April - Wheat Life


April - Wheat Life

WHEAT IFEThe official publication of the Washington Association of Wheat GrowersAPRIL 2011LThe importanceof a streamWhy surface water affects chemical useRolling with the changesNational chemical manufacturers and theeffects of increased EPA regulationsRoad regulationsNew materials and what you need to knowFalling number testThe truth behind it allWashington Association of Wheat Growers109 East First Avenue, Ritzville, WA 99169Address Service RequestedNONPROFITUS POSTAGEPAIDPOST FALLS, IDPERMIT NO. 32

WLHEAT IFEVolume 54 • Number 4www.wheatlife.orgThe official publication ofWASHINGTONASSOCIATION OFWHEAT GROWERS109 East First AvenueRitzville, WA 99169-2394(509) 659-0610 • 800-598-6890In association with:www.washingtongrainalliance.comWAWG MEMBERSHIP(509) 659-0610 • 800-598-6890$125 per yearEDITORKara Rowe • kararowe@wawg.org(509) 456-2481GRAPHIC DESIGNTrista Crossley • Kara RoweAD SALES MANAGERKevin Gaffney • KevinGaffney@mac.com(509) 235-2715AD DESIGNDevin Taylor • Trista CrossleyAD BILLINGMichelle Hennings • michelle@wawg.org(509) 659-0610 • 800-598-6890CIRCULATIONAddress changes, extra copies, subscriptionsChauna Carlson • frontdesk@wawg.org(509) 659-0610 • 800-598-6890Subscriptions are $50 per yearWAWG EXECUTIVE COMMITTEEPRESIDENTBen Barstow • PalouseVICE-PRESIDENTEric Maier • RitzvilleSECRETARY/TREASURERRyan Kregger • TouchetPRESIDENT EMERITUSBrett Blankenship • WashtucnaAPPOINTED MEMBERSBrad Isaak • Coulee CityJP Kent • Walla WallaDan McKinley • DaytonWheat Life (ISSN 0043-4701) is published by theWashington Association of Wheat Growers (WAWG):109 E. First Avenue • Ritzville, WA 99169-2394Eleven issues per year with a combined August/September issue. Standard (A) postage paid atRitzville, Washington and additional entry offices.Contents of this publication may not be reprintedwithout permission.Advertising in Wheat Life does not indicateendorsement of an organization, product or politicalcandidate by WAWG.Aerial applicator in the Palouse region of Washington.2833FeaturesRoad regsInformation on regs from thestate patrol and commercialvehicle guideRolling with thechangesA discussion with nationalchemical manufacturersDepartmentsWAWG President’s PerspectiveWAWG at WorkWAWG Membership FormPolicy MattersRail, Roads, WaterwaysWAWG FeaturesProfilesWGC Chairman’s ColumnWGC ReviewWGC ReportsWGC Wide World of WheatFawning Over FalineAdvertiser Index3612142028384142466468744668The falling number testHow the test is challengingresearchers to find answersFawning Over FalineBy James A. NelsonUnion Flat Creek near Colfax, Wash., in late March.This creek runs year-round, while others close by areconsidered “intermittent streams.” Photo by Kara Rowe.All photos are Shutterstock images or taken by WheatLife staff unless otherwise noted2 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

