Russian Domain Space Report: 2009/2010

Russian Domain Space Report: 2009/2010

RussianDomain Space2009/2010:Outcomesand DevelopmentProspects

The Factsheet1994 – a record regarding ccTLD .RU was entered intothe IANA’s ccTLD global base2001 — the Coordinaon Center for ccTLD .RU founded2007 — as many as 1,000,000 domain names registeredin.RU43,300,000 — the number of Internet usersin the RUnet by results of the six months.33% — an annual growth rate in the number of domainnames in ccTLD .RU оf the first half year of 20102,886,589 — the number of domain names registeredin .RU as of the first half year of 20102009 — ccTLD .RU became the first naonal top-leveldomain to be displayed in the composion of the officialOlympic Games’ logo ( —- the Coordinaon Center for ccTLD .RU submiedto the ICANN its applicaon for registraon of the newCyrillic domain .РФ2010 — the new Cyrillic naonal domain .РФ delegatedto Russia61% the proporon of all domain names in ccTLD .RUregistered in the Central FSR63 symbols — the maximum length of domainnames in ccTLD .RU and the latest domain names in ccTLD.RU have taken the following form:zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz.ru160,000,000 — the number of the globalRussian-speaking community; Russian is the ninth most popularlanguage in the Internet2010 — as many as 3,000,000 domain namesregistered in .RU20% — the proporon of Russian users are going toregister a domain name in ccTLD .РФ

Mikhail YAKUSHEVChairman of the CouncilAndrei KOlESNIKOVDirector of ccTLD .RU/.РФDear readers,The brochure "Russian Domain Space2009/2010: Outcomes and DevelopmentProspects" presents a concluding analycal reportprepared in the framework of the CoordinaonCenter's research and educaonal acvi-es. The publicaon opens what we have designedas a series of materials to share with ouraudience both daily and meculously collectedmonitoring data on developments in the globalInternet and the RUnet and our own viewsand stands on the processes.I am confident that this paper will find its audienceand become instrumental in studying intoprospects of advancement of the Russian domainindustry. It will be a useful navigaon toolwhen it comes to making strategic decisionsthat map out the RUnet's future.Dear colleagues and friends!Last year has brought about many new and interesngdevelopments onto the Russian domainspace: .RU has become one of the leadingdomains worldwide in terms of its increaserates, the country saw the rise of a new naonaldomain, .РФ, and more than a third of ourcompatriots now use the Internet. That is whywe believe it is high me we have concludedsome results of, and outline prospects for developmentof out two Russian naonal domains.I hope this report will become instrumental toour partners from the naonal registrar community,our peers from overseas, media focusingon the subject of domain, and all those interestedto know how RUnet is developing. Wewill try to publish such reports regularly and offerour audience yet more versale and insightfulfirst-hand informaon.Respecully,Mikhail YakushevSincerely yours,Andrei Kolesnikov

Domain spacedevelopment trendsworldwide and in Russia

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentDomain space development trends worldwide and in RussiaThe Largest ccTLDs (Junen 2110)Millions1412108642013.733%29%24%24% 21%7% 11% 14%10% 13% 13%8.67.2-44%3.9 3.2 2.9 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.911% 17%5%5%7% 8% 6%13%1.7 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1, .uk .cn .nl .eu .ru .ar .br .it .pl .au .fr .us .ch .ca .es .jp .kr .dk .beNumber of domain names (1h2010) Annual growth 1h2010/1h2009 (%)Sources: Coordinaon Center for TLD .RU, ccTLD registriesData on .ar are esmated1.83525155-5-15%-25%-35%-45%By the end of the first half-year 2010, domain .RU boasted asmany as 2,886, 589 registered domain names. It should benoted that the number of the registered domain names in domain.RUrose at 33% vs. the respecve index of the prior year.Meanwhile, the increase rate in domain names over the sixmonths 2010 at 11% outpaced the respecve indicator of2009 (339,133 domain names vs. 306,607 ones). Hence, byresults of the six months 2010 domain .RU has sll been atopof the list of the largest naonal TLDs in terms of annual increaserate.As concerns other developments, it is worthwhile nong adramac (-44%) fall of domain.CN – down to 7.7m domainnames. This was caused by the ghtening of the registraonprocedures in China (adopted back in late 2009) and by iniatedin 2010 audit of the domain in queson. As a consequence,.CN. slid to the third line on the list of the biggestccTLDs. As to .DE и .UK, which hold the first and second posi-ons by the number of registered domain names, respecvely,they have displayed prey stable increase rates (+7% and+11%, respecvely), and managed to keep up with their prioryear’s increase rates.The charts illustrate the data on the results of the first halfyear2010.Top 10 Top Level Domains bythe number of domain names(June 2010)1009080706050403020100Millions88.213.7 13.1 8.6 8.3 7.7 6.5 3.9 3.2 2.9.сом .de .net .uk .org .cn .info .nl .eu .ruSources: Coordinaon Center for TLD .RU, icannwiki.org4

