Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Activity Report 2006


Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Activity Report 2006

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006

– The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Background and purposeThe Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research was founded in1994 with a founding capital of SEK 6 000 million from the formerso-called wage-earner funds. The purpose of the Foundation is tosupport research in natural science, engineering and medicine thatwill strengthen Sweden’s competitiveness. The Governing Board of11 members is appointed by the Swedish government. Suceedingformer Prime Minister Mr Ingvar Carlsson and former Minister forForeign Affairs Ms Laila Freivalds, the Chairperson as of 2004 is MsLena Hjelm-Wallén, former Deputy Prime Minister.At present the Foundation is financing around 60 large researchprogrammes and 200 framework grants and research projects. Upto and including 2006 the Foundation has decided upon supportfor research amounting to SEK 9,2 billion. Through active capitalmanagement and previously favourable developments on thestock exchange the capital has grown and in January 2007 was SEK10,4 billion even though SEK 7,6 billion had been paid out up tothen. In 2007 the Foundation anticipates paying out around SEK700 million. The budget for new commitments for 2007 is SEK 550million and the preliminary budget for 2008 is also SEK 550 million.The Foundation’s operations will in the long run lead to its capitalbeing totally used up.The Foundation’s statutes lay down that it is to promote thedevelopment of vigorous research settings of international class andof significance for Sweden’s future competitiveness. By strategicDisbursed by SSF 1996–2005 and expected disbursement 2006–2009with a budget for new funding of SEK 550 M/year 2006–2009120010008006004001996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Unallocated (approvedfunding, not yet areadesignated)Other (mostly allocatedexternally)Production andProcess TechnologiesMicroelectronicsMaterialsInformation Technologyand AppliedMathematicsLife ScienceTechnologiesLife SciencesSecretariatand CapitalManagementresearch is meant research that is judged to be of future advantageto Sweden. The Foundation judges advantage on the basis of oneor more of the following considerations:Research, the results of which may serve as a basis for thedevelopment of existing or new companies; well-educated graduates,who through broadened and improved graduate trainingare attractive for employment primarily in the industrial and publicsectors, but also in academia; the ability of internationally highclassresearch environments to attract uniquely qualified researchersand international investments to Sweden; research that servesas a focus for international cooperation, whereby knowledgeof interest to Swedish industry can be accumulated. All of this alsocontributes to a higher quality of life via more employment opportunities,improved working conditions and better health, as well asto a more sustainable society.The Foundation employs many different forms of support.Three forms of grant dominate – grants to strategic researchcentres, framework grants and grants to outstanding individualresearchers.Strategic research centres are focused research settings of thehighest scientific standards with great strategic relevance and asignificant degree of renewal. They often comprise several researchteams connected across their disciplines by the scientific andtechnological problems to be addressed.Framework grants are a flexible mode of support for more limitedresearch initiatives in strategically important areas, their durationoften being three years. The grants and their administrativestructure are smaller than those for strategic research centres andnetwork programmes.Attention is being given to the importance of the individual intwo ongoing programmes aimed at young researchers for the purposeof enabling them to launch independent research initiativesas a part of a strong research environment: Firstly the Ingvar CarlssonAward, a repatriation grant which is aimed at highly qualifiedSwedish-trained PhDs who, after a postdoctoral period abroad,wish to return to Sweden, and secondly Individual grants forfuture research leaders (formerly nicknamed ”INGVAR” grants),which are aimed at particularly promising young researchers withleadership potential at a somewhat more senior level than in theformer programme.In addition, an individual programme aimed at clearly establishedresearchers, Senior Individual Grants (SIG), has been carried out intwo slightly different forms.The Foundation is headed by an Executive Director, ProfessorLars Rask, reporting directly to the Governing Board. The executivedirector is supported by a secretariat of 16 persons and a draftingorganisation that can call upon a large number of Swedish andforeign researchers and representatives of industry and thecommunity.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – ContentsIntroduction – Lena Hjelm-Wallén 4A new strategy for the foundation – Lars Rask 5The year that was – Ingvar Isfeldt 7Swedish Process Industry Competitiveness Revisited – Lena-Kajsa Sidén 14Mathematics as a tool for other disciplines – Olof Lindgren 18A national strategy for microelectronics – Anders Sjölund 25The preparatory graduate schools in biomedicine – Eva Enmark 28Mobility between academia and industry – Joakim Amorim 29SSF’s “Future Research Leaders” – Henryk Wos 34ProEnviro – a joint venture – Lars Frenning 37”Dancing by the doorway” – Björn Brandt 39Programme overview with basic facts – Kerstin Hagwall 42The Board 69The Collegium 69Selection and Programme Committees 70The Capital Committee 71Auditors 71The Administration 71Printed material 72Abbreviations and acronyms 72

– The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006IntroductionPhoto: Katarina WosResearch is vital in order for a small country like Swedento be able to compete in a globalised world. Theaim of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Researchis to contribute to the growth and sustainable developmentof Swedish industry and society by fundingstrategic research.During 2006 the Foundation devoted great effortsto following up the 17 strategic research centres thatwere established through funding from SSF amountingto about SEK 800 million. This heavy investment instrong research environments is a good example ofhow scientific excellence can be combined with strategicrelevance. Other types of grants are also needed,for example to support individual researchers. Examplesinclude the homecoming programme for youngpostdocs (Ingvar Carlsson Award), Future ResearchLeaders and Senior Individual Grants.During the past year the Governing Board workedwith strategic planning for the coming year based onexperience from previous and ongoing projects aswell as future needs. SSF’s new Executive Director,Lars Rask, has taken the lead in this work. In order tobroaden the perspective, five strategic planning panelswith representatives from industry, academia andsociety have been created to assess the development ofinternational and Swedish research in areas that are ofinterest for SSF. The panels are supposed to single outareas judged to be of strategic importance in the comingyears and identify areas of strength and strategicimportance for Sweden where more research is neededin the interfaces between the Foundation’s traditionalfields of activity. Their findings will be reported to theExecutive Director and the Governing Board during2007.Virtually all of the Foundation’s work takes placein cooperation with various actors, mainly universities,institutes, companies, collaborating funding bodies andthe individual researchers and research groups.Thank you all for your outstanding contributionsduring the past year.Lena Hjelm-WallénChairperson

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – A new strategy for the foundationPhoto: Katarina WosThe activities ofthe Swedish Foundationfor StrategicResearchare regulated byits statutes, mostrecently revised in1997. Accordingto the statues, thepurpose of thefoundation is tosupport researchin the natural sciences,engineeringand medicine.The foundation should promote the development ofstrong research environments of the highest internationalstandard of importance for the developmentof Sweden’s future competitiveness. Basic as well asapplied research can be supported, as well as all areasin between. The foundation should focus researchgrants to promote the establishment of internationallycompetitive research centres or areas.In April 2006, the Governing Board of the Foundationapproved a strategic plan that implements theideas in the statutes. The interpretation of the key conceptsstrategic research and competitiveness is decisivefor how the Foundation will carry out its task. In thestrategic plan the Foundation defines strategic researchas research that will be beneficial for the country. Benefitcan be judged on the basis of one or more of thefollowing criteria: research that could form the basisfor the development of existing or new companies;research that produces PhDs who, thanks to improvedPhD programmes, are attractive for employment by industryand society at large, but also by universities andresearch institutes; the ability of internationally highclassresearch environments to attract highly qualifiedindividuals and investments to the country; researchactivities that are part of international collaborationsthrough which knowledge of importance for Swedishindustry can be gained. Competitiveness is judged onthe basis of comparisons of how Swedish research andresearch results stand up to international comparison.The Foundation does not assume long-term responsibilityfor financing any particular research areas butfunds time-limited research activities and shifts its focusover time between different research areas and programmeforms based on evaluations of research needsand research opportunities.In addition to exhibiting scientific excellence in aninternational perspective, research activities supportedby the Foundation should in the future be applicablewithin knowledge-intensive and high-technology areasor societal sectors in Sweden. For all research projectssupported by the Foundation, a plan should be drawnup for how research results will be of benefit, for exampleby technology transfer, establishment of demonstrators,or by protection of immaterial propriety rights.Priority will be given to research activities that can beexpected to find application in the following areas:• Biotechnology, drug discovery and development,medical technology/bioengineering

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – The year that wasIngvar Isfeldtn Lars Rask new Executive DirectorAs of the first of the year, Professor Lars Rask tookover as the Foundation’s Executive Director after ProfessorStaffan Normark, who returned to his researchfull-time at Karolinska Institutet.n New Governing BoardThe new Governing Board met for the first time on 2February. The Chairperson is still Lena Hjelm-Wallén.New members are Professor Karin Caldwell, UppsalaUniversity, Peter Hjalmarsson, Linköping University,and Christer Ovrén, ABB Corporate Research.n The Foundation’s capitalThe value of the Foundation’s assets amounted to justover SEK 10 billion at the start of 2006. By the outsetof 2007 this capital had grown to around SEK 10,4billion. New commitments of SEK 420 million weremade in 2006, and SEK 659 million was disbursedduring the same period. The rate of return on the capitalwas 9,3 % in 2006. At the end of 2006, Swedishfixed-income investments constituted 41,8 % of thecapital, Swedish equities 34,6 %, special funds 11,3 %,Western European equities 1,8 %, US equities 3,6 %,Japanese equities 2,4 %, equities in the rest of SoutheastAsia 2,9 % and Eastern European equities 1,7 %.n Senior Individual Grants – phase IIThe purpose of the Senior Individual Grant programmeis to enable senior researchers with a strong careerin research behind them and with a desire and readinessfor change to take on new challenges. The programmehas been divided into two phases. In the firstphase, 18 researchers were awarded SEK 1,5 millioneach in 2004 to enable them to work in a new researchenvironment where they could develop new thoughtsand ideas. In the second phase, the 18 researchers wereinvited to apply for grants to carry out projects in Swedenbased on inspiration and experience from the firstphase. Following international evaluation, 12 researcherswere awarded grants of SEK 6 million each forthree years of research.Carl BorrebaeckJan-Erling BäckvallAri FribergLars HultmanBörje JohanssonMats JonsonBo JönssonLeif KirsebomIngemar LundströmBengt NordénCarsten PetersonAnders RantzerLund UniversityStockholm UniversityRoyal Institute of TechnologyLinköping UniversityRoyal Institute of TechnologyGöteborg UniversityLund UniversityUppsala UniversityLinköping UniversityChalmersLund UniversityLund University

– The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006n Collegium meeting of 15 MarchA meeting of the Foundation’s Collegium was held on15 March, when the Foundation’s strategy was discussed.n Strategic research for SwedenIn conjunction with the Collegium meeting, an openseminar was held where Lars Rask presented hisintentions and where three of the leaders of the newlyestablished strategic research centres gave their visions.The recipients of the Ingvar Carlsson Award weregiven their diplomas by Ingvar Carlsson.n Chronic inflammationIn 2005, Five research funding bodies – the Knutand Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the KnowledgeFoundation, SSF, VINNOVA (the Swedish GovernmentalAgency for Innovation Systems) and the VårdalFoundation – took the initiative to a series of hearingson how a research and development programme forchronic inflammation could best be designed. Thebackground is that a relatively large portion of thepopulation – not just in Sweden but throughout thewestern world – suffers from diseases where chronicinflammation is an important component. Examples ofsuch diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerous colitis,multiple sclerosis and asthma. These diseases causegreat suffering for their victims, but also great costs forsociety – mainly due to sickness absence. A workinggroup has therefore devised a research and developmentprogramme in which both researchers and careproviders such as pharmaceutical companies andpatient associations collaborate so that research resultscan be translated into new forms of treatment anddrugs as quickly as possible. The programme, whichwill extend for five years starting in 2007, has a budgetof about SEK 85 million, of which the Foundation iscontributing SEK 20 million.n Environmentally sound product realisationSmall and medium-sized enterprises have been identifiedby Mistra (Foundation for Strategic EnvironmentalResearch) as important for an investment in researchon environmentally sound product realisation. Mistrafound that SSF/ProViking is a suitable cooperationpartner for such a programme due to their experienceof managing production science research in direct collaborationbetween industry and academia. Environmentallysound product realisation is judged to be anProfessor Hans Forssberg talks about his visions for the Stockholm Brain Institute. Photos: Katarina Wos.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – important competition factor for small and mediumsizedenterprises, and launching a joint programmeis considered to have a number of advantages. TheFoundation and Mistra therefore allocated SEK 30million each for a joint three-year research programmein the area of environmentally sound product realisation– ProEnviro. The programme, which has its ownBoard as well as a Scientific Council and an IndustrialCouncil, issued its first call for proposals during theyear and the projects are expected to start in January2007.n The Foundation’s strategy and draftingorganizationDuring 2005 the Governing Board’s strategy groupdrafted a new strategy, which was adopted by the GoverningBoard during the year.A new drafting organization which supports theimplementation of the new strategy was formed duringthe year, which means that four panels for strategywork with approximately twelve members each havebeen established in the areas:• Biotechnology, drug discovery and development,medical technology• Information, communication and systems technologies– software• Information, communication and systems technologies– hardware• Materials development – including biomaterialsFurthermore, a truly multidisciplinary panel consistingof 14 persons with broad expertise has been created. Itis hoped that this group will generate new proposals forinitiatives.The different panels are supposed to submit aninterim report in the early spring of 2007 and a finalreport in October/November, and the strategy workwill be concluded with a joint seminar aimed at creatinga good overall perspective. An important task is toidentify strategic strength areas for the Foundation.The following persons have been appointed to chairthe different panels:Britt-Marie Sjöberg – biotechnology, drug discoveryand development and medical technology,

10 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Per Andersson – information, communication andsystems technologies (hardware),Sven-Christer Nilsson – information, communicationand systems technologies (software)Jan-Otto Carlsson – materials development includingbiomaterialsIngegerd Palmér – the interdisciplinary panelExisting programme committees will continue theirwork, for example by participating in half-timeevaluations, during the remainder of the relevantprogramme’s lifetime, except for the programme committeefor strategic research centres in the life sciences,which was disbanded in the autumn. The ResearchCollegium, which has good contacts with the researchcommunity, currently has some 45 members and willbe enlarged slightly.n Strategic research centresThe Foundation has engaged SISTER (the SwedishInstitute for Studies in Education and Research) to followthe strategic research centres that were establishedin December 2005 by means of follow-up research.The follow-up research will above all shed light on thestructure of the different centres, how they conducttheir activities and how they interact with the rest ofsociety. Their first report will be submitted in early2007.Certain areas – materials, production and energy– have felt unfairly treated. Since “only” 17 centreswere established, many sectors were left without a centre,but a review shows that no area can be consideredto have been unfairly treated by the actual form of thegrant.The breadth in the call for proposals – theFoundation’s total sphere of responsibility – createdcollaborations, for example between engineering andmedicine, that would otherwise not have come about.But judging the proposals was extremely complicated,and perhaps if a new call for proposals is issued thefocus should be on defined societal goals or a specificarea.A very positive aspect of the process, which tookplace in three stages, was the contacts with the universities.The viewpoints of the university administrationswere weighed in, and the hearing that was held wasvery constructive, though time-consuming.SISTER has also reviewed the selection process. Anoverall judgement is that the process is well executedwith a relevant mix of forms of assessment and bothformal and informal assessment criteria. It can benoted that the evaluees’ own picture co-varies with theanalysis made by SISTER.n Ingvar Carlsson AwardIn December 2004 the Foundation decided to establisha recurrent homecoming programme for youngpostdocs – the Ingvar Carlsson Award. The first callfor proposals in the spring of 2005 resulted in 103applications, and in December 2005 twelve researchersreceived the Ingvar Carlsson Award.In the spring of 2006 there was a new call for proposalsin the programme, whose purpose is to identifyand support young homecoming postdocs who hopeto start independent and creative research careers inSweden. This resulted in 38 applications, including 11from female applicants. The programme consists ofeight to twelve grants of SEK 2–4 million each, plusa personal stipend of SEK 50 000, for a total of SEK36 million. Special funds have also been set aside for aleadership programme.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 11Two calls for proposals have previously been carriedout within the programme Future research leaders.The first in 2001 included 20 individual grants of SEK10 million each for six years and the second in 2004included 18 grants of SEK 6 million each for fouryears, with the possibility of a two-year extension afterevaluation. The first three years of research activitiesunder the four-year grants will be evaluated by a groupof Swedish evaluators, and those researchers who receivea positive evaluation will receive further fundingof SEK 3 million for an additional two years, or SEK1,5 million per year. The programme has aroused greatinterest and been well received within the researchcommunity, and experience from the programme isvery positive. With this in mind, a third call for proposalswas carried out during the year including 20 grantsof SEK 8,5 million each for five years, plus SEK 4 millionfor leadership training for the grant recipients – atotal of SEK 174 million. A total of 190 applicationswere received, which is scarcely half of the numberfor the previous call for proposals. One-third of theapplicants are women, and the average age of theapplicants is 35 years. One-fourth of the applicants areforeign nationals.Karin Lindkvist receives the diploma from Ingvar Carlsson.Photo: Katarina Wosn Information technologyIn the spring of 2001, SEK 190 million was allocatedfor strategic research on information technology. InJune 2002, funds were approved for fourteen frameworkprogrammes, and a programme committeewas appointed for the main purpose of promotingexploitation of the achieved results. In April 2005, theGoverning Board resolved to allocate SEK 60 millionfor a two-year continuation of some of the frameworkprogrammes, and ten ongoing framework grants weregranted extensions during the year. According to a previousdecision, a small programme to promote mobilityin the IT programmes was also announced during theyear.n Future research leadersn Seminars in Lund, Göteborg and LinköpingSeminars with programmes similar to the one carriedout in Stockholm on 15 March – with presentations ofthe strategic research centres that have been establishedat each locality and up-to-date information fromthe Foundation – were held in Göteborg on 3 May,Lund on 9 May and Linköping on 22 May.n Institute Excellence CentresInstitute Excellence Centres are a joint project withVINNOVA and the Knowledge Foundation. A total of

12 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006at least SEK 600 million will be invested over six yearsto establish internationally strong environments for research,development and innovation at the research institutes.VINNOVA is investing SEK 180 million, whilethe Knowledge Foundation and SSF are investing SEK60 million each. The remaining funding comes fromparticipating companies. The Excellence Centres willbe established at the institutes in collaboration withacademia, industry and society. The intention is thatthe institutes will complement Swedish universitiesas important knowledge nodes to develop Swedishresearch. As of the end of 2005, 21 applications hadbeen received, eight of which were awarded grants ofup to SEK 40 million each.n Deliberations with individual universitiesThe executive management of the Foundation has hadin-depth discussions during the year with the vicechancellorsand deans of Chalmers, Göteborg University,Lund University, Uppsala University, KarolinskaInstitutet and Stockholm University. Similar deliberationsare being held with additional universities during2007. The Foundation’s September meeting took placein Uppsala and was combined with a visit to UppsalaUniversity.n Programme activities and budgetA number of areas will receive less funding due to thefact that many programmes will be concluded duringthe next few years. The aggregate volumes of theseprogrammes amounts to SEK 1 637 million, equivalentto about SEK 315 million per year. This putsheavy demands on the Foundation’s planning to ensurethat gaps do not arise in one or more areas.n Evaluation and follow-upFinal evaluations of concluded programmes were begunduring 2005. A number of case studies have beenordered, and several were delivered during the year.The purpose of the case studies is to provide a pictureof how individual programmes have contributed invarious ways to Swedish research and ultimately tofulfilling the requirement in the Foundation’s statutes tostrengthen Sweden’s competitiveness. The Foundation’sown work with “Future research leaders I” and Pro-Viking have also been evaluated. Work on area-specificfinal evaluations has also begun. An overall discussionof completed evaluations of the Foundation’s activitiesduring the first ten years will be conducted during2007.n Initiatives for the Swedish process industryIn 2005, the Foundation established a working group toshed light on the needs and focus of the Foundation’ssupport of research of importance for the Swedishprocess industry. Among other things, the group held aworkshop with participants from industry and academia.As a result of the group’s work, the Foundationannounced funding of SEK 60 million in the autumnfor the establishment of a process industry centre forresearch and competence development aimed at flexibility,controllability and availability in the design ofproduction systems. A precondition for such a centreis the participation of and co-funding from the processindustry. The Foundation’s contribution will mainly goto research.n International cooperationIn the early summer the Foundation adopted guidelinesfor international collaboration. The main featuresof these guidelines are firstly that the Foundation assumesthat all researchers have international cooperation,which means that they should no count on specialsupport for this, and secondly that limited funding canbe provided if the international cooperation benefitsSweden.The Foundation’s total spending on joint internationalresearch programmes is typically less than SEK20 million per year, and in the interest of efficacy theFoundation prefers to fund a few large programmesrather than many small ones. A memorandum ofintent was signed during the year between Swedishresearch foundations and the Singaporean researchorganisation A*star – Agency for Science, Technologyand Research.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 13Photo: Katarina Wosn International recruitmentThe Foundation is exploring the possibilities ofestablishing a programme focused on recruiting topresearchers in other countries to work in Sweden for ashort period.n Medical technology for better healthA comprehensive evaluation of Swedish research inthe field of medical technology has been performed incooperation between the Swedish Research Council,VINNOVA and the Foundation. The evaluation wasperformed by an international panel, which also madeconcrete recommendations for the joint call for proposalsthat took place during the year. The programmewill have a duration of 5 years, with a half-time evaluationafter 3 years. Each funding body contributes SEK15 million for the first 3 years and then a maximum ofSEK 10 million for the following two years, dependingon the half-time evaluation.n Recruitments to the Foundation’s secretariatAnn-Katrin CroonIn the autumn the Foundationhired Ann-KatrinCroon as AdministrativeDirector starting 1 January2007, when shesucceeded Björn Brandt,who is retiring. Ms Crooncomes to the Foundationfrom a position as AdministrativeDirector at the Faculty of Natural Resourcesand Agricultural Sciences at the Swedish Universityof Agricultural Sciences. Björn Brandt is not leavingthe Foundation entirely – he will be working withcapital management matters. The Foundation has alsohired Johan Berg as scientific administrator starting 15November. Mr Berg has a PhD from KTH and comesto the Foundation from the R&D Department of theSwedish Farmers Supply and Crop Marketing Association.n Mobility between academia and industryMobility in the Swedish research system is low today,especially between academia and industry. TheFoundation therefore plans to establish an exchangeprogramme to facilitate an exchange of researchersbetween academia and industry.n Swedish Institute for Studies in Educationand Research, SISTERTogether with the Bank of Sweden TercentenaryFoundation, the Knowledge Foundation and STINT(the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperationin Research and Higher Education), the Foundationis the founder and principal funder of the SwedishInstitute for Studies in Education and Research. TheFoundation has supported SISTER for eight years andwill continue to do so in 2007 and 2008.