President’s PerspectiveThe power of surface waterBy Ben BarstowThe latest numbers on food supply and population arepretty compelling. The world currently feeds about 7 billionpeople. At current growth rates, that number will increaseto 9 billion over the next 40 years. At that point, populationis expected to level out. To feed this world we farmers willneed to produce as much food in the next 40 years, as all ofmankind has produced in the last 10,000 years.In spite of that very tall order, there is a substantial portionof the public convinced that we can somehow continueto feed this growing population without the benefit ofmanufactured fertilizers, pesticides or advanced plantbreedingtechniques. Many devoutly believe that the worldwould be a far better, safer, “less toxic” place withoutmanufactured chemicals. They also believe we would live alot longer and that nature would thrive and flourish withoutpesticides, “toxic chemical fertilizers that kill the soil”or Genetically Modified Organisms (franken-foods) thatwill somehow destroy us all.There is a small, active and well-funded portion of thepublic that is passionately dedicated to achieving thatpesticide- and fertilizer-free nirvana, and they seem to havea lot of public sympathy with mainstream media support.They have been largely unable to achieve their pesticideandfertilizer-free goal directly through legislation, but thelanguage of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and theEndangered Species Act has created a legal playground.This playground ends up being mostly government funded,and it has recently brought them closer than ever to theirgoal.Since a court decision determined that a spray nozzle is apoint source of pollution, there has been considerable wranglingthat could ultimately (depending on interpretationdecided by courts and lawyers) require EPA permits for everypesticide application. The U.S. House of Representativesis starting to take up that issue, but it will be a toughpolitical fight. We may see the day when every load in oursprayers requires a federal permit. Though it may start outas a free permit, does anyone think it will always be free?The other major court victory in themarch toward a pesticide-free worldhas been the finding that the EPA hasnot “consulted” with the agenciescharged with protecting and recoveringendangered species before issuingpesticide labels. This began right herein Washington through a 2002 lawsuitinvolving salmon and 54 pesticides.Thus far, for the few pesticides that havebeen through consultation, the result is mandatory buffersaround anything that might drain into salmon-bearingwaters.The plan is that the EPA will provide an online buffercalculator to tell you how close you can get to anything in,or next to, your field that held water for 45 days this spring(qualifying it as an intermittent stream). However, in thebuffer calculator trial that I experimented with, the minimumbuffer, regardless of conditions, was 100 feet. In otherconditions, buffers may be as much as 500–1,000 feet, creatingthousands of acres that can only be farmed organically.This January, while your WAWG officers were visitingour Congressional delegation in the other Washington, acopycat lawsuit, citing endangered species in 49 states andhundreds of agricultural chemicals, brought what was oncea PNW/California issue to every American farm. It wasironic for WAWG Past President Brett Blankenship to warnthe National Association of Wheat Growers’ board thatthis lawsuit “could be filed any day.” It was filed within 48hours of his statement.Even more ironic is that WAWG officers, within thatsame 48 hour period, met with officials at NOAA’s NationalMarine Fisheries Service (NMFS). WAWG also held aseparate meeting with EPA officials that day to discuss theissue. WAWG encouraged all parties to develop a workableconsultation process. That was the second D.C. meeting onthis issue for WAWG and the agencies, and there have beenmore since.I have skimmed through parts of the latest NMFS consultationbiological opinion (BiOp), in which they find thatThe plan is that the EPA will provide an online buffer calculator to tell you howclose you can get to anything in, or next to, your field that held water for 45 daysthis spring (qualifying it as an intermittent stream).WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 3

WAWGatworkWAWG meetswith corn,soybean andsorghum growersWAWG represented wheat growersat the annual Commodity Classic heldin Tampa, Fla. in early March. This wasa chance for the four major commoditygroups to co-mingle, talk about issuesand plan for future farm policy. Whetherroaming the halls, walking the boardwalksor sitting in the airplanes, oddswere that you rubbed elbows with afarmer in Tampa that week. Specifically,the EPA/NMFS endangered species challengewith pesticide use in the PacificNorthwest (now affecting farmers nationwidedue to another lawsuit) was anagenda item discussed formally amongthe other commodity groups.The convention also served as the settingfor a National Association of WheatGrowers (NAWG) board meeting. WAWGPast President Brett Blankenship servesas a subcommittee chairman for NAWG’sdomestic policy group. Pressure hasbeen put on the agriculture commoditygroups to design priority lists for the upcomingfarm bill discussion. WAWG hasbeen reaching out to its membership toWAWG’s National Legislative Chairman Brett Blankenship, left, and President BenBarstow, right, represented Washington wheat farmers at the recent NAWG boardmeeting in Tampa, Fla.help formulate a specific plan that worksbest for Washington wheat farmers. Onething that was clear in Tampa was thateach commodity has different priorities.While NAWG will most likely fight forthe farm safety net, the National CornGrowers Association will most likely befighting to save ethanol credits. Thesevery basic differences illustrate the importanceof each group’s involvement injoint discussions. In reality, it’s the basicreason why each farmer needs to beinvolved in their state grower organizationsas well. If a farmer isn’t at the table,the farmer has no voice.WAWG learnsmore aboutpossible dustregsWAWG’s line officers attended arecent EPA meeting in Spokane thataddressed reducing farm dust regulationlimits. The 24-hour standard forPM 10 (farm dust) has been 150 microgramsper cubic meter since 1987. TheEPA is considering lowering the limit tobetween 65 and 85 micrograms, alongwith a change in methodology. A finalruling on adopting the proposed standardsis expected in late 2011. A meetingwas held to discuss the implications ofthis reduction with stakeholders. WAWGofficers came back with less than positiveimpressions.“I personally believe they need toleave the standards alone,” said WAWGSecretary Treasurer, Ryan Kregger. “EPAhas not done a good job of informing usof why they are lowering the standards.I want to see the actual science behindtheir reasoning.”Since the meeting, Brenton Sharrattof the USDA Agricultural ResearchService in Pullman has put together asummary of the dust issue. The followingare excerpts from this summary thathelp answer some common questions.Implications of TighterPM10 Air Quality StandardsBy Brenton Sharratt, USDA-ARSWhat is PM10?PM is an abbreviation for “particulatematter” or, simply, very small airborneparticles. PM2.5 is any particle witha diameter less than or equal to 2.5micrometers or 0.0001 inches. PM10 isany particle with a diameter less thanor equal to 10 micrometers or 0.0004inches. Single particles of either size are6 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

