president. AlanUke, Assistant Secretary of the NavyJohn W. Douglass said delivery of thehistoric ship from Bremerton, Wash, isconfirmed, upon completion of fiveconditions. MIDWAY organisers expectedall of the conditions being met.A group of community leaders andelected officials have been working formore than five years to moor theMIDWAY at Navy Pier 11A in San DiegoBay as a tribute to the armed services andas San Diego's first new. major visitorattraction since the Wild Animal Parkopened a quarter century ago.The Navy notification accelerates themomentum for the project. MIDWAYorganisers have raised more than $1.5million from San Diegans and are wellinto their second phase of fundraising.The Port District's advisory NorthEmbarcadero Planning Alliance is nearingcompletion of a master plan that includesthe MIDWAY at Navy Pier IIA as acornerstone of the long-term vision. Theplan is expected to be forwarded to thePort District for formal consideration byOctober."The inclusion of the MIDWAY as theanchor of the North Embarcadero.minutes away from a soon-to-beexpandedconvention centre, is a vital cogin our city's tourism industry," noted SanDiego Convention & Visitors BureauPresident Reint Reinders.Meanwhile, museum organisers expect tomeet the conditions contained inDouglass' letter in the near future.Said Uke. "We have been working closelywith the Navy for five years. This officialnotification confirms that we can beconfident that MIDWAY will be coming toSan Diego for her final tour of duty."The Navy requires evidence of "firmfinancing" for the project SDACM's VinceBenstead and others have been meetingwith local banks to establish aconsortium of local lenders to financeapproximately $3 million for the project'sopening phase. From the beginning.MIDWAY organisers have adamantlyinsisted the project would not involvetaxpayer funds.The Navy also wants to be assured apermanent mooring site based on PortDistrict support and completion of anEnvironmental Impact Report (EIR). Latelast year, the Port gave its conceptualapproval of the project at Navy Pier 11 A,subject to completion ot an EIR. thedevelopment of which is underway.In response to another Navy condition,project officials are developing a specificmaintenance plan - including staffmonitoring, encapsulation, cleaning,sealing and removal techniques - to beapproved by the EnvironmentalProtection Agency and become part ofthe environmental impact report.The Navy's requirement for adequateinsurance is being met throughcompanies that specialise in museuminsurance coverage.Finally, the United States Navy willrequire a lease for use of Pier 11 A,already developed and under review.Equally important, two-thirds of thewarehouse on Navy Pier has beenremoved, creating approximately 400parking spaces for use by MIDWAYvisitors and others."We appreciate your efforts to preserveand honor ex-MIDWAY and look forwardto working with you over the comingmonths to fulfill all requirements tofinalise the donation of this historicvessel." said Douglass.The old and the new. A former Royal Navy Peacock class moves swiftlytowards two of the older patrol ships. (Brian Morrison)Vehicle landing ship BACOLOD CITY, in commission since December,1993. Based on an Australian designed roll-on/roll-off beachablecargo ship, the two Filipino ships (sister DACUPAN CITY) were builtin the USA as members of the US Army Frank S. Besson class. (JohnMortimer)Coast Guard Swift Mk III type patrol boat This ex USN craft wasbuilt in the mid 1970s. Mountings for the two 12.7 mm machineguns are fitted forward of the bridge. (John Mortimer)Starboard quarter view of BACOLOD CITY in 1998. A helicopterplatform is fitted aft for operations of light helo types. Both classmembers can carry 150 troops. (Brian Morrison)PAGF 30PAGE 31


THE NAVYTHE NAVYThe association s year-long study found asound and conservative financing planwhich should result in a successful, selfsupportingmuseum for San Diego. Thecosts of mooring and refurbishing theMIDWAY Museum will be borne by a $3million bank loan. $ I million in donationsas well as future surplus revenues fromthe museum. The carrier museum will bemoored to the old Navy pier just southof the Broadway pierMIDWAY Magic's fund-raising campaignpassed the $1.5 million mark in 1997.More than 40 San Diego individuals andorganisations have contributed $25,000each to the MIDWAY Project to become"Plank Owners." The second phase offund-raising, the "Centurion Club." isnow underway.A 390-page application for the use of theMIDWAY has been submitted to theSecretary of the Navy, an application