14 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006”Knowledge is extracted from a fully integrated world.Knowledge is ’dis-integrated’ by disciplinary units called Departments in Universities.How can knowledge, discovery and dissemination be re-integrated?”Richard Zare, BioX initiative, Stanford University 1Swedish Process IndustryCompetitiveness RevisitedLena-Kajsa SidénReferring to the statutes of the Foundation” …topromote the development of important researchenvironments of the highest international standardswith a view to enhancing Sweden’s long-term competitiveness”…,one might expect substantial funding ofresearch of relevance to the Swedish process industry.The importance of the process industry to the Swedishnational economy is well known and was indeedconfirmed in a recently published study by the RoyalSwedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA) 2 .When the Foundation had just been established inthe mid-nineties, it received a large number of proposals,based mainly on individual initiatives from theuniversity sector, outlining activities geared towardsindividual parts of the process industry such as pulpand paper, food, and later mineral processing; or insome cases focusing on individual technologies ofimportance to the process industry (process designand control, multiphase flow, etc). As a consequence, anumber of 5- to 6-year programmes were launched in1996 - 2000. Although these programmes did receive1Quoted from ”Interdisciplinarity in Research”, EURAB, April2004. Download from http://ec.europa.eu/research/eurab/pdf/eurab_04_009_interdisciplinarity_research_final.pdf2”Ökad konkurrenskraft i svensk processindustri” (original inSwedish; title in English translation reads ”Increased Competitivenessin the Swedish Process Industry”). Downloadfrom (http://www.iva.se/upload/Verksamhet/Projekt/Process/IVA%20M%20Processind.pdf)valuable industrial support, the programme activitiesper se sprang from and followed traditional academiclines, and (with one exception) did therefore notrequire industrial co-financing. Consequently, most ofthem were, on a theoretical level, of only indirect relevanceto industrial practice and competitiveness.Before deciding to support any new effort specificallyaddressing research needs of the process industry,however, the Foundation wanted to find out whethersuch initiatives might come about spontaneously as aresult of the spring of 2004 invitation to submit proposalsfor Strategic Research Centres (SFC) across theentire spectrum of areas supported by the Foundation– an initiative worth SEK 800 million over five years.Following the analysis of submitted proposals, it wasconcluded that the SFC model did not appear attractiveto user-oriented research initiatives of a kind thatmight benefit the process industry.Yet, the Foundation had not given up hope on spurringcompetitiveness in the Swedish Process Industry,and as an initiator and a financial co-sponsor of theIVA study, it has been looking for new ways to instigateresearch that would result in a measurable improvementof the industry’s competitiveness. One inspirationhere was the ProViking programme that theFoundation had initiated in 2002. ProViking is a majorsystematic effort geared towards renewal in the ”other”major part of Swedish manufacturing industry: theengineering industry.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 15Characteristics of the Process IndustryThe term ”process industry” is not very well defined butusually refers to those parts of the manufacturing industryin which raw materials are treated or prepared in a seriesof steps involving capital- and energy-intensive processes.The raw materials most often undergo chemical conversionduring their processing into finished products, in additionto (or instead of) the physical conversions common to industryin general. Although its products are used to a largeextent by other manufacturing companies inside and outsidethe process industry itself, an increasing proportion ofthe products go directly to end users.Box 1 – Scope of the industryFrom a Swedish point of view, the process industry isconsidered to include the following industries:• Pulp and paper• Chemicals and plastics• petroleum and petrochemicals• pharmaceuticals production• Mining• Iron and steel• Food.Source: IVA 2006Box 2 – Facts about the industryThe Swedish process industry• is highly export-oriented, representing 30 % of thecountry’s total exports• accounts for 60 % of net exports due to low importsof intermediate goods• provides employment for more than 600 000 persons,of which half directly• accounts for 85 % of domestic goods transport(tonne-km)Some common features of the heavy part of this industryare:• raw materials dominance; appr. 50 % of the costs• large material flows; transport represents 25 % of thecosts• energy-intensive (appr. 10 % of the costs) and capital-intensive• global competitionSource of figures: IVA 2006Consequently, the issue at the Foundation was: Howto design a Call for Proposals for a research programmethat would contribute to renewal and reinforce competitivenessin this industry, taking into account its varioushighly ”endogenous” features? One such factor is thatthe process industry, with the exception of the forestprocessing industry, is composed of a small number ofhighly specialised companies (se fact boxes below).Furthermore, the process industry is highly technology-intensivewithout – at least in Sweden – beingresearch-intensive. Although many university researchershave contacts in the process industry, the industrygenerally does not find it easy to initiate university collaborationat the level(s) needed, in part due to the factthat its complex problems are often at odds with thestructure and/or traditional organisation of work inacademic departments. In other countries applicationsorientedresearch of this kind would have been conductedat an industrial research institute, but becauseSweden has what may in European relative terms beconsidered a weak and fragmented institute sector, thisoption is not available.n Drafting a different kind of programmeStarting in the autumn of 2005, an ad hoc workinggroup was set up to elucidate the needs and possibleorientation of research efforts, if SSF were to launch anon-traditional effort to benefit the process industry. Forthe first time in the history of SSF, the working groupconsisted of industrial members only (see the last part ofthis Activity Report), representing the most technologyintensivebranches of the process industry. Some of themembers of the working group were also involved in theAcademy study mentioned above, but the SSF groupworked on its own in view of its special assignment forthe Foundation. The budget for a new initiative was setat SEK 60 million from the Foundation.To clarify what is said about highly specialised playersabove, the working group noted that the Swedishprocess industry strives to produce special or ”niche”products and services with a high knowledge content– which from the viewpoint of the university system is”difficult to encode” – and are increasingly adaptedto the needs of the individual end user. This niche

16 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006orientation results from Sweden’s location relative tomajor markets (for certain goods) and to local productionconditions: we have no unfair competitive advantagesof importance to production costs in terms of,for example, raw materials, energy, environment costsand salaries. This has compelled our industry to adopta strategy of focusing on ”special” products commandinga high value added.This can be contrasted with commodity producersin, for example, Eastern Europe or Asia, where processindustry products are sold entirely on the basis of theirspecification. By definition, the product specificationof a commodity completely describes its expectedperformance, which means that goods meeting thesame specification are totally interchangeable. In theSwedish process industry, products are manufacturedwith adapted functional properties. The specificationhere describes only part of the performance foreseen,which means that the product has to be tested in thecustomer’s system before it can be approved or fullyappreciated. Maximum performance in the supplychain is often achieved by adapting the special productto the customer’s process – or by redesigning theprocess in order to maximise benefit from the product.Customer value can thereby increase considerably– despite the fact that the special product may containlargely the same molecules as a certain commodityproduct.Against this background, the working group foundthat the competitiveness of the Swedish process industrylargely rests on three capabilities of a generic andgeneral nature: Controllability, availability and flexibility ofthe production systems.• Flexibility is necessary for a niche strategy to besuccessful. The concept may be thought of as the”width of the road” on which you are about todrive – or in industrial terms, the ability of oneand the same plant unit to manufacture differentproducts.• Controllability is required due to the need to customise.The analogy is how well you can steer avirtual vehicle to shift and keep it in the lanes ofthe ”road” – or the ability of a production unit toswitch between products and/or make a new productwith a given specification with minimal lossesin time and materials.• Availability (and effective logistics) is needed becauseproduction of unique and customised goods meansthat there are few alternative suppliers. It can besymbolised by how far the ”vehicle” can go beforerepair or maintenance becomes necessary – or theability to deliver an approved product within theintended /planned production time.A common feature of all these requirements is that theymust be met by means of a system-wide approach thattakes the complete production system into account.The importance and relevance of these concepts asthe cornerstones of a Foundation effort were put to thetest in an all-day workshop in the spring 2006 on thetheme, ”Research efforts for the Swedish process industry”.Some 20 individually identified, top-level productionmanagers in the forest, steel, mining, pharmaceuticalsand food industries participated, exchanging viewson aspects put forward by the SSF working group aswell as contributing their own experiences and ideasfor the future. All were told in advance that an SSFeffort would be conditional upon a matching contributionof resources (in cash and in kind) by industry.In fact, the meeting itself proved to be an interestingtest: Never before had such a highly qualified andexperienced group of operative production experts metat a ”cross-industry” knowledge forum of this kind.Another 10 specially invited academics representingrelevant research fields participated as well.The strong general agreement among the industrialparticipants almost took the SSF group by surprise,particularly in view of the ambitious aim of theworkshop to look beyond the borders of the individualindustrial branches. Equally strong were industrialcomments to the effect that a research effort, in orderto be productive and successful, ought to be coordinatedwith an initiative for competence development.n ”Neo-classical” experimental announcementAfter reporting to the Board of the Foundation in June2006, the working group was given a mandate, subjectto certain conditions, to further develop its plans for

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 17an announcement inviting proposals from the researchcommunity. In forming a selection committee, thegroup was now extended with two academic experts(see the last part of this Activity Report). One of theissues mentioned by the Board was the fact that theFoundation’s primary task is to support research, whichmeans it does not normally address needs for competencedevelopment other than traditional graduatetraining.After modification the Board approved the initiative,which has now been published as a Call for ”conceptualoutlines” for establishing a ”ProcessindustrielltCentrum” (PIC) for Research and Competence Developmentoriented towards flexibility, controllability andavailability with regard to the design and operationof production systems. The ambition is to establish aCentre where research and related activities will meetthe following criteria:• to serve real and long-term needs in the Swedishprocess industry• to produce results that will strengthen the industry’scompetitiveness in a measurable way• the main activities of the Centre should live onin some form after the SSF financial support hasceased, in order to cater for the need of industry inthe future as well.Parties interested in applying are encouraged to formconstellations of generally two to four organisations,including at least one Swedish university and onecompany in the process industry in Sweden. Industrialresearch institutes are invited to apply as well. Generally,industrial partners are expected to contribute at leastas much as the Foundation at the programme level, i.e.SEK 60 million, of which (again at the programmelevel) at least 20 % should be cash contributions.The deadline for submission of conceptual outlineshas been set at 28 February 2007. The Selection Committeewill conduct interviews in April and consultwith industry representatives before proposing three tofour constellations for the final round to the ExecutiveDirector of SSF. In May/June, these groups will beawarded a so-called planning grant to draft a detailedproposal to be submitted by 31 August. In the finalevaluation round, it is planned to approve funding fortwo or possibly three proposals for three years each, representinghalf the amount set aside by the Foundation(SEK 60 million). The second half of the amount willbe allocated after a stringent performance review at thebeginning of the third year.This model of conceptual outlines and planninggrants is not widely used by the Foundation nowadays,whereas it was frequently used during the Foundation’sfirst five years. It was chosen in this case, however,due to the experimental nature of the initiative andthe uncertainties inherent in it; in particular becausethe interdisciplinary research and knowledge needs ofindustry do not easily translate into typical universityactivities or its merit and reward system.Acknowledgement:The author is grateful to Måns Collin for comments onthe draft for this article.

18 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006“In mathematics you don’t understand things. You just get used to them.”John von Neumann“A mathematician’s response to a very practical problem is often that it is too complicated.”Achim BachemMathematics as a toolfor other disciplinesOlof Lindgrenn Mathematics in the service of scienceThe methods humans use in their quest to understandNature have slowly evolved over the centuries. Observationof natural phenomena was of course a suitablestarting point, although this was not done systematicallyquite as early as one might have expected. Later,when a certain technological level had already beenattained, these observations evolved into more carefullycontrolled experiments carried out by scientists inorder to answer hypothetical questions formulated onthe basis of previous knowledge combined into somekind of theoretical structure. This is still the basis ofthe scientific method.After the results of a series of observations hadbeen compiled, it often became more or less obviousthat mathematical relationships – mathematical models- could be used to represent some of the phenomenaobserved in Nature. Describing the motion of the planetsaround the sun and explaining their motion acrossthe firmament is a classic example of a not-so-obviousapplication of mathematics. This historical mathematicalachievement by Kepler provided inspiration forfurther attempts to use mathematics to understand thenatural world.By 1900, physics had seen the construction ofseveral very successful mathematical models of considerablegenerality, prime examples being Maxwell’sequations describing essentially all phenomena inelectromagnetism and thermodynamics (cf. below) andmathematical laws describing the behaviour of, forexample, gases with great success. In spite of these successfulexamples, early 20th century physicists did notgenerally believe it was possible to account for all naturalphenomena – even in physics – using mathematics.The 20th century was really the century when itall happened. Mathematics moved in to take centrestage in physics. Interestingly, much of the mathematicsthat found practical use at this time had actuallybeen developed during the previous century. Somewas independently rediscovered, of course, while othermathematics was freshly invented as the need arose,but in many cases it was simply taken down from theshelf and dusted off. It is also interesting to note thatthe mathematicians themselves did not take much partin these developments. 1 Their curiosity seemed to take1Physicists and mathematicians are very different types ofindividuals, even though they may appear similar from adistance. One way of telling them apart is that a mathematicianalways knows precisely what he or she is talking about, whereasa physicist can talk about anything without knowing what he’stalking about and in the end relies on the mathematician to tellhim. The necessary flow of insights between them may well takedecades to sort out.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 19them elsewhere, into other concepts new to them andsometimes with other applications.Today, mathematical models are used everywhere.Computer software is of course based on mathematicalalgorithms, and while these may not always bevery profound, their continued use greatly facilitatesthe handling of more complex algorithms. We are allconstantly being mathematically modelled nowadaysas employees, commuters, shoppers, voters, patients,etc. Mathematics is changing the field of advertisingand the ways in which we gather information.And these changes are more than just isolated casesof Internet marketers or search engines. Stochasticshas emerged as the science of incorporating randombehaviour, including the meanderings of humans, intomathematical models. The art of handling situationswith incomplete data was worked out ages go, butthis knowledge was largely ignored until the arrivalof modern computers. And critics of the science ofeconomics argue that economists are so immersed inmathematics that they have lost touch with the realitiesof the economic world. But the critics tend mainly toquestion the economic assumptions, rather than theactual mathematics.And the process of mathematising is far from finished.Mathematics as a technology is increasingly beingused in the service of industrial innovation and competitiveness.We will see a continuous flow of new servicesarising from applications of mathematics: Just as IBM’sown model of its supply chain and the introductionof the field of optimisation led to the emergence ofwhat today forms a large part of their current servicesbusiness, where mathematics-based blueprints maybe used to upgrade steel mills or to revamp the operationsof distribution companies, the possibilities forhandling complex situations are endless. For while therisks are considerable, success promises great rewards.Since mathematics distills only the absolute minimumamount of information necessary, it can be applied andreapplied wherever and whenever this minimum is apart of larger settings.We are now in the process of learning to pool ourcomputing power to tackle extremely complex questions.This will, among other things, help us furtherrefine our understanding of living things. The historicallyuneasy relationship between biology and mathematicshas improved markedly in recent years, as it hasbecome increasingly clear that our understanding ofbiological systems really can benefit from mathematicalinput and insight. Examples so far include the spatialand temporal behaviour of ecosystems, the geometryof protein folding, the informatics of DNA, the dynamicsof the cytoskeleton and the mechanisms of visualperception. More will follow. In such areas, biologistswill accumulate the key data, delineate the importantinteractions and suggest possible mechanisms, but atsome point the questions will migrate to realms thathave so far been more congenial to physicists andmathematicians.n The evolving relationship betweenmathematics and scienceWe can use the experiences from physics to distinguishthree phases in the development of the relationshipbetween mathematics and virtually any science.In the first phase, it is not clear that mathematics isvital to the field. Even obvious properties of the phenomenaunder consideration have no mathematical descriptionand are generally poorly understood. Typically,people think about them in a more axiomatic way.In physics as it was in around 1900, the stability of theatom can serve as an example of such an incompletelyunderstood phenomenon. There was then simply noknown reason whatsoever for an atom to be stable.In the second phase, deeper collaboration has beenestablished between experimenters and theorists. Mathematicalmodels have been found to provide successfuldescriptions of the phenomena under study. Thesedescriptions fall into two categories: phenomenologicalor fundamental. The first largely describe certain typesof experiments with particular characteristics. Theydo not typically lend themselves well to other types ofexperiments, for example the same system in differentsurroundings or with a very different energy content.Descriptions in the second category often exhibit preciselythis last feature: they are useful in all or at leastseveral different experimental settings. And they aretypically of limited value due only to computationaldifficulties, e.g. in actually solving the equations.

20 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Following an initial imperfect understanding, futurework often leads to a more and more complex modelthat can intuitively be regarded as unsatisfying even byits proponents, and that is later replaced by a simpleror at least quite different model, typically describedas “more fundamental”. The first model can typically,at least with hindsight, be described as retaining toomuch of an “old” way of thinking. This is the situationwhen people talk about changes in paradigms.During this second phase there is already a potentialfor a large flow of information between experimentand theory. Typically, many models can be tried out,and most of them fall by the wayside as time goes by.This is the standard way science progresses: theorieshave to be backed up by observations and experimentsor they have to be discarded. Sometimes an influentialscientist can keep a personal favourite model alive inthe field until he or she dies, after which it is quietlydropped when nobody takes over the torch. 2The most dramatic change of paradigm in physicsduring the 20th century was arguably the introductionof quantum mechanics to replace the old Newtonianmechanistic view of the world. Some characteristics ofthis shift are: new concepts that take the fundamentalroles (“the state of a system”, “the uncertainty of aposition measurement”, “the tunnelling probability”),and new types of questions that replace some old types(“What is the probability of …?” but no longer “Alongwhich path does the electron… ?” or “Which of theelectrons…?”).In the third phase most observed phenomena areexplained by some theory and it becomes unclearwhether there are really any fundamentally unexplainedphenomena at all. In this phase, either anincreased level of understanding is hampered by alack of reliable experimental data that go beyondthe realms of the theory, or the unclarity is removedwhen tentative new phenomena do not materialise asexperiments are improved. The latter seems to havebeen more common in the case of physics. However,while this situation prevails, theorists can still literally2”It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist todiscard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast.” (KonradLorenz)fill the room with speculative mathematical constructs,all more or less consistent with known observations, butalso more or less totally different from each other withregard to the outcomes of hypothetical new experiments.In some other cases they may remain, for allpractical purposes, indistinguishable but for their morephilosophical differences. Then again, occasionally thesituation is eventually resolved only at a new level oftheoretical understanding.Today, with the emerging role played by mathematicalsimulations, it is also possible to substitute “simulateddata” for experimental data in the descriptionof this third phase. Indeed, the scope of the modelsutilised in the simulations may well be as fundamentalas the analytical constructs.In the field of elementary particle physics, which isone of few major fields where we seem to have spentconsiderable time in the third phase, and where wecan simultaneously address both the smallest and thelargest structures in the world, it is conceivable that, forpurely financial reasons, we will reach a point wherewe will eventually have to be content with merelyobserving the ultimate experiment: the universe itself,of which only one copy is currently available to us.This is available to us more or less for free, and it ofcourse continuously exerts a considerable influence ontheoretical work.All elementary particles known today have a model basedon the so-called Standard Model. This includes quarks,electrons and other material particles together with theinteractions known as strong, weak and electromagnetic.It is ad hoc supplemented by general relativity as thetheory of gravitation. However, our view of this entireconstruction is contingent on the existence of an as-yetundiscovered particle, the Higgs boson, without whichthis model loses most of its coherence. The search for thisparticle is an important argument for the next generationof particle accelerators.In retrospect, it is interesting to note how relativelysuccessful models that steer away from complexityand toward simplicity, and accompanying mathematicalbeauty, have been in the actual development ofphysical theory during the 20th century. However,it is also true that much of the real world still seemstoo complex to ever be treated by analytical models.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 21The substitution of quantum mechanics for classicalmechanics has not fundamentally altered this situation.And beauty doesn’t always work: at least the expansionof the universe was considered to be an ugly theoreticalpossibility before it was discovered. So perhaps it isan unreliable guiding principle on the path to understanding.String theory is an example of a theory without any specific experimentalsupport today, although it is presumably consistentwith all known experiments. However, there is a first-rate theoreticalreason for its acceptance by many physicists, namelythat it offers the only known way to reconcile the mathematicalproblems encountered when trying to combine two of themost celebrated theoretical breakthroughs of the 20th century– general relativity as a theory for gravitation, and quantummechanics – to describe all established knowledge concerningelementary particles and the remaining physical properties ofNature within a single framework.Most particle physicists seem to take this theoretical argumentseriously, although there are some sceptics. However, theentire scientific enterprise is based on imagination on someconceptual level. The scientific machinery – including framingof hypotheses, testing, making reproducible observations, etc.– will play its part as well, but it is human imagination that propelsscience forward.n What kind of help do mathematicalmodels offer?Science can be transformed into technology only whenit’s underlying parameters are defined and understoodand can be controlled. This requires some kind of mathematicaldescription. Even a partial understandingcan be very useful when the remaining uncertaintiesare irrelevant, for example in a particular setting.To start with, mathematical models can often yieldpartial answers even in cases where most of the completetheoretical structure is unknown. An example isthermodynamics, which is a body of knowledge aboutsystems that can be characterised by a small set ofmacroscopic quantities (like pressure, volume, temperature,energy and entropy). Many questions aboutsuch macroscopic systems can indeed be formulatedand answered independently of any further detailedmicroscopic information about the systems. Similarly,we can have a very good understanding of how genetictraits are inherited in spite of mounting difficulties inprecisely defining what a gene really is. And mathematicalmodels are of value as soon as they offer some understanding,since they support the process of structuringavailable information and formulating more preciseneeds for further information.Because mathematicians always know exactly whatthey are talking about, working painstakingly from precisedefinitions, the mathematical knowledge producedtends to be very robust and does not suffer from laterreinterpretations or paradigm shifts.Scientists usually look for deterministic models,where the state of the system at hand can be determinedfrom a defined initial state by calculation. We wereforced to back off a bit and reconsider our positionwhen quantum mechanics turned out to limit us tothe calculation of probabilities. But at least we couldargue that these probabilities could be deterministicallycalculated.The types of equations that are of value in one fieldmay differ quite a bit from those used in another field.It is nevertheless quite common that the same equationsemerge in what might at first have appeared tobe very different settings. Since the same equations dohave the same solutions, this creates opportunities for alot of cross-fertilization.An interesting question with a bearing on muchof the terminology used in the natural sciences, inparticular when we deal with objects that are literallytoo small to be seen, is the following: When does somethingexist?In practical terms, objects that are eventuallyconsidered to exist are those that are the objects of thefundamental theories (to be interpreted as widely applicablemathematical models in their particular contexts)and vice versa – once we believe we have them. This ismore or less what the word fundamental means. Thus,the quarks of physics are considered to exist althoughthey are particles that are essentially unable to take onidentities as well-defined isolated objects, but hide insidemore complex structures. In this way, mathematicsoffers necessary credence to the very concepts we haveintroduced to describe the systems we study in science.While the proper choice of variables – and correspondingfundamental objects – is normally ofcrucial importance in the successful application of