The Biggest gTLDs in RussiaThe proporon of other represented in Russia ccTLDs is fairlysmall, while the specific weight of the largest gTLDs is quiteconsiderable and accounts for 15%. Russian users typicallyuse domains .COM and .NET, thus being in line with the globaltrend -.COM is the biggest TLD worlwide, while trailing behind.DE, the biggest ccTLD, .NET has come in the third..COM/.NET.RUOthers.ORG.BIZ.INFO.MOBISources: VeriSign, Coordinaon Center for TLD .RUDomain Names Penetration in the Largest ccTLDsThe chart and table below highlight the data on the largestccTLDs’ domain names penetraon rates of the largestccTLDs. Domain NL. sll is second to none, China’s rates, naturally,have been down, but they had been very low before,nonetheless. Meanwhile, a relavely low rate of registereddomain names in domain .RU per 1,000 inhabitants tesfiesin favor of the Russian domain’s exisng great developmentcapacity.Penetraon (domain names per 1,000 populaon/internet-users) .dk .ch .de .uk .be .au .ar .pl .ca .it .fr .es .kr .ru .br .jp .eu .us .cn14121086420Number of domain namesNumber of domain namesPenetraon: domain names per 1,000 populaonPenetraon: domain names per 1,000 internet-usersSources: Coordinaon Center for TLD .RU, ccTLD registries, Internet World Stats (

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentDomain space development trends worldwide and in * domain namesper 1,000 populaonPenetraon: domain namesper 1,000 internet-usersNumber of domain names238 275 3,936,117193 231 1,069,284187 253 1,454,660168 253 13,723,381117 155 7,246,68696 143 1,044,49288 103 1,759,29556 112 2,230,00049 93 1,860,33542 57 1,428,53132 64 1,933,58228 41 1,744,12526 42 1,207,85122 29 1,086,43920 67 2,886,58911 32 2,141,5439 12 1,170,9656 10 3,213,0226 8 1,723,1275 19 7,246,68629 108 193,000,000*Data on .ar are esmatedSources: Coordinaon Center for TLD .RU, ccTLD registries, Internet World Stats ( is the firth most popular language worldwide, with160m of the global populaon considering it their nave language.In contrast, it has so far been the ninth most widespreadlanguage on the Internet, thus lagging behind not onlythe indisputable leaders – that is, English, Chinese and Spanish,but Portuguese as well (as Portuguese is acvely used inTop 10 languages in the Internet,2009English 495.5Chinese 407.7Spanish 139.8Japanese 96.0Portuguese 77.6German 72.3Arabic 60.3French 57.0Russian 45.3Korean 37.5All the rest 313.760 100 200 300 400 500Millions of usersSources: Internet World Stats ( parts of Lan America). Generally speaking, behind thepopularity of a given language on the Internet are two factors:its global spread (as in the case of Chinese, Arabic or Portuguese)and the number of Internet users in a given country(like in Germany or Japan).Internet Penetration Rates,by countriesAustralia 80%United Kingdom 76%Japan 76%USA 76%Germany 75%Spain 72%France 69%Italy 58%Russia 37%Brazil 36%China 29%0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%Sources: FOM: Public Opinion Foundaon, Internet World Stats(