thatdetails virtually every aspect of MIDWAYMagic's operation and impact. San Diegowas the only city to submit an application.'THE OLD NAVYWHAT IS ASTORES ASSISTANT?The 'What is a ..." navy people series wasoriginally written in the late 1950s. Theset will be re-produced in 'The Navy'during 1998Speaking very generally. Stores Assistantsissue stores - that is. if they: (I) can findthem; and (2) have them.There are two types of Stores Assistants- the "S" and the M V".SA(S) types are either myopic, liverish or"hung over".There are known exceptionsto this (see "The Navy of King Alfred'sTime" Chapter 16. and the "The Life ofHenry W/f Chapter 21). Other booksdo make further references, but onlyslightingly.The SA(S) insists on the indelible pencil.Without it the day's work cannot begin.This insistence amounts almost to a fetishand one can imagine the SA(S) spendingmany a quiet hour over the privatecollection of indelibles. The SA(S) knowsthese as instruments of signature.At the Supply School, the SA(S)undergoes rigid courses in being able tosay ^t the drop of a hat and withoutblinking an eyelid) "Sorry mate, (or Sir)but were closed for ..MIDWAY was commissioned onSeptember 10. 1945. Named for theBattle of MIDWAY, the carrier was thelead ship of her class, ultimately servingher country for 47 years. More than200,000 American veterans servedaboard her. In that time, the MIDWAY sawservice off Vietnam, in the Persian Gulfand in a number of other conflicts andcrises. She completed three tours offVietnam, her aircraft downing the firstthree and last MiG of the war in thecourse of nearly 12,000 missions. Morerecently, her aircraft flew more than3,000 missions in Operation DesertStorm.Through it all "MIDWAY Magic" became aliving legend in the Navy because theMIDWAY always found a way to meet heroperational commitments. Over fivedecades of service, she received thePresidential Unit Citation: Navy UnitCommendation; U.S. Navy & MarineCorps Expeditionary Medal. NavyOccupation Service Medal; China Service1. standeasy;2. lunch;3. make and mend:4. stocktaking, etc.As well, the SA(S) is so trained that unlesshe is surrounded by classes, groups,section, references and Forms AS Iupward to AS 1.000.000. he is helpless.Training also means use of the feint. Goto any Main Store, ask for an item and theSA(S) will tell you to "check at the office".Go to the office, ask for the same itemand the SA(S) there will tell you to "checkat the Main Store".The SA(S) has many favourite sayings.Amongst the more popular being - "Doyou know the pattern number mate?" and"Have you got your AS 156?" and "Wehaven't got any."The SA(V) deals with food, clothing andmess-traps. (The Trap is the 30 cents youget slugged for at the end of eachquarter).SA(V)s are a fine body of men. and whenjoining a ship are issued with either aseaman or stoker, or both to do thework. Also issued on joining is thescribblers book. Scribbling in this bookoccupies most of their day, and becomesvery feverish toward the end of thequarter. At this time no-one should askfor either a tin of milk or a tomato.Expeditionary Medal; and Vietnam ServiceMedal.After being the first aircraft carrier"forward deployed" for 17 years inYokosuka, Japan, she returned to NorthIsland Naval Air Station in San Diego fordecommissioning in April of 1992. Today,she rests at Bremerton. Washington,ready to begin her final "tour of duty" asSan Diego's tribute to the contributionsof the armed services and as a dynamic,interactive beacon of education andentertainment in "America's Finest City."MIDWAY will be converted into a multidimensional.interactive educational andentertainment complex. attractingvisitors and residents alike as the onlymuseum of its kind on the west coast.Anticipated Highlights include carrieraircraft on display, below-deck theatre,flight simulators, touring and permanentexhibits, tours through selected portionsof the ship. research/historicalmemorabilia centres and displays,community events and educational events.Some people in the Navy maintain that anSA(V) cannot victual. Neither side have asyet been able to prove their point.The Mess Gear SA(V) is usually the onlyperson with plenty of Mess Gear. Hisstock is effectively secured by a vastnetwork of cobwebs that keep the ship'scompany at bay. All SAs can do morewith a sheet of paper and a pencil thanany other sailor. This can be seen toadvantage during store ship periods. TheSA has been so finely trained that he canmake the paper and pencil appear heavierthan a bag of spuds.BOOKREVIEWSSHIPMATESIllustrated Tales of the MascotsCarried in RAN Ships andEstablishmentsBy Vic CassellsPublished by Vic CassellsPrice: $25.00This book tells of the trials andtribulations of the mascots carried in theships and establishments of the RoyalAustralian Navy - and a few RN caseswhere their story is pertinent in someway to this country.The most eye-opening thing found by theauthor during his research was the extentto which these mascots contributed tothe morale of the men. In the hundreds ofconversations conducted by Vic Cassells.the strong affection they'd had for'Digger', 'Smoky'. 