22 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006mathematical models, there are certainly instanceswhere the choice of what we believe to be reallyfundamental variables do not seem always to lead tothe simplest possible calculations necessary. In fact, a“fundamental” model may not necessarily lead directlyto any new and easily calculable results. 3 In general,this may mean that even in situations considered to beextremely well understood, many concrete questionscannot be analytically resolved by a mathematicalexpression in closed form.Often, of course, results can be obtained in importantparticular cases by the techniques of numericalanalysis. The hydrogen atom can easily be describedanalytically – and its stability explained – with thetools of quantum mechanics, and other small moleculescan also be handled well, in particular with theaid of today’s computers. But real physical pieces ofmatter with several million billion atoms cannot – yet– be treated in quite the same comprehensive way. Asthe powers of computers continue to grow, however,we can expect to gradually improve our ability tohandle larger and larger chunks using the fundamentaldescriptions. And in many situations we can resort togood phenomenological models that provide insight inparticular situations.Such non-fundamental models can sometimesbe inferred directly from observations using any of anumber of available techniques (function fitting, datatransforms, network architectures, filtering, state estimation,time series, etc.) or be developed on a more adhoc or inspirational basis. One can also hope to be ableto justify such models by properties of the fundamentaldescriptions, even if a straightforward application ofthe latter is intractable. Perhaps even very complexchemical reactions may be understood and computationallytractable using some kind of intermediaryconstructs.Instead of surrendering in the face of complexity,we should be encouraged by the happy marriage of experimentaland theoretical physics. Here considerablecomplexity has been brought under reasonably good3String theory can illustrate this. Some consolation may befound in the fact that in one of the few calculations that hasbeen possible to perform in string theory, black holes behaveprecisely as they are expected to.control. Mathematical models have been the centraltools used by theoretical physicists to describe theirhypotheses, which the experimental physicists have putto the test. And once you get a foot in the door, mathematicscan be a considerable help to your imagination.Paul Dirac hesitated to predict the positron, but as hesaid, “the equation was smarter than me”.Thanks to the work done in the last century, wecan claim a solid analytical basis for most physicallybased systems today. However, in practical situations,we often run up against another barrier. It is true thatanalytical models have been, and continue to be, ofgreat importance, but much of the world is simply toocomplicated to describe in this fashion. This is wherechemical models can come to the rescue in some situations.But it is also where numerical analysis and purelycomputerised calculations enter the fray.As a basis for computing, computers and the Internet,mathematics is growing rapidly in importancein all realms of science merely because computers arebeing increasingly used by scientists and the Internet isalready handling enormous amounts of scientific communication.But the changes go deeper than this.This evolution is supported by the emergence ofa significantly more powerful infrastructure involvingcollaborating computers. Following work under catchyterms like grid technology or semantic web, opportunitiesmay arise, as [=if!] interfaces are standardized, totackle complexity in ways that may only recently havebeen considered impossible.In structurally simple cases, one way of tackling themore important computationally difficult problems isto enlist the help of many ordinary people’s computers.Searches for prime numbers or extraterrestrial intelligenceare among the more well known computationaltasks that are split into small parts and distributed overthe Internet among available computer resources. Ingeneral, distributed computing should have a brightfuture, even though the very breakdown of computationsinto well isolated parts in general is itself a verytricky task.But the increasingly important role of computingis primarily due to the fact that computers are behinda revolution in the scientific method. “Hypothesise,design and run experiment, analyse results” is being re-

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 23placed or at least supplemented by “hypothesise, simulate,analyse results” or “hypothesise, look up answerin database”. Simulations and databases are becomingessential parts of the infrastructure of science. Databasesmay contain raw data, the results of computationalanalyses or simulations, or the products of annotationand organisation of data.The life sciences in particular put considerabledemands on its proponents to come up with ways tohandle concepts and data masses that will enable scientiststo make progress. In a field such as cell biology,things are very complicated with a large number ofrelevant quantities that we do not – yet – even knowhow to really measure. With steadily growing computerpower at our fingertips, we can hope to eventually beable to master the intricacies. Understanding the simplestpossible functioning cell will be a milestone fromwhich we can expect progress to accelerate.Progress can be highly nonlinear when computerprograms are able to access and integrate data frommany sources and identify relationships that a merehuman might never have discovered on her own. Forthis to be possible, researchers must be able to use theirprograms to discover and access services using universalcodes for data sources, programs or sensors. Somuch standardization work is required.Other types of progress will also be important forthe life sciences and health care; enormous amountsof data need to be handled in order to understand andcontrol functions or organs in the body and this willrequire data handling capacities and techniques thatwe can only dream of today. The large acceleratorsused in physics still serve as important drivers for newdatabase and communication technology, but theirrole will likely be transferred to needs of biology andmedicine in the near future.Moreover, whereas physics has often been ableto rely to a great extent on mathematics developedpreviously, independently of any application in physics,it may well be that living systems will require conceptuallynew mathematics. Compared with computers,living systems treat information differently, withoutphysical differences between the processors and thedata carriers. So far, this only obscures the contentsof the messages carried and breakthroughs are badlyneeded. Arguably, the situation is possibly worse thanit was for physics a hundered years ago, because mostof the necessary contributions of mathematicians tothe understanding of physics were actually alreadyavailable at that time.And even if we could grasp how information ishandled at the cellular level, this would not necessarilyhelp in modelling the cognitive functions of the brain.Very abstract models could perhaps make it easier toaddress these questions. Whether or not we will have toretreat any further from determinism in these modelsremains an open question.Now suppose you believe that you have found theequations relevant to the phenomena that you areinterested in. If you cannot solve them analytically, youmay still be able to solve your equations numericallyin the case at hand, and thus at least get the particularanswer that you want from your theory. In that caseyou can be reasonably content, if perhaps somewhatburdened by having to solve the equation again forevery single change in the parameters at hand.Your situation is slightly worse if you cannotsolve your equations even using computers. Perhapsthe necessary calculations take years using currentequipment. However – because Moore’s law is alsoin a sense working on the problem – if you can waita while, the time necessary for the calculation will begreatly reduced. If the very important calculation thatyou need the answer to will take, say, 4 years, and thisis slightly too late for your PhD, then you actually onlyneed to wait a while and find some newer and morecapable computer before you start the calculation.And you can probably also find ways to improve youralgorithms in the mean time . . .In this way, as time goes by, new problems comewithin our reach. When you pass a certain level ofcomputing power and/or mathematical modeling youcan suddenly conquer new scientific territories.It is perhaps inevitable, however, that many of theequations that seem relevant to the description of phenomenain Nature do not really have nice and interestingsolutions. To the extent that they provide “fundamentalinsights” in a field, we will perhaps always haveto make do with approximations of only short-term orshort-distance value. Weather forecasting will presu-

24 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006mably remain in this predicament forever, since it willbe inherently difficult to go beyond the approximatelytwo-week barrier existing without reducing the uncertaintyin the initial data to zero.Alternatively, we could try to address the forecastingproblem by starting with the climate models. Butunfortunately, this limits our ability to address muchshorter time scales than that of annual climate variations.So there appears to be a trade-off much like theuncertainty principles of quantum mechanics.However, there may still be a glimmer of hope: Theuniverse with all its wonders can be considered to functionlike a computer. From one moment to the nextthe universe changes its state by “computing” its nextstate in all its minutiae. Some of these steps are takenwith sublime elegance and an apparent minimum of“calculational effort”. Yet we often do not know howto model these simple steps to represent this elegancein mathematical language. Our best current efforts foreven a small part of the universe may still require whatis typically called astronomical calculations that takemuch more time than is needed for the actual events.But the very way in which natural events progress permitsus to hope that more viable theoretical models willeventually be possible to construct.It’s not that mathematics cannot by itself producecalculational nightmares. Take for example Ramseynumbers R(m,n), defined simply enough for a networkof points in a plane and links between the points thatare either red or blue, as the smallest number of pointsnecessary to guarantee the existence of m points connectedonly by red links or n points connected onlyby blue links. What Paul Erdös wrote some years agostill holds true: “Imagine an alien force, vastly morepowerful than us, landing on Earth and demanding thevalue of R(5, 5) or they will destroy our planet. In thatcase, we should marshal all our computers and all ourmathematicians and attempt to find the value. But suppose,instead, that they asked forR(6, 6), we would then have no choice, but shouldattempt to destroy the aliens”. Today R(5,5) is knownonly to be between 42 and 50.While it is true that mathematicians always doknow EXACTLY what they are talking about, in thevery practical sense that they only talk about what theyhave clearly defined, one could also take the directlyopposite view. Since a mathematical structure can inprinciple be an arbitrarily small part of a much morecomplex theoretical model, it is ALSO generally true,since the mathematician will know, or need to know,nothing about any such superstructure, that a mathematicianNEVER knows exactly what she is – really– talking about.And it may well be that you have a mathematicianin you if you appreciate that these two apparently contradictorystatements can both be simultaneously true.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 25A national strategy for microelectronicsAnders SjölundThe programme committee for microelectronics at theSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research has carriedout an assessment of the need for research in the fieldof microelectronics for the period 2008–2012.n BackgroundMicroelectronics, i.e. miniaturised electronic andoptical semiconductor components, has created thebasis for our modern IT society. The field has emergedover the past 40 years or so, and there is every reasonto presume that we have only seen the beginning of itsdevelopment. It is difficult to point out any field thathas been of such far-reaching importance for everydaylife in the post-war period as microelectronics. Onlybiotechnology could possibly have an equally great orgreater impact on society as a whole. Microelectronicsis currently developing into a truly interdisciplinaryfield. Knowledge of quantum physics, electricalengineering, photonics and circuit architecture mustbe combined with insights in system architecture andcomputer science. During the next few decades, ITapplications will be technology drivers for the developmentof components and subsystems and create a needfor technologies permitting faster and more complexsystems. All sectors will influence and benefit from thistrend.Microelectronics has been crucial in the developmentof modern society, and the world would be vastlydifferent today if semiconductor devices had not permittedthe development of computers, mobile phones,MP3 players etc. Even though certain parts of theelectronics industry already exhibit signs of maturity– consolidation, huge global companies – we foreseecontinued technological development at a rapid pace.For one thing, semiconductor technology is developingtowards nanodimensions, leading to new problems andopportunities. Being a part of this development andtaking advantage of the opportunities are vital for thecountry’s industrial future. About 50 % of all productsmanufactured in Sweden contain some kind of embeddedelectronic system, and this electronics represents25% of the manufacturing cost. With this as a basis,the programme committee has considered what kindof focus, structure and priorities a research programmefunded by SSF should have.The industrial structure in a country changesrather slowly. There are exceptions, for example thecomputer and software industry, which grew up duringthe second half of the 20th century. The programmecommittee draws the conclusion that the industry wewill have in Sweden in 2020 will largely be rooted inthe country’s existing industrial tradition and expertisebase. Naturally this does not mean it will look like itdoes today, but that it will develop further within itspresent-day areas of activity. The programme committeeventures a guess that at most 20 % of Swedishcompanies in 2020 will operate in completely newareas.With this as a point of departure, it follows that animportant purpose of research must be to supply trainedpersonnel and results that support the continueddevelopment of Sweden’s industrial tradition and expertisebase. Equally important is to create conditions

26 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006that stimulate entrepreneurship. It is worth pointingout that new business start-ups in high-tech fields havealmost exclusively originated at existing companies anduniversities. Industrial expertise bases with a high electronicscontent include telecommunications, industrialautomation, vehicles (automotive and aircraft), medicaltechnology and measurement technology.System aspects are becoming increasingly integratedin components and circuits, and high-volumeproduction is being concentrated in large companies.The programme committee believes that the structureof Swedish research is historically determined and notentirely adapted to modern conditions. The currentstructure, with roots in the eighties, contains a highproportion of process-oriented component activitieswhich are of international class and well-adapted tothe international trends, but which do not have anyobvious pathways to industrial application in Swedentoday. It is the programme committee’s opinion thatthe calls for proposals should encourage researchersto think along new lines. Further, researchers shouldbe encouraged to think more about applications inSweden, both in existing industry and as a basis forbusiness start-ups. The programme committee believesthat an important criterion for investing in new fieldsis that there should be a realistic vision for commercialexploitation in Sweden.n Foundation’s positioningThe Foundation’s role in the research-funding landscapeis perceived by the programme committee to beto fund research of high scientific quality that alsoembodies a realistic vision of industrial application inSweden within 5–15 years. Universities are primaryresearch providers. The initiatives funded by the Foundationshould be of a scope that gives research groupsan optimum size and a reasonable planning horizon.n Increase within system designParameterization of emerging technologies and CMOS; speed,size, cost and switching energyUntil recently, the development of complex integratedcircuits was largely based on Moore’s Law – “More ofMoore” – in other words, on the scaling of the basetechnology towards ever-smaller geometries with associatedincreases in performance in each circuit. Thisdownscaling will become increasingly difficult in thefuture, as we approach both physical and engineeringlimits. Further development will then increasinglycome to be based on better circuits, better architecturesand other innovations – “More than Moore”. In orderto secure the necessary competencies for this development,the programme committee believes that a strategicresearch programme in the field of microelectronicsshould include a substantial portion of system designand the activities should be firmly rooted in well-establishedSwedish systems know-how. The programmeshould include wireless infrastructure and terminals,broadband including terminals and infrastructure withoptical communications, and media (video, games etc.).n Technologies with a clear vision ofindustrial effects in SwedenSweden’s extensive research in microelectronics sincethe 1970s has also led to a broad expertise in whatcould be called the base technologies of microelectronics.Even though Sweden has lost the production ofthe industrially dominant CMOS technology, thereis potential for new, innovative technologies for nicheapplications. Examples of such areas are semiconductorswith large bandgaps for power management and

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 27lighting etc., organic semiconductors, such as electronicson paper, and photonics, especially integrated opticalfunctions. In order to secure Sweden’s capability topreserve and develop this expertise, a strategic researchprogramme is proposed that will include electronicand photonic component technologies. These activitieswould include microelectronic technologies with goodindustrial potential in Sweden, such as power semiconductors,organic electronics and photonics.n Low priority for process research forhigh-volume productsThe programme committee has previously pointed outthat no high-volume manufacture of silicon components,or of optical or other components on a largescale, will be established in Sweden. High-volumeproduction of silicon-based circuits has been discontinued,and Sweden has no comparative advantages forestablishing such production.No such disadvantages exist in Sweden for the startupof businesses within certain parts of the opticalcomponent field and other niche areas. A prerequisiteis that the products in question are able to bear the costof small-scale production or can be produced abroad.These considerations lead to the following conclusionsfor future research programmes in the field ofsemiconductor components:• Research in process technology for silicon technologyshould have low priority.• Priority should be given to new component typesand processes with highly innovative content whereeconomically viable paths can be envisioned forcommercialisation.

28 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006The preparatory graduate schools inbiomedicine – how did they turn out?Eva EnmarkThe preparatory graduate schools in biomedicine pioneereda new approach to graduate training. Many ofthe most important new elements they introduced havesubsequently been adopted in other courses and trainingprogrammes. In this respect the graduate schoolshave accomplished their purpose – and then some.In 1996 SSF started six biomedical graduateschools for the purpose of providing a preparatoryresearch training year with theoretical courses andpractical laboratory work. Organizations for the PhDcandidates were formed in six university towns (Umeå,Uppsala, Stockholm, Linköping, Göteborg and Lund).SSF provided 100 % of their funding during the firstfive years and 50 % during the next three.n BackgroundThe inspiration to establish a preparatory researchtraining year came from different universities in theUSA, including UCSF, where such courses had existedfor several years. The goal was to improve graduatetraining and improve the selection of students bymeans of a formal admissions process. The preparatoryresearch training courses were originally intendedto supply students to the PhD programmes started bySSF. Another objective was that the pharmaceuticalindustry should be able to recruit qualified personnelvia the graduate schools. It was therefore assumedthat representatives of the pharmaceutical industrywould play an active role, and that many of the workexperience placements would be at the companies. Animportant component was that the students shouldhave different backgrounds – engineering, medicine,natural sciences, pharmacology – and form interdisciplinarynetworks.n ImplementationThe first programme directors were recruited in theautumn of 1996. The first batch of students was admitted,and the training programmes started in January1997. With minor variations, the preparatory yearconsisted of about ten weeks of theoretical courses plustwo or three projects at different research departmentsor companies lasting a total of thirty weeks.Altogether, nearly 1 000 students have undergonethe preparatory research training year so far. It hasbeen a very worthwhile experience for both studentsand teachers. The students have learned more abouthow research is done, what rules apply and what theycan expect as PhD students. The teachers have seennaive expectations about research on the part of thenew students turn into new knowledge and enhancedself-confidence. Several of the programme directorssay it would be desirable if the natural route tograduate studies in the future would be via a systemsimilar to these graduate schools, since they have suchobvious advantages for both faculty supervisors andstudents. The supervisors have said that the studentsget a “flying start” into the world of research. This has

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 29enabled them to make more mature choices of researchprojects and made them familiar from the startwith many of the practical aspects of research, such aspresentation technique and report writing.n Follow-upThe preparatory research training programmes inUppsala and Stockholm are being conducted accordingto the same principles as before, while the one inLinköping has been tied more closely to the medicaltraining programme there. The other three have virtuallyshut down due to a lack of interest on the part ofthe concerned universities in funding the programmes.It is widely believed that very few preparatoryresearch training programmes will still exist in theirpresent form in a few years. However, many of theelements in the graduate schools will be taken overby other courses, for example master’s programmes.These 2-year advanced courses contain much of whatwas previously offered by the graduate schools.Several initiatives have been taken to attract moremedical students to research. Lund University offerssummer courses during three consecutive summers,with both theoretical subjects and laboratory projects.In Linköping the medical training has been modifiedso that the students can exchange a term of ordinarymedical studies for graduate school studies.n Successful – despite reservationsIn spite of ambitious efforts it has been difficult to fullyachieve the original objectives.A large majority of the students have come fromInauguration of Stockholm’s preparatory graduate school in biomedicine, a collaboration between Karolinska Institutet, the Royal Instituteof Technology and Stockholm University. Administrator Eva Ragnar, programme director Eva Severinson and programme boardchairman Lars Edström.The photo was taken 1996 at Karolinska Institutet. Photo: Ulf Sirborn

30 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Biomedical Networks and Graduate SchoolsLundGöteborgLinköpingStockholmUppsalainflammationneuro sciencecardiovascular Researchinfection & vaccinology5 MSEK/yglycoconjugates5 MSEK/y3 MSEK/y8 MSEK/y5 MSEK/yUmeå4 MSEK/y35 stud 17 MSEK/y35 stud 17 MSEK/y25 stud 13 MSEK/y25 stud 13 MSEK/y25 stud 13 MSEK/y145 stud 103 MSEK/yThe six preparatory graduate schools (in blue) were linked to fivenational biomedical network programmes (in red) (Inflammation,Neuroscience, Cardiovascular research, Infection and vaccinology,Glycoconjugates in biological systems).The yearly financing from SSF to each preparatory schooland network is shown, and also the number of available graduatestudent positions in each network. Approximately half of thestudents from the preparatory year were accepted as graduatestudents in one of the networks.Schematic drawing: Ingvar Lindgrendifferent study programmes in molecular biology. It hasbeen difficult to recruit medical students and engineers,probably due to the relatively good labour market forthese groups and the fact that these students train fora specific profession. Nevertheless, in spite of this lopsidedness,students from many disciplines have met inthe preparatory research training courses and formednetworks. Interest on the part of the companies hasnot been as great as had been hoped. At most graduateschools only a few projects have been carried out atcompanies. Where the company contacts have workedbest, this has probably been due to good personal contactsbetween individual scientists at universities andcompanies. Nevertheless, the students have learnedmore about the real world of industrial research thanksto study visits and company presentations, even thoughthey have not carried out so many projects at the companies.But the most important benefit of the preparatoryresearch training courses has been a new opennessbetween the worlds of business and academia.Contacts between these two worlds, as well as betweendifferent disciplines at the universities, are now seen asquite natural. This new attitude is largely attributableto programmes such as the graduate schools. And theprogramme directors I have spoken with all say thatthe preparatory graduate schools in biomedicine havebeen the most fun work they have ever had!

