SwediSh waSte ManageMent - Avfall Sverige

SwediSh waSte ManageMent - Avfall Sverige

SwediSh waSte ManageMent - Avfall Sverige


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Swedish Waste Management 2009been replaced with bins or other types of containers.Manual handling of waste is beingreplaced by new technology and automatedsystems, such as refuse vacuum pipes andunderground container systems. Both of thesesystems are becoming more common, particularlyin bigger cities. One of several advantagesis that they do not require heavy manualhandling. From the point of view of health andsafety at work, vacuum collection systems aregood since they are sealed and completelyautomated. This type of collection systemreduces the need for waste transportation,especially in residential areas.There are two kinds of vacuum collectionsystems, a stationary system and a mobilesystem. With the stationary system the wasteis collected using air in an automated vacuumsystem. It is thereafter transported throughunderground tubes, which connect the inletswith big containers placed in a terminal. Withthis technique the waste can be transportedup to a distance of two kilometers from theinlets. The number of containers varies anddepends, on the one hand, upon the numberof collected fractions, and on the other hand,on the waste volumes. The containers are collectedby hook-lift vehicles.The mobile vacuum collection system alsouses air to collect the waste. However, herethe vacuum technique originates from thevehicle. Positioned under each input is a storagetank. The tanks are connected, via anunderground pipe system, to a so called dockingpoint which could be placed at a maximumdistance of 300 meters from the tanks. Thevehicle connects to the docking point for emptying,the vacuum system is turned on and airtransports the waste from the different storagetanks to the docking point and furtheronto the vehicle. Mobile vacuum collectionsystems require specialized vehicles.Another collection system that is on the riseis the underground container system. By placingcontainers underground, the need forspace on the street level is reduced. The temperaturebelow the street level, where thewaste is contained, is relatively low, whichprevents odor, and the containers can be easilyemptied with a crane truck. There are alsounderground containers which are emptiedwith front-loading vehicles. Since the undergroundcontainers can hold bigger volumes,the level of transports is reduced.Great importance is given to forming and designingwaste disposal areas today.There are different types of vacuum collectionsystems. What they have in common is that theyare closed and automated.Underground containers will reduce the needfor space above street level, and the systemalso reduces the level of transports.7

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste quantities 2008In the last years, waste quantities haveincreased by approximately 3-4 percent eachyear. However, the figures from 2008 havestayed more or less the same compared to2007. The fact that the previous increase hasleveled off is very likely an effect of the recession.There is a close connection between theeconomic situation and consumption, andbetween consumption and waste quantities –lower consumption leads to reduced wastequantities.In 2008, a total of 4,731,660 tons of householdwaste was treated, a small increase of0.3 percent compared to 2007. If divided overthe population, this means that each Swedishresident produces 511,2 kg of waste per year.There have not been any significant changesregarding the division of waste betweendifferent treatment methods over the lastyears. 97 percent of household waste is recovered,while only 3 percent goes to landfills, areduction of close to 25 percent comparedwith 2007.Material recycling has decreased somewhat,and is now at 35 percent, while incinerationwith energy recovery has increased, andis now 48.5 percent. Biological treatment,anaerobic digestion or composting, has alsoincreased and now represents 12.6 percent.597,280 tons of household waste was treatedbiologically last year, which is an increase ofclose to 36,000 tons or 6.4 percent. Park andgarden waste as well as food waste are includedin those figures.Material recycling, excluding biological treatment,has decreased by close to 80,000 tonsor 4.6 percent. 1,657,840 tons of packaging,paper, electric waste and metal from themunicipal recycling centers was taken care ofthrough recycling.2,292,970 tons of household waste wastreated through incineration with energy recovery,an increase of 4.7 percent and more than100,000 tons.Landfill disposal continues to decrease.140,250 tons of household waste went tolandfills in 2008. This is a decrease of 46,000tons from the previous year, or 24.8 percent.Hazardous waste still represents 0.9 percentof treated household waste. 43,320 tonswas collected last year. Almost half of thatwaste was impregnated wood, 21,380 tons, afraction which has increased considerably inthe last years.8

Swedish Waste Management 2009Hazardous wasteIn 2008, 43,320 tons of hazardous waste wascollected from households, an increase of 6.0percent compared to 2007. On average, 4.7 kgof hazardous waste per capita was handed in.The figures include lead-acid batteries, smallbatteries and impregnated wood, a fractionwhich has steadily increased over recent yearsand today constitutes close to half of all hazardouswaste from households. 21,380 tonsof impregnated wood was collected last year,which is an increase of 22 percent comparedto 2007. Hazardous waste, including impregnatedwood, represented 0.9 percent ofhousehold waste.But at the same time as the quantities ofimpregnated wood increase, other kinds ofhazardous waste are decreasing. The collect-ed amounts were, impregnated wood excluded,21,940 tons, a reduction of 6 percentcompared to the previous year.Hazardous waste can be toxic, carcinogenic,corrosive, mutagenic, ecotoxic, infectious, orflammable. Hazardous substances may occurin very small amounts in various products, butcould all together cause great damage if theyend up in the wrong place. It is thereforeimportant that hazardous waste is separatedand handed in correctly.Local authorities are responsible for collection,transport and treatment of hazardoushousehold waste. The responsibility is regulatedby legislation. Households are responsiblefor separating hazardous waste from otherhousehold waste. The majority of local authoritieshave had this responsibility included intheir Municipal Waste Regulation Ordinancefor a long time.There are no precise statistics of theamounts of hazardous waste from industries,but according to the official Swedish wastestatistics, reported to the EU by the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency, Swedishhouseholds and enterprises produced 2.8 milliontons of hazardous waste in 2006, includingelectrical waste, scrap vehicles etc.A new producers’ responsibility for batterieswent into effect on January 1 st , 2009.The new regulations gives the battery producersa responsibility to collect, treat, recycleand dispose all batteries regardless of whenthey appeared on the market.10