ccTLDs .RU and .РФand expansion of theInternet in Russia

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentccTLDs .RU and .РФ and expansion of the Internet in RussiaDomain .RUBy results of the six months of 2010 the number of domain years aer the launch of domain .RU, while it took domainnames registered in domain .RU hit 2,886.589. We project.RU just subsequent 1.5 years to pass the next milestone of 2that in the autumn 2010 domain .RU would see the number million domain names in March 2009.surmount 3,000.000. As a reminder, the first million of domainnames was registered in September 2007, more than 13Development of the number of .RU domain namesmillions3.02.892.552. 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.21 0.311999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1h2010The net increase of domain names over the past 12 months(between June 2009 and June 2010) accounted for +720,205ones, or up at 33% in relave terms.The peak of growth of domain .RU over the past 5 years fellon 2006-2008. At the me, the annual increase rates were atthe level of +61%. In 2009, the number of domain names in.RU surged by 37%. We project the domain should grow byanother 25-30% by results of 2010, and the fall in relavegrowth rates should be aributed to a rapidly increasing basefor comparison. Regardless of the fall, by results of the sixmonths 2010 .RU has kept the lead among the largest naonaltop-level domains in terms of annual increase rates (over1m domain names). As seen from the chart below, the absolutegrowth rate of domain.RU has stabilized since 2008,and the annual increase rate has roughly accounted for700,000 domain names (~60,000 ones a month).thousands800702720 120%688111%100%600 99%43980%40074%61% 61% 61%60%27240%20040% 43% 46%37%14137%1732 47 45 58 9133% 20%0 0%1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1h2010*Annual growth (thousands of domains) Annual growth (%) *12-month growth (June 2010/June 2009)8

The analysis of the dynamic of the internet penetraon rate inRussia and the dynamic of expansion of domain .RU allowsnong correlaon between the rise in the number of Internetusers and the increase in the number of registraon of domainnames. That said, parclarly visible becomes the correlaonbetween the increase in the number of domain namesand the rise in the broadband Internet penetraon rate. Thegreatest growth rate in the number of broadband users fell on2006-2008, thus driving the peak growth rates in the numberof domain names at that me. According to the Public OpinionFoundaon (FOM) and Internet World Stats data, Russiathus far has not been a pacemaker in terms of Internet populaonpenetraon rate. Specifically, according to the FOM, inlate-spring 2010 just as many as 37% of Russians were regularInternet users vis-à-vis 75% of Germans and 76% of the USresidents. So, Russia keeps a huge growth potenal in the segmentand, accordingly, with regard to increase in the numberof domain names registraons.Number of internet-users* in Russia vs Number of .RU domain names(2004-2010)Number of .RU domain names, mln3. 5043.340302010Number of internet-users, mln0Spring2004Spring2005Spring2006Spring2007Spring2008Spring2009Summer2009Autumn2009Winter2009-20100Spring2010Number of .RU domain namesNumber of internet-users**among populaon aged 18+ who used Internet during last month (Source: FOM: Public Opinion Foundaon)Broadband Penetration* in Russia vs Number of .RU domain names(2005-1h2010)1,58120054473,02520067196,39320071,1589,70020081,86013,71720092,54714,536 1h20102,736Number of broadband subscribers (thousands)*Among housholder i. e. only B2C market(Source: iKS-Consulng)Number of .RU domain names (thousands)9

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentccTLDs .RU and .РФ and expansion of the Internet in RussiaDistribution of domain names in .RU across constitutional entities of RF(as of July 1, 2010)Population distribution acrossthe federal super-regions in RFCentral FSR26 %Southernand North-CaucasianFSRs16 %North-Western FSR9 %Volga FSR21 %Source: RosstatUral FSR9 %Siberian FSR14 %Far-Eastern FSR5 %Distribution of users across the federalsuper-regions of RF10Central FSR31 %Volga FSR20 %Southernand North-CaucasianFSRs13 %Source: FOMNorth-Western FSR12 %Ural FSR8 %Siberian FSR13 %Far-Eastern FSR4 %