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 31Mobility between academia and industryJoakim AmorimIn the public debate today we are constantly confrontedwith the facts of global competition. Sweden is avery small country and it does not really make senseany more to speak about “Swedish” companies, at leastas long as one is referring to relatively large companies.Large companies will increasingly have to compete ona global market, and a company’s local/regional/nationalcompetitiveness is becoming increasingly lessimportant as time goes on. It is interesting to comparethis to science, which has been exposed to “globalisation”for a long time - being published and scrutinisedin an open, international scientific press. In a slightlynaïve perspective this could be said to stem from thefact that the search for a scientific “truth” should andcan not recognise any borders. Modern technology hasfurther enhanced this globalisation within science, andmost contemporary science is totally exposed to globalcompetition. This means, for instance, that even if acertain scientific constellation is the most productiveone within a specific area in Sweden, the value of theirscientific contributions could actually be questioned ifthere were hundreds of other stronger constellations inEurope and even more on the global scene. Althoughthere may be a number of other reasons for this groupto continue their research – such as education, supportingdomestic expertise within certain areas, nursingenabling technologies, etc. – global competitionimposes certain demands on scientific activities withina small country like Sweden. Certainly, isolation is nooption, nor can we expect to be at the cutting edgewithin every single scientific discipline. International,interdisciplinary and intersectorial collaboration is aprerequisite for successful scientific activities in oursmall country. Furthermore, the mobility of human resourcesis something that is increasingly emphasised byfunding agencies and others as a means of diversifyingskills and preventing inbreeding of knowledge.Human mobility can refer to mobility betweendifferent (scientific) disciplines, different parts of thecountry or parts of the world, different sectors in society,etc. The low mobility of researchers in Sweden isoften pointed out as a problem in reports and reviewsof Swedish research. One factor that further contributedto this low mobility was the university reform of1999 where lectors could be promoted to professorslocally. The fact that even “full professors” often haveto apply for their own salary and that positions are notalways internationally announced probably also leadsto reduced mobility – at least it reduces the number ofscientists coming to Sweden. Even considering theseproblems, it is worth noting, once again, the smallnessof our country, in the sense that moving from one SwedishUniversity to another may in some cases simplymean moving to a different desk but still collaboratingwith the same people and working in unchanged paradigms.In a European perspective, however, mobility ofthis kind can be expected to be very rewarding. In theSixth Framework Programme, a significant part of theavailable funding was used for Marie Curie Actions,partly aiming at enhanced mobility. If the SeventhFramework Programme passes the European Parliamentas expected, about 10 % of its large budget willbe aimed at mobility and science career development.In the US, sabbaticals are a common practice, where

32 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006scientists with faculty positions can, every seventh year,take a six-month sabbatical leave with full pay or atwelve-month leave with half the salary from their university.In the US as well, the NSF funds a programmecalled “GOALI – Grant Opportunities for AcademicLiaison with Industry” 1 that provides opportunities forintersectorial mobility.The barriers to all the mobilities discussed aboveare presumably not as high as the barrier to intersectorialmobility, such as mobility between academia andindustry. This is something that seems to contain several“natural” barriers. The basic problem and some ofthe barriers are listed by “ProTon Europe” 2 :“In spite of the relevance that governments, theEU Commission and other stakeholders attribute tointersectorial mobility, the actual numbers of researchersmoving between the public and the private sectorare still rather low. Barriers have been identified thatrestrain mobility:• different cultures in both sectors, lack of understanding,lack of skills• intellectual property rights• academic freedom vs. product development• time or salary restrictions for simultaneous employment,declaration of commercial activities• level of financial support for start-ups and spin-offs• differences in salary levels• formal requirements for academic positions (doctoraldegree)• transfer of pensions, social security rights• loss of aquired benefits and professional statuswhen moving to industryFurthermore, as regards temporary mobility (e.g. leavingacademia for half a year to work in industry orvice versa), it is not always a simple matter to let go ofpersonal for a period, as their domestic duties need tobe continuously attended to. In addition, some of thebasis for internal qualification may be lost due to suchmobility in both directions. The academic person gainsindustrial experience but loses otherwise ongoing academicqualification such as publication output (whichmay affect the possibility to receive research funding)and the industrial person gains academic experiencebut loses ongoing qualification in his industrial career.Several of the above barriers may be of such anature that they are not likely to change. But some ofthem need to be reduced if our society considers thiskind of mobility important for our future competitiveness.One removable obstacle could at least be theperception of broad expertise. A person with experiencefrom both academia and industry could perhapsbe more appreciated when applying for new positionsor research funding. Maybe this perception is different

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 33in Europe than in other parts of the world. The EuropeanCommission 3 notes that the number of researchersemployed in industry is 2,5 per thousand in Europe,as compared to 7,4 in the US and 8,9 in Japan.The Industry Committee recently published theresults of a survey concerning intersectorial mobility 4in which all Swedish universities participated. Theyreport that the number of professors in academia thatare funded by industry is slightly more than 200 andthat the number of industry PhDs that received theirdegree in 2005 was about 75. One would expect thatat least these persons would be in close contact withboth the academic and the industrial sphere. Still, itseems quite rare for persons from either the academicor the industrial sphere to make working visits or takesabbaticals for six months or so to the other sphere andthen return. These types of exchange positions havebeen called for in the Swedish system 5 .It is also worth noting here that the institute sectorin Sweden is very small in comparison with a numberof other countries. This has been a deliberate governmentalpolicy. Institutes otherwise tend to be a linkbetween academia and industry.Are the principles “once academic – always academic”and “once industry – always industry” reallyhealthy, or could we reduce these barriers in somesystematic way? After all, increased mobility in generaland increased intersectorial mobility in particularwould be important in promoting Swedish (and European)scientific excellence, innovativeness and competitiveness.Not to forget that, from a personal perspective,changing one’s professional arena also tends to bea lot of fun.References1 www.nsf.org, 2 www.protoneurope.org, 3 A mobility strategy for the European Research Area, Communicationfrom the Commission to the council and theEuropean Parliament, COM(2001) 331 final, 2001, 4 Personrörlighet mellan näringsliv och universitet och tekniskahögskolor-inom forskning och forskarutbildning (inSwedish), Industrikommittén, 20065 Kompetensflödet mellan akademi och näringsliv (in Swedish),SUHF & Industriförbundet, 2000In connection with strategic planning for 2006 at theSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research, possibleways of contributing to an increased mobility were discussed.Detailed planning and a feasibility study of thesepossibilities are under way.

34 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006SSF’s “Future Research Leaders”provides insight into research and innovation in ChinaHenryk WosThe first “Future Research Leaders” programmearoused a great deal of interest and was well receivedby researchers and universities. With this positive experience,the Governing Board of the Swedish Foundationfor Strategic Research (SSF) decided in its meetingof 11 February 2003 that a new programme wouldbe established and funds allocated for the purpose.Further, resources for a leadership training programmesimilar to that offered to the previous group of FutureResearch Leaders were established. In December 2004,SSF awarded grants to 18 young scientists expectedto become Future Research Leaders in academia andindustry. The grantees were selected from among 403applicants on the basis of their scientific ability aswell as their leadership abilities and initiative. Eachresearcher received a total grant of SEK 6 million fora period of four years. Additional funding for anothertwo years would be considered for some of the granteesfollowing an evaluation.The leadership training programme is headed byProfessor Sune Svanberg, LTH, assisted by a ProgrammeCommittee with the following members: BengtKasemo, chairman; Bertil Daneholt, Professor KI; AstridGräslund, Professor SU, Maris Hartmanis, GambroAB; Ingalill Holmberg, Professor HH; IngemarLundström, Professor LiU. The unique feature of theleadership programme is that it consists of three parts:first two-day seminars called “training camps”, seconda practical mentor programme, and finally a study trip.In the autumn of 2005 the group began preliminarydiscussions regarding the study trip. After a fewmonths of collecting ideas a proposal emerged withaims and preferred destinations. Finally the majority ofthe “Future Research Leaders” Bild group 4 chose China asthe destination for a study trip in competition with otherdestinations such as Japan and the USA. The mainreasons cited for visiting China were the country’s fasteconomic growth and the interesting development ofits research system. A further important reason wasthat China is expected to have a high impact on bothinternational competition and collaboration in thefuture. From a Swedish perspective it is important notonly to develop business contacts with China but alsoto establish networks in research.In recent years SSF has cooperated with ITPS(Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies) to arrange,for example, a successful study trip to Japan in 2003. Asa result of this positive experience, SSF chose ITPS tohelp arrange this study trip. ITPS came up with a uniqueitinerary and relevant support, which was consideredvery valuable. This included insights into China andachieved many important aims, such as:• making it possible to create contacts between the“Future Research Leaders” and Chinese counterpartsin order to establish contacts for futureexchange• providing greater knowledge and understanding ofChina’s research and innovation system, includinginformation about major academic institutions andorganisations

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 35The “Future Research Leaders” had a very interesting meeting with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is the national academyfor the natural sciences. Membership in the Academy represents the highest level of national honour for Chinese scientists.• providing specific insights into particular Swedishresearch activities with Chinese partners• establishing contact with research activities sharedbetween Sweden and China• providing greater knowledge and understandingconcerning Chinese culture, values and lifestyle• enabling the group to achieve further integration.When it was time to make a final decision on theitinerary it became clear that it could not be a primaryobjective to tailor all visits to each participant’s specialscientific interests because scientific specialisationvaried widely within the group. So an appropriatesolution for part of the itinerary was to divide thegroup into smaller subgroups to get deeper insight intochosen research areas. The selection of people and organisationsto visit was based on previously establishedcontacts and ongoing collaborations between Swedenand China. This also includes Chinese contacts maintainedby visiting researchers.The “Future Research Leaders” formed a planninggroup consisting of six of its members within threeThe “Future Research Leaders” were warmly welcomed by a huge banner at the Yuquan campus of Zhejiang University, which is rankedamong the top ten universities in China and receives special funding through the government’s programme for elite universities.

36 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006main research areas: Life Sciences, IT/Telecom andMaterials Science, and Professor Sune Svanberg wasa key person in coordinating planning activities, withthe support of SSF and ITPS. With a proposal fromthe group, ITPS came up with an itinerary for the visit.The preparatory work included a one-day workshopon the theme China. Magnus Breidne of ITPS wasamong the invited guests, along with Mr Lu Fengding,the ambassador from the People´s Republic of Chinain Stockholm, who held a very interesting lecture aboutcurrent developments in China.As a result of the contributions of all involved partiesand a translation of the objectives into a concreteprogramme, the following itinerary was arrived at forthe study trip:• Information meeting at the Swedish Embassy andreception hosted by the Ambassador, Beijing• Ericsson R&D Center, Beijing• The Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing• Hua Da Bio-Research Institute, Beijing• Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing• Peking University• Health Science Center of Peking University• Zhejiang University, Hangzhou• The Joint Research Center of Photonics of theRoyal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University,Hangzhou• Fudan University, Shanghai• Fenglin Medical Campus, Shanghai• Biological Sciences Research Institute, CAS, Shanghai• Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica• Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU)Another important part of the study trip was an introductionto Chinese culture, and two interesting visitswere organised for this purpose: to the Forbidden City,formerly the imperial palace of the Ming and Qingdynasties, and to The Great Wall of China, which wasbuilt mainly to protect the Chinese Empire from theMongols and other invaders.From left Anna Maria Blom and ÅsaStrand in the front of the Guardian lions,also called the Fu Dogs (Shi 獅 ), inthe Forbidden City.The group shown on an excitingvisit to the Great Wall of China

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 37ProEnviro – a joint ventureLars Frenningn BackgroundThe Foundation has decided to support a new programmein the area of product realisation - ProEnviro.The programme is being set up jointly by the Foundationfor Strategic Environmental Research, Mistra, andthe Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, SSF.The well established programme ProViking is servingas a model for ProEnviro.The aim of the new Research Programme is tostimulate the development of a new generation ofglobally competitive products, production processesand/or services designed for high performance andradical reduction of pressures on natural resources andthe environment during their entire life cycle.RecyclingMaintenanceProduct useIdeasEnvironmentalperformanceDistributionDevelopmentManufacturingAssemblyThe ProEnviro programme will support projects carriedout in collaboration between small and mediumsizedcompanies and universities/institutes.The budget for the next 3 years amounts to SEK 60million. Additional support from other sources, mainlyparticipating industry, is assumed to be about the sameamount.n ResultThe result of the programme will be to produceworld-class research within the areas indicated belowand implement the findings in industry. The supportwill target the entire product realisation process. Theresearch will include the creation of new concepts,theories, methods, tools and procedures/processes.The need to master increasingly complex processesentails a greater focus on the connection betweenvarious areas of technology and management: innovation-engineering-operationmanagement or technologymanagement.The research should be aimed at products, servicesand/or industrial processes.The following research topics are foreseen in thearea of “Products and services”:• Development of system concepts for flexible andadaptable design• Development with a focus on delivering functionsto meet customer needs.• Integrated systems engineering supporting the useof multiple technologies in advanced products• Development of concepts for flexible and reconfigurableproduction systems• Development of “virtual products”, including methodsfor realistic modelling, simulation and optimisationof the functionality of the complete product .The following research topics are foreseen in the areaof “Industrial Processes”:• Product data and knowledge management throughoutthe life cycle of the product

38 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006• Internal processes in combination with externalprocesses in international partnership networks andsupply chains• Methods for analysing and describing value creationin customer terms• Product realisation processes, including innovation,management and organisation• Production system concepts including the supplychain• Product system concepts and methods for describingproduct functions, performance features andgeometrical boundary conditions• Methods and software so that virtual components,subassemblies and ultimately the complete productscan be simulated through the whole product lifecycle.• Product support, including maintenance and aftermarketactivitiesThe research to be supported should be focused onareas that are considered to be of key importancefor the companies’ competitiveness. The researchprogramme is geared towards SMEs, including bothestablished manufacturing companies and new emergingcompanies, and their needs as regards productrealization. Visionary and creative proposals – withhigh potential as well as high risk – are encouraged.n Management and operational formProEnviro like ProViking will be a separate unit withinthe Foundation - SSF.ProEnviro has its own board with people fromindustry and universities.The Chairman of the Board is Billy Fredriksson,formerly of SAAB Aircraft.Other board members are Kristina Alsér, MercatusEnginering, Peter Enå, Morphic Technologies, EvaLeire, Lund University and Bengt Lindberg, RoyalInstitute of Technology.Britt Marie Bertilsson, Mistra and Lars Frenning,SSF are also members of the board. Lars Frenning isProgramme Director.n Call for proposals and evaluationDuring the three-year period there will be two calls forproposals. The first call was in June 2006 with deadlinein October. Fourteen applications were received.Evaluation of proposals started immediately, based onthe criteria strategic importance, industrial relevanceand scientific level and uniqueness. Two independentAdvisory Councils have been established for the evaluationprocess.Gunilla JönsonHans FolkessonImpeller and pump casing for a high-efficiency wastewaterpump. Picture: ITT FlygtThe Scientific Council is chaired by Gunilla Jönson,Lund University and the Industrial Council by HansFolkesson, Volvo Car.The ambition is to select a limited number of projectsand sign contracts in January 2007.For more information please visit the programme’swebsite www.proenviro.se

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 39”Dancing by the doorway”Björn BrandtThe Foundation’s capital showed moderate growthin 2006, which reflects the fact that this is the fourthconsecutive year of growth on the global stock markets.In comparison with the very successful year 2005,capital growth in 2006 was more moderate, from SEK10,1 billion to 10,4 billion, despite the fact that SEK 659million was distributed to various research activities.A graph showing capital growth since the establishmentof the Foundation in 1994 is shown in Figure 1 togetherwith cumulative research disbursements during thesame time period.The year 2006 was characterised by conflictingphenomena. The stock market developed favourably,and Swedish and international companies reportedhigh earnings and expansion. But there was highvolatility on the stock markets with several downturns.The most important one was in mid-May when stockmarkets fell globally: for instance the Stockholm StockExchange (OMX) fell by 15 percent. Viewed over theFigure 1: Foundation Capital 1993–2006Million SEK14 00012 00010 0008 0006 0004 0002 00001993CapitalCumulative researchdisbursements1994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006whole year, the Swedish stock market index had a substantialgain of 29 percent.In a number of steps beginning in the autumn of2005, the Foundation has reduced the equity portionof its assets. This has been offset by a more favourabledevelopment of the stock market than expected,resulting in a fairly even balance between equities andbonds over the year. The Foundation has lowered itsexposure to some equity markets, for example Far EastEmerging markets. A more detailed description ofthe development and distribution of assets in 2006 isshown in Figure 2.The future strength of the Foundation as animportant Swedish research funding organisation iscompletely dependent on how much capital it has atits disposal and how well the assets are managed. Agood performance broadens the funding possibilities.In order to secure the funding of research projects foryears to come, a balance must be struck between a highreturn at high risk and a low return at low or no risk.This can be compared to either putting the assets in abank account or betting on red or black on the roulettewheel at a casino. The bank account would yield a fewpercent in interest, while betting on red or black coulddouble the capital at one stroke - or lose it all....Many factors affect capital growth. The state ofthe global economy and the macroeconomic trend arefactors completely outside the Foundation’s control.Choosing between investing in different companies(stock picking) and between bonds of different termsand kinds is the responsibility of the banks whomanage most of the Foundation’s assets. However,

40 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Figure 2 a: Allocation of AssetsMSEK5000450040003500300025002000150010005000SwedishEquitiesInternationalEquitiesDec 05 Dec 06FixedIncomeSpecialFundsFigure 2 b: Distribution of Equities Dec 20066 %10 %3 %4 %4 %73 %Swedish EquitiesUS EquitiesEuropean EquitiesJapan EquitiesEast European EquitiesFar East Equitiesselection of managers and allocation between differentforms of assets is determined within the Foundation bythe Capital Committee, acting on instructions from theGoverning Board. This allocation is generally regardedas the single most important factor in capital managementand thus requires careful consideration. Thefollowing text provides an example of how the CapitalCommittee works and takes the form of a short diaryof a year in the life of the committee.The title ”Dancing by the doorway” represents anattempt to describe in poetic terms how the committeeworks. The dance floor represents the stock market andother volatile assets. On the other side of the doorwayare bonds and cash - dull, safe investments with a relativelylow return. Standing near the entrance meansthat when the music ends or becomes discordant, youcan quickly move out into the safe haven. Timing is ofthe utmost importance, and since no one has a crystalball, there are bound to be mistakes. Being too cautiousmeans missing out on the bull market because you donot have enough equities. Being too daring means makinggreat losses when the stock market falls sharply.n Capital Committee activities in 2006January: After a successful year, 2005, with strongcapital growth, the crucial question is: Will the goodtimes roll on? Four successive years of growth on thestock markets is rare and there are signs of a falteringeconomy on the most important market: the USA. Thecommittee decided that the Foundation should continueto reduce the equity portion of its holdings. InOctober and December 2005, 10 percent of the capitalwas reallocated from equities to bonds. In a telephonemeeting of the committee after a fall in the markets,it was decided to shift another 4 percent of the totalcapital from equities to bonds.February: Still a volatile situation on the markets. Another4 percent shifted from equities to bonds. Decisionto reduce real return bonds and increase nominalbonds and corporate bonds. Discussion regardingadditional investment in ”special funds” which meansincreased hedge fund investments. New investment in aSwedish fixed income fund to increase the diversificationof risks in the growing bond portfolio.March: Discussion concerning real estate investments.Decision: no investment now - too late to take advantageof the previous very positive trend in real estateequities. Discussion concerning investments in secondhand market for life insurance. Discussion concerninganother 4 percent reduction in equities. First discussionconcerning private equity as investment diversification.April: Confirmation of previous decision to reduceequity proportion by 4 percent. Continued discussionconcerning private equity. Chairman and secretarywill have discussions with one of the hedge funds withquestionable results.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 41May: Meeting with a leading private equity company.Plan to increase volume of hedge fund investments.Two telephone meetings at short notice due to turbulenceand fall in equity markets. Decision: anotherreduction in equities by 5 percent of total assets. OneFar East Emerging markets equity fund sold. Preparationsfor board presentation.June: Recovery of markets after May turbulence butstill volatile. Planning for a possible further cut in equities.Extensive discussion of questions related to sociallyresponsible investments based on our consultant’sreport. No holdings found in ”black listed” companiesthat exceed the acceptable limits (5 percent for mutualfunds). One manager with excessive involvement intobacco stocks sold in May.July: Telephone meeting to follow market development.Preparations for discussion with possible newmanager of Japanese equities to replace one of themanagers. Further discussions concerning increasein hedge fund holdings. Market situation better thanexpected, so decision on further reduction in equitiespostponed.August: Interview with new possible hedge fundmanagers. Start of negotiations with bond managers toobtain broader mandate allowing higher returns. Firstdiscussion concerning index equity management as anadditional element in portfolio. Discussion concerningnew UN principles for responsible investment. Decisionto stay with present allocation between equities andbonds. Planning of possible visit to Eastern Europe tofollow up investments in new EU member states.September: Discussion concerning index investmentswith one of the leading Swedish banks. First discussionconcerning ”Fundamental indices”. Presentationof a possible new Fund-of-fund international alternativeinvestment. Decision concerning broadened bondmandates. Two Japanese equity index possibilitiesdiscussed.October: Current allocation between equities andbonds discussed and still judged appropriate. Interviewwith one alternative investment manager who hasshown negative results for the last four months. We donot like to lose money!November: First month without any formal meeting!December: Meeting with a new possible SwedishEquity Fund manager.During the year the Capital Committee has held 13meetings, including 5 short telephone discussions!

