A New Start: Young Adults in the Criminal Justice System


A New Start: Young Adults in the Criminal Justice System

A report by the Transition to Adulthood Alliance –committed to supporting vulnerable young adultsin the criminal justice systemA NewStart:YoungAdultsin theCriminalJusticeSystemThe need for a distinct and radicallydifferent approach to young adults in thecriminal justice system; an approach thatis proportionate to their maturity andresponsive to their specific needs.

Contents6911111314151617ForewordPart One:The current situationIntroductionWhat is a ‘young adult’?Stalled progressA growing consensusT2A principlesThe political responseT2A in action19212428Part Two:The criminal justice system:help or hindrance?Policing and the communitySentencing and the courtsCustody and community373944475051Part Three:The wider social policy agenda:help moving on?Work, education and trainingHealth, housing and social careDrugs and alcoholConclusion and Next StepsSummary of Recommendations

ForewordIt has been my privilege to chair the T2A Alliance in its work to createa more effective response to the problems caused by young adultoffenders. This paper provides a careful analysis of the shortcomings ofwhat has become an increasingly punitive approach and proposes analternative package of improvements. We think these will produce betterresults for victims of crime, for young adult offenders themselves, formarginalised young adults at risk of falling into crime, and for ordinarymembers of communities. We are very keen to hear what others thinkwhich is why it is drafted in the form of a consultative ‘Green Paper’.Our proposals are drawn from a variety of sources. Most important is theday-to-day experience of the organisations in the Alliance who provideeducation, training, housing and resettlement help to many thousandsof people in the young adult age range each year. We have also triedto capture the insights and ideas of young adults themselves who havebeen consulted for this paper. The core of the report is therefore basedon reflections by people providing and receiving services up and downthe country. We have also conducted policy roundtables to considerspecific questions and have studied how the young adult age group isdealt with by criminal justice systems in other jurisdictions. We have beenstruck by how far other areas of public policy in the UK – in education,health and social care – are seeking to develop policies and practiceswhich meet the distinctive transitional needs of young adults. But thecriminal justice system is lagging behind, which is disappointing giventhe warm reception given to the publication of the 2005 report ‘Lost inTransition: A report by the Barrow Cadbury Trust’s Commission on YoungAdults in the Criminal Justice system.’Four years on, the Alliance believes that responding more creatively toyoung people making this transition to adulthood is key to more effectivecriminal justice policy. The agenda we propose involves more effort todivert minor cases out of the courts and into the hands of organisationswhich can get to grips with underlying problems; court decision makingwhich considers maturity when holding young adults to account and asystem that can take advantage of bespoke community based sentenceswhich are relevant, accessible and achievable. We suggest that in timethese will replace short prison sentences for young adults.For those for whom there is no alternative to prison we argue for newtypes of custodial centres twinned with further education colleges whichcan try to become true centres of learning. On release, young adultsshould be able to access much more vigorous help and encouragementto stay off drugs, in treatment and in work. A national employmentinitiative, a smarter system of criminal record checks and an expansion ofservices for young adults with addiction or mental health problems areamong the proposals we make, together with a call for a more energetic[6]

approach to dealing with the plight of women in prison set out so clearlyby Baroness Corston.Some of our recommendations would require changes to the law –others can be brought about if agencies work together locally to givepriority to this age group. The Barrow Cadbury Trust is putting its moneywhere its mouth is by funding three pilot projects whose experiencewill prove invaluable as we refine our proposals. Politicians from allparties will be looking more carefully than usual at the costs involvedin proposals such as ours. While some of our proposals will involveinvestment, if, as we believe they will, the proposals produce improvedoutcomes in terms of reoffending, they should help to reduce demandon imprisonment – which as well as the considerable ethical and socialcosts, is financially the most expensive sentence.I am grateful to the members of the Alliance for their work so far; inparticular to Rachel Cerfontyne and Alice Murray at the Barrow CadburyTrust who established the Alliance and to Vicki Helyar-Cardwell atCatch22 who drafted the report.Rob AllenChair T2A Alliance[7]

Part One:The currentsituation[9]

IntroductionThe Transition to Adulthood (T2A) Alliance believes that there must bea wholesale shift in the way the Government works with young adultsin, and at risk of becoming involved with, the criminal justice system.This must be far more than tinkering around the edges of the system,but rather a cross-departmental in-depth look at vulnerable youngadults involved in the criminal justice system, and a commitment to findeffective ways of working with these young adults in trouble to helpthem move away from crime. While some modest improvements havebeen made in recognising issues such as race, gender, juvenile offendingand mental health, there has been little progress on young adults. 1The T2A Alliance is a broad coalition of organisations and individualsworking to improve the opportunities and life chances of young peoplein their transition to adulthood, who are at risk of committing crime andfalling into the criminal justice system. The T2A Alliance aims to raiseawareness of the problems this group face and to secure policy changeto improve their lives. Not every individual member agrees with everyrecommendation put forward here, however all members agree with theprinciples and aims of the Alliance.This paper is the product of the experience of members of the Alliance,as well as extensive consultation and engagement with policy makers,practitioners and young adults on what works to improve the lifechances and opportunities of the most vulnerable. Its purpose is to offerpolicy recommendations for further and widespread consultation.What is a ‘young adult’?“Students hadparents that werethere for them, whoprovided for them.I’ve not had that,me. I’ve had to liveoff myself.”[Young Offender]There is growing evidence, both social and cognitive, that youngadulthood is a distinct stage in life. People no longer, if they ever did,reach all of the associated responsibilities and recognised attributes ofadulthood by the age of 18. Young adults in the 21st century live at homefor longer, and depend on their families financially and emotionally forlonger. 2 Undoubtedly, there has been a major social shift over the lastcentury, meaning that today’s young adults live in a state of subsidisedindependence that relies on parental contributions towards their wellbeing and lifestyle. 3 In fact, almost half of 18-25 year-olds still rely on theirparents for money as they are unable to meet the daily costs of living. 4There is also increasing evidence pointing to emerging adulthood as atime when young adults are shaped by their environment in powerfulways. 5 They are subject to external influences – both negative andpositive – which calls into question the notion that by 18 it is alreadytoo late to intervene and change behaviour. As well as gaining resilience[11]

Young Adulthood: A DefinitionFor the purposes of this paper we will define young adulthood asbetween approximately 18 and 24 years old. However, this ageband is intentionally ‘blurry round the edges’. Young adulthood, likeearly adolescence is by its nature difficult to define, as it dependson individual maturity, not simply physical age. We have selected 24as the upper age limit as by their mid-20s most young adults desistfrom crime (the peak crime age being 19 to 20 years old).This age group has been described as “the invisible early twenties”by the then Social Exclusion Unit 6 , and the “lost generation” byDame Anne Owers, HM Chief Inspector of Prisons. 7to environmental pressures, the young adult brain continues to developcore functions of reasoning and judgment into the mid or even late 20s.As well as making the sometimes difficult transition to adulthood, youngadults in the UK report low levels of trust and belonging. 8 This sense ofbelonging, a key indicator of wellbeing, forms a thread in this paper. Youngadults from disadvantaged backgrounds are shut out from society and cutoff from the normal routes to adulthood. They lack the family support androle models needed to make a secure transition into independence.The distinct needs of this age group that are involved in the criminaljustice system are acute. Over 90% of imprisoned young offendershave one of these conditions: personality disorder, psychosis, neuroticdisorders or substance misuse. 9 Young adults have higher rates of selfharmand suicide than older prisoners. They are also more likely thanolder prisoners to have been in the care system.Over half of young adults are unemployed on arrest 10 and face few if anyjob prospects on release – many young adults in prison have never hada stable job and have little hope of ever attaining one. This young adultage group have very high illiteracy levels; a third have a basic skills deficitcompared with a quarter of prisoners over 25 years of age. 11 Young adultsin the criminal justice system are more likely to abuse alcohol than botholder and younger prisoners. At least a quarter of young men in prisonare fathers, now with little or no contact with their children. And they aremore likely than other groups to have been the victim of violent crime.[12]

Stalled ProgressIn 2005 the Barrow Cadbury Trust published a report entitled Lost inTransition on young adults in the criminal justice system. 12 Despite beingwell received by government and all parties, since then there has beenlittle change in the way we deal with young adults in trouble.There are approximately 17,000 young adults (aged 18-24) in prison undersentence in the UK. On current reoffending rates over 70% of these youngadults are likely to re-offend within two years of release. 13 This patterncontinues year in, year out as reoffending rates have remained persistentlyhigh over the last 20 years. 14 The significant cost to the taxpayer of youngadult crime is between £16.8 and 20 billion per year. 15 It costs £50,000per year alone to put a young adult offender in prison. 16 This representspoor value for money with the total cost of recorded crime committed byex-prisoners estimated at around £11billion per year. 17 The criminal justicesystem is failing to break the cycle of offending among young adults, and isin fact trapping many in a lifestyle of offending behaviour.The needs of this age group comprise a substantial proportion of theMinistry of Justice responsibilities and costs. Despite making up only9.5% cent of the population, young adults represent a third of peoplesentenced to custody each year 18 , take up a third of Probation caseloadand commit a third of all crime. 19The recommendations outlined in this paper provide examples of possiblelong-term savings to the Treasury through a different set of interventionsor approaches. Any reduction in offending and/or reoffending would startto see a net benefit to individuals, communities and society, as well as areduction in cost to the taxpayer.Furthermore, the current economic crisis is having particularly seriousconsequences for young adults. There will be increased levels ofunemployment among 18-24 year-olds in general, and alarming levelsof unemployment for the most vulnerable. In the initial stages of therecession, unemployment rose fastest among this age group. 20 Recentfigures (March 2009) show the jobless rate among 18-24 year-olds isalready 14.6 per cent, compared with 5 per cent for the workforce as awhole. 21 It is unsurprising that economists are expressing special concernabout the outlook for young adults. 22Unemployment in the young adult stage particularly has profoundly negativeconsequences that last for life. 23 Therefore, the recession is highly likelyto have adverse consequences for both steering young adults away fromcrime and for helping to rehabilitate them after custody. This is a concern asevidence shows a link between stable employment and reoffending rates.[13]