100 domain names per 1,000 populaon40-100 domain names per 1,000 populaon30-40 domain names per 1,000 populaon10-30 domain names per 1,000 populaonDistribution of domain names in domain.RU acrossthe federal super-regions of RF8-10 domain names per 1,000 populaon6-8 domain names per 1,000 populaon4-6 domain names per 1,000 populaonCentral FSR61 %Volga FSR9 %Southernand North-CaucasianFSRs5 %North-Western FSR12 %Ural FSR5 %Siberian FSR6 %Far-Eastern FSR2 %1-4 domain names per 1,000 populaon< 1 domain name per 1,000 populaon11

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentccTLDs .RU and .РФ and expansion of the Internet in RussiaNew Registrations of Domain NamesThe chart below highlights on the monthly dynamic of newlyregistered domain names in domain .RU over the period betweenJanuary 2005 and June 2010. By new registraons inthis parcular case we understand registraon of new, notregistered before domains and re-registraon of “vacant” domains(the ones that have been excluded from the registerand consequently registered anew (but whose registraonwas not extended). Drasc spikes on the charts are driven,140,000as a rule, by seasonality. It is also worthwhile nong the trendline that represents the dynamic of the number of new registraonsaveraged over 12 months. As demonstrated by thechart, the year of 2010 году, saw connuaon of the growthin the number of new registraons of domain names in domain.RU, with the averaged over the 12 months (from 01 July2009 through 01 July 2010) value hing 121,700 domainnames.120,000100,00080,00060,00040,00020,0000Jan 05May 05Sep 05Jan 06May 06Sep 06Jan 07May 07Sep 07Jan 08May 08Sep 08Jan 09May 09Sep 09Jan 10May 10Monthly new registraonsRolling 12-month averageDivision of .RU domain names between individuals and organizations80%24%70%60%50%40%76%30%20%10%0%1h2005 2h2005 1h2006 2h2006 1h2007 2h2007 1h2008 2h2008 1h2009 2h2009 1h2010OrganisaonsIndividuals12

The Length of Domain Names in Domains .RU and .РФThe length of domain names in domains .RU and .РФIn compliance with «Domain names registraon proceduresin domain .RU» and ««Domain names registraon proceduresin domain .РФ», the domain name should contain between2 and 63 symbols, start and end up with a Lan leer or digit,with Lan leers, digits or hyphen serving as intermediatesymbols. The domain name may not contain hyphens on the3rd and 4th posions at the same me.The stascal analysis of the length of domain names in domain.RU revealed the prevalence of domain names containing8 symbols (13% of all the registered domain names), whiledomain .РФ is dominated by domain names consisng of 7symbols (13% of all the registered domain names). The medianvalue in domain.RU is 8.3 symbols and the one in domain.РФ – 7.6 symbols. Meanwhile the median value in domain.RU should tend to rise gradually (due to a gradual saturaonof the zone and, as a consequence, exhauson of opportuni-es to pick free aracve and easily memorized domainnames). In contrast, domain .РФ sll can boast a great numberof interesng domain names on hand, which is why itsmedian value should at first descend slightly and the reversedtrend should be noted only aer some saturaon of the market.Notably, in domain .RU the proporon of domain names of20-plus symbols accounts for less than 0.5% vis-à-vis 2.8% indomain .РФ. This is also explained by peculiaries of the priorityregistraon procedures. According to the qualitave analysisdata, as many as 20% of domain names registered in domain.РФ comprise several words put as a solid word or withhyphen(s). Clearly, with the start of the open registraon periodtheir proporon should be in decline.14%12%10%8%6%4%2%0%2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 41 42 44 46 48 50 53 55 57 59 61 63.RU.РФNumber of characters13