42 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Programme overview with basic factsKerstin HagwallFramework grants and individual grants, graduateschools, research programmes and research centresthat SSF has funded in 2006 are listed below accordingto the main scientific area of the research. The areasare: Applied Mathematics, Information Technology,Life Sciences and Life Science Technologies, MaterialsScience and Technology, Microelectronics and Productionand Process Technology. Several programmesinclude researchers from more than one of these areas.Foundation-wide programmes are presented under aspecial heading at the end of this overview. Graduateschools, research programmes and research centres aredescribed in brief.Links to them can be found on SSF’s websitehttp://www.stratresearch.se/.n Applied MathematicsFramework grants in applied mathematicsScientific Host university/ Programme total grant Periodleader institute mSEKAmberg Gustav KTH Mathematical theory and simulation tools 13 2002 - 2007for phase transformations in materialsEngquist Björn KTH Advanced computing techniques for new discoveries in 13,5 2002 - 2007science and engineeringHolst Ulla LU Spatial statistics and image analysis for environment and health 9 2002 - 2006Kaj Ingemar UU Stochastic methods in telecommunications 6 2002 - 2006Kågström Bo UmU Matrix pencil computations in computer-aided control 11,5 2002 - 2007system design: theory, algorithms and softwarePalmgren Juni KI Multivariate statistical models in epidemiology, genetics 13,5 2002 - 2007and bioinformaticsRoos Björn LU Computational chemistry software for industry and academia 7,5 2002 - 2006Nävert Uno Foundation for Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics 10 2002 - 2008AppliedMathematics

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 43Strategic centres in applied mathematicsCentre director Host university Centre total grant PeriodmSEKLindquist Anders KTH Strategic Research Centre for Industrial and 22 2006 - 2010Rootzén Holger CTH Applied Mathematics (CIAM) 22 2006 - 2010Strategic Research Centre for Mathematical Modelling (GMMC)Strategic Research Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (CIAM)At this centre researchers from both core mathematics and applied mathematics collaborate with industry to create a bridgebetween a broad range of mathematics and industrial applications. The purpose is two-fold: (i) to develop new mathematics ofrelevance to applications and to disseminate these results to industry, and (ii) to give a new generation of mathematicians a profoundunderstanding and experience of mathematics applications.The centre will be run by a consortium of experts in analysis, discrete mathematics and combinatorics, stochastics, numerics,optimization, systems theory, and computer science.Strategic Research Centre for Mathematical Modelling (GMMC)The goal of this centre is to sharpen the competitive edge of industry by providing new mathematicaland statistical tools, to support society by providing safer and more equitable models, and to provide all of science with the best toolsfor mathematical and statistical analysis and modelling, thereby contributing to the adaptation of universities to the rapidly changingneeds of society and industry.The centre will cover the fields of risk, reliability and quality (fatigue, corrosion, financial risk, robust design), biomathematics(bioinformatics, systems biology, medical statistics), computational technology (viscoelastictiy, biology), optimisation (radiationtreatment, logistics, product design) and spatial statistics and algorithms (environmental statistics, microarrays, gels, drug delivery).This kind of knowledge could not be acquired without the interdisciplinary structure of the centre, integrating the GothenburgStochastic Centre, new applied mathematics research groups, researchers from quality science and the Fraunhofer-Chalmers ResearchCentre for Industrial Mathematics (FCC).n Information TechnologyFramework grants in information technologyScientific Host university/ Programme total grant Periodleader institute M mSEKAhlgren Bengt SICS Winternet - A Swedish initiative for advanced internet research 20 2002 - 2007Carlsson Stefan KTH Vision in cognitive systems, VISCOS 15 2002 - 2007Christensen Henrik KTH Autonomous Systems 20 2002 - 2007Fritzson Peter LiU Research Centre for Integrational Software Engineering 7 2002 - 2007Hansson Hans MdH Component based design of safety critical vehicular systems, SAVE 17 2002 - 2007Hughes John CTH Combining verification methods in software development 8 2002 - 2006Höök Kristina SICS Research on mobile services 19 2002 - 2007Levin Björn SICS An “English butler” for the process industry 6 2002 - 2007Ljung Lennart LiU Centre of Excellence for Modelling and Simulation 18 2002 - 2007Sternad Mikael UU Wireless IP 10 2002 - 2007Zander Jens KTH Affordable wireless services & infrastructures, AWSI 17 2002 - 2007Årzén Karl-Erik LU Flexible embedded control systems, FLEXCON 10 2002 - 2006

44 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Individual grants in information technologyIndividual grants for future research leadersGrantholder Host university/ Project total grant PeriodinstitutemSEKKarlsson Anders KTH Quantum Information Technologies 10 2001 - 2007Molisch Andreas LU Double-directional mobile radio channels 10 2001 - 2007Sands David CTH ProSec-Programming Language Methods for Computer Security 10 2001 - 2007Akenine-Möller LU Mobile devices for exploitation of coherence and culling 6 2005 - 2009Tomasalgorithms, MOCCAHolmquist Viktoria Institute Ubiquitous computing (UBICOMP) 6 2005 - 2009Lars-ErikHöök Kristina SICS Sustaining the affective loop between users and systems, INVOLVE 6 2005 - 2009Johansson KTH Network-embedded control (NEC) 6 2005 - 2009Karl HenrikIngvar Carlsson Award for young postdocs returning to Sweden from abroadGrantholder Host university Project total grant PeriodmSEKHoffman Johan KTH Adaptive computation of turbulent flow 3 2006 - 2008Khan Malek UU Distributed simulations of macromolecules 3 2006 - 2008Senior individual grantRantzer Anders LU Distributed control of complex systems 6 2006 - 2008Graduate schools, the Interactive Institute and strategic research centres in information technologyScientific Host university/ Prepratory graduate total grant Periodleader institute school/Centre mSEKHolmgren Sverker VR Scientific computing, national graduate school (NGSSC) 75,645 1996 - 2007Karlsson Johan M LU Personal communication and computing (PCC) 155 1996 - 2006Brändas Erkki UU Instrumentation and measurements (AIM) 52 1998 - 2006Hansson Hans A UU Real time research (ARTES) 95 1998 - 2007Truvé Staffan II The Interactive Institute 267,5 1998 - 2007Hansson Hans MdH Strategic Research Centre for Predictable Embedded Software 43 2006 - 2010Systems (PROGRESS)Ljung Lennart LiU Strategic Research Centre for Modelling, Visualisation and 45 2006 - 2010Information Integration (MOVIII)

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 45Scientific Computing, National Graduate School (NGSSC)The preparatory graduate school is organised as a national network primarily for scientific computing in high-performancecomputers. Special attention is given to opportunities to reinforce the use of mathematical knowledge in areas where themathematical tradition has been neglected.The original grant expired in December 2003, but SSF awarded a grant of SEK 8 million for a three-year extension of thegraduate school and a grant of SEK 7,2 million for additional course development and graduate student support. In 2006, SSFawarded a grant of SEK 3 million in addition to the five-year grant awarded by the Swedish Research Council.Personal communication and computing (PCC)Research programme and graduate school aimed at developing a platform for future communication systems. Research has a strongindustrial focus and includes circuit design, data transmission, and wireless infrastructure and services.Instrumentation and measurement (AIM)Research programme and graduate school with a focus on advanced instrumentation and measurement of relevance to Swedishindustry. The programme is included in the Centre for Astronomy and Physics, where astrophysicists, space physicists andradiation physicists work together in researching the microcosmos and the macrocosmos. Also included in the research area is thedevelopment of detectors and large-scale measurement systems, measurement methods, signal processing, data capture, modellingand simulation.In 2003 a grant of SEK 7 million was added to the programme for a three-year extension of the preparatory graduate school.Real time research (ARTES)The research and graduate training programme is focused on real time systems and includes broad participation from universitiesand industry. Real time systems are computer-based systems that control the ongoing process and process data quickly enoughto give the results required in the time desired. Real time systems are vital components in a wide range of different systems andproducts – from micromechanical actuators to globe-spanning communication systems.In 2003, a grant of SEK 7 million was added to the programme for a three-year extension of the graduate school. The period hasbeen extended to 2007.The Interactive InstituteThe Interactive Institute is a multidisciplinary, innovation-oriented research institute working in the area of digital media. The Instituteoperates in the border zone between art, technology, science and enterprise.The Interactive Institute has been built up step by step in the form of studios located throughout Sweden. Today the Instituteconsists of ten studios located in Stockholm, Göteborg, Piteå and Växjö.SSF was the owner of the Institute until June 2005. The Institute is now owned by the Swedish Institute of Computer Science,SICS, but SSF is still a funder.Strategic Research Centre for Modelling, Visualization and Information Integration (MOVIII)The mission of MOVIII is to develop tools and techniques for integrated decision, support and autonomy for complex systems,grounded in experience with a wide spectrum of deployed systems and applications. The work will build on the teams’ corecompetence in the basic techniques of modelling, visualization and information integration, which are the cornerstones of advanceddecision support. It will be carried out in close cooperation with end users and will deal with particular applications, primarily foraerial vehicles, automobiles and information systems in health care.Five research groups from the disciplines of automatic control, signal processing, computer science, artificial intelligence, andvisualization collaborate at the centre.The aim is to generate techniques of generic importance while at the same time delivering tools of practical value to industryand health care.Strategic Research Centre for Predictable Embedded Software Systems (PROGRESS)PROGRESS is dedicated to finding methods for cost-effective management of the increasing complexity of software in computerbasedproducts. Adopting a software-component approach to engineering and re-engineering of embedded software systems,PROGRESS will provide theory, methods, and tools that increase quality and reduce life-cycle costs.Continued development of Swedish expertise in this area is a key strategic issue for dominating industrial sectors, such as theautomotive, telecom and automation industries.

46 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006n Life Sciences and Life Science TechnologiesFramework grants in the life sciences and life science technologiesFramework grants “Bio-X”Scientific leader host Programme total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKEnejder Annika/ Gustafsson Lena CTH/ CTH Imaging of glucose in living cells by CARS microscopy 5,5 2005 - 2008Frisén Jonas/ Lundeberg Joakim KI/ KTH Utilization of stem cells in regenerative medicine 5,5 2005 - 2008von Heijne Gunnar/ Widengren Jerker SU/ KTH Studies of membrane protein interactions 5 2005 - 2008Hertz Hans/ Brahme Anders KTH/ KI Novel compact x-ray sources for biomedical imaging 5,5 2005 - 2008Kirik Deniz/ Golman Klaes LU/ LU Monitoring brain dopamine synthesis by MRS 5,5 2005 - 2008Nilsson Dan-E/ Sparr Gunnar LU/ LU Biological principles of machine vision 5 2005 - 2008Nyström Thomas/ Hanstorp Dag GU/ CTH Functional cytology: detection of cellular damage 5,5 2005 - 2008Richter-Dahlfors Agneta/ KI/ LiU Recording and regulating cell signaling by 5,5 2005 - 2008Berggren Magnusorganic electronicsSmith Edvard/ Strömberg Roger KI/ KI Generation of biologically active nanocomplexes 5,5 2005 - 2008Ulfendahl Mats/ Haviland David KI/ KTH Nanostructured bioelectronic interfaces 5,5 2005 - 2008Framework grants in Chemistry for the Life SciencesScientific leader host Programme total grant Perioduniversity/ MmSEKinstituteBäckvall Jan-Erling SU Enzyme and metal catalysis in enantioselective 3 2004 - 2006organic synthesisChattopadhyaya Jyoti UU New chemistry targeted at the design, synthesis and 3 2004 - 2007biological evaluation of modified small interfering RNAHallberg Anders UU Selective and fast synthesis towards peptide mimetics 3 2004 - 2007Hansson Per UU Polymer/lipid particles for protein drug delivery 3 2004 - 2007Hermansson Anne-Marie SIK Structure and mobility in heterogeneous systems 3 2004 - 2006Lindahl Ulf UU Oligosaccharide libraries in protein binding 3 2004 - 2006Mattiasson Bo LU Grafted smart polymers 3 2004 - 2007Moberg Christina KTH New tools for efficient development of asymmetric 3 2004 - 2007metal catalysisMoritz Thomas SLU Metabolomics: methodology and applications 3 2004 - 2007Nilsson Ulf J LU Chemistry approach to probe galectin function 3 2004 - 2007Teeri Tuula KTH Chemo-enzymatic fibre engineering 3 2004 - 2006Wärnmark Kenneth LU Designed nanotubes as artificial membrane channels 3 2004 - 2006

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 47Framework grants in Comparative Functional GenomicsScientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKAndersson Leif SLU The molecular basis of phenotypic diversity in farm animals 3 2004 - 2006Andersson Siv UU Comparative functional genomics of multihost pathogens 3 2004 - 2006Ericson Johan KI Using comparative functional genomics as a tool to understand 3 2004 - 2006CNS developmentGustafsson Claes KI Programming the transcriptome 3 2004 - 2006Holmdahl Rikard LU Comparative functional genomics of mice, rats and humans 3 2004 - 2006to address complex autoimmune diseasesHultmark Dan UmU A genomic study of immunity 3 2004 - 2007Jansson Stefan UmU Comparative functional genomics of leaf senescence 3 2004 - 2006Larsson Christer LU Comparative functional genomics of the plant plasma membrane 3 2004 - 2006Samakovlis Christos SU Comparative functional genomics of tubulogenesis 3 2004 - 2006Wolf-Watz Hans UmU Functional analysis of the vag-gene family 3 2004 - 2006– a constitute of conserved genes among bacterial pathogensFramework grants in micro systems technology (see also under Materials Science and Technology)Scientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKHamp Sven MdH Cell and bacteria detection and identification using a micro system 4 2002 - 2006Nilsson Johan LU Microfluidic bioanalysis system based on ultrasonic manipulation 7,45 2002 - 2006Stemme Göran KTH Transdermal interfacing for biomedical applications 7,5 2002 - 2006Individual grants in the life sciences and life science technologiesIndividual grants for future research leadersGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKArenas Ernest KI Neural development and neural stem cell therapy for 10 2001 - 2007Parkinson’s diseaseDanielsson Mats KTH Novel X-ray imaging techniques 10 2001 - 2007Gustafsson Claes KI Mediator - structure and function 10 2001 - 2007Kempe Maria LU Polymers for biomedical applications 10 2001 - 2007Larsson Nils-Göran KI Genes for mammalian mitochondrial biogenesis 10 2001 - 2007Neutze Richard CTH Structural intermediates of membrane proteins, soluble proteins 10 2001 - 2007and photochemical systems

48 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Individual grants for future research leaders (Cont.)Grantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKNilsson Ove SLU Control of flowering in annuals and perennials 10 2001 - 2007Ohlsson Claes GU Endocrine regulation of skeletal tissue 10 2001 - 2008Orwar Owe CTH Networks for integrated biosensor and biocomputer system 10 2001 - 2007Richter-Dahlfors Agneta KI Bacteria-induced (Ca2+) oscillations in cells 10 2001 - 2007Strømme Maria UU Pharmaceutical materials science 10 2002 - 2008Agace William LU Targeting tissue tropic effector T cells 6 2005 - 2009Blom Anna Maria LU Inhibitors of complement system 6 2005 - 2009Ericson Johan KI Cell fate specification in the developing CNS 6 2005 - 2009Hammarström Per LiU Protein misfolding diseases 6 2005 - 2009Höök Fredrik LU Miniaturized sensors for biorecognition studies 6 2005 - 2009Klingberg Torkel KI Development and plasticity of cognitive functions 6 2005 - 2009Käll Mikael CTH Biophysical imaging 6 2005 - 2009Strand Åsa UmU Elucidating signaling networks in plants 6 2005 - 2009Wahren-Herlenius Marie KI Rheumatic disease – a translational approach tounderstanding pathogenesis and developing intervention 6 2005 - 2009Zierath Juleen KI Discovery of Type 2 diabetes targets; ICEBERG 6 2005 - 2009Eriksson Maria KI The molecular pathogenesis of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria 2 2005 - 2007Norrby-Teglund Anna KI Streptococci and innate immunity, IMMUNOGAS 2 2005 - 2007Ingvar Carlsson Award for young postdocs returning to Sweden from abroadGrantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKBryder David LU Consequences of stem cell aging in hematopoiesis 3 2006 - 2008Buervenich-Paddock Silvia KI Genetic studies in bipolar affective disorder 3 2006 - 2008Bäckhed Fredrik GU Metabolic syndrome and the gut microbiota 3 2006 - 2008Ehrsson Henrik KI Neural mechanisms of body ownership 3 2006 - 2008Kreuger Johan UU Mechanisms of lymph and blood vessel formation 3 2006 - 2008Lindahl Erik SU Modeling, refinement, and simulation of membrane proteins 3 2006 - 2008Lindkvist Karin GU Structural studies of sugar transporters 3 2006 - 2008Lindskog Maria KI Memory modulation by endogenous reward system 3 2006 - 2008Topgaard Daniel LU Molecular mobility in microheterogeneous media 3 2006 - 2008Turner Charlotta UU Eco-efficient upgrading of biomass waste – high impact extraction 3 2006 - 2008and nanoparticle formulation

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 49Senior individual grantsGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKStenflo Johan LU Vitamin K-dependent proteins 6,79 2000 - 2007Borrebaeck Carl LU Nanobiotechnoloy for design of antibody nanoarrays 6 2006 - 2008Bäckvall Jan-Erling SU Molecular biological techniques for creating novel 6 2006 - 2008enzymes for selective organic synthesisKirsebom Leif UU Non-coding RNA in molecular pathogenesis 6 2006 - 2008Lundström Ingemar LiU Indicators for computer-based spectral fingerprinting 6 2006 - 2008Peterson Carsten LU Systems biology 6 2006 - 2008Other individual grants in the life sciences and life science technologiesGrantholder Host Project total grant PerioduniversitymSEKKann Nina CTH New methods for solid phase synthesis 10 2000 - 2007Swoboda Peter KI The development of sensory structures in C. elegans 10 2001 - 2007Normark Staffan KI Microbe-host interactions in health and disease 6 2006 - 2008Other grants in the life sciences and life science technologiesCollaboration with Genome CanadaGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKAndersson Siv UU Animal- and plant-associated bacteria 3 2004 - 2006Bhalerao Rishikesh SLU Generation of novel tools for large-scale analysis of gene-regulating 3 2004 - 2006genome Canada: Growth and development of poplar and spruceBlomberg Anders GU Phenomics of functional genetic networks 3 2004 - 2006Orekov Vladislav GU Optimizing NMR for structural proteomics 1,5 2004 - 2006Sunnerhagen Maria LiU Functional, clinical and structural biology of immune reactions in 1,5 2004 - 2006viral infections and autoimmune diseaseWahlestedt Claes KI Expression profiles of cells and tissues in C. elegans 3 2004 - 2006

50 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Other international collaborationGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKNordlund Pär KI SGC-Stockholm – A Swedish node within the Structural 25 2004 - 2007Genomics ConsortiaGrillner Sten KI Secretariat for the International Neuroinformatics 2,5 2005 - 2010Coordinating Facility (INCF)Wheelock Åsa KI Return from Japan: Lipid- and protein mediators critical in the patho- 2 2006 - 2008logical mechanisms underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseStrategic one-off effortsGrantholder Host Project total grant PerioduniversitymSEKKomorowski Jan UU Bioinformatics in Uppsala 7,5 2002 - 2008Nerman Olle CTH Bioinformatics at Chalmers/Göteborg University 7,5 2002 - 2007Hammarström Per LiU Reasons for disturbed protein developement 3,1 2003 - 2007Thor Stefan LiU Developmental biology 6,9 2003 - 2007Betsholtz Christer KI Vascular biology 10 2004 - 2009Tryggvason Karl KI Karolinska Kidney Research Centre 10 2004 - 2008Graduate schools and research programmes in the life sciences and life science technologiesScientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKRoeraade Johan KTH Nanochemistry 40,7 1999 - 2006Sommarin Marianne SLU Molecular and cellular plant biology, extended preparatorygraduate school 6 2002 - 2007Bäckvall Jan-Erling SU Selective preparation of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals,extended preparatory graduate school 3 2004 - 2006Svensson Catharina UU Bioscience in Uppsala 7,5 2004 - 2007Winblad Bengt KI Swedish Brain Power 23 2005 - 2010de Faire Ulf KI Development of the Swedish Twin Register 6 2006 - 2007Bioscience in Uppsala, preparatory graduate school (UGSBR)SSF funded preparatory graduate schools in biomedicine/biosciences at six universities 1997-2001 (total SEK 168 million) and 2002-2005 (total SEK 45 million).During the second period, SSF and the participating universities each provided 50 % funding. The schools in Göteborg, Lund andUmeå were not continued after SSF’s co-funding ended, but the schools in Linköping and Stockholm are continuing, now funded byLiU and KI. The grant period for the school in Uppsala has been extended to 2007.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 51Molecular and cellular plant biology, extended graduate schoolThis has been a joint graduate school for the former Forestry and Plant Biotechnology programmes, which were concluded in 2001.The preparatory graduate school will continue for an extended period of five years with funding from SSF.NanochemistryThis research programme is a collective effort involving research groups with different disciplinary competencies. The primary goalis to develop new, innovative tools, technologies and methodologies for chemical synthesis, analysis and biochemical diagnostics,performed in the nanolitre to femtolitre domains.In 2003, SSF awarded a grant of SEK 0,7 million for national network activities.Selective preparation of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals, extended graduate schoolThe programme is concentrating on selectivity in organic reactions and separations. The main topics are organometallic catalysis,including asymmetric reactions, and new methods for separation and purification of optical antipodes – “mirror molecules”.KTH hosted the original programme but SU took over the graduate school for an extended period of three years.Swedish Brain PowerThe goal is to develop and test a new system for integrated research by the leading experts in the neurodegenerative field in Sweden,to stimulate and facilitate translational research between basic, clinical and caring research, and to establish and maintain the leadingposition of Swedish neuroscience research in order to attract national and international industrial collaboration.The ultimate goal is to improve the early diagnosis, treatment and care of patients afflicted by neurodegenerative diseases.The programme is being funded by VINNOVA, KAW, the Knowledge Foundation, the Vårdal foundation and ISA (Invest in SwedenAgency) with a total budget of SEK 100 million over five years.Research centres in the life sciences and life science technologiesCentre director Host Centre total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKvon Heijne Gunnar SU Centre for Bioinformatics 40 1999 - 2007Jacobsen Sten Eirik LU Strategic Research Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy 59 2003 - 2008Jones Alwyn UU Strategic Research Centre for Rational Approaches to Pathogen 52 2003 - 2008Inhibitor Discovery (RAPID)Kärre Klas KI Strategic Research Centre for Recognition in the Immune System (IRIS) 52 2003 - 2008Lendahl Urban KI Strategic Research Centre for Developmental Biology 79 2003 - 2008Ljunggren Hans-Gustaf KI Strategic Research Centre for Infectious Medicine (CIM) 59 2003 - 2008Nilsson Ove SLU Strategic Research Centre Developmental Biology of Plants 79 2003 - 2008Andersson Leif UU Strategic Research Centre for Genetics of Metabolic Regulation 35 2006 - 2010Borén Jan GU Strategic Research Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine 43 2006 - 2010Borrebaeck Carl LU Strategic Research Centre for Clinical Cancer Research 45 2006 - 2010Forssberg Hans KI Strategic Research Centre for Cognitive and Computational 43 2006 - 2010Neurosciencevon Heijne Gunnar SU Strategic Centre for Biomembrane Research 45 2006 - 2010Lycke Nils GU Strategic Research Centre for Mucosal Immuniobiology and Vaccines 40 2006 - 2010Teeri Tuula KTH Strategic Research Centre for Biomimetic Fibre Engineering 45 2006 - 2010