Swedish Waste Management 2009In 2008, the municipalities collected 1,826tons of small batteries, both hazardous andnon-hazardous, an average of 0.2 kg per person.Compared to 2007 this constitutes anincrease of 8.8 percent.The most common collection system regardinghazardous waste is collection at mannedmunicipal recycling centers. Several municipalitieshave stopped using the previouslycommon unmanned recycling stations andhave instead introduced some kind of curbsidecollection. Approximately one third of allmunicipalities in the country offer curbsidecollection, often in combination with severalother collection systems.Hazardous waste handed to treatment facilitiesoften requires pre-treatment in order tofacilitate further treatment. Since hazardouswaste contains hazardous substances, thetreatment often aims at destroying these substances.Substance which cannot be renderedharmless or be reused will be landfilled. Inthese cases it is important that the waste isstabilized chemically and physically so hazardoussubstances do not leak to surroundingareas.New treatment methods regarding recyclingof hazardous waste have been developed,which involve the separation of hazardoussubstances and the recycling of the remainingparts. The method is for instance used fortreatment of paint cans, oil filters and florescenttubes. Lead and cadmium can be recycledthrough the re-melting of batteries. Toxicand persistent organic substances, such aspesticides and other hazardous chemicalwastes, are incinerated at high temperatures.Contaminated soil can be decontaminatedthrough biodegradation. Impregnated woodcontains ecologically harmful substances suchas arsenic, creosote, and copper. Collectedwood is chipped and incinerated in speciallylicensed waste-to-energy plants.QUANTITY OF HAZARDOUS WASTE COLLECTEDCollection of small batteries 2002–2008tons45,00040,00035,00030,00025,00020,00015,00010,0005,0000-98 -99 -00 -01-02-03 -04 -05 -06 -07 -08Quantity of hazardous waste collected (excl. impregnated wood)Quantity of hazardous waste collected (inc. impregnated wood)kg/person0. -04 -05 -06 -07 -0811

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste from electric and electronic equipment151,700 tons of waste from electrical and electronicequipment (WEEE) was collected in2008, a reduction of 5.4 percent compared to2007. On average, 16.4 kg per person was collectedin 2008. The previous year, the averagewas 17.4 kg per person. There is a clear connectionbetween the economic situation, consumption,and waste production. The reductionis likely to be a result of the recession and ofsmaller and lighter products.Since the producers’ responsibility wasintroduced in Sweden, local authorities andproducers have cooperated in the managementof WEEE. <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> – Swedish WasteManagement, the Swedish Association ofLocal Authorities and Regions (SALAR), andthe electrical producers’ service company,El-Kretsen, together created the system,El-retur, in 2001. The collaboration meansthat local authorities assume responsibility forthe collection of electrical and electronicwaste and the producers are responsible forits treatment.Collection of this waste is primarily carriedout at the manned municipal recycling centers,of which there are approximately 650throughout the country. In some municipalitiesthis is complemented by curbside collection.<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> and El-Kretsen collaborate withseveral local authorities on different projectsto develop these collection systems. An exampleof this is the collection of light bulbs andsmaller electric and electronic waste intosmall containers, which are placed in storesand other public places.WEEE is pretreated through sorting anddismantling before it is sent on for furthertreatment. Pretreatment is carried out in certifiedfacilities, and are latern forwarded to finaltreatment and recycling.Components containing hazardous substances,i.e. hazardous waste, are treated in approvedtreatment facilities. Plastic casings are incineratedin waste-to-energy plants, and metal isrecycled in smelting plants. Fluorescent tubesand low-energy bulbs contain mercury. Theseproducts are therefore separated and treatedin a closed process. The glass and metal contentsare recycled, and methods enabling therecycling of the phosphorus powder with itsmercury content, are being developed.It happens that old electronic products aredonated to other countries as charity, for whatmay seem like a good cause, but this is howevernot environmental friendly. From an environmentalpoint of view, it is better to havethese products recycled in Sweden, where wehave methods to treat such waste in an environmentallysound way.WEEE 2004–2008 (tons)2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Large white goods (excl. fridges and freezers) 36,800 36,300 45,500 45,500 42,000Other household appliances 10,200 12,300 11,900 12,600 10,100IT , office equipment, telecom 17,700 22,700 27,600 30,800 28,100TV , Audio, Video 15,700 21,000 26,300 30,400 32,900Cameras, watches, toys 200 300 300 300 600Lamps electrical fittings 5,800 6,700 7,900 7,900 6,300Others 900 2,200 2,400 2,300 2,900Total 87,300 101,500 121,900 129,800 122,900Fridges and freezers 21,800 25,000 28,000 30,500 28,800Total 109,100 126,500 149,900 160,300 151,700Source: El-Kretsen12

Swedish Waste Management 2009MATERIAL RECYCLINGMaterial recycling including biological treatment,decreased by almost 2 percent in 2008compared to the previous year. Material recyclingaccounted for 2,255,120 tons, whichrepresents 243.6 kg per person. The SwedishParliament has set the goal of having at least50 percent of household waste going to materialrecycling, including biological treatment,by 2010. Last year the material recyclingreached 47.6 percent.The part of material recycling which includespackaging, paper, electrical waste, as well asbulky waste collected as metal fraction inmunicipal recycling centers, decreased to1,657,840 tons, which is 179.1 kg per personand corresponds to 35 percent of all treatedhousehold waste.Metal waste from households handed to therecycling centers, such as bicycles and gardenfurniture, have increased every year, butdecreased by 28,000 tons between 2007 and2008. Last year, 152,000 tons of metal wastewas collected for recycling, which is 16.4 kgper person. That is almost the same quantityas in 2006.One explanation for the reduced quantitiesof waste going to material recycling is the economicrecession. Reduced consumption leadsto reduced waste quantities. At the same time,recycling of newspapers and some types ofpackaging has increased, meaning that agreater extent of packages and newspapersput on the market gets recycled.The presented figures on quantities ofpaper, plastic and metal packaging are basedon packaging quantities reported by productioncompanies, which pay fees to the socalled REPA Register (producer responsibilityregister for packaging). Packaging is mainlycollected through the some 5,800 unmannedrecycling stations that producers control.However, it can also be collected at themanned municipal recycling centers. Severalmunicipalities have introduced curbside collectionof newspapers and packaging.Material recycling householdstons2,000,0001,800,0001,600,0001,400,0001,200,0001,000,000800,000600,000400,000200,00001975 1980 19851990 1995 2000 2005 201013

