ResourcesGAO Report: Radio FrequencyIdentification Technology in theFederal Governmentwww.gao.gov/new.items/d05551.pdfRFID Updatewww.rfidupdate.com/RFID Journal - RFID (RadioFrequency Identification)Technology News & Featureswww.rfidjournal.comEPCglobal Inc. Home Pagewww.epcglobalinc.orgSponsorsAssociation for Competitive TechnologyGlobal Identity SolutionsGreat Northern Consulting3M Security Systems DivisionThis brochure was developed by theNECCC RFID Work Group:Paula ArcioniNew Jersey Office of Information TechnologyDan CombsGlobal Identity SolutionsRichard DeCarloGreat Northern ConsultingDan GreenwoodCIVICS.comJames F. Lock, IIIJP Morgan ChaseDavid LewisWaterville ConsultingMike MalikDelaware Department of TechnologyStephen MendoncaThe Market Quest GroupDaniel NoonanNew Jersey Division of Archives andRecords ManagementDavid A. Pointon3M Security Systems DivisionMichael J. TavillaAssociation for Competitive TechnologyHarsh VermaGLOCOL, Inc.National Electronic CommerceCoordinating Council2401 Regency Road, Suite 302Lexington, KY 40503(859) 276-1147www.ec3.orgRFIDRadio Frequency IdentificationGovernment Decision MakersGuide to RFIDNational Electronic CommerceCoordinating CouncilNECCC is an alliance of national state governmentassociations dedicated to advancing electroniccommerce within the states. Working together,Alliance partners and affiliates are able to addresskey issues affecting the implementation of stateservices in the online world.For more information, visit www.ec3.org.
A white paper containingmore information about RFID isavailable on NECCC’s Web siteat www.ec3.org.Image used courtesy of U.S. GAOWhat are RFID tags, and how dothey work?RFID tags are electronic chips that emit radiosignals. Tags can be active or passive. Oftenan RFID tag contains only a unique identifieralthough some may contain more information.Different tags transmit at a distance that maybe limited to a fraction of an inch or extend to1,500 feet. The system with which a tag communicatesoften creates and stores informationabout where a tag is, what time it passes areader and may relate that information to a purchaseor the movement of materials or people.Why use RFID?RFID fills a gap in technology and businessrequirements. Use of RFID does not requirecontact or line of sight and has a variable rangeof transmission. These qualities meet a widerange of business needs that will reduce costsand improve material and personnel control.Have standards been developedfor RFID?Several organizations are working to developstandards for RFID. One such organization isEPC Global which is developing standards forthe global supply chain.How are industry and governmentscurrently using RFID and what is itsfuture?RFID applications are limited only by the imagination!Many will become cost-effective as theprice of individual tags declines and advancingtechnology opens the door to further opportunities.Some applications are suggested below:• Supply chain automation/warehouses -Improve supply chain efficiency for themovement and tracking of supplies,decrease shrinkage, improve inventorymanagement. (U.S. Department of Defense)• Asset tracking - Comply with federalmandate to track tire sales or baggage.(McCarran Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada)• Medical applications - Comply with federalregulations to track prescription drug distribution,limit counterfeiting, and prevent theft.(Massachusetts General Hospital)• Security - Identify and prevent the unauthorizedremoval of items from data centers;control access, exit and movement in buildings,compounds and networks.(Building Access ID Cards)• Retail - Decrease retailers costs, improveinventory management, and improve serviceto customers. (Walmart)• Livestock - Increase efficiency of livestockhandling and improve tracking of US foodsupplies from farm to table. (U.S. Department ofAgriculture)• Transportation - Improve payment of tolls or fares.(EZPass)• Libraries, files and archives - Enhance documentand item identification, tracking, chain-of-custodycontrol and circulation management.(Maricopa County, Arizona, Library and District of Attorney’sOffice)Legal and Policy ImplicationsRFID is a promising technology, but its use raisesissues for public policy makers. Many of the questionsand concerns about RFID actually are commonto a broad range of information and communicationtechnology, such as the interception,manipulation, interrelation, privacy, security andtheft of information. In many cases, these concernsare covered by a variety of existing laws and regulationsat local, state and federal levels of government.An informed policy is the best way to addressconcerns, mitigate unintended consequences andreduce inappropriate use of personally identifiableinformation. In addition, government policy to fosterresponsible deployment of RFID in a mannerrespectful of privacy and to inform citizens aboutits use can also mitigate some of these concerns.What is new or different about RFID?Depending on their range, some RFID tags canbe read at a distance without the knowledge ofthe tag holder. There usually are not off/on switchesto control the transmission by the person holdingthe tag. This potential to read tags without thetag holder's knowledge is the basis for much ofthe concern about use of RFID. Any threat, however,is proportional to the level of informationstored on the tag and any encryption or filterprocess utilized.Will RFID allow new information tobe collected?RFID tags can collect the same information asother technologies currently in use, such asUniform Product Codes (UPCs). New uses ofRFID, for instance in driver's license, however,could expose personal information either storedon the identity card, or information that tracksmovements of the card holder.What information in supporting databasescould be connected throughan interaction with RFID?Currently, it's possible to link any and all informationabout an object to its location. This capabilityexists with or without RFID. Policies that are technologyneutral can address these concerns withouttargeting specific technologies that maychange and develop over time.