It is against this backdrop of criminal justice crisis and growing economicpressure that this report proposes a blueprint for reforming the criminaljustice system to better meet the needs and challenges presented byyoung adults.A Growing ConsensusThere is a broad consensus, in Britain and abroad, among practitioners,third sector organisations and academics that the public policy approachto young adults should be distinct. 24 In the UK, lack of political willremains the biggest obstacle to change.The T2A Alliance is calling for a new approach in which:• trained police officers operate a triage approach and, whereappropriate, divert young adults away from the criminaljustice system• the number of vulnerable young adults in prison is reducedthrough the replacement of short sentences with moreeffective community sentences• the Youth Offending Services and Probation Services improvetheir transition arrangements in a way that recognises thesignificant culture shift between the youth and adult criminaljustice systems• young adults up to 25 years of age are held in separatecustodial facilities, away from older adult prisoners, wheretheir distinct needs can be addressed• dedicated young adult prisons focus on rehabilitation throughwork, education and training programmes, support in dealingwith mental health problems and courses to tackle drug oralcohol misuse• on release all young adults receive necessary support to stopoffending, including housing and employment.The wholesale change of approach must be cross-departmental andreflect the holistic nature of young adults’ lives. Essential support mustbe provided outside of the criminal justice system wherever possible, andthere must be mainstream responsibility to prevent young adults endingup in the criminal justice system.[14]

T2A PrinciplesOur proposals are based on the following underlying T2A principles:1. Young adults aged 18-24 are in a distinct stage of life, for the purposesof this paper called ‘young adulthood’. 25 This stage encompasses severalkey transitions, such as moving from home to living independently, fromschool to work, from family support to relationship support.2. Troubled young adults are not beyond hope or help; they can, and oftendo, change their behaviour, with positive interventions or as part of thenatural process of maturity. Many young adults experience levels ofemotional maturity similar to that of younger teenagers. Those who havehad more difficult childhoods take longer to mature than those who havehad a more positive upbringing. Trauma in childhood can hamper thematuration process. 263. A fundamental shift in the way we view and work with young adultsis a necessary step to improve the criminal justice system, and, moreimportantly, to allow young adults to desist from crime and make apositive contribution to society. This new approach must be proportionateto their maturity and responsive to their specific needs.4. In the vast majority of cases, the underlying causes of young adultinvolvement in crime are severe need, social exclusion, poverty andfamily instability. Those young adults from poorer backgrounds can bedemonised by the media and by society. Yet wealthier young adults oruniversity students, who, for example, drink too much or damage publicproperty, are often treated more tolerantly.5. The current penal system is failing young adults, making it more difficultfor them to move away from crime. A system that oversees reconvictionrates of 75% is highly costly to the individuals, communities and thetaxpayer. The current way of dealing with troubled young adults is failingand should be immediately reviewed and overhauled.6. As far as possible, young adults should access support throughmainstream services aimed at preventing them from falling into thecriminal justice system.7. The consistent and meaningful involvement of offenders, young adultsand their families, across the various parts of the criminal justice systemis essential to improving it. We are committed to offender involvement inthe work of the T2A Alliance both in policy and practice.8. Within the custodial young adult population there are minority groupswith distinct needs. For example, women in prison have acute supportneeds and are likely to be the primary carer for a family. 27 Young menfrom BME communities face disproportionate disadvantage. 28[15]

DanDan* is 22. He is the eldest in a single parent family. Not typical ofmany with a criminal background, he did well at school and hadambitions of going into the army. At 16 he was involved in a seriousfire during pre-entry training and received serious burns to hishands and face. Dan developed depression which became a catalystfor negative thinking, behaviour and drug use. He drifted intonegative circles and became involved in petty crime escalating intoa street robbery for which he got an 8 month sentence. Releasedwith no support he committed another crime – burglary – andreceived an 18 month sentence.This time, on release, he was referred to the local T2A team byProbation. He was again at risk of homelessness and had no supportnetworks. The T2A mentor now speaks with him 2-3 times aweek and meets him in person at least once a week. Dan has beenhelped to find stable rented accommodation and has been referredto other agencies to increase employability skills. Dan wants to goto college in September to study plumbing or computing.“If I didn’t have this support, there’s no way I’d be where Iam now” Dan*names are changed for confidentiality. Dan is a young adult in oneof the T2A pilots.The Political ResponseDespite a long history of calls for investment in young adult services,this age group remains largely neglected by policy makers. 29 However,we believe there are currently some moves in certain governmentdepartments and among the opposition parties that would indicate awillingness to reconsider young adults’ needs.In 2005, the Social Exclusion Unit published the results of a major reviewexamining how services can best fit the needs of 16- to-25-year-olds withcomplex needs as they make the transition to adulthood. 30 Through thework of its successor, the Social Exclusion Task Force, there is now moresupport during transitions for four key groups at risk of social exclusion:care leavers, offenders under Probation supervision, adults in contact withsecondary mental health services, and adults with moderate to severe[16]

learning disabilities. There is recognition across government that thesegroups need support beyond the traditional cut off point of 18.The government has also extended the educational participation age upto 18 with promise of support into work or training for those moving onat 18-19. 31 These are good signs. But while some government departmentsare extending support for defined vulnerable groups, and extendingthe period young people have for learning, training and developing,the criminal justice system’s approach to age barriers remains static.Similarly, we recognise the work the Conservative Party is doing onpolicies to address the prison system, notably to reduce reoffending.But any rehabilitation revolution cannot be fully successful withoutspecifically addressing reoffending rates of young adults because theyhave the highest conviction rates and the highest reoffending rates. TheConservatives’ overarching policy paper on criminal justice, ‘Prisons witha Purpose,’ 32 makes no reference to young adults, a significant omissionthat should be rectified as their policies are refined in advance of thenext general election.Liberal Democrat leader, Nick Clegg, stated in a speech at the LSE inJanuary 2009 that he was most concerned that 16-24 year-olds will bearthe brunt of the recession. 33 The Liberal Democrats have also committedto reducing the overall prison population. A new approach to the mostvulnerable young adults caught up in the criminal justice system wouldhelp achieve this aim.T2A in ActionThe Transition to Adulthood Alliance is not simply a campaigning coalition.The T2A Alliance is part of a wider campaign on the ground toimprove the lives of young adults. The Barrow Cadbury Trust’s 2005 Lostin Transition report called for T2A teams in every local authority, to beresponsible for young adults, implementing tailored interventions andbridging the gap between youth and adult criminal justice services. Inresponse to this, the Barrow Cadbury Trust has established three pilotsto test different approaches to improving services and support for youngadults in the criminal justice system. These pilots are being evaluated bythe Oxford Centre for Criminology. In 2009, the Trust has set up pilots inLondon, delivered by St Giles Trust, in Worcestershire, delivered by YSS,and in Birmingham, delivered by the West Midlands Probation Service.[17]

Part Two:The criminaljustice system:help orhindrance?

Chapter One:Policing and theCommunityOnce young men and women reach the age of 18 the traditional supportstructures of school, home, youth work and Connexions that havehelped them during their teenage years fall away. No one organisation isheld responsible for the outcomes of young adults, nor is any statutorybody responsible for providing positive activities for them. At the pointwhen other support is curtailed, the police remain the only statutoryagency regularly on the streets at night, where young adults often tendto be. Formal contact between young people and the criminal justicesystem usually begins with some kind of contact with the police.The Penalty Notices for Disorder figures show that young people makeup a significant proportion of those in contact with the police. The typeof Penalty Notice indicates the environment and nature of the contact:between August 2002 and March 2003, 41% were given for disorderlybehaviour while drunk. 34 So contact between the police and youngadults can be frequent and often occurs at times when young adultshave been drinking or going out. This interaction is therefore critical.It can be the gateway to the criminal justice system or it could be thepositive intervention that diverts young people away from crime.As well as the disproportionate contact with young people in general,there is a further increased likelihood of contact between the police andBlack and Asian young men. In 2007/8, 1,035,438 stop and searches werecarried out and black people were eight times more likely to be stoppedand searched than white people, and Asian people twice as likely. 35 Recentcriticism has been levelled at the police for their increase in stop and searchwithout suspicion (under Section 44 of the Terrorism Act), which hasresulted in a rise of 322% of stop and search on black people, comparedwith a rise of 277% for Asian people and 185% for white people. 36We recognise that much good work is being done. For instance, the LondonSafer Neighbourhood programme, with a team of officers dedicated to eachLondon neighbourhood, is a good example of positive community policing.We support the use of the same officers working in the same areas, whohave a clear duty to consult and work closely with the public.There is also work underway in London piloting new approaches toreduce reoffending, involving the Metropolitan Police Service, LondonProbation and other agencies. The Diamond Initiative in London aimsto divert adults and young people away from further contact with thecriminal justice system by offering mainstream support. We support thisapproach which illustrates the kind of model which could be establishedfor young adults. It is particularly valuable where the offence is youthfulin nature and the young adult has clear support needs, such as substancemisuse, poor mental health or experience of the care system. Our workthus far, and early indications from the T2A pilots, have shown that[21]