'Wheels'. 'Tiddles','Durbo' and all the other remarkablecreatures in this book, comes throughjust as clearly 50-odd years on.Some of the stories are funny - evenbawdy, and others are sad. A bit like life,really. But. at least, to the best of theauthor's knowledge, they are all true.Nevertheless, it is understandable thatthere may be differences of opinion aboutexacdy what did happen all those yearsago. Most of the contributors wererecalling events which took place in theirteenage years, with all now in their 70s,some in their 80s, and even a few in their90s. It would be surprising, indeed, if theyall still retained perfect, uncloudedmemories of events.A paperback, laminated. 205 page book.Shipmates is illustrated throughout withmore than 280 black and whitephotographs, with a bibliography andindex. The book will be available in April.1998. direct from the author at P.O. Box229 Paradise Point Queensland 4216 for$25 plus $5.00 postage (add $2.50 pereach additional book).AUSTRALIAN MARITIME PATROLAIRCRAFTPublished by:TopmillCost: $14.95Reviewed by Joe StraczekMaritime Patrol Aircraft is a detailedexamination of the seaplanes, flying boatsand land based patrol aircraft of theRAAF since 1922. as well as the carrierborne aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm from1948.Twenty-five aircraft types are discussed,including sixteen RAAF and seven navalmodels, with 130 black and white and 30colour illustrations.The story of the maritime aircraft isrelated through well researched narrativeand data, plus some interesting largeformat (full page) tables which describethrough figures and dates, thechronological history of these unusualaircraftEach aircraft entry is presented via ageneral history of the type, its acquisition,armament, special notes and finaldisposal. Most of the photographs havereproduced well, with the colour sectionmainly devoted to the RAAF's Neptunesand Orions and the Navy's Gannets andTrackers.This book comes highly recommendedand at only $14.95. will not set back thefinances too much.AUSTRALIAN CARRIERDECISIONS: The Acquisition ofHMA SHIPS ALBATROSS,SYDNEY and MELBOURNEBy: Anthony WrightPublished: Maritime Studies ProgramReviewed by Ross GillettIn recent years the Royal Australian Navyhas. through the Maritime StudiesProgram, regularly added to the availablepool of quality publications dealing withAustralian naval and maritime subjects.• AUSTRALIAN AIR POKERMARITIMEPATROI. AIRCRAFT$SINCE1921PAGE 33PAGE I I


THE NAVYTHE NAVYThe publications of the MSP have beenwell received both nationally andinternationally and represent a substantialreturn for a small investment-The latestvolume in the series Papers inAustralian Maritime Affairs is noexception.Australian Carrier Decisions: TheAcquisition of HMA Ships ALBATROSS.SYDNEY and MELBOURNE by AnthonyWright was initially written in 1978 as aninternal Department of Defence study.The original work was written in themidst of the debate over whether or notto replace MELBOURNE Unfortunatelyonce the draft manuscript had beencompleted it was not progressed with anyfurther. That is until now!The book describes the processesinvolved and background to the decisionto acquire aircraft carriers for theRAN. In examining these decisions thebook also examines the decisionmaking processes and the strategicbackground against which these decisionswere made.In the case of ALBATROSS Dr Wrightclearly demonstrates the problemscreated by the decision to acquire thisvessel, a ship not originally included in theFive Year Plan and one for which no navalrequirement really existed. ALBATROSSwas a hybrid, neither capable of defendingherself nor able to operate at speed withthe cruisers with whom she was toaccompany. Additionally her capabilitycame at too great a cost to a navyoperating under very restricted financialcircumstances.If there was a benefit in the constructionof ALBATROSS, she at least helpedmaintain a level of dockyard capability inAustralia. Not just in the context of largefacilities, but also with respect to themany small sub-contractors which