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Numerical Prediction of Sooting Laminar Diffusion Flames Using ...

Numerical Prediction of Sooting Laminar Diffusion Flames Using ...

Numerical Prediction of Sooting Laminar Diffusion Flames Using

Numerical Prediction of Sooting Laminar Diffusion Flames Using Adaptive MeshRefinementMarc R.J. Charest ∗ , Clinton P.T. Groth, and Ömer L. GülderUniversity of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies4925 Dufferin StreetToronto, Ontario, Canada, M3H 5T6AbstractA numerical combustion modelling tool capable of capturing complex processes such as detailed chemistry, moleculartransport, radiation, and soot formation/destruction in laminar diffusion flames has been developed. The proposedalgorithm makes use of a second-order accurate finite-volume scheme and a parallel block-based adaptive mesh refinement(AMR) algorithm. Radiation is modelled using the discrete ordinates method (DOM) to solve the radiativetransfer equation and the statistical narrow-band correlated-k method to quantify gas band absorption. At present, asemi-empirical model is used to predict the nucleation, growth, and oxidation of soot particles. Two laminar coflowflames which have been investigated extensively in previous numerical and experimental studies are considered: aweakly-sooting methane-air flame, and a heavily sooting ethylene-air flame. The effects of grid resolution and gasphasereaction mechanism are reported.IntroductionThe combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in practicalcombustion devices typically generates carbon particulates,called soot, which adversely affect performanceand are detrimental to human health. Our current inabilityto predict and control soot formation is due toa lack of understanding in the complex interactions betweenturbulence and chemistry which occur inside thesedevices. Since turbulent flames share many similar featuresto laminar ones, the detailed study of the structureand dynamics of laminar diffusion flames is essential toadvancing combustion science [1].The main focus of this research is the numerical simulationof laminar diffusion flames, which is complicatedby complex processes such as chemistry, diffusion, radiation,and soot formation/destruction. Currently, a simulationtool capable of solving laminar reacting flows withdetailed chemistry and radiation has been developed.To validate the mathematical model, two sooting laminarcoflow diffusion flames were simulated under atmosphericpressure and normal gravity. The weakly-sootingmethane-air flame investigated by Smooke et al. [2] andthe heavily-sooting ethylene-air flame simulated numericallyby Liu et al. [3] were selected. Solutions for theseflames were obtained using adaptively refined meshes,which provided increased grid resolution in areas of highgradients and small scales while minimizing computationalcosts. The resulting numerical solutions at various∗ Corresponding author: charest@utias.utoronto.caProceedings of the 6th U.S. National Combustion Meetinglevels of mesh resolution are presented along with theeffects of gas-phase chemistry model on the predictionof soot formation/oxidation. The scalability and parallelperformance of the overall algorithm is also briefly discussed.The findings of this work and future accomplishmentsin this area aim to improve our fundamental understandingof combustion science and help identify key flamestabilization mechanisms. The results of the researchshould also be invaluable in the development of more accuratesoot inception, growth, and oxidation models thatcan be applied to a wider range of fuels and operatingconditions, improving our ability to design efficient andpollutant-free combustion devices.Governing EquationsGaseous combusting flows are described mathematicallyusing the compressible gas dynamics equationsfor continuous isotropic, and homogeneous fluids [4].For multicomponent mixtures, the equations consist ofthe conservation of total mass, individual species mass,momentum, and energy. However, modelling soot formationand destruction in gaseous combustion requirestracking an additional solid phase and capturing theinteractions that occur between phases [5]. Interactionsbetween the particle and gas phases include masstransfer via nucleation, surface chemistry, or condensation/evaporation,momentum transfer via drag, and heattransfer via particle heating. Particles also interact witheach other through collisional processes such as coagu-

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