Swedish Waste Management 2009The amount of newspaper collected decreasedto 459,000 tons in 2008. The recycling ratehowever went up to 89 percent; the target rateof 75 percent was achieved a long time ago.The amount of office paper that was collecteddecreased to 156,000 tons, which is approximately68.1 percent of the amount producedon the market. The result thereby exceeds thevoluntary target of 50 percent.482,000 tons of paper packaging – paper,paper packaging and corrugated cardboard –was recycled in 2008. The joint recycling targetfor all packaging made from paper fibers was65 percent, while the recycling rate for lastyear was 74 percent.32,660 tons of metal packaging was recycledlast year, which is 67 percent of the quantityavailable on the market. The recycling targetwas 70 percent.50,310 tons, or 30.5 percent, of plasticpackaging went to material recycling in 2008.48,750 tons went to waste-to-energy incineration,which is 29.5 percent. That adds up to atotal recovery rate of 60 percent of plasticpackaging. The government’s recovery target is70 percent, of which 30 percent should go tomaterial recycling.174,170 tons, or 93.6 percent, of glasspackaging was recycled. The recycling targetwas 70 percent.Plastic and glass are the only types of packagingwhere the collected quantities haveincreased since 2007.Producers of packaging and paper and localauthorities have made a joint agreement withincreased recycling as the common objective.The joint agreement aims to provide clearerinformation, better methods of evaluating services,research and development, locally adjustedsystems and better coordinated planning ofthe waste management as a whole.14

Swedish Waste Management 2009Biological treatmentLast year, 597,280 tons of household wastewas biologically treated. An increase of 6.4percent compared to 2007. In total that meansthat 64.5 kg of food waste and green wasteper person was biologically treated in 2008.The biological treatment now stands for 12.6percent of the total quantity of treated householdwaste.133 of 290 municipalities already havemore or less implemented systems for collectionof food waste. 22 of these only collectfood waste from restaurants and large-scalekitchens, while the remaining 111 municipalitieshave systems for households as well.These municipalities represent half of theSwedish population. According to a study carriedout by <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>, an additional 90municipalities are planning to introduce systemsfor source-separation of food waste. Thesame study shows that all municipalities needto act in order to reach the environmentalobjective. According to <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>’s calculations,an estimated 20 percent of the foodwaste was biologically treated in 2008.Waste analysis shows that every Swedish residentproduces close to 100 kg of food wasteevery year, mainly from fruit and vegetables.The most common system used for sourceseparation of food waste in single-family housesis two separate bins, one for food wasteand one for combustible waste. There is also asystem where different fractions are separatedinto separate containers. Another collectionsystem, which is used, is optic sorting ofdifferent colored bags that are put into thesame container. Through anaerobic digestionof biological waste, biogas, consisting ofmethane and carbon dioxide, is produced.Biogas is renewable and the most environmentallysound fuel available, and can beused for vehicle fuel, heating and electricitygeneration.biological treatmenttons600,000500,000400,000300,000200,000100,000In order to use biogas as vehicle fuel it needsto be upgraded. In 2008, 280,000 MWh ofbiogas was produced, which is equivalent to30 million liters of petrol. Biogas is today primarilyused as vehicle fuel, a market which isdeveloping quickly.Anaerobic digestion also produces digestate,which is an excellent fertilizer. 389,350tons of digestate was produced in 2008, ofwhich 96 percent was used in farming. Theremaining 4 percent was either dehydratedand/or processed with after-composting.The compost produced at plants is mainlyused as soil improver or in soil mixtures.Plants which produce compost or digestatefrom source separated bio-waste, includingfood waste from the food industry, can havetheir product quality marked. The quality01975 1980 19851990 1995 2000 2005 201016

Swedish Waste Management 2009assurance systemhas been developedby <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>,among others.Certification placesrequirements on theentire waste managementchain, from the incoming waste to thefinal product. A number of plants are currentlygoing through the process of having their productscertified. Eight biogas plants and threecomposting plants have obtained certificates.A voluntary undertaking to minimize theemissions from biogas and upgrading plants,was initiated by <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> and furtherdeveloped throughout 2008. Air emissionsmay arise from different stages of biologicaltreatment through anaerobic digestion oforganic material and in biogas upgrading processesin treatment plants. Even though theemissions from biogas plants are low, theyshould be minimized for several reasons. Theycan be attended to by putting a larger focus onoperational issues. Approximately 30 biogasand upgrading plants have signed up for thevoluntary undertaking.17

Swedish Waste Management 2009Composting Total (tons) of which household wasteAlingsås 3,620 3,510Borlänge 12,400 11,810Borås 8,950 2,670Eslöv 16,310 12,010Fagersta 4,090 780Gällivare 6,920 560Göteborg 25,430 24,410Habo 790 290Halmstad 25,420 1,760Helsingborg 55,320 39,940Huddinge 12,900 12,900Hässleholm 12,300 10,120Karlshamn 12,240 9,740Karlskrona 7,830 7,830Klippan 9,050 7,160Kungsbacka 6,500 360Ludvika 7,450 4,600Luleå 18,370 11,940Malmö 32,660 32,660Motala 2,610 2,610Mörrum 14,500 12,010Norrtälje 1,040 970Sala 9,720 6,250Södertälje 9,800 5,100Tranås 1,730 500Täby 30,210 23,240Uppsala 10,880 9,280Västerås 9,910 6,900Örebro 9,600 9,600Östersund 12,810 6,260Överkalix 740 230Total 392,100 278,000Other plants 176,600 176,600Total 568,700 454,600Anaerobic digestion Total (tons) of which household wasteBjuv 52,000 0Boden 2,510 1,400Borås 15,870 4,670Eskilstuna 2,940 2,940Falköping 7,060 3,210Helsingborg 65,540 15,210Huddinge 910 610Jönköping 4,490 1,780Kalmar 21,990 0Kristianstad 81,340 4,300Laholm 59,170 900Linköping 40,700 0Skellefteå 5,300 3,420Skövde 3,550 0Uppsala 6,560 2,290Vetlanda 2,550 2,550Vänersborg 12,700 10,100Västerås 20,400 14,3000Total 405,580 67,6802004 2005 2006 2007 2008Anaerobic digestion 244,374 258,071 283,729 356,087 405,580Composting 389,384 459,827 452,388 515,294 568,700Total biological treatment 633,758 717,710 736,117 871,380 974,280of which food waste 107,028 118,960 134,994 166,807 162,680Total quantity of household waste treated biologically* 433,830 454,450 469,877 561,303 597,280Digestate (tons) 211,080 251,840 272,730 336,100 389,350Biogas (MWh) 118,900 161,600 181,270 228,810 280,000Vehicle gas (MWh) 70,170 68,600 80,180 112,860 162,420Electricity (MWh) 6,230 1,260 1,680 1,230 700Heating (MWh) 38,230 61,620 63,600 67,960 48,740Crude gas (MWh) 0 19,130 26,250 36,370 42,300* Including 75,000 tons of home composting.18