Diamond InitiativeThe Diamond Initiative represents a new way of working tohelp divert adults and young people away from further criminaljustice contact. It is being piloted by London Probation and theMetropolitan Police Service, working as part of the London CriminalJustice Board. It is being piloted in 6 London boroughs: Newham,Lambeth, Lewisham, Hackney, Croydon and Southwark.To help tackle the cycle of reoffending in London, the initiativebrings together officers from police, Probation and local authorities.These teams help resettle a wide range of offenders following theirrelease from prison.The concept builds on work from the USA on justice re-investmentwhich has demonstrated the potential to move money from thepenal system into early intervention community initiatives. Diamonddraws from the ‘Million Dollar Blocks’ concept, which has usedanalysis to demonstrate the significant potential of targetingresources on areas with high resident offender populations.http://lcjb.cjsonline.gov.uk/London/1233.html#DIstrong and reliable local partnerships between the police and third sectorcan enable this approach to work well.Whilst recognising existing good practice, our policy panels felt that morecould be done to improve and increase the training of police officers tohandle the policing of young adults. Sir Ronnie Flanagan’s independentreview of policing found that:“In the area of training, development and recruitment, proper recognitionmust be given to the fundamental importance problem solving skills playin Neighbourhood policing and the significance of ensuring the rightpeople with the potential to acquire the appropriate skills are recruited.Developing these skills needs to be made a core part of the training anddevelopment opportunities offered to officers and PCSOs.” 37The Lost in Transition report highlighted the need for positiverelationships between the police and young people to be developedand maintained outside times of conflict. A recent report on gangs bythe Centre for Social Justice called for work to improve the relationshipbetween young people and the police in order to effectively tackle gangrelatedcrime. 38 Consistent and positive interaction with the police can[22]

help reduce crime and ensure community support for effective policing.We re-iterate that call for investment of time, effort and resources inbetter community policing. The positive interaction should not stop atschool but continue into the mid-20s and beyond. This continued workis justified as the peak age of offending is 19 and the peak age fordesistance is 24. Therefore the early-20s can be a key time for divertingyoung adults away from crime into positive activities.There is little youth work provision for this age group aimed at divertingyoung adults from crime. Although many youth work organisationsnominally work with young people aged 11- 25, in practice they oftenfocus on those up to 19 years old due to funding challenges. This wasfound to be the case in research on voluntary sector provision for youngadults commissioned by the Barrow Cadbury Trust in 2005. 39Recommendation OneWe recommend that more effort is made to divert young adults involvedin minor crime away from the criminal justice system and into pathsthat will address the root causes of their behaviour. We believe thepolice should be able to take a triage approach i.e. make an immediateassessment of need, and assess the likely benefit from a communityintervention. They should have a range of options to ensure youngpeople are diverted into the right help.Recommendation TwoWe recommend increased investment in the training of police officers inconflict management, and in particular how to assess and respond to thespecific needs and challenges of the young adult age group.Recommendation ThreeWe recommend the government undertake an immediate audit ofprovision of educational, youth work and other positive support servicesin each local authority aimed at diverting vulnerable young adultsaway from involvement in criminal activity. To address gaps, we furtherrecommend an increase in long-term stable funding for organisationsthat work with young adults over the aged 18-24 in areas of deprivationand high crime rates. Engagement with young adults aged 18-24 shouldbe specifically included in the next round of National Indicators.[23]

Chapter Two:Sentencing andthe CourtsYoung adults represent a significant proportion of sentenced offendersacross the criminal justice system; they currently make up around athird of people serving a community order, a third of people servinga suspended sentence order, and approximately a third of the thosesentenced to prison each year.While the Sentencing Guidelines Council is currently developing guidanceon the principles that should guide courts when sentencing those underthe age of 18 convicted of a criminal offence, there is currently no specificset of principles or sentencing guidelines for young adults. Anyone overthe age of 18 can in effect be treated as a fully mature adult in thecriminal justice system and receive the same weight of sentence as amuch older offender, with the exception of the sentence of Detention in aYoung Offender Institution.During the last fifteen years, the uses of custody and communitysentences for young adults have increased, and the use of fines has fallen.Over that time the system has become more punitive for young adults.During 2007, 140,276 young adults (aged 18-20 40 ) were sentenced.Of these, 14,291 young adults (aged 18-20) were sentenced toimmediate custody, 5,107 to a Suspended Sentence Order, and25,314 to a Community Order. Some 911 received an absolutedischarge, 14,153 a conditional discharge, 75,536 a fine and 4,964were otherwise dealt with.There is widespread acceptance that ‘youthfulness’ should be a mitigatingfactor in sentencing. This view is shared by government, sentencers andthe general public. This common view is summarised by the SentencingAdvisory Panel (SAP) in their recent consultation on youth sentencing.The “factors that are most commonly regarded as having the potential toinfluence the penalty imposed” are outlined below:• Offending by a young person is frequently a phase which passesfairly rapidly and therefore reaction needs to be kept well balancedin order to avoid alienating the young person from society.• A criminal conviction at this stage of a person’s life may have adisproportionate impact on the ability of the young person to gainmeaningful employment and play a worthwhile role in society.• The impact of punishment is felt more heavily by young people in thesense that any sentence will seem to be far longer in comparison withtheir relative age compared with adult offenders.[24]

Young people may be more receptive to changing the waythey conduct themselves and be able to respond more quicklyto interventions.• Young people should be given greater opportunity to learnfrom their mistakes.• Young people will be no less vulnerable than adults to thecontaminating influences that can be expected within acustodial context and probably more so. 41All of these criteria could equally apply to someone aged 18-24. Thereare a number of convincing reasons for extending the mitigatingfactor of youth beyond 18 years of age. The young adult brain is still indevelopment, is greatly subject to influence by its environment, and isespecially responsive to positive interventions. Research in the areas ofsocial policy and behavioural science shows that the maturation processcontinues up until the mid-20s. 42 Most people recognise that full maturityis not automatically acquired at 18 and we know that the process ofmaturation is often made more difficult or extended by trauma ordisruptive change. 43 A period of custody could slow down a youngadult’s maturation process and make them more likely to commit furtherGermanyYoung adult offenders aged 18 to 21 can be sentenced under juvenileor adult law depending on the personality and maturity of the offender,when the judge is of the opinion that they are not as mature andresponsible for their actions as full adults. 44Juvenile law must be applied if motives and circumstances of theoffence are typical of juvenile crime. About two thirds of young adultsare sentenced as juveniles with the Supreme Federal Court ruling theyoung adult has the maturity of a juvenile if his or her personality is stilldeveloping – a logic which has been used to argue that juvenile justiceoptions should be available for young adults up to the age of 24.There is considerable variation between states in the proportion ofyoung adults sentenced as juveniles – 88% in Schleswig Holstein to48% in Baden Württemberg. On the whole it is more serious cases thatare dealt within the juvenile jurisdiction and minor, particularly trafficoffences that are dealt with in the adult system. 45 The approach inGermany seems to be working. They have a lower crime rate, a lowerincarceration rate, and lower reoffending rates than the UK.[25]

crime. For young adults serving custodial sentences there is a greater riskof self-harm than exists in relation to an adult aged over 24. 46There is also clear evidence of a natural age of desistance from crime. Thepeak offending age is 19 and the most common age of desistance is 24. 47As stated in the SAP consultation paper, offending by young people isoften a stage they pass through reasonably quickly and sentencing shouldreflect this fact. It seems more sensible for harsher punishments to startonce this natural desisting process has been allowed to function. We arenot advocating a form of ‘leave them alone to grow out of it’, but makingthe case for a proportionate and effective type of punishment that cutswith the grain of human behaviour, not against it, and ensures the rootcause of offending behaviour is addressed.In its manifesto for the 1997 general election, the Labour Party pledgedto halve the time it took to get persistent young offenders from arrestto sentencing. This reduction has since been achieved. Keeping thetime from arrest to sentence as short as possible is a priority for under-18’s, but there is a case for reducing delay for under-25’s too. Swiftlybringing home the consequences of their actions, while enabling youngadult offenders to make a fresh start, should produce better outcomes.This cost saving will help pay for the increased investment in the courtsystem which will be needed to speed up the system whilst ensuring thatnecessary measures are applied to achieve successful outcomes.SwedenIn Sweden, youth is considered as a distinct factor in deciding thepunishment of offenders under the age of 21 and any statutoryminimum may be disregarded. This so-called youth mitigationleads, for example, to different levels of fines for young adults. Ifthe offender is a minor (age group 15-17), day-fines are reduced tohalf the amount imposed on a person aged 21. If the offender is ayoung adult (age group 18-20) fines are reduced to two thirds thefull amount and a short prison term may be replaced by a fine.As for terms of imprisonment, these entail a mandatory reduction inlength. If the offender at the time of the offence was 15 years old,the prison term will be one fifth of the normal term, at 16 years,one fourth, 17 years, one third, 18 years, half, 19 years, two thirdsand 20 years, three quarters.[26]

Recommendation FourWe recommend that new methods are introduced to ensure that thedistinctive characteristics of young adults are taken into account whenthey are sentenced by the courts. ‘Youthfulness’, as defined by theSentencing Advisory Panel, should be seen as a potential mitigatingfactor in sentencing young adults between the ages of 18 and 24.The Alliance would especially like to consult on two separate methods forimplementing this recommendation. One model, practised in Germany,would allow a young adult to be tried under juvenile law, according to thenature of their crime and their emotional maturity. The other, operating inSweden, enforces the reduction of sentence length according to age. In theUK, the Sentencing Advisory Panel’s recent consultation on the principlesof sentencing for young people proposed that where the young person isaged 17, the starting point might be approximately three quarters of thatwhich would have been identified for an adult offender. If this proportionatesentence extended upwards, young adults should serve sentences accordingto a sliding scale from approximately 80% (for 18 year olds) to 100% (forthose aged 25).Recommendation FiveWe recommend that all young adult offenders should have a maturityassessment conducted as part of the pre-sentence report prepared bythe Probation Service. This assessment should shape the proportionatesentencing response. We further recommend research into internationalmodels of conducting maturity assessments and the development of amodel suitable for the UK criminal justice system.Recommendation SixWe recommend that new national targets are introduced to halve thelength of time from arrest to sentence for young adults aged 18–24.[27]