52 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Centre for BioinformaticsBioinformatics is the application of mathematics and computer science to problems in biology. Bioinformatics is particularly concernedwith the retrieval, processing and analysis of biomolecular (DNA, protein) data. The Stockholm Bioinformatics Centre (SBC) providesnational support and an infrastructure for teaching in the field and serves as an interface between the life sciences and computerscience.The grant period has been extended to 2007.Strategic research centres in the Life Sciences and Life Science TechnologiesIn 2003 SSF established six strategic research centres in the life sciences. One aim was to establish new internationally competitive,scientifically focused research environments with interdisciplinary research of the highest international standard and of strategicrelevance for present and future industry, in order to strengthen the life sciences as a whole and be of benefit to Swedish society andindustry. Another aim was to promote renewal of the leadership in Swedish life science research.In December 2005, grants for 17 new strategic research centres were awarded (they are all listed under the heading foundationwideprogrammes at the end of the programme overview). Seven of these are mainly in the area of the life sciences and life sciencetechnologies.Jacobsen, Strategic Research Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Cell TherapyStem cells play a key role in the development and regeneration of all organic systems, and studies of the biology of stem cells willgreatly increase our understanding of both the normal development and function and the pathophysiology of diseases in differentorgans. The full potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine can only be realised through a better biological and molecularunderstanding of these cells and the mechanisms regulating their fate decisions.This centre will be dedicated to studies of fundamental aspects of stem cell biology, focusing primarily on somatic stem cellsof the hematopoietic and central nervous systems as well as embryonic stem cells, and will be closely integrated with the existingprogrammes in experimental and clinical cell replacement research. The research programme will consist of four major components:stem cell and developmental biology, using mammalian as well as non-mammalian model systems; experimental disease andtransplantation models; pre-clinical development; and the development of clinical cell replacement and gene therapy.The establishment of this centre has involved recruiting new research groups in key areas.Jones, Strategic Research Centre for Rational Approaches to Pathogen Inhibitor Discovery (RAPID)This centre for drug design aims at combating some of the most serious diseases afflicting humanity such as tuberculosis, malaria,leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness and Chagas’ disease. The centre will bring together leading medicinal/combinatorial chemistry,computational chemistry and structural biology groups in a multi-disciplinarian effort. The main drug targets will initially be mostlyproteases. There is mounting evidence that these enzymes play crucial roles in e.g. the metabolism, replication, survival and pathologyof parasites. Proteases have been targets also for other successful drug-discovery programmes in the past.The centre will deliver PhDs trained in computational chemistry, structural biology and medicinal chemistry tailored for theSwedish pharmaceutical industry as well as for academia. The centre will also deliver high-quality science and potential leadcompounds for further development by the pharmaceutical industry into agents against disease.Kärre, Strategic Research Centre for Recognition in the Immune System (IRIS)The cells and receptors of the immune system communicate to make decisions that ultimately influence health versus disease, oreven life versus death, in a variety of medical conditions and treatments. The vision behind this centre is to understand complexrecognition and regulation in immune and inflammatory cells, influenced by multiple receptors and determined by gene and proteinexpression but also at a level beyond proteomics, at the level of intracellular distribution and membrane topology of receptors. Sucha “systems biology” approach, based on the notion that “life is more than a sum of molecules”, will allow a better understanding ofseveral cell types in the immune system but also of non-immune cells or microbes that they interact with such as epithelial cells andbacteria. These studies will require a combination of expertise in immunology, structural biology, cell biology, imaging techniques andmathematical modelling and will focus initially on inflammatory signaling in responses in the gastrointestinal tract, involving T-cells aswell as epithelial cells.Lendahl, Strategic Research Centre for Developmental Biology (CEDB)The vision of this centre is to become a world-leading research centre in developmental biology, with a particular focus on cellulardifferentiation in the nervous system. This will be accomplished by bringing together nine outstanding research groups and by makingthree cutting edge international recruitments in sectors where key expertise is currently lacking. The centre will seek to unravel novelmolecular and cellular principles for stem cell biology, for the differentiation of cells to specific fates, and for the organisation andfunction of differentiated cells. The centre also intends to develop novel technology in several fields, including transgenesis, RNAexpression analysis and electron microscopy. The centre will also act as a hub of expertise on Swedish developmental biology and forthe biomedical communities at large, and will have the capacity to house researchers for different time periods in a “research hotel”to provide hands-on transfer of techniques, ensuring rapid dissemination of novel technology.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 53Ljunggren, Strategic Research Centre for Infectious Medicine (CIM)According to WHO, infectious diseases are the leading health problem worldwide. The common theme of this centre will be chronicinfections for which no effective cure exists including HIV, hepatitis, tuberculosis and viral associated malignancies. The direct aim ofthe research is to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infectious diseases for the purpose of improving currenttreatment strategies and developing novel vaccine candidates. The centre plans to integrate basic and clinical scientists with abackground in the molecular and cellular basis of viral and microbial pathogenesis with scientists interested in innate and adaptiveimmunity, drug development, and vaccinology.Collaborations exist with developing/low-income countries with access to unique patient groups, allowing sampling of clinicalmaterial and clinical trials.Nilsson, Strategic Research Centre for Developmental Biology of PlantsThe pulp and paper industries are Sweden’s largest net export industries and are vital to the current and future economicdevelopment of the country. Forests are the major natural resource in Sweden and the fibres extracted from the plant cell wallsprovide excellent raw material for paper and textiles. Maintaining the competitiveness of the Swedish forest sector will inevitablyrequire the adoption of state-of-the-art tree improvement and genetic engineering approaches.This centre is based on a unique position in tree functional genomics, and the vision for the future is to use these resources tocreate an outstanding research environment for studying key biological processes in a highly detailed, post-genomic fashion togenerate knowledge of the basic mechanisms regulating plant growth and development. The centre is an integrated part of the UmeåPlant Science Centre (UPSC).The ambition of the Centre for Plant Development is to foster young promising scientists to attain world-class expertise in forestbiotechnology and to transfer knowledge and basic technology to the forest industry.Doctoral student training in forest genetics and tree breeding is carried out via a graduate school funded by the KnowledgeFoundation, the industry and SLU.Andersson, Strategic Research Centre for Genetics of Metabolic RegulationA great challenge in biology and medicine in the coming years is to understand the functional role of all coding as well as noncodingDNA sequences. The main focus of the centre is to use functional genetics and comparative genomics to resolve thegenetics of metabolic, inflammatory and malignant syndromes. This is an important endeavour since these disorders constitute majorhealth problems in society. In addition, metabolic regulation is an important topic in animal breeding, plant breeding and in thepharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.Access to complete genome sequences and advanced genomic tools has created a unique period in the history of biologywhen genotype-phenotype relationships can be studied in depth. The mission of the centre is to advance the basic understandingof disease mechanisms through the genetic dissection of multifactorial traits and disorders. The aim is to identify and characterisedisease pathways in order to find new ways to prevent and treat disease.The centre will employ several technological approaches and resources including bio banks,bioinformatics, statistical genetics, high-throughput genetic analysis, expression analysis and cell biology. It is located at the UppsalaBiomedical Centre with nodes at Karolinska Institutet and Lund University.Borén, Strategic Research Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic MedicineMetabolic syndrome is characterised by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and high cholesterol levels. Individuals with metabolicsyndrome have a dramatically increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This syndrome affects one in four adults, making itthe leading public health issue associated with cardiovascular disease – the primary cause of death and disability worldwide.The centre is based on partnerships between clinical and basic medical sciences, bioinformatics and applied mathematics, anda close interaction with industry. Such partnerships should stimulate highly innovative interdisciplinary research and build networksbetween research communities of different traditions and cultures.The centre integrates many unique resources, such as: well-defined patient populations, comprehensive bio banks, state-of-the-arttechnologies for in vivo kinetic studies and phenotyping of human subjects, powerful platforms for human genetics and expressionanalyses, mouse genetics techniques and biochemistry and experimental cellular biology. The centre also integrates the nearbySweGene core facilities for functional proteomics, high-throughput genomics, bio-imaging, and cellular imaging.Borrebaeck, Strategic Research Centre for Clinical Cancer Research, CREATE HealthThe translation of basic discoveries to clinical application is slow, expensive, and demanding, requiring the multi-disciplinarycollaboration of researchers, clinicians, pathologists, patients, and regulatory bodies. CREATE (Clinical Research using EmergingAdvanced Technologies for Health Biomarkers) is emerging as the most essential tool for boosting efficiency in the field of prognosticdiagnosis and drug target discovery. Around 90 % of new chemical compounds fail during clinical trials and biomarkers have thepotential to decrease this by identifying potential drug failures at an early stage while providing clinicians with a predictive tool forpatient stratification using conventional drugs. The focus of CREATE Health is to address these problems by integrating cutting-edgetechnologies with clinical needs.

54 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006The vision is to achieve substantial social gains for the patient through direct application of research for selection of an optimal,individually-based cancer treatment and to develop novel diagnostics and therapeutics based on identified markers and molecularsignatures as well as potential targets, the latter through the participation of pharmaceutical industry. This will be achieved bybringing together, both physically and logistically, investigators from diverse fields, such as bioinformatics, nanotechnology,proteomics, transcriptomics, clinical oncology, cancer genetics and tumour cell biology.Forssberg, Strategic Research Centre for Cognitive and Computational NeuroscienceCognitive neuroscience is a rapidly developing field with vast implications for health care and education. Higher brain functions cannow be reliably measured and characterised in detail at a behavioural level. Cognitive and computational neuroscience involves asystems neurobiology approach to brain functions – from genes, cells and neural networks to cognitive functions and behaviour. Sucha global approach requires broad expertise extending from neurobiology and neuroimaging to psychology. To achieve a coherentunderstanding of these systems, in which numerous factors vary independently, computational modelling is an indispensable tool.At a fundamental research level, the strategy is to develop bio-realistic translational and computational models of the specificcognitive functions. The models will be based on empirical studies in experimental animals, healthy human subjects, and patientswith cognitive disorders. They will be built at a system level and include the complex chain of events relating genes and molecules tocognitive functions and behaviour.Lycke, Strategic Research Centre for Mucosal Immunity and Vaccine, MIVACVaccines constitute one of the most cost-effective preventive measures against illness and death. Moreover, needle-free mucosalvaccination is found high on the list of priorities for the WHO and other health organisations. International organisations and industriesare therefore looking for strategic research centres to invest in programmes for vaccine development. Göteborg University has astrong research tradition in the field of mucosal immunology and vaccine development. MIVAC scientists are participating actively inprogrammes for prevention of diarrheal diseases, TB, HIV and malaria. The centre will address completely new concepts for vaccineconstruction and expand our understanding of the interactions between innate and adaptive immunity at mucosal membranes. Theoverall goal is to take basic findings and patent-protected discoveries from the bench to clinical practice and industrial exploitation.MIVAC spans several faculties and has access to the full services of the laboratory for Clinical Immunology/Laboratory Medicine atSahlgren’s University Hospital as well as to the facilities of collaborating clinical units in e.g. gastroenterology, infectious diseases,pulmonary medicine and surgery.Teeri, Strategic Research Centre for Biomimetic Fibre EngineeringThe mission of the Centre for Biomimetic Fibre Engineering is to build a truly cross-disciplinary centre of excellence with cutting edgeexpertise at every level of the formation, modification and industrial utilisation of wood, fibres and their constituent polymers.Nature is an engineer far superior to man in the design and manufacturing of high performance structures and materials. Biomimeticsis an emerging field engaged in the design of systems, materials, and their functionality to mimic biological systems. By learning fromnature we can improve biocompatibility and engineer materials with many different properties for increased functionality.Mimicry of the natural self-assembly of molecules has a high potential for contributing to the future development of intelligentnanomaterials. However, world-class infrastructures and new interdisciplinary skills in biotechnological engineering and advancedmaterials technology will be essential in order to master the challenges of biomaterial design.The overall goal of the proposed Centre for Biomimetic Fibre Engineering is to gain an understanding of the self-assembly,structure and properties of complex cell walls of wood fibres in order to use the cell wall as a biomimetic model for advancedmaterials design.von Heijne, Strategic Research Centre for Biomembrane Research, CBRThe study of biomembranes is a major focus in contemporary life science research.The central focus of CBR will be on membrane proteins, which are involved in an impressive range of biological functions – signaling,energy transduction, small molecule and ion transport, cell motility, cell-cell interactions, nerve conduction – and are targets for amajority of the pharmaceutical drugs currently on the market.Broadly speaking, CBR will focus on two closely related research areas: (i) membrane protein biochemistry (proteomics,bioinformatics, overexpression, purification, and structure-function studies), and (ii) membrane protein assembly, folding, anddynamics. The first area is of immediate relevance to the pharmaceutical and biotech industry. The second area encompasses morebasic research dealing with the mechanisms of membrane protein biogenesis in vivo. The mission of CBR will be to integrate theseactivities into a coherent structure, making it possible to move easily from basic studies on membrane protein assembly to improvedsystems for overproduction and purification, from the identification of new proteins and protein complexes to their functional andstructural characterization, and between experimental studies and computational approaches.CBR will seek to expand and further develop collaborations and common initiatives with the pharmaceutical and biotech industry, aswell as to provide a rich environment for the training of PhD students and postdocs.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 55n Materials Science and TechnologyFramework grants in materials science and technologyScientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity MmSEKAlbertssonAnn-Christine KTH Biomedical functional polymers 14,5 2003 - 2007Andrén Hans-Olof CTH Mechanisms of creep and oxidation of high perfomance alloys 14,5 2003 - 2007Irgum Knut UmU Polymeric materials designed for chromatographic separation 14,5 2003 - 2007of proteins in their native stateJohansson Börje KTH Fundamentals of structural intermetallics for modern materials 14,5 2003 - 2007design, INALLOYKasemo Bengt CTH Multifunctional photoactive nanoparticles, nanoparticle arrays 14,5 2003 - 2007and nanoarchitecturesLindman Björn LU Nanostructures from self-assembly - in solution, at the surface and 14,5 2003 - 2007as a synthesis toolSandström Rolf KTH Tools for integrated optimisation of materials 12 2003 - 2007Delsing Per CTH Nano-X: Nanosensors for biology and electronics applications 14 2006 - 2010(Nanosens)Hertz Hans KTH Nano-X: X-ray optics 14 2006 - 2010Holtz Per-Olof LiU Nano-X: Nitride based quantum wires and dots for 15 2006 - 2010optoelectronic devicesLiedberg Bo LiU Nano-X: Novel nanoscale soft-matter devices 15 2006 - 2010Orwar Owe CTH Nano-X: A laboratory for in situ nucleation and growth studies of 14 2006 - 2010advanced nanostructured materialsFramework grants in micro systems technology (see also under life sciences and life science technologies)Scientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity MmSEKEnoksson Peter CTH Laser beam steering and control by a combination of MEMS 6,55 2002 - 2006and diffractive opticsSchweitz Jan-Åke UU Microhydraulics, micropneumatics, and on-chip drive and 4,75 2002 - 2006control of microfluidic systems

56 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Individual grants in materials science and technologyIndividual grants for future research leadersGrantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity MmSEKAbrikosov Igor LiU Electronic theory of materials properties 10 2001 - 2007Hammarström Leif LiU Controlling electron transfer 10 2001 - 2007Larsson Jörgen LU Time-resolved X-ray studies 10 2001 - 2007Swenson Jan CTH Structure and dynamics of soft matter 10 2002 - 2009Wernersson Lars-Erik LU Nanoelectronics high-speed low-power (NEHILOP) 6 2005 - 2009Åkerman Johan KTH Magnetic RAM, logic, and diagnostic tools 6 2005 - 2009Senior Individual GrantsGrantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity MmSEKMårtensson Nils LU Centre for Advanced Spectroscopy 13,55 1998 - 2006Hultman Lars LiU A laboratory for in situ nucleation and growth studies 6 2006 - 2008of advanced nanostructured materialsJohansson Börje KTH Computer aided atomistic design of new materials 6 2006 - 2008Graduate schools, research programmes and strategic research centres in materials science and technologyScientific leader Host Programme/ total grant Perioduniversity CentremSEKKasemo Bengt CTH Materials sciences, graduate school 36 1996 - 2006Börjesson Lars CTH Complex oxide materials for advanced devices 36,8 2000 - 2007Campbell Eleanor GU Carbon allotropes for microelectronics 18,7 2000 - 2007Eriksson Olle UU Fundamental research and applications of magnetism 30,3 2000 - 2007Holtz Per-Olof LiU Nano optoelectronics 12,7 2000 - 2007Karlsson Ulf KTH Functional ceramics for sensors and IT 20 2000 - 2007Liedberg Bo LiU Biomimetic materials science 42,35 2000 - 2007Nilsson Anders SU Biomimetic enzyme systems 21,6 2000 - 2007Sörensen Stacey LU Centre for Advanced Molecular Materials 24 2000 - 2007Wahnström Göran CTH Atomistic materials in computer simulations 32,62 2000 - 2007Selleby Malin KTH Centre for Computational Thermodynamics 19 2001 - 2008Hultman Lars and LiU Strategic Research Centre for Materials Science for Nanoscale 45 2006 - 2010Larsson KarinSurface Engineering (MS2E)Samuelson Lars LU Strategic Research Centre for Nanowires in Emerging Nanoelectronics 34 2006 - 2010

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 57Kasemo, Materials sciences graduate schoolThe preparatory graduate school has a broad focus on the materials field. It is located in Göteborg and is run jointly by Chalmersand GU under the Faculty of Technology and Natural Sciences. It also includes a biomaterials section, which is open to studentsfrom the Faculty of Medicine and Odontology. Participants in the graduate school include doctoral students who are linked to theSSF programmes Molecular Engineering in Polymer Science and Biocompatible Materials, as well as doctoral students connected toother materials projects at Chalmers and GU.SSF’s funding of the programme in this format expired in 2002, but SSF has awarded a grant of SEK 6 million for a three-yearextension of co-ordinating activities, etc. at the preparatory graduate school. The period has been extended by one year.Börjesson, Complex Oxide Materials for Advanced Devices (OXIDE)The programme is focused on the design, synthesis, characterisation, processing and application of oxide materials, in particularperovskites. These materials are interesting and have promising electric and magnetic properties, including dielectric, ferroelectricand magneto-resistant properties. The programme includes both basic materials research and research focused mainly onapplications in such areas as high-frequency components, sensors and rapid digital circuits.A grant of SEK 1,8 million has been added to the programme for cooperative activity with US investigators financed by NSF.Campbell, Carbon Allotropes for Microelectronics (CARAMEL)Microelectronic components are becoming smaller and smaller, which means there is a need for components on a nanometer scale,and traditional manufacturing methods do not work here. Fullerenes and nanotubes, which consist entirely of carbon, may be thesemiconductor material of the future. In this programme, work will be done on the production, purification, characterisation andmodification of nanostructures made of carbon and their combination into nanoelectronic units.Eriksson, Fundamental Research and Applications of Magnetism (FRAM)The aim is to raise the quality of magnetic materials for Swedish industry by developing new applications of magnetism for datastorage and computer technology. There are two main focuses in the programme: on thin film magnetism and on tunable magneticproperties.Holtz, Nano Semiconductors for Optoelectronics (NANOPTO)This programme involves the design, production and characterisation of optoelectronic quantum threads and quantum dots that canalso potentially be integrated with microelectronics. The programme includes both quantum systems based on III-V combinationsand Si/SiGe quantum systems.Karlsson, Functional Ceramics for Sensors and ITThis programme is based on two groups of functional ceramics: ion-conductive ceramics, which can be applied, for instance, infuel cells and gas sensors, and ferro-electric perovskites, which can be applied in such areas as computer processing and storage.In both groups, efforts are being concentrated on phenomena in thin films, on surfaces and in interfaces. The programme containsa combination of expertise in thin film synthesis, surface analysis, electron spectroscopy, structure determination and laser-basedfemtosecond spectroscopy with theoretical modelling and calculations.Liedberg, Biomimetic Materials Science (BIOMICS)In biomimetic materials science, material-related processes and functions in nature are studied. Research will be aimed at the use ofmorphological, structural and functional properties in biological systems (organs, cells, biomolecules) for applications in advancedmaterials synthesis. Great weight will initially be placed on developing what are called tool boxes. These include nano- and microfabrication,soft lithography, molecular impressions, organic synthesis, self-organising systems, membrane biophysics, surfacechemistry and advanced spectroscopy.Nilsson, Biomimetic Enzyme Systems (BEST)Industrial production is often very energy-intensive and its waste products threaten our environment. The goal of the programmeis to imitate the smart, economical way nature has of producing chemicals, materials and energy. In nature, enzymes are used inareas where industry uses catalysts to increase reaction rates and exchanges in processes. Research is focused on creating artificialstructures on surfaces that generate processes that are similar to the functions of enzymes. The ultimate goal is to be able to presenta process inspired by enzymes.Sörensen, Centre for Advanced Molecular Materials (CAMM)Even though spectroscopy is used as a standard procedure in industrial research, newly developed theoretical models, simulationand analysis and measurement methods are not particularly widespread. The aim is to raise the level of expertise by includingpeople with both theoretical and practical/industrial experience in projects based on synchrotron spectroscopy. Young researcherswill be able to work with internationally distinguished visiting researchers at the MAX laboratory and become experts in theapplication of organic thin film science.In 2003 a grant of SEK 2,7 million was added to the programme for collaboration with materials science research groups from the USA.