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste-to-energyIn 2008, 2,292,970 tons of household wastewent to incineration with energy recovery(waste-to-energy). That was an increase of100,000 tons compared to 2007. Divided overthe Swedish population, 247 kg of householdwaste per person was incinerated last year.Waste-to-energy accounts for 48.5 percent ofthe total amount of treated household waste.Expansion and improvement of effectivenesshave led to increased energy recovery inthe last years. 13.7 TWh of energy was producedthrough incineration, of which 12.2TWh was used for heating and 1.5 TWh forelectricity. That corresponds to electricity for250,000 normal sized homes, and heating for810,000 homes. A study on European wasteto-energyproduction shows that Sweden hasthe highest rate of energy recovery from wasteincineration*.In addition, 2,273,840 tons of other wastewas treated, mainly industrial waste. The totalamount of incinerated waste was 4,566,810tons, and more or less the same amount ofhousehold waste and other waste was treatedat the plants. Waste incineration with energyrecovery also takes place in plants which donot treat household waste. There are no statisticson the total amount of energy recoverythrough waste incineration, since <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>only gathers information from the incinerationplants treating household waste.Sweden has placed strict regulations on airand water emissions from waste incinerationsince the middle of the 1980’s. Emissionshave been reduced by 90-99 percent sincethat time. Apart from stricter regulations,other factors such as progressing technologicaldevelopment and improved waste separationhave contributed to reduced emissions.The remains from incineration consist ofbottom ash from the furnace, 15-20 percentby weight of the treated waste, and flue gastreatment residues, 3-5 percent by weight.Part of the slag goes to landfills, while slaggravel may be used as substitute to naturalgravel in, for example, road and landfill constructionwork. The flue gas treatment residuesare either transported to landfills or usedfor neutralization when refilling mines.In 2008, the new EU Waste FrameworkDirective was approved, stating that efficientwaste-to-energy treatment is considered recycling.In Sweden, one new incineration plant andtwo new boilers were put into service in 2008.There are 29 plants for incineration of householdwaste, which will continue to expand in2009 and 2010.Imported waste used for energy recovery hasincreased in recent years and has become anincreasingly important source of Swedish districtenergy systems. An evaluation on the climateimpact of imported waste going to wasteto-energyincineration**, carried out by <strong>Avfall</strong><strong>Sverige</strong> – Swedish Waste Management andSwedish District Heating Association, showsthat the emissions of greenhouse gases, dueto the import of waste to Swedish district heatingfacilities, decreased by 500,000 tons ofCO 2equivalents in 2007.The main reason for the large emissionreduction is that imports replace waste treatmentin the country of origin. This includes,first of all, landfilling which reduce emissionsof methane considerably, a very potent greenhousegas. The report shows that the transportationof waste in comparison only marginallyadds to the greenhouse emissions.Waste-to-energy incineration is a sanitaryand environmentally sound treatment methodof such waste which cannot or should not betreated otherwise.* ”Energy from waste – An international perspective”<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> report 2009:05 is available for downloadat www.avfallsveige.se** ”Klimatpåverkan från import av brännbart avfall”<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> report U2009:06 is available for downloadat www.avfallsverige.se19

Swedish Waste Management 2009Processed waste (tons)Energy recovery (MWh)Plant (town) Household waste Total Heating ElectricityAvesta 21,210 48,530 157,040 0Boden 30,210 67,390 191,000 19,500Bollnäs 22,580 48,540 122,270 0Borlänge 9,130 30,880 80,650 730Borås 29,680 96,330 233,630 32,650Eksjö 32,840 54,050 94,000 12,180Finspång 23,350 30,390 67,330 0Göteborg 292,310 453,010 1,226,370 233,790Halmstad 94,020 185,290 435,340 61,770Hässleholm 9,880 40,740 117,840 6,600Jönköping 56,690 149,550 348,810 106,400Karlskoga 33,160 99,710 332,000 35,000Karlstad 47,710 54,800 166,350 0Kil 0 12,590 35,240 0Kiruna 31,120 60,000 126,510 23,270Kumla 41,210 145,310 228,300 59,950Köping 14,670 27,160 72,530 0Lidköping 56,910 96,240 292,510 23,680Linköping 177,380 396,750 1,024,120 130,190Ljungby 51,400 57,600 130,300 19,920Malmö 216,140 440,580 1,246,030 180,310Mora 10,660 14,070 40,520 0Norrköping 102,670 196,930 431,600 70,750Skövde 25,880 52,220 152,670 12,300Stockholm 429,450 688,260 1,842,160 327,030Sundsvall 138,110 209,000 460,000 88,000Södertälje 0 239,280 823,450 0Uddevalla 20,190 35,810 77,660 1,710Umeå Dåva 92,660 153,000 390,500 81,890Uppsala 171,410 343,800 1,134,810 0Västervik 10,350 39,030 115,080 0Total 2,292,970 4,566,810 12,196,620 1,527,600<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>’s statistics encompass waste-to-energy plants for household waste. Most plants also accept other waste.The plants in Södertälje and Kil are included despite this definition.20

Swedish Waste Management 2009Energy recovery and emissions 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Incineration (tons)Household waste 1,944,290 2,181,890 2,107,860 2,190,980 2,292,970Other waste 1,243,840 1,637,440 1,991,940 2,279,710 2,273,840Total 3,188,130 3,819,330 4,099,800 4,470,690 4,566,810Production (MWh)Heat 8,548,850 10,168,190 10,270,290 12,151,270 12,196,620Electricity 739,060 943,270 1,187,390 1,482,750 1,527,600Total 9,287,910 11,111,460 11,457,680 13,634,020 13,724,220Emissions to air (tons)Dust 25 39 33 24 30HCl 106 98 55 60 39SOx (SO 2) 340 310 175 196 154NOx (NO 2) 1734 1904 2180 2101 2190Emissions to air*Hg (kg) 38 33 39 36 44Cd + Tl (kg) 5 21 15 6 6Pb (kg) 95 77 54 51 136Dioxin (g) 1 1.1 0.8 0.5 0.8Bottom ash (tons) 485,000 550,850 598,545 649,680 693,140APC residues (tons) 138,000 160,920 176,298 183,370 202,920* Emission values are presented according to the rules for waste incineration.Processed wastetons5,000,00054,000,00043,000,00032,000,00021,000,0001Energy recoveryMWh15,000,00012,000,0009,000,00096,000,00063,000,00030-91 -96-01 -06 -07-08Total amount of waste treated by Waste-to-EnergyOf which household waste0-91 -96-01-06 -07-08ProductionHeat21