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentccTLDs .RU and .РФ and expansion of the Internet in RussiaDomain .РФ25.11.2009-11.05.2010Righthoders for trademarks25.11.2009-25.03.2010Public agenciesPriority registraon22.04.2010Approval of the ICANN’s delegaon12.05.2010Introducon of an entry on domain .РФ into root servers (IANA)12.05.2010--16.09.2010Righthoders for trademarks/service marks25.05.2010Delegaon of zone .РФ15.07.2010-18.09.2010Other categories*Open registraon01.10.2010*Other categories1. Business names2. Apellaon of place of origin of the product3. Nonprofit organizaon4. Federal mass mediaBy results of June 2010, there was 13,871 second-level domainnames registered in domain.РФ, of which slightly over500 ones were registered for government needs. The dynamicof growth of domain .РФ since 25 November 2009 (the startof the stage of priority reservaon of second-level domainnames for government needs and holders of exclusive rightsfor trade marks) is presented below.Development of the number of .РФ domain names15,00012,87813,87112,0009,0006,0003,0002,4096,1847,0348,1049,57910,0950Nov 09 Dec 09 Jan 10 Feb 10 Mar 10 Apr 10 May 10 Jun 10Number of .РФ domain namesGeorgraphy-wise, it is the city of Moscow that has become anindisputable leader by the number of domain names .РФ registeredby results of June 2010 (49%), followed by Moscow region(9%) and St. Petersburg (8%). This is hardly a surpise, asit is chiefly legal enes that hold exclusive rights for trademarksthat have registered domain names in domain .РФ, andthe bulk of Russian legal enes have been registered in thecity of Moscow.14

Geographical Distribution of Domain Names in Domain .РФMoscowMoscow regionSaint PetersburgYekaterinburgNovosibirskChelyabinskRostov-on-DonPermNizhni NovgorodOthers0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%The chart below presents results of a quantave analysis of70%Non-delegated11%words used as domain names. Notably, the proporon ofcomon words accounts for just 9%. As a reminder, it is in constantdecline and by the end of the priority registraon straget is unlikely to hit more than 7%.30%Delegated89%4%.РФ.RU57%9%18%12%As of July 2010, as many as 30% of all the registered domainnames have been delegated, and the share of delegated domainnames grows from day to day. Presently it is difficult tobuild an accurate forecast as to when the number of delegateddomain names in domain .РФ catches up with that in .RU.As far as domain .RU is concerned, it is worthwhile to notethat in July the delegated domain names to the overall numberof domain names registered therein rao was 89%.State needsTMs consist of a few words wrien with “-“TMs consist of a few words wrien togetherTMs consist of one common word*Others:names of the people, animaon heroes’ names, movie names (local, foreign),foreign names, geo names, word cuts, medicine terms, containing numbers etc.15

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentccTLDs .RU and .РФ and expansion of the Internet in RussiaDNS nods of the .RU/.РФ networkThe network that supports zones .RU and .РФ comprise 10nod consists of several double DNS servers and communica-DNS nods that have been deployed in 7 federal super-regions on equipment connected to long-distance communicaonin Russia, as well as in Europe, Asia and America. Each DNSchannels.Saint PetersburgYekaterinburgMoscowSamara NovosibirsAmsterdam PragueVladivostokNew YorkRostov-on-DonDevelopment of the DNS-requests for .RU domainIn June 2010 alone, the average daily number of requests tothe DNS nods was nearly 4bn (3,926.535, 118, to be exact).When compared with the respecve period of 2009, the numberof DNS requests rose 1.7 mes (2,245.695,233 requestsa day in June 2009). The number of DNS requests per secondin June 2010 was 45,446.Billions6. 09 Jul 09 Aug 09 Sep 09 Oct 09 Nov 09 Dec 09 Jan 10 Feb 10 Mar 10 Apr 10 May 10 Jun 10Number of DNS-queries for .RU (average per day)16

Russian registrarsof domain names

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentRussian registrars of domain namesStructure of the National RegistryCoordinaon Center for TLD.RU/.РФRegistrator DomenovMoscowReggy BusinessMoscowGarant-Park-TelecomMoscowDemos-InternetMoscowCaravan-TelecomMoscowCOMSTARMoscowSaleNamesMoscowClever TelecomSamaraNaunet SPMoscowNet LtdSaint-PetersburgFreenet GroupMoscowRegional NetworkInformaon Center,ANOMoscowRegional NetworkInformaon Center,JSCMoscowRegiontelecomSamaraREG.RUMoscowRegistrantSaint-PetersburgRegistratorMoscowRegmeSamaraRELCOM.BUSINESS NETWORKMoscowNETFOXSaint-PetersburgRTComm.RUMoscowSovintelMoscowCentrohostMoscowElvis-TelecomMoscowAGAVA-hosngDolgoprudniyTechnical Center Internet(TCI)18