58 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Wahnström, Atomistic Materials in Computer Simulations (ATOMICS)This is a programme for theory, modelling and simulation of dynamic phenomena in materials. The goal is to understand materialsand material processes based on the solid foundation provided by a quantum mechanical and microscopic description of thestructure and dynamics of the condensed material, all in order to meet new challenges in materials science and material technology.Selleby, Centre for Computational Thermodynamics (CCT)High-performance materials for functional and mechanical applications can now be developed on the computer with the aid ofcomputational thermodynamics. The aim of CCT is to create the best conditions for long-term basic research and short-term industryrelatedapplied research in computational thermodynamics.The objective of the basic research is to develop new methods and models with a focus on metal/non-metal systems such asoxides, sulphides, carbides and nitrides.The objective of the applied research is to develop and update thermodynamic databases, taking advantage of the fundamentalresearch findings. In this way the methods and models can be tested directly in real industrial materials and applications.The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association and eleven companies are involved in the programme.Strategic Research Centre for Materials Science for Nanoscale Surface Engineering (MS2E)MS2E is an interdisciplinary materials science centre focused on solving strategic research issues in functional materials forNanotechnology and Advanced Surface Engineering. MS2E has its roots in an SSF Interdisciplinary Materials Programme with supportfrom university and industry to groups specialising in materials physics, chemistry and solid state electronics. The scope will now besubstantially broadened by integrating computational materials science, tribology and nanotechnology. These emerging fields playa vital role in Sweden’s dominant materials-based industry with new and promising applications in tomorrow’s products with thinfilm materials based on the processes explored in MS2E. These products may include flat panel displays, DVD players, bioimplants,precision bearings, high-frequency filters, magnetic memories and sensors, durable light metal alloy components for engines, x-raymirrors, gas sensors, and optical coatings. In particular, the research is aimed directly at the tooling, automotive, electrotechnical,biomedical, energy, and electronic industries. Thin film applications using vapour methods affect virtually every product around us. Itis an enabling technology in which Swedish industry occupies excellent positions.Strategic Research Centre for Nanowires in Emerging NanoelectronicsThis Centre will approach one of the great challenges in nanotechnology, namely self-assembly of extremely down-scaled nanodevicesand nanosystems, for use in advanced nanoelectronics as well as for different biomedical applications. To make this possible, a coherenteffort, involving highly qualified scientists in materials science, semiconductor physics, device and circuit technology, and in differentaspects of the life sciences is necessary. Industrial applications will also be emphasised, and start-up companies will be supported.Furthermore, cooperation with industry via the implementation of nanowire technology in different industrial sectors, for examplebiomedical applications, will hopefully increase the competitive edge of established high-technology companies in Sweden and thesurrounding region.n MicroelectronicsFramework grants in microelectronicsScientific leader Host Programme total grant Perioduniversity MmSEKCampbell Eleanor GU CMOS integrated carbon-based nanoelectromechanical components 10 2003 - 2007Haviland David KTH Magneto-electronic nanodevice physics 15 2003 - 2007Ismail Mohammed KTH Radio and mixed signal circuit and system design for convergent 25 2003 - 2007wireless applicationsJanzén Erik LiU SiC materials for power and high-frequency applications 20 2003 - 2007Katardjiev Ilia UU Integration studies of IC and electro-acoustic technologies 15 2003 - 2007Larsson Anders CTH Dilute III-V-nitrides for photonics and electronics 12 2003 - 2007Stenström Per CTH Flexible system-on-chip platforms for embedded applications 8 2003 - 2007Willander Magnus GU Wide bandgap nanolasers and transistors for integration into 10 2003 - 2007silicon technologyZirath Herbert CTH Wide bandgap semiconductor microwave devices 10 2003 - 2007

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 59Individual grants in microelectronicsIndividual grants for future research leadersGrantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKBerggren Magnus LiU Organic electronic signal processors 10 2001 - 2007Kidiyarova-Shevchenko CTH Gigahertz electronics for CDMA 10 2001 - 2007AnnaReimann Stephanie LU Nanostructured quantum devices 10 2001 - 2008Belova Lioubov KTH Nanotailored novel magnetic materials for spin dependent 6 2005 - 2009electronics and biomedical applicationsQiu Min KTH Photonic crystals: light magic at work 6 2005 - 2009Delin Anna KTH Computational studies of nanomagnetic phenomena NANOMAGICK 2 2005 - 2007Senior individual grants and strategic one-off effortsGrantholder host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKIsmail Mohammed KTH Start-up grant 4 2005 - 2007Thylén Lars KTH Multiphoton quantum dots for confocal microscopy and 5 2006 - 2007light-activation in collaboration with JapanFriberg Ari T KTH Nearfield nanophotonics 6 2006 - 2008Jonson Mats GU Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS): Fundamental aspects 6 2006 - 2008and applicationsResearch programmes and strategic research centres in microelectronicsScientific leader Host Programme/ total grant Perioduniversity Centre mSEKÖstling Mikael KTH High frequency silicon 61,7 2000 - 2007Delsing Per CTH Strategic Research Centre for Nanodevices and Quantum 30 2003 - 2008Computing, NANODEVInganäs Olle LiU Strategic Research Centre for Organic Information 31 2003 - 2008Samuelson Lars LU Strategic Research Centre for Nanoscience 40 2003 - 2008Svensson Christer LiU Strategic Research Centre for Integrated Systems 50 2003 - 2008Thylén Lars KTH Strategic Research Centre for Photonics 60 2003 - 2008Zirath Herbert CTH Strategic Research Centre for High Speed Electronics and Photonics 62,7 2003 - 2008VR Microfabrication Laboratory (The μ-Fab network) 23 2004 - 2009Anderson John B LU Strategic Research Centre for High Speed Wireless Communication 40 2006 - 2010Berggren Magnus/ LiU/KI Strategic Research Centre for Organic BioElectronics 37 2006 - 2010Richter-Dahlfors Agneta(OBOE)Viberg Mats CTH Strategic Research Centre for Microwave Antenna Systems (Charmant) 43 2006 - 2010

60 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Östling, High Frequency SiliconThe development of silicon technology makes it possible to integrate an entire telecommunications system in a single silicon chip.Knowledge concerning silicon technology of the future is important for the development of systems. The programme is focused onapplications for radio frequencies (RF) in CMOS technology. It is aimed at long-term research on the processes, components andintegration of RF-CMOS technology.In 2003, a grant of SEK 2.7 million was added to the programme for collaboration with sciences research groups from USA.An additional grant for 2006 – 2007 was awarded in 2005.Delsing, Strategic Research Centre for Nanodevices and Quantum Computing ( NANODEV)This centre focuses on components for future electronics. The director has a background in low temperature superconductivity andits device applications, and has teamed up with a room temperature Si electronics group with extensive experience of Si-basedroom temperature electronics. The research concerns quantum devices whose functionality is based on charge or quantum phase,superconductivity implementation of quantum computing as well as integration of nanodevices into CMOS and the combinationof SETs (Single Electron Transistors) with room temperature silicon field effect transistors. The essential component championed bythis centre is the high frequency SET, which is an ultra-sensitive amplifier and can be used to achieve readout in the hot discipline ofquantum computing. Other novel device concepts include polaronic effects and spin SETs.Inganäs, Strategic Research Centre for Organic Information (COIN)This centre deals with organic electronics combined with nano-structures and printing techniques to realise electronic devices.The main concerns of the centre are: organic electronics, nano-structured electroactive organic molecules and polymers, printingtechniques, high end nanoelectronics and defining electronic functions at the molecular level.Educational activities as well as close collaboration with both small and large companies and the possibility of new spin-off companiesare envisaged.Samuelson, Strategic Research Centre for NanoscienceThis centre is based on the strength of the consortium in the growth and characterisation of semiconductor materials. It deals with thedevelopment of nanodevices emphasising both functionality and materials science aspects. The planned range of devices, workingprinciples and application areas is very broad, ranging from single-molecule sensors for protein analysis to more conventional Si/SiGecomponents, all relying on nanoscale techniques and material properties. In general the areas chosen are those where the grouphas a great deal of technical experience and expertise. The projects include devices based on optical, electronic and opto-electronicprinciples. The centre relies heavily on external and international collaboration.Svensson, Strategic Research Centre for Integrated Systems (STRINGENT)The field of integrated electronic systems has been progressing at a very high pace over the past 30 years or so. This progress isthe main engine for the computer, communication and IT industry and is of great importance for Swedish industry. This centre willfocus on basic research in integrated electronic systems. Overall goals are to find new methods that will considerably improve thepower and cost-effectiveness of embedded electronic systems and methods for considerably reducing the development time for anembedded electronic product.Thylén, Strategic Research Centre for PhotonicsThis centre is planned to be an integrated part of Kista Photonics Research Center, KPRC.The research programme has four main areas: photonics communications, integration and photonic circuits, ultra-fast phenomena andtechnology and exploratory technology. The centre expects to continue to spin off new start-up companies within photonics.Some of the main goals of the centre are: to strengthen the scientific position of Sweden in the area of photonics by providingsustained high-quality basic academic research in the field of photonics, to play a vital role in the further development of thephotonics industry in Sweden, and to strengthen education in photonics.Zirath, Strategic Research Centre for High Speed Electronics and PhotonicsThis centre is focused on high-speed electronics and photonics. Its research targets a vertically integrated structure, ranging frommaterials, devices and circuits to systems of great importance for Swedish industry.There are four research topics identified for high-speed electronics including InP-circuits, using Chalmers’ own technology, andbuilding practice for microwave and millimeter wave systems, especially for communications and sensing. There are three topicsrelated to photonics: vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes, diffractive optics and high-capacity optical transmission. Betweenthe two main research areas there are interdisciplinary topics such as microwave photonics. There is one material-related topic for thegrowth of III – V compound semiconductor crystals on cheap silicon wafer, which could lead to new optoelectronic components onsilicon chips. The new clean-room facility at Chalmers, MC2, will fortify this position by providing access to state-of-the-art equipmentfor research and development in materials, devices, circuits and subsystems.In 2003, a grant of SEK 0,9 million was added to the programme for collaboration with sciences research groups from USA.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 61Microfabrication Laboratory (The μ-Fab network)The μ-Fab network is a national resource for micro/nanofabrication in Sweden that consists of three nodes, the Electrum Laboratoryat KTH, the Nanofabrication Laboratory at MC2, Chalmers and the Ångström Microstructure Laboratory at Uppsala University.According to the agreement between the four bodies funding the network (SSF, VINNOVA, the Swedish Research Council, VR andKnut & Alice Wallenberg’s foundation, KAW), the main purposes of the network can be summarized as follows:• To offer access to a distributed, high-quality, clean-room facilities network and associated expertise for advanced research andeducation to all universities and university colleges in Sweden on the same terms as those that apply to groups at the hostuniversities.• To provide adequate user support for those who use the facilities network• To actively market the network in order to increase the use of the laboratories by Swedish universities, relevant research institutesand the Swedish business community• To actively increase cross-utilisation among the laboratories and extend utilisation beyond the traditional microelectronic groups• To avoid duplication of expensive, resource-intensive equipment and instead to assign responsibilities for different technologies inmicro- and nanofabrication based on the scientific strengths of the respective nodes.The total budget for 2004 – 2006 was SEK 60 million. SSF has set aside SEK 8 million more for 2007 – 2009.Anderson, Strategic Research Centre for High Speed Wireless CommunicationIn recent years, the definition of “high-speed” data has changed. While previous systems worked at bit rates of around 1-10 Mbit/s(comparable to ADSL), “broadband” these days implies data rates of 100 Mbit/s to several Gbit/s. The demand for such highrates is driven by a wealth of new applications, including consumer electronics. Optical fibres play an important role at the upperdistribution levels, but economical ways must be found to move data from the street into the home or business and, once there,to various digital appliances. A related problem is setting up high-speed links between different appliances, for example wirelessUSB/Firewire. The system must be cheap, have long battery life, and be simple enough for anyone to use. Short-range, very highrate radios are the solution.The centre will concentrate on the physical side of this problem, i.e. on radio propagation, antennas, circuitry, coding,modulation and data security.The centre will include senior investigators in three departments at Lund (Information Technology, Electroscience and Physics)and one at Chalmers (Signals and Systems).Berggren/Richter, Strategic Research Centre for Organic BioElectronics (OBOE)The purpose of OBOE is to bring leading experts in cell and molecular biology, neurobiology and stem cell research from KarolinskaInstitutet into a fruitful collaboration with top-level experts in the development of organic materials for different electronicapplications from Linköping University and Acreo. Expertise is thus in place to tailor materials that mimic the functions of, andintegrate with, cells and tissues to rapidly obtain biological proof-of-principle and to address key questions. The fusion between thetwo fields of science in OBOE provides an excellent and unique platform for the creation of organic devices that both record, i.e.translate biological signals into electronic signals, and regulate, i.e. convert electronic inputs into appropriate biological responses.In addition to solving important biological/medical problems, OBOE also provides a new and unique platform to foster a newgeneration of scientists with high-level qualifications in both research fields and to directly transfer technology from one place toanother, thus setting the stage for true interdisciplinary research in the future. The novel interface between these two branchesof science will also provide an excellent seedbed for developing new companies, as the convergence between the two fields ofresearch is in its infancy internationally.Viberg, Strategic Research Centre for Microwave Antenna Systems (Charmant)Wireless systems – and hence antennas – are finding increasing use in modern society. A typical sign is the growing number ofantennas and antenna masts in urban areas. Antennas are used for mobile communication systems, but also increasingly for otherapplications such as navigation, security, surveillance, identification, and various medical sensor systems. All the antennas in cars,offices, and homes are likely to cause technical conflicts with regard to installation, interference and performance degradation.We therefore have to find new ways to optimize the systems and in many cases develop innovative solutions that combine severalantenna functions in one unit, and/or integrate the antennas with existing structures.The CHARMANT Centre will focus on ways of optimising these new systems. The perspective covers wave propagationmodels, antenna radiators and structures, amplifiers, filters, circuits and signal processing algorithms. New and existing subsystemsand components will be studied and improved according to their behaviour in the total antenna system. Thus, interfaces,system simulation tools and measurement techniques must be developed. The goal is to permit balanced and non-suboptimalsystem designs. Such modelling tools are much sought after by industry. The tools will help industry remain competitive in theirdevelopment of new systems based on wireless technology. Higher expertise, particularly on a higher systems level, can giveSwedish industry the competitive edge to remain profitable.The CHARMANT Centre is located at Chalmers, where much of the work will also be done. SP and FOI will contribute expertisein selected areas, as will researchers from KTH, LTH, and UU.

62 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006n Production and process technologyIndividual grants in production and process technologyIndividual grants for future research leadersGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKDubois Anna CTH Technology management in industrial networks 2 2005 - 2007Ritzén Sofia KTH Proactive measures for product realisation 2 2005 - 2007Senior Individual GrantsGrantholder Host Project total grant Perioduniversity M mSEKJönsson Bo LU Interaction between highly charged particles and macromolecules 6 2006 - 2008Nordén Bengt CTH Energy conversion in molecular systems 6 2006 - 2008Graduate schools, research programmes and strategic research centre in production and process technologyScientific leader Host university/ Programme total grant PeriodInstituteMSEKAtkin Brian LU Competitive building 45 1998 - 2007Almstedt Alf-Erik CTH Multiphase flow 34 1999 - 2006Forsling Willis LTU Mineral processing and metallurgy 25 2000 - 2006Frenning Lars SSF ProViking research 150 2002 - 2007Gustafsson Göran CTH ProViking graduate school 30 2002 - 2008Aldén Marcus LU Combustion science and technology, extended graduate school 8,0 2003 - 2006Lignert Hans SIK Future technologies for food production, extended 7,5 2003 - 2007graduate schoolJohnsson Helena LTU Wood technology, extended graduate school 7 2005 - 2007Nilsson Bernt LU Chemical process design and control, extended 3 2005 - 2007graduate schoolAldén Marcus LU Strategic Research Centre for Combustion Science and Technology 28 2006 - 2010Frenning Lars SSF Product realisation with a focus on reducing environmentalimpact, ProEnviro 30 2006 - 2009

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 63Chemical process design and control (CPDC), extended graduate schoolThe aim of CPDC is to bring together key aspects of chemical and control engineering and create a common platform for developingmethods and tools for modelling and controlling phases and processes. The projects financed by the programme concernedcontinuous processes as well as batch processes and tools for the development of future methodology.The original programme was concluded in 2004, but SSF has awarded a grant of SEK 3 million for a three- year extension of thegraduate school.Combustion Science and Technology, CECOSTThe original CECOST was a national research programme and preparatory graduate school concerning combustion processes andcombustion technology. The programme includes theory, processes and methods and focuses on the combustion chamber.The original programme was concluded in 2003, but SSF has awarded a grant of SEK 8 million for a three-year extension of thegraduate school.Competitive buildingResearch and graduate school aimed at improving knowledge related to building processes. Research is focused on three fields:product determination, building production and building use. Research themes are both process-oriented and technology-oriented,with SSF funding covering the process-oriented part. The programme is divided into two main areas: industrialised building for goodliving and rational real estate development. Total funding of the programme, including industrial support, amounts to more than SEK80 million. That amount also includes support from the Swedish Council for Building Research (now FORMAS, the Swedish ResearchCouncil for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning).The total grant includes a three-year extension of the graduate school.Future technologies for food productionResearch and graduate school aimed at further strengthening the co-operation between the universities, SIK and the food industry.An industrial association contributes by mentoring of doctoral students. Three areas are in focus: technologies for the building ofstructures, technologies for mild treatment of animal products, and technologies for mild treatment of plant products.The original programme was concluded in 2003, but SSF has awarded a grant of SEK 7.5 million for a three-year extension of thegraduate school. The period has been extended to 2007.Mineral processing and metallurgyResearch Centre for Mineral and Processing Metallurgy aimed at establishing an internationally recognised centre for research andgraduate training in mineral processing at Luleå University of Technology.Multiphase flowNational graduate training programme in multiphase flow mechanics with applications in the Swedish process industry. The aim ofthe programme is to provide industry with highly educated employees, raise the general level of skills and develop industrial designmethods for new and improved processes.An industrial association, SIAMUF, has been formed.Wood technologyResearch and graduate school with a focus on the different steps in the value added chain from tree to product, with an emphasis onadvanced measurement methods, information technology and logistics systems as well as research on wood fibre as a constructionmaterial.In 2003, a grant of SEK 7 million was added to the programme for a three-year extension of the graduate school. The period hasbeen extended to 2007.ProVikingProViking is a research programme in the area of product realisation (product development, manufacturing, product supportand maintenance in a life-cycle perspective) with a total grant of SEK 150 million over 5 years. The main focus is on industry withmanufacturing and/or development in Sweden.In addition the foundation is funding a national graduate research school connected to the programme with a total funding of SEK30 million during the period 2002 – 2008.The management and operational form of the programme is different from the other programmes. ProViking forms a separateunit within SSF with its own board with members recruited from industry and academia.

64 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Product realisation with a focus on reducing environmental impact, ProEnviroProEnviro has been set up jointly by SSF and Mistra, the Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, modelled on ProViking.The total budget for the programme is SEK 60 million.The programme will support projects carried out in collaboration between small and medium sized companies, SMEs, anduniversities/institutes. The programme is focussed on SMEs with production and/or development in Sweden.The aim is to stimulate the development of a new generation of globally competitive products, production processes and/or servicesdesigned for high performance and radical reduction of pressures on natural resources and the environment during their entirelife cycle. The main aims of the research are product development, production, product support and maintenance in a life cycleperspective for improved environmental performance.Strategic Research Centre for Combustion Science and TechnologyCombustion is a central process in numerous human activities, such as heating, transporttation, travel and waste management. TheSwedish economy relies on strong propulsion and power generating industries to produce cars, trucks and related products. Researchthat will allow us to improve the efficiency and cleanliness of engines, gas turbines and furnaces and to optimise chemical processesand reduce the damage caused by fires will contribute greatly to competitiveness and sustainability and thus to the environment, theeconomy and employment, as well as to quality of life.The overall objective of this centre is to combine funding from SSF with funding from the Swedish Energy Agency (STEM)and industry to significantly strengthen combustion activities at LTH, encompassing the appropriate range of disciplines, and incombination with the continuation of a graduate school, to create optimum benefits for industry and society.The scientific projects will focus on the fundamental aspects of combustion, complementing the more industrially oriented activitiesfinanced by STEM and industry.n Foundation-wide programmesStrategic research centres 2006 – 2010In April 2004, the Foundation decided to establish strategic research centres in the natural sciences, engineering and/or medicine atSwedish universities. The aim of this initiative was to establish scientifically focused research settings to carry out creative research ofthe highest scientific quality with international impact and strategic significance for the development of Sweden’s present and futureindustry and society.Strategic research centres are geographically, and preferably locally, coherent research settings with an intellectual and technicalcritical mass. The centres deal with complex research issues with different time perspectives that demand more coordinated effortsby participation of several research groups with complementary scientific and technical expertise. The centres have clear andeffective management, strong leadership, and well-developed contacts, mechanisms and methods to ensure that their work will findapplication through the research carried out and the training of scientists in cooperation with industry and society.In December 2005 the Foundation decided to establish the 17 Strategic Research Centres listed below and support these for aperiod of five years starting in January 2006 with annual grants in the range of SEK 4,4 - 9 million, for a total amount of SEK 800million. Twenty per cent of the total budget has been held in reserve to be distributed in the form of supplementary grants after amid-term evaluation during the third year of operation of the centres.The selection procedure was described in the Foundation’s 2005 Activity Report. The SISTER research institute has beencontracted to carry out sequel research, which also includes an evaluation of the selection procedure.Centre director Centre total grant Period Main scientific areamSEKAldén Marcus, LU Strategic Research Centre for Combustion 28 2006 - 2010 Production andScience and TechnologyProcess TechnologyAnderson John B, LU Strategic Research Centre for High Speed 40 2006 - 2010 MicroelectronicsWireless CommunicationAndersson Leif, UU Strategic Research Centre for Genetics of 35 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeMetabolic RegulationScience TechnologiesBerggren Magnus, LiU Strategic Research Centre for Organic 37 2006 - 2010 Microelectronicsand Richter Agneta, KI Bio Electronics

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 65Centre director Centre total grant Period Main scientific areamSEKBorén Jan, GU Strategic Research Centre for Cardiovascular 43 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & Lifeand Metabolic MedicineScience TechnologiesBorrebaeck Carl, LU Strategic Research Centre for Clinical Cancer 45 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeResearchScience TechnologiesForssberg Hans, KI Strategic Research Centre for Cognitive and 43 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeComputational NeuroscienceScience TechnologiesHansson Hans, MdH Strategic Research Centre for Predictable 43 2006 - 2010 InformationEmbedded Software SystemsTechnologyvon Heijne Gunnar, SU Strategic Centre for Biomembrane Research 45 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeScience TechnologiesHultman Lars, LiU and Strategic Research Centre for Materials 45 2006 - 2010 Materials Science andLarsson Karin UU Science for Nanoscale Surface Engineering TechnologyLindquist Anders, KTH Strategic Research Centre for Industrial and 22 2006 - 2010 InformationApplied MathematicsTechnologyLjung Lennart, LiU Strategic Research Centre for Modelling, 45 2006 - 2010 InformationVisualization and Information IntegrationTechnologyLycke Nils, GU Strategic Research Centre for Mucosal 40 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeImmunobiology and VaccinesScience TechnologiesRootzén Holger, GU Strategic Research Centre for Mathematical 22 2006 - 2010 InformationModelling, GMMCTechnologySamuelson Lars, LU Strategic Research Centre for Nanowires in 34 2006 - 2010 Materials Science andEmerging NanoelectronicsTechnologyTeeri Tuula, KTH Strategic Research Centre for Biomimetic 45 2006 - 2010 Life Sciences & LifeFibre EngineeringScience TechnologiesViberg Mats, CTH Strategic Research Centre for Microwave 43 2006 - 2010 MicroelectronicsAntenna SystemsThe Centres are listed with a note of the main scientific area. Each Centre is briefly described under the due heading above.Individual grantsIndividual grants for future research leadersThe objective of the programme is to identify, support and promote young scientists expected to become future scientific leaders inacademic and industrial research. A leadership training programme is arranged for the granteesIn 2001, twenty-one promising young scientists in science, technology and medicine were awarded a grant of SEK 10 million,normally to be used over a period of six years. In 2004, eighteen young scientists were awarded a grant of SEK 6 million for four years,with an opportunity to obtain an additional grant after that period. Five female applicants who were close to being awarded a fullgrant were awarded grants of SEK 2 million each.The grantees are listed below with the main scientific area of their research project. The grantees’ projects are classified byscientific area under the above headings.