Swedish Waste Management 2009LandfillIn 2008, 140,250 tons of household wastewas landfilled. A decrease of 46,000 tons,24.8 percent, compared to 2007. This correspondsto 15.2 kg per person. 3.0 percent ofall household waste was landfilled in 2008.In 2008, a total of 1,670,000 tons of wastewas deposited at the Swedish landfill sites formunicipal waste, a decrease of 324,000 toncompared to the year before.In 1994, <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> started to collectstatistics on household waste deposited aslandfill. The amount of landfilled waste hasdecreased considerably since then, and in2003 the environmental objective, to halvethe waste going to landfills compared with1994, was achieved.The 31 st of December 2008 much stricterEU regulations regarding landfill took effect,and almost half of all landfill sites for municipalwaste were closed. Approximately 80 arestill open. 21 of these sites accept hazardouswaste, while 5 are limited to inert waste. Theclosed landfill sites cover an estimated area of25 km 2 , and are capped with a final cover.Every year approximately 6-8 million tons ofmaterial is used for final covers of landfillsites. Natural material is not always available,and in many cases, residues, such as contaminatedsoil, ashes, sludge etc., is usedinstead. The estimated total cost for final coveringof the landfill sites is 6 billion SEK.During 2008, landfill gas was recoveredfrom 47 active sites. Approximately 310 GWhwas used for energy production, of which 24GWh was used for electricity. An additional 65GWh of landfill gas was flared. Energy is notproduced from flaring, but methane emissionsare reduced. Gas produced in separate digestionplants at landfill sites is presented in thesection on biological treatment.An increasing number of landfill sites havelocal treatment of the leachate. One of thereasons for this is that several of the municipalsewage plants that used to take care of theleachate have higher quality standards onsludge than before, in order to meet therequirements for certification and so it can beused in farming. Local leachate treatmentincludes biological treatment to reduce theemissions of nutrients. Leachate will howeverchange character in the long run, since depositingof organic waste in landfills was forbiddenin 2005. An average sized landfill site, whichwill still be running after the turn of the year2008/2009, will annually treat approximately80,000 m 3 of leachate.At modern landfill sites, waste disposal isonly part of the business conducted. They alsoattend to the separation of waste materialsgoing to treatment, to transport on to recoveryand recycling, and to energy recovery.Sometimes the landfill sites also serve astemporary storage of large quantities of waste,such as paper and glass, which fall under theproducers´ responsibility.22

Swedish Waste Management 2009Landfilled waste quantity8000000tons7,000,0006,000,0005,000,0004,000,0003,000,0002,000,0001,000,0000-94 -95 -96 -97 -98 -99 -00 -01 -02 -03 -04 -05 -06 -07 -08Quantity of waste depositedOf which household wasteDeposited quantity 1994–2008 (tons)Deposited quantity of which household waste1994 6,080,000 1,380,0001995 5,340,000 1,200,0001996 5,050,000 1,110,0001997 4,750,000 1,150,0001998 4,800,000 1,020,0001999 4,900,000 920,0002000 4,450,000 865,0002001 4,240,000 880,0002002 3,770,000 825,0002003 2,940,000 575,0002004 2,480,000 380,0002005 1,940,000 210,0002006 1,830,000 226,0002007 1,994,000 186,0002008 1,670,000 140,000The presented figures on household waste are not completely authentic since thereare fractions of actual household waste which not always can be separated fromother waste.New landfill sites which fulfill the stricter requirements arebuilt in several places in Sweden.Energy recovery at the landfill sites (MWh)2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Energy recovery 370,000 340,000 282,200 290,100 310,800Of which electricity 25,000 20,000 20,800 22,600 23,700Flaring 50,000 70,000 60,200 52,100 65,10023

Swedish Waste Management 200924Household waste only represents a small part of the total waste volume. 112 millionton waste was treated in Sweden in 2006 according to the official statistics, of whichhousehold waste only accounted for 4.5 million tons.

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste other than household wasteCollected data on waste other than householdwaste is found in the official statistics presentedto the EU by the Swedish EnvironmentalProtection Agency. According to the EU’s WasteStatistics Directive, each member state mustpresent its country’s statistics once every twoyears. In 2006, statistics reports were presentedfor the first time, presenting figuresfrom 2004. Last year, waste statistics reportswere presented once again, then showing figuresfrom 2006. However, the results are notcomparable, due to altered interpretationsand new methods for collection of data.Nonetheless, the figures point to increasedwaste volumes in 2006 compared to 2004, forboth household waste and other waste.In 2006, Sweden produced close to 121million tons of non-hazardous waste and 2.8million tons of hazardous waste. According tothe study conducted, 111.1 million tons ofnon-hazardous waste and one million tons ofhazardous waste underwent treatment. Thesefigures include household waste. The statis-tics present waste quantities produced andwaste quantities treated, separately. Thereare several reasons as to why the figures forwaste treated are smaller than the figures forwaste produced. For example, not all treatmentmethods are reported, and neither isinternal material recycling in industries.In 2006, 116 million tons of non-hazardouswaste was produced in the industry, of whichapproximately half was mining waste. Theamount of hazardous waste produced in theindustry was 2 million tons.26 million tons of treated non-hazardouswaste and 339,000 tons of hazardous wastewas recycled. Contaminated soil and incinerationresidues, which underwent treatment andwas used for covering of landfill sites, representeda large part of the recycling of hazardouswaste. 18,5 million tons of the non-hazardouswaste and 209,000 tons of hazardouswaste was treated through waste-to-energyincineration. The figures covers all types ofwaste, household waste included.The largest waste volumes come from the miningindustry, followed by the wood industry andthe construction industry. 62 million tons ofmining waste, approximately 22 million tons ofwood waste and more than 8 million tons ofwaste from the construction industry was producedin 2006.The industries are responsible for managingthe waste, which is not household waste.Sometimes they have at their disposal theirown landfill sites or the possibility of energyrecovery in incineration facilities.Waste from construction, renovation, reconstructionor demolition of buildings, or frommore extensive garden constructions do notfall under the responsibility of the local authoritiesto collect or handle. Waste from minormaintenance work and house repairs countsas household waste. Some construction anddemolition waste are classified as hazardouswaste, for example asbestos and impregnatedwood, and must be treated accordingly.25