supplythe myriad of small components.The second case study follows the initialattempt, late in the Second World War.to acquire a light fleet carrier and itssubsequent rejection. The matter did notend here however, and in June 1947 theChrfley government decided to purchasetwo light fleet earners from Great Britain.This decision was based on the lessons ofthe war and the perceived requirementsof what constituted a balanced fleet Thetwo carriers acquired required extensivemodifications in order to operate modernaircraft The first carrier SYDNEY wasdelivered as designed, but the second,MELBOURNE, was dramaticallymodernised. Unfortunately no decisionwas made to modernise SYDNEY and soher life as a carrier was less than halforiginally expected.At the end of the book, the editor DavidStevens, has inserted a chronologyshewing the major milestones in theinitial decision to acquire HMSINVINCIBLE and the subsequentcancellation of this project and the payingoff of MELBOURNE in June. 1982.All in all, the book provides an invaluableinsight into the acquisition process, as wellas clearly demonstrating the impact ofpolitical decisions on this process.To my mind I can only fault this book intwo areas, the lack of footnotes in thefirst section, though this is explained inthe introduction and secondly, the lack ofan index.All in all this is a very valuablecontribution to the available literature onthe RAN and the Navy should becomplemented for its production.(Copies of this book are available throughthe Maritime Studies Program.Department of Defence (CP3-4-4I)Canberra ACT 2600)THE BRITISH BATTLE FLEET: ItsInception and Growth through theCenturiesBy: Fred T JanePublished by Conway Maritime PressReview Copy from DLSReviewed by Joe StraczekWithin the area of naval history a numberof names are instantly recognisable ashaving made a contribution to the widerknowledge of national or internationalnaval affairs. This publication bringstogether two such names. One AntonyPreston is such name, a renownedauthority on naval affairs and contributorto a number of international Journals.The second name virtually needs nointroduction. Fred T Jane, perhaps one ofthe most famous navalists of the late 19thand early 20th centuries. His namecontinues to be associated with theinternational naval scene through JanesFighting Ships, which he founded and theseries of journals published by the Janesgroup.The publication which has bought thesetwo names together is the re-print ofJane's The British Battle Fleet Its Inceptionand Growth through the Centuries.Published in 1912 this book was one ofthe first to analyse the development ofthe British warship.Though this book maynot by today's standards be considered asan academic work it is none-the-less animportant work and one which willcontinue to be sought out and referredto by students of the period.In The British Battle Fleet Its Inception andGrowth through the Centuries. Jane tracesthe development of British warships andtheir associated technologies. The booksuccinctly describes the development ofthe ships as well as some of the socialchanges which occurred during theperiod. One of the more revealing pointsis how during the 1680s the lot of theseamen began to deteriorate after thesupply of provisions and clothing waspassed into contractors hands, somethingakin to today's Commercial SupportProgram. Hopefully after 310 years thingshave improved.Jane is possibly one of the few authorswho places the design and constructionof CERBERUS into its true historicalcontext The vessel designed by Sir EJReed was the basis of modern warshipsup to and beyond the famousDREADNOUGHT. In essence, everythingthat DREADNOUGHT had. CERBERUS had.in smaller scale, some 40 years earlier.The British Battle Fleet Its Inception andGrowth through the Centuries is a timelessbook and one which will provide thoseinterested in naval affairs and warshipdevelopment with a wealth ofcontemporary information. This book isstrongly recommended for inclusion innaval libraries.BATTLECRUISERSBy John RobertsPublished by ChathamReviewed by Ross GillettSteaming at high speed through a NorthSea swell in 1917 Fisher's Splendid Cats'were indeed a splendid sightSo reads the first narrative in the newChatham publication Battlecruisers.describing HM Ships TIGER, PRINCESSROYAL and UON steaming in companyduring the latter stages of the First WorldWar.Designed with the speed of a cruiser andwith the firepower of a batdeship. theBritish Battlecruisers spanned an erafrom 1908 to the late 1940s, this newwork concentrating on their origin,design, the ship's early years