The Registrar CommunityAs of early July 2010 there were:— 25 registrars in domain .RU, and— 18 registrars in domain .РФ.As of early July 2005, there were as many as 10 registrars indomain. RU. Thus, their number grew 2.5 mes over the pastfive years. The chart below shows the dynamic of the numberof registrars between late 2004 and the end of the 1st halfyear2010.Number of accredited registrars in .RU3025201510502004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1h2010By results of the first half-year 2010, the market share of thetop five registrars accounted for 86.6%, with the leading companyholding 35.9% of registraons of all the domain names,or 1,036,302 ones, while the second and the third biggest registrarsservicing twice as less: 575,929 and 503,752 domainnames, accordingly.Top 5 registrars by the number of .RU domains managed (June 2010)RU-CENTER* 1,036,302NAUNET-REG-RIPN 8.4%Others,9.2%RU-CENTER*35.9%HOSTINGCOMMUNITY** 575,929REGRU-REG-RIPN 503,752REGTIME-REG-RIPN 9.1%REGTIME-REG-RIPN 262,222NAUNET-REG-RIPN 243,274REGRU-REG-RIPN 17.5%Others 265,009HOSTING COMMUNITY **19.9%0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000*Total for registrars RUCENTER-REG-RIPN and RU-CENTER-REG-RIPN**Total for registrars R01-REG-RIPN and CENTROHOST-REG-RIPN, which are controlled by Hosng Community Group. Since 15-03-2010 they provide services under one brandname (“R01”)19

Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentRussian registrars of domain namesThe leading registrar has also topped the list in terms of thenumber of serviced domain holders, with the proporon ofserviced owners being in excess at 10-plus per cent vis-à-vis theshare of serviced domain names. Thus, nearly a half of all theregistrants has resorted to the said registrar’s services. This is avery important indicator that also impacts on the distribuonpaern of domain names registraons in domain .РФ, at leastduring the sunrise period. The client willing to register a domainname in domain.РФ, naturally opts for the registrar with whomhe has already cooperated, ie the one who already services hisdomain name in .RU.Consequently, as of late June 2010, the registrar in queson hasregistered over 80% of domain names in .РФ.Top 5 registrars by the numberof domain holders attended(June 2010)Top 5 registrars by the numberof .РФ domains managed(June 2010)7.4%4.3%7.0%8.7%47.8%4.7%2.1%3.6%3.7%4.0%81.9%24.8%RU-CENTER*HOSTING COMMUNITY**REGRU-REG-RIPNREGTIME-REG-RIPNREGISTRATOR-REG-RIPNOthers*Total for registrars RUCENTER-REG-RIPN and RU-CENTER-REG-RIPN**Total for registrars R01-REG-RIPN and CENTROHOST-REG-RIPN, which arecontrolled by Hosng Community Group. Since 15-03-2010 they provideservices under one brand name (“R01”)RU-CENTER*REGISTRATOR-REG-RIPNHOSTING COMMUNITY**СС-REG-RF***REGRU-REG-RFOthers*Total for registrars RUCENTER-REG-RIPN and RU-CENTER-REG-RIPN**Total for registrars R01-REG-RIPN and CENTROHOST-REG-RIPN, which arecontrolled by Hosng Community Group. Since 15-03-2010 they provideservices under one brand name (“R01”)*** Coordinaon Center for TLD .RU/.РФ reserves .РФ domain namesfor government needs for their transfer further on service to the accreditedregistrars20