Chapter Three:Custody andCommunityCustodyDuring 2007, 29,527 young adults (aged 18-24) entered prisonestablishments under an immediate custodial sentence, 33% of the totalnumber of people entering prison. Undoubtedly, custody is the rightresponse for some young adults. However, current custodial arrangementsare damaging, lessen their employment opportunities on release, and canperpetuate a life of crime. Young people are more likely than older peopleto be affected by these “contaminating influences of custody”. 48As of June 2007, the population of young adults (aged 18-24) in prisonunder sentence was 16,977, making up 26% of the total sentencedprison population. 49Of the 16,977 young adults (aged 18-24) in prison under sentence,4,911 were sentenced for an offence of violence against the person(29%), 767 for a sexual offence (5%), 3,519 for robbery (21%),2,190 for burglary (13%), 1,997 for drug offences (12%), 989 fortheft and handling (6%), and 2,476 for other offences (15%).The criminal justice system does contain two provisions specifically foryoung adults. One is the attendance centre requirement that can beattached to a Community Order for anyone aged under-25. The second,more significant exception is that where an offender aged 18-20 isconvicted of an offence which is punishable with imprisonment, theyreceive a sentence of Detention in a Young Offender Institution. Thereis a long tradition of separate custodial institutions for offenders agedunder-21, intended to prevent young offenders mixing with and beinginfluenced by older offenders. This separate custodial regime is alsointended to allow a greater focus on education and training. 50 However,custody as it stands for young adults is woefully inadequate in termsof education, training and ultimately reducing reoffending, while thesentence of Detention in a Young Offender Institution ends at the age of21, when young adult offenders are still maturing.The growing evidence base around the distinct needs of young adultssupports the idea of separate custodial arrangements not for its ownsake but in order to focus on the specific rehabilitation programmes ofmost relevance to young adults. In assessing the available evidence ofyoung adults’ needs, these services are likely to focus on employmentand training, with alcohol and drug treatment and mental healthsupport tailored to gender and age of the offender. The Chief Inspectorof Prisons’ thematic report into young adult men recommended youngadults receive individual assessments, and receive training and support[28]

that meets their resettlement needs. 51 The T2A Alliance is convinced ofthe need for separate regimes for young adult offenders. There are somemoves towards this within the prison system: we await with interest thework underway at HMP/YOI Isis where a new, 480-place training prisonspecifically for young adult males is to be constructed to on underusedland within the existing HMP Belmarsh perimeter wall. Construction isexpected to be complete by the middle of 2010.HMP/YOI Isis Case StudyFollowing the review of prisons by Lord Carter, a programme toprovide additional custodial places was announced, of which HMP/YOI Isis will contribute up to 624 places. The prison has been designedto provide an effective, sustainable regime for offenders, which alsomeets the needs of a sentenced young adult male population. It wasrecognised that there is a need for prison places for the 18–21 year oldage group within the geographic London area.Isis will operate as a male young adult establishment for sentencedoffenders and in addition we will retain those young men beyondthe age of 21, where it has been identified as part of their sentencemanagement. The maximum age limit will be 24 and 11 months.Adults must be risk-assessed as Category C offenders to remain atHMP/YOI Isis.Offender Management will be at the heart of the prison, with aclear focus placed on the 7 pathways and reducing re-offending. Allprisoners will be allocated an Offender Supervisor on reception, whowill support them while at Isis. They will work together to enablethe offender to progress through their sentence, with a focus ontheir sentence plan and the relevant interventions and offendingbehaviour programmes they may need to undertake.Isis will have a diverse portfolio of activities which will meetthe assessed needs of the young men in their care, including;formal learning and skills, vocational training, offence-focusedinterventions, health care programmes and interventions andtreatment. Resettlement work will include an integrated approach tosentence management, working with colleagues in the communityand employer engagement to secure job places.http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk[29]

The majority of young people aged 18-20 in prison under sentence areserving between one and four years. Out of a total of 7,375, some 934were serving a sentence of less than six months, and 401 were serving asentence longer than six months but less than twelve months. Precisely3,795 were serving a sentence of twelve months to four years.Short prison sentences are the least effective at preventing reoffending 52 ;they disrupt any benefits of ‘normal life’ like a job or family ties whilefailing to address the underlying causes of offending. During 2007, morethan 50,000 people began a prison sentence of six months or less. 7,442were aged 18-20, and many more will have been in the broader youngadult age group (18-24). While the number of people serving a sentenceof six months or less has decreased by 14% since 2005, the numberaged 18-20 has increased by 10%.“You can go into jailbecause you’ve justdone somethingsmall, but thenyou’re sat therelistening to everyoneelse talking andyou’re learning news**t and how to donew things.”[Young Offender]Yet three out of every five people (59.9%) who serve a sentence of oneyear or less are convicted of a further offence committed within one yearof release. Meanwhile, only just over a third of those on a CommunityOrder or Suspended Sentence Order are convicted of a further offencewithin a year. These figures may not be directly comparable, as theydo not take into account the possible differences between groups ofoffenders, but they do demonstrate that in a choice between giving acommunity sentence or a short prison sentence (during which prisonersreceive little resettlement help), a community sentence is likely to be themore effective option. While some community sentences have shown arecent reduction in reconviction rates, short-term sentences remain ashopeless for rehabilitation as they were a decade ago.Moreover, the vast majority of those serving a prison sentence of sixmonths or less have not committed a violent offence. Most do have anumber of previous convictions (42% of offenders serving sentencesof 6 months or less have 15 or more previous convictions or cautions),but the very high reconviction rates for offenders serving short prisonsentences suggest that a sentence of six months or less is unlikely tobreak this cycle of offending. Instead sentencers should focus on makingappropriate and imaginative use of the Community Order, supported byproper resourcing which ensures that all the potential requirements areavailable in every area and that there are not significant waiting periodsbefore an offender can begin an order.Elsewhere, this is being recognised and is starting to inform public policy.For instance, the Scottish National Party has recently announced itsintention to phase out all sentences of less than six months, replacingthem with community payback schemes. This was welcomed by VictimSupport Scotland groups who recognised that short-sentences werenot working and thought that tougher community sentences were the[30]

answer instead. 53 This view of victims’ support groups was backed upin our policy panels, where one group argued that many governmentinitiatives are undertaken “in our name but not necessarily with oursupport”. We strongly support the rights of victims (indeed, 16–24year-olds are the group most at risk of being a victim of violent crimeand theft). 54 However, victims’ groups tell us they are concerned cruciallyabout what works. The “contaminating influences that can be expectedin a custodial regime” should cause the government to limit incarcerationto only where necessary for public protection. Custody is not, and in itspresent form cannot be, an effective means of rehabilitation. It may evenextend the process of maturation and delay the usual tendency towardsdesistance from the mid-20s. 55 Therefore, prison by its very nature, in itstreatment of some young adults, could make the public less safe in thelong-term.Young Women in CustodyRecent important work has been done on the particular needs ofwomen in the criminal justice system, including the Corston Reportand the Cabinet Office Short Study on Women Offenders.We do not attempt to repeat this work, but the T2A Alliance notesthe Cabinet Office findings that over 50% of women received intoprison under immediate custody are under 30 years old. The studyalso found that young adult women experience both the highestlevel, and the most complex set, of needs of women in the criminaljustice system. 56We also know that women are often the primary carer of a familyand that most women in prison are mothers. Putting both womenand men who are parents in prison affects their whole family. 65%of boys with a convicted parent go on to offend themselves. 57CommunityOver the last decade the number of people (including young adults)receiving community sentences has increased. This has happenedalongside a significant growth in the prison population.There is already recognition by the Probation Service that communitysentences for this age group should be tailored to individual need.In 2003, the National Probation Service introduced a communityprogramme aimed specifically at young adults: the Intensive Control[31]

and Change Programme (ICCP). It was intended as a direct alternativeto custody for 18-20 year-olds. The programme offered “high levels ofcontrol over the structure of the community sentence” and “intensive,evidence-based interventions during community supervision to tacklecriminogenic needs in order to change attitudes and behaviour”. 58The ICCP was replaced by the generic Community Order, following theimplementation of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The Order has a ‘menu’ oftwelve requirements intended to target the individual need of the offender.The requirements include unpaid work, supervision, curfew, mental healthtreatment, and drug and alcohol treatment. The new Community Orderand Suspended Sentence Orders were specifically intended to reduce thecustodial population. However, their introduction has not reduced the levelsof short-term custody and has proved to be problematic at serving youngadult needs. 59 For example, Probation officers point out that not all twelverequirements are available, the two most commonly cited as missing beingalcohol treatment and mental health requirements 60 – both identified as keyneeds of young adult offenders. The Sainsbury’s Centre for Mental Healthalso identified serious gaps in provision for the mental health requirement. 61Early examples of best practicefrom the T2A pilotsLondon T2A Pilot – St Giles TrustThe London T2A pilot is based in Southwark and Croydon. Itwas launched in January 2009 and works with young adultsboth in custody and in the community. The service is deliveredby staff who are all qualified ex offenders and comprises ofmentoring, motivational work, attitudinal work, combined withcompetent practical support in areas such as housing, benefits andemployment, training and education.The London T2A teams have been welcomed by the YouthOffending Team and Croydon Probation Service. The new projectfills a much needed gap in the services available to young peoplereaching 18. Croydon Probation makes direct referrals to theservice, and the local YOT team have invited the T2A teams to workalongside their key workers on some cases.The T2A teams working in Southwark have good relationships withthe local Police. Operation Hamrow - a specialist team of policeofficers, which aims to prevent young people from being drawn intoorganised crime – refers young people directly to the T2A teams.www.stgilestrust.org.uk[32]