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste economicsMunicipalities and producers handle the managementof household waste. The municipalcosts are charged as a separate waste collectionfee, and the producers’ costs as a feeincluded in the price of the product. The localcouncils set the municipal waste collectionfees. The producers themselves decide on theamount of the product fee. As a rule, the wastecollection fees cover the total costs for themunicipal waste management. However, casesof deficits are tax-funded. Administration, suchas waste planning, customer service, invoicingand information are included in the costs. Thefee must also cover the service costs at therecycling centers for collection and handling ofbulky waste and hazardous household waste.The rate is often based on one fixed and onevariable fee, for example on one fee for wastecollection and one for waste treatment.According to the self cost principle in the LocalGovernment Act, the municipalities’ incomefrom fees must not exceed the costs for themunicipal waste management.The waste collection fee of a Swedish single-familyhouse is 1,980 SEK a year on average,according to data from <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>’sstatistics system, <strong>Avfall</strong> Web.Many local authorities, which have introducedvoluntary collection of food waste, usethe fee as a means of control. For example,households that sign up for separate collectionof food waste are offered a lower fee thanthose that choose to continue with mixedwaste collection.To attain a higher recycling rate, severalmunicipalities have introduced a fee based onweight which, means that the households payper kg of waste collected, on top of the basicfee. 27 municipalities had the weight-based feein 2008. In these cases, the collection vehiclesare provided with a scale and equipment toidentify each bin. The total annual cost forweight-based fees will vary depending on thequantity of waste left for collection.The waste collection fee for an apartment of70 m 2 is on average 1,300 SEK, according toan annual report submitted by Avgiftsgruppen,an organization representing tenants’ andlandlords’ associations.The cost for waste management is on average675 SEK per person and year, includingVAT. The municipal cost for collection of wastein bins and bags is on average 190 SEK perperson. The basic fee, at 260 SEK per person,covers the costs for the recycling centers,treatment of hazardous household waste,planning, information and administration. Thestatistics come from <strong>Avfall</strong> Web and are basedon data collected from one third of the Swedishmunicipalities.There are several means to reduce the environmentalimpact of waste management, toimprove resource efficiency and to increaserecycling, either through information or withadministrative and economical means of control.Examples of administrative means areregulations and prohibitions such as emissionlimit values and prohibition against landfillingof organic waste. Economical means can workeither as “carrot”, through tax reliefs and subventions,or as “stick”, through taxes andcharges. The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) isapplied.Tax on landfilled waste was introduced in2000 as a way to reduce landfilling. The taxwas initially 250 SEK but has since then beenraised several times. Since July 1 st 2006, thelandfill tax has been set at 435 SEK per ton ofwaste disposed. The landfill site is liable fortaxation. On July 1 st 2006 a tax on householdwaste going to waste-to-energy incinerationwas introduced. The tax is set based on amodel for the waste’s content of fossil material.The tax amount depends on whether theincineration plant liable to tax produces electricityand, in that case, with what efficiency.The incineration tax will probably be repealedon October 1 st 2010.A treatment fee, or reception fee, is the partof the waste management which is chargedwhen the waste is transported to the treatmentfacility. The table on next page shows theapproximate charges for different types oftreatment. The charges can vary a good dealfrom one facility to another.26

Swedish Waste Management 2009WASTE INCINERATION TAXSEK/tons60050040030020010000% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%electrical efficiencyLANDFILL TAXSEK/tons5004003002001000-00 -01 -02-03 -04 -05 -06 -07 -08 -09TREATMENT FEESEK/tons 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Landfill 700–1200 700–1200 700–1200 700–1200 700–1200Waste-to-energy 300–600 300–600 500–1000 500–1000 550–1100Biological treatment 400–1000 400–600 400–700 400–800 400–80027

Swedish Waste Management 2009Waste agendaMajor law alterations, ordinances and regulationsto be respected by the waste industry.1999• The Environmental Code with associateddirectives and regulations.2000• Introduction of SEK 250 per tonne tax onwaste taken to landfill.• Deregulation of industrial waste.2001• Directives with regulations about landfilling.• Directives about producers’ responsibilityfor waste from electric and electronic equipment.2002• Tax on waste to landfill increased to SEK288 per ton.• Waste directive with new waste list.• Landfilling ban on sorted combustiblewaste.• Sorting requirements according to § 26 ofthe refuse collection directive.• Directive introduced regarding the incinerationof waste. Applies directly to new facilities.2003• Tax on waste to landfill increased to SEK370 per ton.• Government proposition 2002/03:117 “Asociety with non-toxic and resource efficienteco-cycles” published. Parliamentarydebate and vote on the proposition.2004• Clarification of the waste holder’s responsibilityintroduced in chapter 15 § 5 of theEnvironmental Code.• Regulations and general advice about thehandling of combustible and organic waste.• Changes to the directives regarding producers’responsibility for packaging and wastepaper.2005• Landfilling ban on organic waste.• Swedish environmental objectives: Theamount of waste to landfill, excluding miningwaste, must be reduced by at least 50per cent compared with 1994. (According tothe statistics for household waste in2003).• New directive about producers’ responsibilityfor waste from electric and electronicequipment came into force on 13 August.Previous directive continues to apply forlight bulbs and light sources.• Directive and regulation about waste incinerationcame into force on 28 December.• National environmental objective that thequantity of landfill waste, excluding miningwaste, shall reduce by at least 50 per centcalculated from the 1994 level.2006• Energy tax on household waste for incinerationthrough energy taxation, 1 July.• Tax on waste to landfill increased to SEK435 per ton.• New directives regarding requirements forreceiving waste at landfill facilities, andregulations regarding the contents in amunicipal waste plan.• New EU directive 1013/2006 regarding thetransportation of waste came into force.2007• Guidance on the concept of householdwaste from The Swedish EnvironmentalProtection Agency.• Introduction of increased environmentalresponsibility for the practiser of work andincreased legislation on environmentalcrime.• The municipalities’ opportunity to take voluntaryresponsibility for hazardous wasteother than household waste ended on 1July.28