66 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Grantholder total grant MSEK Period Scientific AreaAbrikosov Igor, LiU 10 2001 - 2007 Materials Science and TechnologyArenas Ernest, KI 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesBerggren Magnus, LiU 10 2001 - 2007 MicroelectronicsDanielsson Mats, KTH 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesGustafsson Claes, KI 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesHammarström Leif, LiU 10 2001 - 2007 Materials Science and TechnologyKarlsson Anders, KTH 10 2001 - 2007 Information TechnologyKempe Maria, LU 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesKidiyarova-Shevchenko Anna, CTH 10 2001 - 2007 MicroelectronicsLarsson Jörgen 10 2001 - 2007 Materials Science and TechnologyLarsson Nils-Göran, KI 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesMolisch Andreas, LU 10 2001 - 2007 Information TechnologyNeutze Richard, GU 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesNilsson Ove, SLU 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesOhlsson Claes, GU 10 2001 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesOrwar Owe, CTH 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesReimann Stephanie Margret, LU 10 2001 - 2008 MicroelectronicsRichter-Dahlfors Agneta, KI 10 2001 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesSands David, CTH 10 2001 - 2008 Information TechnologyStrømme Maria, UU 10 2002 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesSwenson Jan, CTH 10 2002 - 2009 Materials Science and TechnologyAgace William, LU 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesAkenine-Möller Tomas, LU 6 2002 - 2009 Information TechnologyBelova Lioubov, KTH 6 2002 - 2009 MicroelectronicsBlom Anna Maria, LU 6 2002 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesEricson Johan, KI 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesHammarström Per, LiU 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesHolmquist Lars-Erik, Viktoriainstitutet 6 2005 - 2009 Information TechnologyHöök Fredrik, LU 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesHöök Kristina, SICS 6 2005 - 2009 Information TechnologyJohansson Karl Henrik, KTH 6 2005 - 2009 Information Technology

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 67Grantholder total grant MSEK Period Scientific AreaKlingberg Torkel, KI 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesKäll Mikael, CTH 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesQiu Min, KTH 6 2005 - 2009 MicroelectronicsStrand Åsa, UmU 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesWahren-Herlenius Marie, KI 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesWernersson Lars-Erik, LU 6 2005 - 2009 Materials Science and TechnologyZierath Juleen, KI 6 2005 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesÅkerman Johan, KTH 6 2005 - 2009 Materials Science and TechnologyDelin Anna, KTH 2 2005 - 2007 MicroelectronicsDubois Anna, CTH 2 2005 - 2007 Production and Process TechnologyEriksson Maria, KI 2 2005 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesNorrby-Teglund Anna, KI 2 2005 - 2007 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesRitzén Sofia, KTH 2 2005 - 2007 Production and Process TechnologyIngvar Carlsson Award for young postdocs returning to Sweden from abroadGrantholder total grant MSEK Period Scientific AreaBryder David, LU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesBuervenich-Paddock Silvia, KI 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesBäckhed Fredrik, GU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesEhrsson Henrik, KI 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesHoffman Johan, KTH 3 2006 - 2008 Information TechnologyKhan Malek, UU 3 2006 - 2008 Information TechnologyKreuger Johan, UU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesLindahl Erik, SU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesLindkvist Karin, GU 3 2006 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesLindskog Maria, KI 3 2006 - 2009 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesTopgaard Daniel, LU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesTurner Charlotta, UU 3 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesSenior individual grants 2006 - 2008In 2004, new grants of SEK 1.5 million each were allocated to 18 senior scientists for renewal of their research and exploration of newideas. The purpose of the grants was to enable the grantees to be relieved of ongoing tasks and assignments.In 2005, twelve of the grantees were awarded SEK 6 million each for research activities based on the inspiration and experiencegained during the renewal year. The grantees are listed below with the main scientific area of their research project. The grantees’projects are classified by scientific area under the above headings.

68 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Grantholder total grant MSEK Period Scientific AreaBorrebaeck Carl, LU 6 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesBäckvall Jan-Erling, SU 6 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesKirsebom Leif, UU 6 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesLundström Ingemar, LiU 6 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesPeterson Carsten, LU 6 2006 - 2008 Life Sciences & Life Science TechnologiesRantzer Anders, LU 6 2006 - 2008 Information TechnologyHultman Lars, LiU 6 2006 - 2008 Materials Science and TechnologyJohansson Börje, KTH 6 2006 - 2008 Materials Science and TechnologyFriberg Ari T, KTH 6 2006 - 2008 MicroelectronicsJonson Mats, CTH 6 2006 - 2008 MicroelectronicsJönsson Bo, LU 6 2006 - 2008 Production and Process TechnologyNordén Bengt, CTH 6 2006 - 2008 Production and Process TechnologyOther foundation-wide programmesGrants allocated by the Executive DirectorThe foundation has authorised the Executive Director to allocate grants of up to SEK 1 million each for a total of SEK 10 million. In2006 the Executive Director granted 11 budgets for a total of SEK 1,93 million.Institute Excellence CentresTogether with VINNOVA and the Knowledge Foundation, SSF will support the development of eight Centres of Excellence atSwedish institutes. VINNOVA is the coordinator of the programme and the principal funding body.Special grants for international collaborationInternational collaboration is of great importance for maintaining and strengthening quality and stimulating new ways of thinking inthe foundation’s activities and programmes.In 2000, SEK 30 million was allocated for a Swedish-Japanese programme concerning the interface between bioscience/IT/electronics that was to run for five years but has been extended to 2007.In 2001, SEK 13 million was allocated for collaboration with research funding agencies in Finland, Britain and the US.In 2002, SEK 8 million was allocated for the programme Microbes and Man (divided among five projects that were concluded in2005) and SEK 15 million for collaboration with the National Science Foundation (NSF) in materials science.In 2003, SEK 15 million was allocated for collaboration with Genome Canada (divided among six project grants listed under LifeSciences and Life Science Technologies).In 2004, SEK 25 million was allocated for a Swedish node within the Canadian-led international consortium Structual GenomicsConsortia.In 2005, SEK 2,5 million was allocated to support the secretariat for the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility(INCF) at KI and SEK 5 million was allocated for KTH’s collaboration with Zhejiang University (ZJU) in China.Strategic one-off efforts at individual universitiesWith these grants, the foundation has supported new priorities and gathered forces at universities. Deposits are assigned afternegotiations with the parties involved. To date, deposits have been assigned to Chalmers University of Technology, KarolinskaInstitutet, the Royal Institute of Technology and the universities in Göteborg, Linköping, Lund, Stockholm, Uppsala and Umeå.VINST – Researchers in collaboration with smaller high-tech companiesVINST grants are intended to promote economic growth by supporting high-quality research projects conducted jointly by ascientific partner and a company. The new knowledge generated should benefit the researchers as well as the company, and inthe long run also the research community, industry, and society at large. The Foundation and VINNOVA have each allocated SEK30 million to the programme. The fourth and last call for applications has been made. In all, 21 grants have been awarded. Thisprogramme is administrated by VINNOVA.

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 69The Swedish Foundationfor Strategic Researchn The Board1 January, 2006 – 31 December, 2007Lena Hjelm-Wallén, former Deputy Prime Minister, ChairpersonLars Björck, Professor, Lund UniversityKarin Caldwell, Professor, Uppsala UniversityUlla Grönlund, Head of industrial relations, CountyAdministration VästerbottenPeter Hjalmarsson, PhD student, Linköping UniversityGöran Johnsson, Chairman, The Swedish Metalworkers’ UnionCarola Lemne, Managing Director, Danderyds sjukhus ABLennart Låftman, former Managing Director, StockholmChrister Ovrén, Head of department, ABB Corporate Research,VästeråsTuula Teeri, Professor, Royal Institute of Technology, StockholmJan Uddenfeldt, Senior Vice President, Telefon AB LM Ericssonn The CollegiumThe Foundation has created an advisory group – the Collegium– of experts who cooperate in and advise on planning and followupof its activities and in connection with the drafting of grant announcements.Appointed by the Governing Board, the advisorygroup represents a pool of about 50 qualified researchers andothers in charge of research from universities, industry and thecommunity. In their personal capacity, members of the Collegiumare invited to work in various drafting groups appointed by theFoundation. The members are also invited to annual meetingsat which the Foundation reports on work in hand and raises importantfuture and planning issues for discussion.Johan Ancker, The Association of Swedish EngineeringIndustriesStefan Arnborg, Royal Institute of TechnologyGlenn Björk, Umeå UniversityJan Borén, Göteborg UniversityTorgny Brogårdh, ABB Automation Technologies RoboticsEleanor Campbell, Göteborg University & Chalmers Universityof TechnologyUlf Carlson, Svenska Cellulosa ABTord Claeson, Chalmers University of TechnologyStaffan Eriksson, Swedish University for Agricultural SciencesCristina Glad, BioInvent International ABPetter Gustafsson, SweTree Technologies AB & Umeå UniversityErik Hagersten, Uppsala UniversitySven Ove Hansson, Royal Institute of TechnologyMaris Hartmanis, Gambro ABGunnar von Heijne Stockholm UniversityKristina Höök, Swedish Institute of Computer Science &Stockholm UniversityGösta Jonsson, AstraZeneca R&D HQTerje Kalland, Biovitrum ABAnna Karlsson, Karolinska InstitutetMats Leijon, Uppsala UniversityÅke Lernmark, Lund UniversitySven Lidin, Stockholm UniversityÅsa Lindholm Dahlstrand, University College of HalmstadBjörn Lindman, Lund UniversityLennart Ljung, Linköping UniversityMagnus Madfors, Ericsson European AffairsChristina Moberg, Royal Institute of Technology

70 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Nils-Erik Molin, Luleå University of TechnologySherry Mowbray, Swedish University for Agricultural SciencesNils Mårtensson, Lund UniversityBengt Nordén, Chalmers University of TechnologyThomas Nyström, Göteborg UniversityThomas Perlmann, Karolinska InstitutetEva Pisa, Sangtec Molecular Diagnostics ABClaes Post, Nordic Biotech A/SDag Sigurd, Swedish Industrial Development FundAnnika Stensson, Royal Institute of TechnologySune Svanberg, Lund UniversityChrister Svensson, Linköping UniversityTomas Thorvaldsson, Swerea ABLars Thylén, Royal Institute of TechnologyAnders Ynnerman, Linköping UniversityJens Zander, Royal Institute of TechnologyPär Åhlström, Chalmers University of Technologyn Selection and Programme CommitteesMaterials Science Programme CommitteeTord Claeson, Chalmers University of Technology, ChairmanIngemar Lundström, Linköping UniversityMats Leijon, Uppsala UniversityEva Olsson, Chalmers University of TechnologyUlf Rolander, Sandvik ABJoakim Amorim, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,SecretaryMicroelectronics Programme CommitteDag Sigurd, Swedish Industrial Development Fund, ChairmanBozena Jaskorzynska, Royal Institute of TechnologyBengt Svensson, Oslo UniversityOlle Nilsson, previously Chalmers University of TechnologyChrister Svensson, Linköping UniversityJoakim Amorin, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,SecretaryInformation Technology Programme CommitteeRolf Skoglund, ID Invest AB, ChairmanLars-Erik Eriksson, IT-Partner ABRutger Friberg, Volvo Technology Transfer CorporationErik Hagersten, Uppsala UniversityStaffan Truvé, The Swedish Research Institute for InformationTechnologyJane WalerudJerker WilanderMichael Williams, Ericsson ABOlof Lindgren, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,SecretaryBio-X Programme CommitteeGunnar Edwall, Ericsson AB, ChairmanJan Brundell, Biokonsult – BrundellKarin Caldwell, Uppsala University (until 30 June, 2006)Peter Friberg, Göteborg UniversitySverre Grimnes, Oslo University & Oslo University HospitalGösta Jonsson, earlier AstraZeneca R&D HQProgramme ManagerLena-Kajsa Sidén, Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchStrategic Research Centres Selection CommitteeThomas Johannesson, STFI-Packforsk AB, ChairmanBertil Andersson, European Science Foundation, StrasbourgAgneta Bladh, University College of KalmarJan-Olof Eklundh, Royal Institute of TechnologySture Forsén, Lund UniversityHarry Frank, ABBCarl-Henrik Heldin, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, UppsalaUniversity (from 1 March)Ingvar Lindgren, previously Chalmers University of TechnologyMagnus Madfors, Telefon AB LM EricssonBerndt Sjöberg, Aprovix ABLeena Peltonen, University of Helsinki (until 1 March)Anders Sjölund, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,SecretaryLeadership Programme Consultative GroupBengt Kasemo, Chalmers University of Technology, ChairmanGunilla Bökmark, ConsultantBertil Daneholt, Karolinska InstitutetAstrid Gräslund, Stockholm UniversityMaris Hartmanis, Gambro ABIngalill Holmberg, Stockholm School of EconomicsHenryk Wos, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,Secretary

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 71Ingvar Carlsson Award Selection CommitteeStaffan Normark, Karolinska Institutet, ChairmanSven Bergström, Umeå UniversityViveke Fåk, Linköping UniversityBengt Jonsson, Uppsala UniversityBo Liedberg, Linköping UniversityStephanie Reimann, Lund UniversityElisabeth Sauer Eriksson, Umeå UniversityMaria Smedh, Göteborg UniversityGunnar Sparr, Lund UniversityOscar Tjernberg, Royal Institute of TechnologyBengt Westermark, Uppsala UniversityNano-X Programme CommitteeStaffan Normark, Karolinska Institutet, Chairman (överst)Helene Andersson, SilexJoseph Nordgren, Uppsala UniversityHans Hentzell, ACREO, KistaJoakim Amorim, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,SecretaryFuture Research Leaders III Selection CommitteeGunnar Svedberg, STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, ChairpersonAnders Ahlén, Dept of Engineering Sciences, UUInger Andersson, Dept of Molecular Biology, SLUEleanor Campbell, Dept of Physics, GUMaria Fällman, Dept of Molecular Biology, UmUStina Gestrelius, Medicon Valley Academy, Copenhagen andLundJulie Gold, Dept of Chemical Physics, ChalmersSven Lidin, Dept of Inorganic Chemistry, SUSven Mattisson, Ericsson AB, LundKerstin Severinson Eklundh, School of Computer Science andCommunication, KTHNahid Shahmehri, Dept of Computer Sciences, LiUJohan Stenflo, Dept of Clinical Chemistry, LUPeter Thorén, AstraZeneca, MölndalBritta Wahren, Dept of Microbiology, Tumor Biology and CellBiology, KIInger Florin, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research,Secretaryn The Capital CommitteeOlof Sjöström, Director, ChairmanBjörn Brandt, Director of Administration, Swedish Foundationfor Strategic ResearchBjörn Franzon, Deputy Managing Director, Fourth SwedishNational Pension FundCecilia Hermansson, Senior Economist, FöreningsSparbankenLennart Låftman, Directorn AuditorsAppointed by the BoardJan-Erik Söderhielm, Authorised Public Accountant,Ernst & YoungDeputy: Magnus Fredmer, Authorised Public Accountant,Ernst & YoungGunnar Brodin, Professor, former Marshal of the RealmAnnika Sandström, Senior Judge, County administration court,StockholmAppointed by the National Audit BureauAnita Nilsson, Authorised Public Accountant, National AuditOfficeDeputy: Filip Cassel, Authorised Public Accountant, NationalAudit Officen The AdministrationLars Rask, Executive Director (from 1 January 2006)tel: +46 8 505 816 77; fax: +46 8 505 816 97e-mail: lars.rask@stratresearch.seBjörn Brandt, Director of Administration (until 31 December2006), Deputy Executive Directortel: +46 8 505 816 62e-mail: bjorn.brandt@stratresearch.seAnn-Katrin Croon, Director of Administration (from 1 January2007), tel: +46 8 505 816 75e-mail: ann-katrin.croon@stratresearch.seAnders Sjölund, Head of Planning, Scientific Secretary,Materials Science and Microelectronicstel: +46 8 505 816 78e-mail: anders.sjolund@stratresearch.seJoakim Amorim, Scientific Secretary (as of 1 April 2005)tel: +46 8 505 816 65e-mail: joakim.amorim@stratresearch.seJohan Berg, Scientific Secretary (from 15 November 2006) , tel+46 8 505 816 76e-mail: johan.berg@stratresearch.se

72 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006Eva Flink, Registrar, Secretary to the Executive Directortel: +46 8 505 816 66e-mail: eva.flink@stratresearch.seInger Florin, Scientific Secretary, Life Sciencestel: +46 8 505 816 74e-mail: inger.florin@stratresearch.seLars Frenning, Managing Director for ProViking and ProEnvirotel: +46 8 505 816 79e-mail: lars.frenning@stratresearch.seKerstin Hagwall, Programme Accountstel: +46 8 505 816 72e-mail: kerstin.hagwall@stratresearch.seIngvar Isfeldt, Information Secretarytel: +46 8 505 816 64e-mail: ingvar.isfeldt@stratresearch.seOlof Lindgren, Scientific Secretary, Information Technology,Evaluationstel: +46 8 505 816 69e-mail: olof.lindgren@stratresearch.seBirgitta Lundin, Financial Managertel: +46 8 505 816 63e-mail: birgitta.lundin@stratresearch.seSara Marakbi Häkkinen, Financial Assistanttel: +46 8 505 816 68e-mail: sara.marakbi_hakkinen@stratresearch.seLena-Kajsa Sidén, Scientific Secretary, Life ScienceTechnologies, Industry/Academia Collaborationtel: +46 8 505 816 73e-mail: lena-kajsa.siden@stratresearch.seBirgitta Talu, Reception, Switchboardtel: +46 8 505 816 61e-mail: birgitta.talu@stratresearch.seHenryk Wos, Scientific Secretary, Individual Grantstel: +46 8 505 816 71e-mail: henryk.wos@stratresearch.sen Printed material (in English)StatutesGeneral Information Folder (2003-11)Activity Reports (2001 – 2005)Annual Reports (1994 – 2005)Mid-term evaluation of ten SSF programmes (1998-08)Swedish Interdisciplinary Materials Consortia (1999-02)Research Programmes in Microelectronics (2000-10)Research Programmes in Materials Science (2002-01)Individual Grants for the Advancement of ResearchLeaders 2002 (2002-11)Strategic Research Centres in the Life Sciences (2004-11)Strategic Research Centres in Microelectronics (2005-03)Future Research Leaders 2005 (2006-01)Strategic Research Centres 2006 – 2010 (2006-06)n Abbreviations and acronymsBTH Blekinge Institute of TechnologyChalmers Chalmers University of TechnologyFOI Swedish Defence Research AgencyGU Göteborg UniversityHH University College of HalmstadHHS Stockholm School of EconomicsHIS University College of SkövdeHKR Kristianstad University CollegeIRF Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsIVA Royal Swedish Academy ofEngineering SciencesIVF Industrial Research and Development CorporationKI Karolinska InstitutetKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyKVA Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesLiU Linköping UniversityLTU Luleå University of TechnologyLU Lund UniversityMdH University College of MälardalenMIUN Mid-Sweden UniversityMistra Swedish Foundation for StrategicEnvironmental ResearchSICS Swedish Institute of Computer ScienceSIK Swedish Institute for Food and BiotechnologySH University College of South StockholmSLU Swedish University for Agricultural SciencesSP Swedish National Testing and Research InstituteSSF Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSTFI STFI-Packforsk ABSU Stockholm UniversityUmU Umeå UniversityUU Uppsala UniversityVINNOVA Swedish Agency for Innovation SystemsVR Swedish Research CouncilYKI Institute for Surface Chemistry

The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006 – 73Project manager SSF: Ingvar IsfeldtTranslation: Richard NordDesign and graphic production: Hans Melcherson, Tryckfaktorn ABCover photo: Lucky Look/Alaska StockPrinted by: Alfa Print AB, 2007ISBN 91-89206-36-3

74 – The Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchActivity Report 2006The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Researchsupports research and graduate training in the natural sciences,engineering and medicine for the purpose of strengtheningSweden’s future competitivenessfinances at present over 100 large research programmes at Swedishuniversities – many of them in collaboration with industryawards individual grants to particularly prominent researcherssupports important areas such as biotechnology, materials research,microelectronics, IT and product realisationinvests heavily in graduate training – almost 1 000 doctoral studentsare currently employed in the Foundation’s various programmeshas a total annual allocations volume of SEK 550 million (2007)has a capital of about SEK 10,4 billion (January 2007) as thebasis for its operationshas former Deputy Prime Minister Lena Hjelm-Wallén as Chairpersonas of 2004Postal address: Box 70483, SE-107 26 STOCKHOLMVisiting address: Kungsbron 1, G7Phone: +46 8 505 816 00Fax: +46 8 505 816 10E-mail: found@stratresearch.sewww.stratresearch.se

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