Worcestershire T2A Pilot – YSSThe Worcestershire pilot has been receiving referrals since February2009 and has worked with 25 young adult offenders with highneeds in the community. The pilot offers a flexible, communitybased, one to one support and mentoring service using a mixture ofpaid staff and local volunteers.In Worcestershire, YSS has established a robust multi-agencysteering group with senior management representation from acrossthe criminal justice system, including the Youth Offending Service,Police, Probation, Connexions, Courts and Children’s Services.The T2A pilot has developed strong links with both the ProbationService and Youth Offending Service and has influenced the waythey work with young adults. Probation T2A Champions have beendeveloped within Probation operational teams to help supportProbation staff with young adults on their case load. In addition,joint YOS and Probation training workshops have been developedto identify and implement best practice. The T2A pilot, where ayoung person’s involvement is voluntary, is able to successfully runalongside the enforced supervision by Probation in a complimentaryway and has increased engagement and lowered the risk of breach,as well as the potential use of custody for non-compliance.www.yss.org.ukAs well as failing to reduce levels of custody, current Community Ordersare proving disproportionately challenging for young adults to complete.Currently, young adults often receive the most punitive communitysentences. Curfews, banned activities and unpaid work are common,making it harder not to breach the order, but lack the necessary supportfor young adults to fulfil the requirements. As a result of a breach,there are rapidly rising numbers of young adults ending up in prison 62 .Effectively, the poor supervision and the inflexible nature of requirementsare setting up young adults to fail. We heard from one policy panel thatsome women with chaotic lives often fail to attend unpaid work dayssimply because they are unable to arrange for childcare.With regard to conditional cautioning, in January 2008 the thenJustice Minister, David Hanson, said: “We are planning to test out thereferral of young adult offenders (18 to 25 years) to existing seniorattendance centres through the conditional cautioning scheme, whichdiverts offenders who admit their offence from court in appropriatecircumstances. The centres aim to assist these offenders to acquire and[33]

Recommendation TenWe recommend that Youth Offending Services and Probation Servicesimprove their transition arrangements in a way that recognises thesignificant culture shift between the youth and adult criminal justice systems.In order to facilitate this transition, both agencies need to be supported byother key agencies within Local Authorities, Children’s Services, Health, Adultand Community Services and the wider voluntary sector. Subject to theevaluation of the three T2A pilots, we recommend similar models (adaptedto different regional needs) that comprise a lead professional co-ordinatingthe measures needed to rehabilitate young adults.We are trialling one team through the Probation Service and others throughthird sector organisations. We would like to consult on which agenciesare best-placed to deliver these teams and whether they should be part ofstatutory provision. We would also like to consult on whether separate T2Ateams need to be created or whether a T2A style of working can be adapted tofit within existing structures. Core functions of the T2A teams could include:• Support during the transition at 18 from Youth OffendingTeams to Probation.• Additional wrap-around support for young adults serving communitysentences to help address needs and reduce the number of youngadults breaching their Community Orders.• Support for young adults to aid resettlement when comingout of prison, alongside other mentoring help.[35]

Chapter Four:Work, Educationand TrainingA job, and the resulting sense of belonging to society, is important inhelping all young adults make their transition to adulthood. For thosewho do not achieve at school or in the workplace, there is a greaterrisk of getting involved in crime and remaining in a cycle of offending:Government figures show that 20 per cent of men and 8 per cent ofwomen who had not been in education, employment or training (NEET)aged 16-18 became involved in crime between the ages of 17 and 30,three times the rate among young people as a whole. 65“If you had a job youprobably wouldn’tbe going outrobbing, but thenyou go for a jobthey find you’ve gota record.”[Young Offender]A stable job is therefore a key factor in reducing reoffending. For thisreason, there is a need to greatly increase current efforts to equipoffenders with skills and qualifications. We recognise the work that hasbeen started since the establishment of the Offender Learning and SkillsService (OLASS), and we await with interest the results of its test bedsrun, ‘reducing reoffending through skills and employment’, that aretrying to establish examples of best practice in this area.A key theme emerging from the young people attending our policy panelin March 2009 was their clear desire to work. 66 Yet there remains a highrate of unemployment for young adults entering the criminal justicesystem. This is particularly true of young men, who make up the vastmajority of the young adult prison population: over half of young menhad not been in work prior to prison. 67 The overall prison population lackbasic qualifications – 52% of men and 71% of women in prison have noqualifications at all. 68The skills deficit has more serious consequences for young adults inprison, many of whom have never experienced a significant time instable employment. For young men in communities where the traditionalroutes to male employment are now curtailed, the immediate wealthpromised by gang-related crime can be a further attraction of criminalactivity. 69 The possibility of a stable job that not only provides financialsecurity, but also respect and belonging, could help young men moveaway from crime.For some young adults, particularly with family instability, housingdifficulties or learning needs, extra support is crucial in helping them tofind and maintain a job. Most young people get support for continuededucation, a first job or training from their parents, friends, teachers orwider family support. More than half of young adults have structuredlong-term support – in the form of university – to help them make thetransition from childhood to adult employment.Once in prison, the nature of the current custodial regime furtherhampers learning. For this reason, in an earlier chapter we argued forYoung Offender Institutions to be extended to cover those up to at least[39]

25 years of age, with extra provision and support, as well as for youngadults to be placed in community prisons with every effort made atreintegrating people on release from prison. While young adults are inprison, the focus should be on equipping them with ‘work-ready’ skills.On release, a further barrier to employment is created by the need todeclare where an ex-offender received their qualifications. The T2AAlliance has thus far been most convinced by the idea of a twinningmodel between young adult prisons and local further educationestablishments. The qualifications gained by offenders would be arecognised and accredited from that establishment, and therefore valid‘on the outside’.For offenders who display consistent good behaviour, access to workoff-site should be a regular part of serving their sentence. Much morecould be done to enable greater numbers of offenders to access learningoff-site. We believe this could become mainstream practice by twinningnon-offenders with their peers who are studying at FE colleges. This mustbe accompanied by a right to continue any education on release. Youngadults who start a qualification in prison should be able to apply to localauthorities for financial assistance (as do all students) to continue it.On leaving prison, there are systemic barriers to learning created by thewelfare system. Effective resettlement of young adults is hampered bylower levels of benefit. 70 Young adults under-25, receive a lower level ofhousing benefit, and under-21’s receive a lower rate of minimum wage.Swinfen Hall work with young adultsAs part of a RESET programme in HMYOI Swinfen Hall, young adultsare given the opportunity to gain real and useful qualificationswhile in prison. Young adults demonstrated a keen interest intraining directly linked to a job they could see themselves doing inthe future. Almost every young adult asked to be included on theforklift truck pilot as they could immediately see the benefit of goingon the course and getting a qualification.RESET (Resettlement, Education, Support, Employment and Training)was a two year pilot project to develop a resettlement model thatcould be widely adopted to help cut re-offending levels. It involvedmore than 50 partners, including the YJB, the prison service and theDCFS. The lead partner was Catch22 (previously Rainer).www.catch-22.org.uk[40]

There is little consistency of approach, with different benefits ending at21, 24 and 25 years of age. However, on all fronts young adults receivethe least money, yet the toughest regulations.Moreover, complex benefit rules can hamper young adults getting thevital education and training they need. 71 Current housing benefit rulesmean the most disadvantaged and least qualified people are deniedthe opportunity to get back into education. 72 This is despite evidenceshowing that some young people mature slower than others and only intheir early 20s feel committed to study or are able to put long-term gainabove short-term demands.On leaving custody, resettlement support is inadequate, patchy andultimately not targeted at the distinct needs of young adults. 73 There is awidespread consensus that resettlement needs of young adults includeemployment, housing, stable relationships, responsibility, and positivefamily relations, and that the current systems are inadequate. On leavingprison, young adults need to possess at least one form of identification,a national insurance number, a bank account and basic financial securityin the form of benefits or preferably work. We know that many youngpeople appreciated education in custody but did not know how to buildon this on their release. 74 Young adults are being set up to fail because ofa lack of planning and support for their release.The Passport to Adulthood tool is a system used by New York CityFamily Court judges to improve the outcomes for young adults as theyembark on adulthood and transition out of the care system. The schememodels an effective approach, whereby the judge acts as a championfor the young adult and can call all of the relevant agencies to accountto ensure that the young person receives the support that they need.Other localities, such as Des Moines in Iowa are currently exploring theuse of the Passport to Adulthood tool for young adults leaving custody.We recommend a similar approach in the UK for young adults leavingcustody, that is: one that holds people accountable for the care needs ofthat young person.Further difficulties in the rehabilitation of young adult offenders canoccur because of criminal record legislation. Young adults in our policypanels felt this was one of the biggest barriers to securing work. Thegovernment currently rewards businesses with £2,500 to hire a youngadult unemployed for six months or longer. This deters employersfrom hiring ex-offenders who cannot count their time in prison asunemployed, so they end up at the back of the queue on release. Forthe sole purpose of enabling companies to employ ex-offenders withoutbeing penalised, offenders should be able to count time in custody[41]

as being unemployed. 75 Assisting young adult ex-offenders into a jobwill reduce reoffending and make society safer as well as being a costeffectiveapproach: the thinktank Policy Exchange estimated that anational offender employment programme could save the taxpayer asmuch as £300 million per year. 76Case Study: Passport to Adulthood New YorkThe Passport to Adulthood is a unique tool created by the Center forCourt Innovation in the United States to help New York City FamilyCourt judges improve the outcomes for young adults during theirtransition from the care system at 18 or 21.The Passport to Adulthood tool was developed in response to thelack of current and centralised information on the services receivedby young people whilst in care and after care. The Passport toolcovers many areas of a young person’s life, such as their medicalhistory, housing, education, employment, immigration status andlife skills. The Passport serves as a check-list to prompt the judgeto ensure that the young person has all of the vital identificationforms required in adult life, such as a social security card and birthcertificate. The document enables the years of a young person’s lifeto be stored in a central place, including: dental, hearing and opticalrecords, school grades and records of family relationships.The Passport acts as an accountability tool for the judge, ensuringthat the different issues in a young person’s life are being addressedby all of the services that a young adult engages with. In addition,the Passport encourages the young adult to communicate and askspecific questions of their lawyer, case worker and judge.www.courtinnovation.org[42]