Swedish Waste Management 2009• New directive regarding environmentallyharmful activities and health protectionwith new permission and reporting levels inthe appendix.2008• A new legislation on public procurementtakes effect on January 1 st .• All open landfill sites must follow ordinancesand regulations for landfilling.• Introducing demands on pre-consented collectionsystems for packaging and certaintypes of paper such as newspaper, and onauthorization requirements to run such collectionsystems professionally. This lawalteration is proposed to come into force onSeptember 1 st .• A new Framework Directive for waste fromthe European Community, to be implementedin Sweden by 2010, at the earliest.• A new EC regulation with directives regardingexport to certain countries for recoveryof waste is implemented.• A new EC regulation with directives regardingan embargo on exports of mercury etc.from the EU is implemented.2009• A new regulation regarding batteries takeseffect on January 1 st .• A new regulation on management of wastefrom extractive industries. The directivesconcern waste from prospecting, extraction,processing activities, or storage ofmineral resources, and waste from quarryactivities.2010• A national target to recycle at least 35 percentof all food waste from households,restaurants, large-scale kitchens and storesthrough biological treatment.• A national target to recover at least 50 percentof the household waste through materialrecycling, including biological treatment.• A national target to recycle all food wasteand equivalent waste from food industriesetc. through biological treatment.• The incineration tax on household waste willbe repealed on September 1 st .• The revised EU Framework Directive shallbe implemented by December 10 th , at thelatest.2013th• By December 12 , at the latest, the memberstates of the EU shall have established wasteprevention programs. The programs shalleither be part of waste plans in accordancewith the directive or of other environmentpolicy programs. The requirements are laiddown in the Waste Framework Directive2008/98/EC.2015• A national target to treat at least 60 percentof the phosphorus pollution in effluent, so itcan be of use on productive lands, of whichat least half shall be used on arable land.• The EU member states shall have establishedseparate collection of at least paper,metal and glass provided that it is practicablefrom a technological, environmental andeconomical point of view. The requirementsare laid down in the Waste FrameworkDirective.2020• The EU has the objective of reducing emissionsof greenhouse gas by 20 percent by2020, compared to the emissions rates in1990. The Swedish Parliament has calledfor a reduction of Sweden’s emissions by 40percent, compared to 1990. The overalltarget is to produce a total of 20 percentrenewable energy within the EU and that 10percent of all vehicle fuel to be producedfrom renewable resources.• The Waste Frame Directive includes newrecycling objectives for the member states.By 2020, 50 percent of all paper, metal,plastic and glass household waste andsimilar waste be reused or recovered. Forconstruction and demolition waste the targetis 70 percent.29

Swedish Waste Management 2009GLOSSARYAEROBIC TREATMENTTreatment of bio waste with access to/supplyof oxygen, e.g. compostingANAEROBIC DIGESTIONAnaerobic (oxygen-free) treatment method forbio waste where biogas is formed (comparecomposting)BIOCELLDemarcated area, e.g. at landfill sites wherebio waste breaks down in an anoxic processand landfill gas is producedBIODEGRADABLE WASTEWaste that is suitable for composting or digestionBULKY WASTEWaste that is so heavy or bulky that it is notsuitable for collection in bags or containers(see nfS 2004:4 § 4 )COLLECTIONCollection, sorting or mixing of waste for furthertransportation (see the Waste Directive § 4)ANAEROBIC TREATMENTTreatment of bio waste without access to/supplyof oxygen, e.g. digestionASHSee flue gas cleaning remains and slagBALINGPacking together and possibly tying into bales,e.g. before intermediary storage or in order tohave easier to handle materialBAT Best Available technologyGuiding principle for which system should bechosen based from an environmental perspective,with respect to what may be consideredeconomically reasonable (See chapter 2of the Environmental Code)BIOGASGas that is formed during anoxic breakdown oforganic material, mainly consists of methaneand carbon dioxideBIOLOGICAL TREATMENTRecycling of humus, nourishment and/or energyfrom bio waste through aerobic or anaerobictreatmentBIOLOGICAL WASTESee bio wasteBIOWASTEWaste that is easily broken down biologically.i.e. the proportion of organic waste that in alimited time may be broken down in biologicalprocesses. e.g. food and garden waste (compareorganic waste)COMBUSTIBLE WASTEWaste that burns without additional energyfollowing the start of the incineration process(See the Waste Directive § 4)COMPACTORVehicle that is used for breaking up and packingwaste (minimising the volume of waste) ata landfill siteCOMPOSTINGBiological treatment where biological waste isbroken down with the use of oxygen (comparedigestion)CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTEWaste that arises through new construction,extensions, renovation, reconstruction or thedemolition of buildings30

Swedish Waste Management 2009COVERINGMaterial at landfill, often in several layers, inorder to drain leachate, prevent rain waterseeping down and sometimes to preventwaste from blowing away. Intermediate coveringis laid between layers of waste, final coveringis a thicker layer over, sometimes with afinal layer of foliage planted.CURB-SIDE COLLECTIONCollection at or in direct connection to theproperty where the waste is producedDIOXINCollective name for 210 chloro-organic compounds,17 of which are extremely toxic andaccumulate in fatty tissueDISPOSALThose procedures that are stated in appendix5 to the Waste Directive, including landfillFOOD WASTE/CATERING WASTEFood waste from the food chain (households,restaurants, large kitchens, shops and thefood industry) which for commercial or otherreasons has not been consumedHAZARDOUS WASTEWaste that has one or several hazardous properties,e.g. toxic, carcinogenic, explosive orinflammable. Formally viewed as waste that ismarked with a * in appendix 2 or other wastethat has one or several hazardous propertiesaccording to appendix 3 of the Waste Directive(see the Waste Directive § 4)HOUSEHOLD WASTEWaste that comes from households and wastefrom other activities whose type or compositionis similar to the waste produced by households(see the Environmental Code, chapter15 § 2)INSPECTION CHECKInspection from the authorities of the activityconducted by certain operations, particularlyof an environmentally hazardous natureLANDFILLControlled storage of waste that is not intendedfor removal (see the landfill directive § 5 )LANDFILL GASBiogas that is formed at a landfill siteLEACHATELiquid that runs through, pushes out or is containedin waste during landfill, intermediarystorage or transportationLINERSealing at landfill, often consisting of severallayers, for preventing precipitation from seepinginto the landfill or collecting leachateENERGY RECOVERYThe safeguarding of electricity/heating that isgenerated in a facility for waste incineration orof gas from organic substances, e.g. in adigestion facility at a landfillFLUE GAS TREATMENT RESIDUESCollective name for a fine-grained part thatoccurs when treating flue gases and consistsof furnace ash, fly ash, filter cake from pipefilters as well as sludge. Flue gas treatmentresidues are dumped as hazardous waste.INDUSTRIAL WASTEWaste that is produced through an industrialprocessesINERT WASTEWaste that does not undergo any essentialphysical, chemical or biological changes whenin contact with other waste, e.g. stone andgravel (See the landfill directive § 3)MATERIAL RECYCLINGSee recyclingNON-COMBUSTIBLE WASTEWaste that cannot be incinerated even ifenergy is added, e.g. stones, metalORGANIC WASTEWaste that contains organic carbon, e.g. biologicalwaste and plastic waste (compare biowaste) (see the Waste Directive § 4)31