Russian Domain Space 2009/2010: Outcome and Prospects of DevelopmentGlossaryGlossaryAdministrator — the legal enty or private individual underwhose name the domain name has been registered.Domain .RU — the top level domain with the domain name“ru”.Applicaon — User’s or Administrator’s peon in the formset by the Registrar, which contains informaon required forregistraon (extension of the registraon validity period) ofthe domain name, registraon cancellaon, introducon ofchanges in previously submied data.Blockage period — the period when the Administrator has noright to perform any acons with the domain name exceptsending an applicaon to the Registrar for the extension ofthe registraon validity period.Domain .РФ — top-level domain with a unique name .РФ.Domain administraon — idenficaon by the Administratorof a procedure of use of the domain name; the Administratorexercises organizaonal and technical support of the funconingof the domain.Extension of the registraon validity period – recording informaonrelated to extension of the registraon validity periodof the domain name as an entry in the Register.ccTLD — Country Code Top Level Domain. This is a top leveldomain used and reserved for a country or dependent territory.A ccTLD is two characters long and correspond to the ISO3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. Examples of ccTLDs include .ruand .рф for Russia, .uk for the United Kingdom, .de for Germanyetc. Each country appoints a manager for its ccTLD andsets the rules for allocang domains.The Cyrillic domain name (domain, domain name) — characteridenficaon, which is registered for the network-basedaddressing, and in which the domain name system (DNS) isemployed. The Cyrillic domain name may consist of the leersof the Cyrillic alphabet and digits between zero (0) and (9),and hyphen (-).DNS, Domain Name System — system which secures compliancebetween the on-line addresses (IP—addresses) and symbolidenficaons, and designated for the convenience of theInternet users.DNS server — hardware-soware complexes containing necessaryinformaon on the domain name and supplying it inaccordance with the Internet technical requirements.Domain — area (string) in the hierarchical space of the Internetdomain names system marked with a unique domain name.gTLD - Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD), a top level domainthat is open to registrants worldwide in contrast to countrycode top level domains that are oen restricted to registrantslocated in a parcular country or region. The most populargTLDs are .com, .org and .net.IDN — Internaonalised Domain Names. An internaonaliseddomain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (poten-ally) contains non-ASCII characters. Such domain namescould contain leers with diacrics, as required by many Europeanlanguages, or characters from non-Lan scripts suchas Arabic or Chinese. However, the standard for domainnames does not allow such characters, and much work hasgone into finding a way around this, either by changing thestandard, or by agreeing on a way to convert internaonaliseddomain names into standard ASCII domain names while preservingthe stability of the domain name system.IP address — an Internet Protocol (IP) address is a unique numericidenfier used to specify hosts and networks. IP numbersare part of a global, standardised scheme for idenfyingmachines that are connected to the Internet. The allocaonof IP addresses for Europe is currently handled by RIPE (ReseauxIP Europeens).Local Register — data base of the Registrar containing infor-22

maon on the second-level domain names, whose supportis exercised by the Registrar.Provision of the Cyrillic domain name (Provision) — the domainname containing leers of the Lan alphabet, digits andhyphens. Provision results from the transformaon of theCyrillic domain name in accordance with the algorithm PUNY-CODE (cited in the technical standards RFC—3490, 3491,3492).TLD — Top Level Domain (TLD) is the last part of a domainname, which follows the final dot. For example, in the domainname, the top-level domain is .ru.User — legal or individual enty who applied to the Registrarfor registraon of the domain name.WHOIS service — service on securing access to the informa-on on the registered domain names and Administrators.Register — centralized integrity of databases under domain.RU which contain informaon on registered domain names.The composion of the subject to entering in the Register isgiven in the Appendix.Registrar — a legal enty accredited by the Coordinator forrendering registraon services to users.Domain name registraon — recording informaon of thedomain name as an entry in the Register. The registraon validityperiod is one year since the moment of registraon, butit may be extended for next year by means of re-registraon.Domain name re-registraon — recording informaon regardingthe one-year extension of the registraon validity periodas an entry in the Register.Registraon cancellaon — deleon of informaon on thedomain name from the Register.Server – a computer on a network that holds the informaonor provides the service that the user requires. As the nameimplies, a server serves informaon to computers that connectto it. When users connect to the server, they can accessprograms, files and other informaon from the server.Support of the informaon on the domain name — duty ofthe Registrar to record in the Register informaon submiedby the Administrator, which is relevant to the domain nameand the Administrator.23

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