Recommendation ElevenWe recommend the establishment of a national employment programmefor ex-offenders. In order to mitigate the perceived risks by business,we further recommend that the Government should provide financialincentives such as tax relief and cash rewards. Offenders should beable to count their time in custody as being unemployed in orderthat businesses are eligible to receive the £2,500 currently offered tocompanies who employ unemployed young adults. 77Recommendation TwelveWe recommend the implementation of a new system of ‘CRB Smart’ foryoung adults. Criminal convictions should only be declared if relevant tothe job being applied for. The Probation Service could decide the relevantdeclarations on the basis of the job role.Recommendation ThirteenWe recommend that every young adult (18-25 years-old) who requestsit should be met at the gate on their release from prison and besupported by a positive role model through this transition. The voluntaryand community sector has a proven track record in offering successfulindividualised support and quality mentoring that reduces reoffendingand could provide this support. 78Recommendation FourteenWe recommend that planning for resettlement should start from themoment a person enters custody, and must include the voice of theyoung person and their families 79 . The government should enhancethe role of ex-offenders in providing resettlement support, and shouldencourage prisons to allow ex-offenders to volunteer in prisons.[43]

Chapter Five:Health, Housingand Social CarePhysical and Mental HealthSocial, economic and environmental inequalities can cause andexacerbate poor physical and mental health. 80 These inequalities showup in poor educational achievement, joblessness, family breakdown andpoor housing, among other indicators. There is also a disproportionatelevel of social disadvantage and poor mental health amongst youngadults in the criminal justice system.The prevalence of mental health problems for those in custody isincreasingly well-documented. Around 85% of children in prison showsigns of a personality disorder, and 10% exhibit signs of a psychoticcondition. 81 This figure will be similarly high for young adults who havenot received treatment in juvenile custody. Other reports put the figureof mental health disorders in prison at between 40% and 70%. TheSainsbury’s Centre for Mental Health estimates that 60-80% of maleprisoners and 50% of female prisoners have a form of personalitydisorder, compared with just 5-15% in the general population. The needto address this issue is pressing: approximately half of all deaths in orfollowing police custody involve detainees with some form of mentalhealth problem. 82Although we are beginning to grasp the size and complexity of mentalhealth problems in prisons, there is much work to do in understandingthe specific needs of young adults. There is little research on issues facingboth male and female young adults, and consequently there is also verylittle tailored service provision. A 2007 report by the Howard League forPenal Reform, called Minding the Gap, highlighted the scarcity of mentalhealth services for both children and young adults in custody. 83 Morewidely, academics point to the paucity of evidence regarding the use ofmental health services in young adulthood. 84Despite an overall trend to divide mental health research into children,under the age of 18 and adults, everyone over 18, some organisationsare looking into the specific needs of young adults. The Sainsbury’sCentre for Mental Health is currently undertaking a review of youngadult women with Borderline Personality Disorders. The focus on youngadult women is due to the high proportion of young women in prisonwith this form of Personality Disorder, often serving short sentences. 85The Sainsbury’s Centre also found that many young adult men in prisonhave Antisocial Personality Disorders, resulting in violence, lack ofempathy and recklessness.Mental health problems are not always identified early enough in ‘atrisk’ young people before they enter the criminal justice system. Thoseidentified early can be diverted from criminal justice into appropriate[44]

mental health care. This has been recommended by a large numberof organisations in the field and recently by Lord Bradley. 86 More workneeds to be done to identify, support and help people with poor mentalhealth once they have been sentenced and are serving community ordersor custodial sentences. Lord Bradley also highlighted the disproportionatenumber of young black men with mental health problems in the criminaljustice system and the current lack of research into this area. 87Physical health is an often overlooked need among young adults.Although young adults are generally healthier than older adults andchildren, for instance having low obesity rates and a good level ofphysical exercise 88 , they are unlikely to be registered with a doctor due toa chaotic lifestyle, lack of a fixed address and possible substance misuse.The New York City Passport to Adulthood tool, previously highlighted inthis report, ensures that those leaving care are registered with a doctor,dentist and optician. The Passport to Adulthood form requires officials towrite in the young person’s latest eye check and dentist appointment forexample, providing a high level of tailored health support.Housing and social care“I didn’t have familyto tell me that [tostop committingcrimes]. I’ve grownup with aunties anduncles and cousins.I’ve lived all overthe place. I’ve had ahard life.”[Young Offender]A stable and safe home is important to enable young adults to study,maintain a job and establish successful relationships. Increasingly, peopleare leaving home later (on average at 24 years of age), they remainfinancially dependent on their parents later (until their mid-20s), andoften move back home before finally learning to live independently.More vulnerable young adults do not always receive this support. A NewPolicy Institute report in 2000 entitled Sidelined: Young Adults’ Access toServices looked specifically at housing and welfare provision for youngadults aged 16-25 and found that in terms of spending priorities onhousing and social care, young adults regularly lose out compared toother age groups. 89The Government recognises that defined groups of young adults needextra support after 18 in order to establish a home. Young adults leavingcare are entitled to housing support until they are 21 years old. Othervery vulnerable young adults, particularly those leaving custody, oftenneed to access the same level of housing support but do not alwaysreceive it. One in five young men (aged 15 -21) don’t know where theyare going to live on release from prison. 90 This is worrying as a highproportion of young adults in the custodial estate have been in the caresystem or experience similar vulnerabilities to those leaving care.[45]

Case study: Liverpool Young AdultsTransitional ServiceThe 18–25 Transitional Service in Liverpool was set up in responseto research with young adults showing their distinct needs. Youngadults did not want to access adult services as they felt those serviceswere for heroin users. For those who had attended adult services, theexperience had been overwhelming. Many were put off attending, orlater dropped out, because of the exposure to older adults with moreserious problematic drug use.The Transitional Service works closely with partner agencies toprovide a complete package of care. A clear working partnership hasbeen developed with the adult services to ensure a smooth transitionif the young person requires this move.www.addaction.org.ukpredominantly due to their presence on the streets and their increasedcontact with police compared to older offenders. This disproportionatelyaffects young ethnic minority groups. This is despite no evidence ofhigher levels of drug use, and in fact lower levels of Class A drug use,among BME communities.For all the reasons outlined in previous chapters on the impact ofcustody, drug treatment based in the community is more likely tobenefit this age group than treatment programmes operated in prison.Our policy panels felt there was insufficient evidence available on theeffectiveness of prison-based programmes, and gave anecdotal evidencethat many offenders relapsed into drug use on release from prison.Treatment in the community may be particularly beneficial for youngwomen in the criminal justice system, whose drug use is often linkedto experience of abuse, poor self-esteem and mental health problems.More than one in three women offenders have histories of sexual abuseand over half have been the victims of domestic violence. 98 Communitysentences can enable effective treatment programmes to take placealongside other support. These programmes need to be flexible toaccount for young adults’ chaotic lifestyles. It benefits no one to imprisonusers for breaching their order before they can complete their treatment.Working in the communities allows for treatment agencies to engagewith the families of young adults with addictions, including working withtheir siblings, to provide long-term solutions and get a whole family backon track.[48]

Research into effective drug rehabilitation programmes for young adultsby Revolving Doors Agency highlighted the need for a holistic approachand found some evidence for using multi-systemic treatment (MST). 99Recommendation EighteenWe recommend the first recourse use of community sentences ratherthan prison for most young adults with substance misuse problemswho are convicted of relatively minor offences. We further recommendthat there should be increased use of Drug Rehabilitation Requirementsas part of community orders. This drug treatment must be flexible foryoung adults, both male and female, with chaotic lives.Recommendation NineteenWe recommend the expansion of drug treatment programmes tailored toaddress current trends in young adult drug use. Trends that need specialsupport include polydrug use and use of ‘softer’ drugs, such as alcoholand cannabis, rather than simply opiate-based addictions. Alcohol abuseshould be treated as a priority for action, alongside drug abuse, as it isnow a major cause of reoffending. 100Recommendation TwentyWe recommend the expansion of drug services that engage with thewide-ranging needs of vulnerable young adults, of which their druguse is one aspect. We further recommend a detailed evaluation ofmulti-systemic therapy (MST) as a means of treating young adults withaddictions.Recommendation Twenty-OneWe recommend that sentencing practice should make a greaterdifferentiation between people who carry out social supply (buying smallamounts of a drug and selling to their friends) and those who are sellingdrugs for financial gain.[49]

Conclusionand Next StepsThis report has argued that some young adults are being trappedin a cycle of reoffending. They have been let down by a lack ofessential mainstream support and ended up in a poorly devised andfailing criminal justice system where their support needs cannot beaddressed. It is time for a new approach. This paper sets out some policyrecommendations for wide consultation and debate.Consultation responses will be collated and will contribute to the finalset of policy recommendations to be published by the T2A Alliance inautumn 2009. You can respond by completing our online questionnaireor by sending a written submission to the Alliance. Further details canbe found at www.t2a.org.uk/alliance. This consultation will close onFriday 9 October 2009.The T2A Alliance formed because we believe that we can make adifference to the lives of young adults more effectively together thanapart. But even as an Alliance, we cannot do this on our own. Wecannot make a difference without widespread support and challengefrom practitioners, young adults, policy makers and the general public.For this reason, if you support the overall aims of the Alliance to improvepolicy and practice for vulnerable young adults in the criminal justicesystem, we ask you to sign up online and support us at:www.t2a.org.uk/support_usTell your colleagues and friends.[50]