Swedish Waste Management 2009PRODUCERThose who professionally produce, transportinto Sweden or sell a product or packaging(goods producer) or those who in their professionalactivities produce waste that requiresspecific refuse collection or environmentalaction (waste producers) (see theEnvironmental Code chapter 15 § 4)PRODUCERS’ RESPONSIBILITYProducers’ responsibility for certain identifiedproducts throughout their entire lifecycleincluding design, production and recovery aswasteREUSEUse of a discarded product without processingbeforehandRECOVERYUse, treatment or removal of materials, foodstuffsof energy from waste (see recoveryprocedure, appendix 4 to the Waste Directive)RECYCLING STATION (ÅVS)Smaller unmanned facility for receiving packagingand waste paperSLAG, BOTTOM ASHMaterial which is neither combustible norbecomes volatized when incinerated, e.g.glass, porcelain, scrap iron and stone-likematerial (gravel etc.). Bottom ash is obtainedafter larger objects and metal remains areremoved and the material has been sifted.SOURCE SEPARATIONSorting or separation of waste in the sameplace that the waste was produced, e.g. in thehouseholdUNMANNED HAZARDOUSWASTE COLLECTION POINTSmaller, unmanned facility for receiving hazardoushousehold waste, often located at arecycling centre or placed alongside a servicestationWASTE FROM ELECTRIC ANDELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, WEEEWaste from electric and electronic equipmentincluding all components, equipment partsand consumables that have had an electricalor electronic function. Included in producers’responsibility (See Waste Directive § 6 andthe producers’ responsibility directive forwaste from electric and electronic equipment2005:209)WASTE IN BINS AND BAGSThe proportion of household waste that is putinto bags or bins, in other words waste excludingthat for material recycling, bulky waste,electrical and hazardous wasteWHITE GOODSNormally larger electrical household products,e.g. dishwashers, washing machines andrefrigerators. There is no absolute definition.See also waste from electric and electronicequipment.RECYCLING CENTRE (ÅVC)Larger manned facility for receiving bulkywaste, garden waste, electrical and hazardouswaste, etc.WASTEEvery object, chemical or substance that theowner is disposing of, intends to dispose of oris obliged to dispose of (see chapter 15 § 1 ofthe Environmental Code)Sources: <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>, Swedish waste terminology (1998, Afr-rapport 217), 1000 terms in Solid Waste Management (1992, iSWA) as well as the Swedish code ofstatutes and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s code of statutes.32

Swedish Waste Management 2009About <strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> – Swedish Waste Management<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> – Swedish Waste Managementis the Swedish interest organization within thewaste management and recycling sector. Ourmembers are local authorities and localauthorities’ associations. Private companiesare associated members. In total, we haveapproximately 400 members.<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>’s primary task is to representand develop our members by creating networks,provide information, and to influencedecision makers.<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> is striving to promote thedevelopment of environmentally sound andsustainable waste management based on amanifest responsibility to society.<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong>’s job is to look after our members’interests in waste management, a taskwhich encompasses separation, collection,recycling, waste disposal, as well as issuesregarding administration, economy, information,planning, training, and development.<strong>Avfall</strong> <strong>Sverige</strong> is Sweden’s largest environmentalmovement. Our members makeSwedish waste management work, with everythingthat means, from collection to recycling.We do it on behalf of the society: environmentallysafe, sustainable and on long term. Weare 12,000 people working together withSwedish households and companies – together,we perform one of Sweden’s most importantjobs!33

Swedish Waste Management 2009StaffWeine WiqvistManaging DirectorDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 05Mobile no. +46 708-93 15 99weine.wiqvist@avfallsverige.seJessica ChristiansenHazardous waste, WEEEDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 18Mobile no. +46 706-69 36 18jessica.christiansen@avfallsverige.seAnna-Carin GripwallDirector of CommunicationsDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 08Mobile no. +46 70-662 61 28anna-carin.gripwall@avfallsverige.seAnders HedenstedtLandfill, waste-to-energyDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 24Mobile no. +46 709-49 49 57anders.hedenstedt@avfallsverige.seHanna HellströmBiological waste treatment: composting,digestion, biogasDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 23Mobile no. +46 70-73 68 249hanna.hellstrom@avfallsverige.seKarin Lindskog JohanssonPublic Relations, batteriesDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 12karin.lindskog@avfallsverige.seInge JohanssonWaste-to-energyDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 16Mobile no. +46 739-88 33 99inge.johansson@avfallsverige.seKarin JönssonEditor of <strong>Avfall</strong> och MiljöDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 17karin.jonsson@avfallsverige.seSven LundgrenLegal CounsellorDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 09Mobile no. +46 708-35 66 55sven.lundgren@avfallsverige.seMonica LövströmCounsellor, Public ContactsMobile no. +46 705-35 66 42monica.lovstrom@avfallsverige.seEwa KovermanFinance assistant, invoicingDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 04ewa.koverman@avfallsverige.sePetra Kvist CarlssonCourses, conferencesDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 03Mobile no. +46 708-81 96 36petra.carlsson@avfallsverige.seJon Nilsson-DjerfCollection, transport, separation,household and industrial wasteDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 14Mobile no. +46 70-526 35 27jon.nilsson-djerf@avfallsverige.sePer NilzénDevelopmentDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 13Mobile no. +46 70-523 24 04per.nilzen@avfallsverige.seIngegerd SvantessonPublic Relations, Web EditorDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 07Mobile no. +46 73-703 70 24ingegerd.svantesson@avfallsverige.sePernilla SvenssonAdministrator/Public RelationsDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 11pernilla.svensson@avfallsverige.seJenny WestinStatistics, public procurement, waste feesDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 15Mobile no. +46 70-518 40 45jenny.westin@avfallsverige.sePeter WestlingFinance/Administration ManagerDirect tel. no. +46 (0)40-35 66 06peter.westling@avfallsverige.se34

Swedish Waste Management 200935

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