in serviceand the all-important technical side ofthe various classes, from INVINCIBLE(1908) to HOOD (1920). Also includedin this timeframe are the large lightcruisers COURAGEOUS, GLORIOUS andFURIOUS.Each ship's development is welldocumented, with superb perspectivesand cutaway drawings of each class.Battlecruisers is the second in the newShipshape series (after The FirstDestroyers) from Chatham Publishing.A wonderful book which is highlyrecommended.JANES WAR AT SEA 18*7-1997100 Years of janes Fighting ShipsBy B. Ireland and Eric GrovePublished by Harper CollinsReviewed by Ross GillettThe name Janes is synonymous with manythings naval and has now been so for overone hundred years.To mark the centenary of Janes FightingShips, the Harper Collins group hasreleased the impressive Janes War at Sea1897-1997. The book is written aroundthe development of the warship duringthe past 100 years, centred upon themajor eras and warship types, frombatdeships and aircraft carriers, throughto torpedo boats and amphibious ships.The book features hundreds of highquality photographs and numerouscolour profiles, all printed on glossypaper. Unfortunately, for this reviewer, thenarrative was found to be too small forany period of long reading.The compilation of a book such as this isa daunting task, thousands of ships,numerous developments and alterationsto the warships. To their credit theauthors have presented the generalreader with a well balanced, by ship typeand national navy, overview of the 100years covered by the book's sub-tide.AUSTRALIANSEAPOWERPhotofile No. 6 - FRIGATESPublished by TopmillReviewed by Mike JamesCose $9.95The Australian Seapower Photofile series,published by Sydney's Topmill Books, hasprovided a convenient and economicalresource for the maritime enthusiast andlayman alike.FRIGATES continues this worthy tradition,covering the many and various classes ofescorts that have operated in Australianand New Zealand waters. From the firstsloops of the pre-World War One era upNotice is hereby given that theANNUAL GENERAL MEETINGofTHE NAVY LEAGUE OF AUSTRALIAwill be held at the Brassey Hotel, Belmore Gardens. Barton. ACTOn Friday. 13 November. 1998 at 8.00 pmBUSINESSto today's technologically sophisticatedANZAC class frigates, all are covered indetail.Each class is broken down into individualships and the highlights of each ship'scareer is detailed, in peace and wartime,supported by a wealth of photographs.Many of these photographs have neverbeen published before, a boon to theserious student of naval history and themodel maker.The book is laid out in three sections.The first covers the Royal AustralianNavy while the second examines theships of the Royal New Zealand Navy.Thethird section is made up of 16 pages ofcolour photos, including a rare I950'scolour view of HMAS QUEENBOROUGHfollowing her modification to an antisubmarinefrigate.FRIGATES would be a welcome additionto the bookshelf of any ship lover andcontinues this excellent series. The nextbook is planned to cover the corvettes,anti-submarine and mine warfare ships.FRIGATES is available through betternewsagents for a recommended retailprice of $9.95.1. To confirm the Minutes of the Annual General Meeting held in Canberra on Friday. 14 November. 19972. To receive the report of the Federal Council, and to consider matters raised therefrom3. To receive the financial statements for the year ended 30 June 19984. To elect Office Bearers for the 1998-99 year as follows:- Federal President- Federal Vice President- Additional Vice Presidents (3)Nominations for these positions are to be lodged with the Honorary Secretary prior to the commencement of themeeting.S. General Business:- To deal with any matter notified in writing to the Honorary Secretary by 2 November. 1998- To approve the continuation in office of those members of the Federal Council who have attained 72 ye; irs of age.namely Arthur Hewitt (WA).Joan Cooper (Tas) and Mervyn Cooper (Tas).ALL MEMBERS ARE WELCOME TO ATTENDBy order of the Federal CouncilDon Schrapel. Honorary Federal Secretary. PO Box 309. MtWaveriey VIC 3149Telephone (03) 9888 1977 Fax (03) 9888 1083PAGE 34PAGE I I