Summary ofRecommendationsRecommendation OneWe recommend that more effort is made todivert young adults involved in minor crimeaway from the criminal justice system andinto paths that will address the root causesof their behaviour. We believe the policeshould be able to take a triage approachi.e. make an immediate assessment ofneed, and assess the likely benefit from acommunity intervention. They should havea range of options to ensure young peopleare diverted into the right help.Recommendation TwoWe recommend increased investment inthe training of police officers in conflictmanagement, and in particular how toassess and respond to the specific needs andchallenges of the young adult age group.Recommendation ThreeWe recommend the governmentundertake an immediate audit of provisionof educational, youth work and otherpositive support services in each localauthority aimed at diverting vulnerableyoung adults away from involvementin criminal activity. To address gaps, wefurther recommend an increase in longtermstable funding for organisations thatwork with young adults over the aged 18-24 in areas of deprivation and high crimerates. Engagement with young adultsaged 18-24 should be specifically includedin the next round of National Indicators.Recommendation FourWe recommend that new methods areintroduced to ensure that the distinctivecharacteristics of young adults are takeninto account when they are sentencedby the courts. ‘Youthfulness’, as definedby the Sentencing Advisory Panel, shouldbe seen as a potential mitigating factorin sentencing young adults between theages of 18 and 24.[51]The Alliance would especially like toconsult on two separate methods forimplementing this recommendation. Onemodel, practised in Germany, would allowa young adult to be tried under juvenilelaw, according to the nature of theircrime and their emotional maturity. Theother, operating in Sweden, enforces thereduction of sentence length according toage. In the UK, the Sentencing AdvisoryPanel’s recent consultation on theprinciples of sentencing for young peopleproposed that where the young personis aged 17, the starting point might beapproximately three quarters of that whichwould have been identified for an adultoffender. If this proportionate sentenceextended upwards, young adults shouldserve sentences according to a slidingscale from approximately 80% (for 18 yearolds) to 100% (for those aged 25).Recommendation FiveWe recommend that all young adultoffenders should have a maturityassessment conducted as part of thepre-sentence report prepared by theProbation Service. This assessment shouldshape the proportionate sentencingresponse. We further recommendresearch into international models ofconducting maturity assessments and thedevelopment of a model suitable for theUK criminal justice system.Recommendation SixWe recommend that new national targetsare introduced to halve the length of timefrom arrest to sentence for young adultsaged 18-24.

Recommendation SevenWe recommend the Government makeit a priority to reduce the UK prisonpopulation, starting immediately with thereduction of the number of vulnerableyoung adults in custody serving shortsentences for non-violent crimes. Werecommend further research into themost effective means to achieve this,including research into the benefits ofabolishing altogether prison sentences ofsix months or less, and ensuring their directreplacement with community sentences.Recommendation EightWe recommend that more use should bemade of existing sentences to treat alcoholmisuse and mental health problems withthe necessary expansion of treatmentprovision. 101 More account should betaken of the needs of young women inserving their sentence – specifically, theirpoor self-esteem, mental health problemsand being the primary carer for a family.Recommendation NineWe recommend that the availabilityof the sentence of Detention in aYoung Offender Institution should beextended to 18-24 year-olds, and thatthe structure of this regime shouldbe radically overhauled to supportrehabilitation programmes to facilitatebetter the reintegration into society. Wefurther recommend that young adultsshould be located in dedicated localcommunity prisons twinned with localfurther education colleges. There shouldbe adequate education, training andwork opportunities, alongside support formental health needs and other tailoredsupport services. Subject to public safety,young adults should be able to undertakecourses, training programmes and workexperience in the local community onday release. To make the most of this[52]training, effective resettlement planningshould start at the point when a personis charged and include the voice of theyoung person and their families. Weare very clear that these young adultprisons should replace existing prisons,not expand the custodial estate, andwould require the dismantling of existingcustodial arrangements.Recommendation TenWe recommend that Youth OffendingServices and Probation Services improvetheir transition arrangements in a way thatrecognises the significant cultureshift between the youth and adult criminaljustice systems. In order to facilitate thistransition, both agencies need to besupported by other key agencies withinLocal Authorities, Children’s Services,Health, Adult and Community Servicesand the wider voluntary sector. Subject tothe evaluation of the three T2A pilots, werecommend similar models (adapted todifferent regional needs) that comprise alead professional co-ordinating the measuresneeded to rehabilitate young adults.We are trialling one team through theProbation Service and others throughthird sector organisations. We wouldlike to consult on which agencies arebest-placed to deliver these teams andwhether they should be part of statutoryprovision. We would also like to consulton whether separate T2A teams needto be created or whether a T2A style ofworking can be adapted to fit withinexisting structures. Core functions of theT2A teams could include:• Support during the transition at 18 fromYouth Offending Teams to Probation• Additional wrap-around support foryoung adults serving communitysentences to help address needs and

educe the number of young adultsbreaching their Community Orders.• Support for young adults to aidresettlement when coming out ofprison, alongside other mentoring help.Recommendation ElevenWe recommend the establishment of anational employment programme forex-offenders. In order to mitigate theperceived risks by business, we furtherrecommend that the Government shouldprovide financial incentives such as taxrelief and cash rewards. Offenders shouldbe able to count their time in custody asbeing unemployed in order that businessesare eligible to receive the £2,500 currentlyoffered to companies who employunemployed young adults. 102Recommendation TwelveWe recommend the implementation ofa new system of ‘CRB Smart’ for youngadults. Criminal convictions should onlybe declared if relevant to the job beingapplied for. The Probation Service coulddecide the relevant declarations on thebasis of the job role.Recommendation ThirteenWe recommend that every young adult(18-25 years-old) who requests it shouldbe met at the gate on their release fromprison and be supported by a positiverole model through this transition. Thevoluntary and community sector has aproven track record in offering successfulindividualised support and qualitymentoring that reduces reoffending andcould provide this support. 103RecommendationFourteenWe recommend that planning forresettlement should start from the momenta person enters custody, and mustinclude the voice of the young personand their families 104 . The governmentshould enhance the role of ex-offenders inproviding resettlement support, and shouldencourage prisons to allow ex-offenders tovolunteer in prisons.Recommendation FifteenWe recommend that the Government andlocal authorities map the mental healthneeds of young adults aged 18 to 25 ineach area. Local authorities should expandmental health services to meet thoseneeds, and ensure services reflect theholistic range of young adult needs.Recommendation SixteenWe recommend that the Governmentadopts the recommendations in theSainsbury’s Centre for Mental Health ondiversion at every stage for people withmental health problems. 105 In particular,we support the recommendation by LordBradley, in the report of his recent reviewof people with mental health problems orlearning disabilities in the criminal justicesystem, that all police custody suitesshould have access to liaison and diversionservices to facilitate ‘the earliest possiblediversion of offenders with mentaldisorders from the criminal justice system,and signposting to local health and socialcare services as appropriate.’ 106[53]

RecommendationSeventeenWe recommend that all young adultsleaving custody should receive similarsupport to those young adults leavingcare, including a social worker andpersonal advisor. They should have a fullassessment of all of their needs, includinghousing needs, as well as a plan of howthese will be met on release. Socialservices must provide or arrange suitableaccommodation if the young person’swelfare requires it. These arrangementsneed to be in place in advance of theyoung person’s release from custody. Thissupport should continue until the youngperson is 24 years old and be for a minimumof six months. The assessment shouldalso consider whether the young personis entitled to assistance from adult socialservices and a referral made if they are.RecommendationEighteenWe recommend the first recourse useof community sentences rather thanprison for most young people withsubstance misuse problems who areconvicted of relatively minor offences.We further recommend that there shouldbe increased use of Drug RehabilitationRequirements as part of communityorders. This drug treatment must beflexible for young adults, both male andfemale, with chaotic lives.RecommendationNineteenWe recommend the expansion of drugtreatment programmes tailored to addresscurrent trends in young adult drug use.Trends that need special support includepolydrug use and use of ‘softer’ drugs,such as alcohol and cannabis, rather thansimply opiate-based addictions. Alcoholabuse should be treated as a priority foraction, alongside drug abuse, as it is nowa major cause of reoffending. 107Recommendation TwentyWe recommend the expansion of drugservices that engage with the wide-rangingneeds of vulnerable young adults, of whichtheir drug use is one aspect. We furtherrecommend a detailed evaluation of multisystemictherapy (MST) as a means oftreating young adults with addictions.RecommendationTwenty-OneWe recommend that sentencing practiceshould make a greater differentiationbetween people who carry out social supply(buying small amounts of a drug and sellingto their friends) and those who are sellingdrugs for financial gain.[54]

Endnotes1 Rob Allen, International Centre for Prison Studies, Lost inTransition: Three Years On, 20082 Young People in Focus; Key Data on Young Adults, 20093 http://www.thechildrensmutual.co.uk/about-the-childrens-mutual/media-centre/2009-press-releases/24-february-2009.aspx4 The Children’s Mutual and the Social Issues ResearchCentre (SIRC) Research reported in The Telegraph,24th Feb 09, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/4786578/Grown-up-children-still-financiallydependent-on-parents.html5 Melissa Caulum, Postadolescent Brain Development: ADisconnect Between Neuroscience, Emerging Adults and theCorrection System, 20076 Social Exclusion Unit, Transitions: Young Adults withComplex Needs, 20057 Dame Anne Owers, quoted by the Barrow CadburyTrust, Snapshot on Young Adults in the Criminal JusticeSystem, 20068 New Economic Foundation, Jan 2009 http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/nationalaccountsofwellbeing240109.aspx;The Prince’s Trust, YouGov Youth Index,October 20089 The Barrow Cadbury Trust, Lost in Transition: A Report ofthe Barrow Cadbury Commission on Young Adults and theCriminal Justice System, 200510 The Howard League for Penal Reform, Out for Good;Meeting the resettlement needs of young men, 200511 Social Exclusion Unit, Reducing Reoffending by Ex-Prisoners, 200212 The Barrow Cadbury Trust, Lost in Transition: A Report ofthe Barrow Cadbury Commission on Young Adults and theCriminal Justice System, 200513 Home Office Statistical Bulletin, Reoffending of Adults:Results from the 2004 Cohort14 Reoffending rates have remained persistently high overthe last twenty years. See Social Exclusion Unit, ReducingReoffending by Ex-Prisoners, 200215 Bowles and Praditpyo, Commission on Young Adultsand the Criminal Justice System: Summary of Costs andBenefits, Centre for Criminal Justice Economics andPsychology, University of York16 House of Commons, Hansard Written Answers for 04 July2006 (pt 1428)17 Social Exclusion Unit, Reducing Reoffending by Ex-Prisoners, 200218 Offender Management Caseload Statistics, Ministry ofJustice, 2007, Table 6.6, p. 6419 Bowles and Praditpyo, Commission on Young Adultsand the Criminal Justice System: Summary of Costs andBenefits, Centre for Criminal Justice Economics andPsychology, University of York20 The Guardian http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2008/oct/21/family-finance-debt http://www.financedaily.co.uk/finance/IPODSHitByCreditCrunchStudy by Reform: http://www.reform.co.uk/youngadultswillcomeoffworsefromrecession_478.php21 The Independent, Youth joblessness returns to hauntGordon Brown, 19 March 200922 David Blanchflower, economist and ex-member of MPCat the Bank of England http://www.pressassociation.com/component/pafeeds/2009/01/25/top_economist_warns_on_unemployment?camefrom=the-morning-briefing23 Professor Paul Gregg; University of Bristol, men under 23who had been out of work for more than 12 months foundit harder to recover financially and emotionally.24 Rob Allen and Prison Reform Trust; Young Adults andthe Criminal Justice System, International Norms andPractice, 200925 For the purposes of this paper we will define youngadulthood as between approximately 18 and 25 yearsold. However, this age band is intentionally ‘blurry roundthe edges’. Young adulthood, like early adolescence is byits nature difficult to define, as it depends on individualmaturity not simply physical age.26 Professor Alex Stevens, University of Kent27 The Corston Report, A review of women with particularvulnerabilities in the criminal justice system, 200728 Home Affairs Select Committee Report, Young Black Peopleand the Criminal Justice System, 200729 Social Exclusion Unit, Transitions: Young Adults withComplex Needs, 200530 Social Exclusion Unit, Transitions: Young Adults withComplex Needs, 200531 Education and Skills Act 2008; promises of support fortransitions in the Social Mobility White Paper32 Conservative Party, Prisons with a Purpose ConservativePolicy Green Paper 4, March 200833 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7834356.stm34 Home Office, Findings, early results from pilots, Spicer andKilsby, 200435 James Riley, Davnet Cassidy and Jane Becker, Ministry ofJustice, Statistics on Race and the criminal justice system2007/8,April 2009)36 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/may/06/police-stopand-search-reform37 Sir Ronnie Flanagan, The Review of Policing; FinalReport, p.7338 Centre for Social Justice, Dying to Belong, 200939 Barrow Cadbury Trust and Crime Concern, Commissionof Young Adults in the criminal justice system; VoluntarySector provision for young adult offenders and those at riskof crime, 200540 National sentencing statistics are not broken down for the18-24 year old age group.41 Sentencing Advisory Panel, Consultation paper on principlesof sentencing for youths, 2008, p.2142 T2A Alliance, Universities of Crime, 200943 See work of Professor Alex Stevens, University of Kent44 Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (2003)Recommendation 20 of the Committee of Ministers tomember States concerning new ways of dealing withjuvenile delinquency and the role of juvenile justice -http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/legal_co-operation/steering_committees/cdpc/documents/1Rec_2003_20E_Juvenile_delinq.pdf45 Rob Allen and Prison Reform Trust; Young Adults andthe Criminal Justice System, International Norms andPractice, 200946 Von Hirsch, A. and Ashworth, A., ProportionateSentencing – Exploring the Principles Oxford UniversityPress: Oxford, 200547 Home Office, RDS, A Guide to the criminal justice systemin England and Wales, p.6748 Sentencing Advisory Panel49 Offender Management Caseload Statistics, Ministry ofJustice, June 200750 Ashworth, A., Sentencing and Criminal Justice, 4th edition,Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2005, p.368-36951 HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, Young Adult Male Prisoners,A Short Thematic Report, 200652 Home Office Statistical Bulletin, Reoffending of adults,results from 2004 cohort, March 200753 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article5861019.ece54 Kershaw, C. Nicholas, S. and Walker, A., Crime in Englandand Wales 2007/8, Home Office Statistics Bulletin, 200855 McVie, Patterns of deviance underlying the crime curve,University of Edinburgh; Farringdon 198656 Cabinet Office, Short Study on Women Offenders, May2009, p.1657 Ibid., p.1958 Partridge, S., Harris, J., Abram, M. and Scholes, A. (2005)The Intensive Control and Change Programme Pilots: AStudy of Implementation in the First Year London: HomeOffice – cited in The Use of the Community Order and theSuspended Sentence Order for Young Adult Offenders, p.159 Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (CCJS)60 CCJS, p.2961 Sainsbury’s Centre for Mental Health, The CommunityOrder and the Mental Health Treatment Requirement, 200862 Prison Reform Trust, Bromley Briefings, Prison Fact file,December 200763 Hansard (2008) ‘Young Offenders: Sentencing’, WrittenAnswers, David Hanson MP, Column 154W, 28 January.64 George Mair and Helen Mills, The Community Order andSuspended Sentence Order; Three Years On, CCJS, 200965 CBI report on NEETS, Oct 200866 The Young Foundation, Policy Panel, 200967 The Howard League for Penal Reform, Out for Good, 200568 Social Exclusion Unit, Reducing Reoffending by Ex-Prisoners, 200269 Centre for Social Justice; Dying to Belong, 2009, p.770 House of Commons, Home Affairs Select CommitteeReport, Jan 200571 The Foyer Federation, The 16 Hour Rule: Past its Sell ByDate, 200372 The 16 hour rule restricts adults aged 19 and over fromclaiming housing benefit while studying full time (morethan 16 hours per week).73 Solomon, Prison Reform Trust, 2004; Howard League forPenal Reform, Out for Good, 2005; Rainer/RESET, TheBusiness Case for Youth Resettlement, August 200774 Consultation with young people as part of RESET work byRainer, 200575 Policy Panel run by Business in the Community, April 200976 Gavin Lockhart, Ben Ullmann, Julian Chant, PolicyExchange, You’re Hired, 200577 Policy Panel run by Business in the Community, April 200978 One to One Support for all Offenders Campaign; ThePrinces Trust, Clinks, St Giles Trust, the Mentoring &Befriending Foundation, Catch22 and Innovation Exchange.79 RESET work by Rainer. Final Report, 200580 World Health Organisation and the Mental HealthFoundation, Mental Health, Resilience and Inequalities, 200981 The Prison Reform Trust82 Docking, Grace and Bucke, IPCC, Police Custody as a Placeof Safety Report, Sept 200883 Mind and the Howard League for Penal Reform, Mindingthe gap: An overview of the problems faced by childrenand young adults in custody with mental health problems.84 Journal of Adolescent Health; http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(08)00112-2/abstract, Sept 200885 Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, Personality Disorder:A briefing for people working in the criminal justicesystem, 200986 The Bradley Report: Lord Bradley’s review of people withmental health problems or learning disabilities in thecriminal justice system, 2009; SCMH, Diversion: A Betterway for criminal justice and mental health, 200987 The Bradley Report: Lord Bradley’s review of people withmental health problems or learning disabilities in thecriminal justice system, 2009, p.2188 Young People in Focus, Data on Young Adults, 200989 Howard, Catherine and Street, Cathy, Sidelined; YoungAdults Access to Services, New Policy Institute, 200090 HM Inspectorate of Prisons; Young People A ThematicReview, 199991 Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, Diversion: A Better wayfor criminal justice and mental health, 200992 The Bradley Report: Lord Bradley’s review of people withmental health problems or learning disabilities in thecriminal justice system, 2009, p.5393 Cabinet Office, Transitions; Young Adults with ComplexNeeds, 200594 Young People in Focus, Data on Young Adults, 200995 Professor Howard Parker, quoted by Addaction96 Home Office, The economic and social costs of Class A druguse in England and Wales, Home Office Research Study249, 2002; Reducing Drug Use, Reducing ReoffendingUKDPC (2008)97 The Howard League for Penal Reform, 200598 Prison Reform Trust, Personality Disorder: A briefing forpeople working in the criminal justice system, BromleyBriefings, 200899 Revolving Doors Agency, Literature Review for T2A Project,Social Intervention for 16-24 year olds, April 2009; Aos, S.,Miller, & Drake, E, Evidence-Based Public Policy Options toReduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costsand Crime Rates, Washington State Institute for PublicPolicy, 2006100 CSJ, Locked Up Potential, 2009 Executive Summary p.7101 George Mair and Helen Mills, The Community Order andSuspended Sentence Order; Three Years On, CCJS, 2009102 Policy Panel run by Business in the Community, April 2009103 ‘One to One Support for all Offenders’ Campaign;The Princes Trust, Clinks, St Giles Trust, the Mentoring& Befriending Foundation, Catch22 and InnovationExchange.104 RESET work by Rainer. Final Report, 2005105 Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, Diversion: A Betterway for criminal justice and mental health, 2009.106 The Bradley Report: Lord Bradley’s review of people withmental health problems or learning disabilities in thecriminal justice system, 2009, p.53107 CSJ, Locked Up Potential, 2009 Executive Summary p.7

T2A Alliancecontact details:info@t2a.org.ukT2A Alliancec/o Barrow Cadbury TrustKean House6 Kean StreetLondonWC2B 4AST 0207 632 9060www.t2a.org.ukTo support the Alliance,please sign up to:www.t2a.org.uk/support_usWritten by: Vicki Helyar-Cardwell, Catch22Funded by: Barrow Cadbury TrustDesign by: David Carroll & Co

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