THE WAVYSTATEMENT of POLICYNavy League Of AustraliaThe strategic background to Australia's security has changed inrecent decades and in some respects become more uncertain.The League believes it is essential that Australia develops thecapability to defend itself, paying particular attention tomaritime defence. Australia is. of geographical necessity, amaritime nation whose prosperity, strength and safety dependto a great extent on the security of the surrounding ocean andisland areas, and on seaborne trade.The Navy League:• Believes Australia can be defended against attack by otherthan a super or major maritime power and that the primerequirement of our defence is an evident ability to controlthe sea and air space around us and to contribute todefending essential lines of sea and air communication toour allies.• Supports the ANZUS Treaty and the future reintegration ofNew Zealand as a full partner.• Urges a close relationship with the nearer ASEANcountries. PNG and the Island States of the South Pacific.• Advocates a defence capability which is knowledge-basedwith a prime consideration given to intelligence,surveillance and reconnaissance.• Believes there must be a significant deterrent element in theAustralian Defence Force (ADF) capable of powerfulretaliation at considerable distances from Australia.• Believes the ADF must have the capability to protectessential shipping at considerable distances from Australia,as well as in coastal waters.• Supports the concept of a strong Air Force and highlymobile Army, capable of island and jungle warfare as well asthe defence of Northern Australia.• Supports the acquisition of AWACS aircraft and the updateof RAAF aircraft• Advocates the development of amphibious forces to ensurethe security of our offshore territories and to enableassistance to be provided by sea as well as by air to friendlysates in our area.• Advocates the transfer of responsibility, and necessaryresources, for Coastal Surveillance to the defence force andthe development of the capability for patrol and surveillanceof the ocean areas alt around the Australian coast and islandterritories, including in the Southern Ocean.• Advocates the acquisition of the most modern armamentsand sensors to ensure that the ADF maintains sometechnological advantages over forces in our general area.• Advocates measures to foster a build-up of Australianownedshipping to ensure the carriage of essential cargoesin war.• Advocates the development of a defence industrysupported by strong research and design organisationscapable of constructing all needed types of warships andsupport vessels and of providing systems and sensorintegration with through-life support.As to the RAN, the League:• Supports the concept of a Navy capable of effective actionoff both East and West coasts simultaneously and advocatesa gradual build up of the Fleet to ensure that, in conjunctionwith the RAAF, this can be achieved against any force whichcould be deployed in our general area.• Believes it is essential that the destroyer/frigate forceshould include ships with the capability to meet high levelthreats.• Advocates the development of afloat support capabilitysufficient for two task forces, including supportingoperations in sub-Antarctic waters.• Advocates the acquisition at an early date of integrated airpower in the fleet to ensure that ADF deployments can befully defended and supported from the sea.• Advocates that all Australian warships should be equippedwith some form of defence against missiles.• Advocates that in any future submarine constructionprogram all forms of propulsion, including nuclear, beexamined with a view to selecting the most advantageousoperationally.• Advocates the acquisition of an additional 2 or 3 Collins classsubmarines.• Supports the development of the mine-countermeasuresforce and a modern hydrographic/oceanographic fleet.• Advocates the retention in a Reserve Fleet of naval vesselsof potential value in defence emergency.• Supports the maintenance of a strong naval Reserve to helpcrew vessels and aircraft in reserve, or taken up for service,and for specialised tasks in time of defence emergency.• Supports the maintenance of a strong Naval Reserve Cadetorganisation.The League:Calls for a bipartisan political approach to national defence witha commitment to a steady long-term build-up in our nationaldefence capability including the required industrialinfrastructure.While recognising current economic problems and budgetaryconstraints, believes that, given leadership by successivegovernments, Australia can defend itself in the longer termwithin acceptable financial, economic and manpowerparameters.PAGE 36


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The new Collins class submarine WALLERarriving al HMAS STIRLING on 21 Julyfor pre


PLEASE NOTETHIS MATERIALWAS FILMED ATA REDUCTIONRATIO OF 23.5xSOME PAGES MAY CONTAINPOOR PRINT, TIGHT BINDING,FLAWS AND OTHERDEFECTS WHICH APPEARON THE FILM

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