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WLWAWG AT WORKconcentration, the image on page 8 was taken overlookingPullman, Wash., when the PM10 concentration was 500 and 5µg m-3.Why is the EPA proposing new Air Quality Standards?Federal law mandates that the Air Quality Standards bereviewed every five years and revised, if necessary, to accountfor recent evidence on the effect of pollutants on humanhealth.What is the potential impactfor Eastern Washingtonin changing the PM10 AirQuality Standard?The proposed PM10Standard does allow exclusionof 2% of daily PM10 observationseach year before assessingcompliance. Historical dataat Kennewick and Spokaneindicate that adopting a PM10Standard with a thresholdPM10 concentration of 85 µgm-3 will likely have no impacton the number of violations ofthe PM10 Standard. However,adopting a PM10 Standardwith a threshold PM10 concentration of 65 µg m-3 may resultin more violations encountered in Eastern Washington.A summary created by the EPA is available at:www.epa.gov/pm/agriculture.htmlGot an issue? Contactyour WAWG countypresidentAdams—Ron Jirava, RitzvilleAsotin—Matt Seibly, AnatoneBenton—Devin Moon, ProsserColumbia—Dan McKinley, DaytonDouglas—Ben Adams, Coulee CityFranklin—James D. Moore, KahlotusGarfield—Keith Berglund, PomeroyGrant—Brad Isaak, Coulee CityLincoln—Kevin Klein, EdwallSpokane—Jeff Emtman, ValleyfordWalla Walla—Jon Walters, Walla WallaWhitman—Jim White, ColfaxYakima/Klikitat—Neal Brown, BickletonTax exemption sentimenthits headlinesBy Jim Jesernig, WAWG LobbyistLabor, education, and the human service advocates spentmuch of the end of March blasting tax “loopholes” in themedia. The headline for a guest column printed in The SeattleTimes read “Fix WashingtonState’s Budget Deficit byClosing Tax Loopholes.” Inanother column printed in TheOlympian the headline read“More Than 500 Tax BreaksCost State Treasury At Least$6.5B Each Year.”Both of these guest columnistsargued that if these taxexemptions ended that manyof the cuts budget writersare contemplating could beavoided. Though the mediarelations efforts have beenvague on specifics, many agriculturalinterests are extremelyconcerned that the agricultural wholesale B&O exemptionand the exemption for sales tax on fertilizers and pesticidesmight be included in a possible referendum or initiative forthe voters to decide on this fall.WAWG extendssocial media toolboxWAWG recently enrolled in both Facebook and Twitter.Washington’s farmers can follow WAWG and important policynews through the top two social media tools available. “Thesetools are becoming more vital as peoplebecome more web-savvy,” explainedKara Rowe, WAWG’s outreach coordinator.“People expect instant communicationnow. I can upload a national storyinstantly, and those who follow us will bekept up to date within moments,” Rowesaid.Follow us on:Twitter - WAWheatGrowersFacebook - Washington Associationof Wheat Growers10 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

POLICY MATTERSBack inbusiness!Columbia Snake Riverlocks reopenFrom the Pacific NorthwestWaterways AssociationInland commercial navigation onthe Columbia-Snake River System(CSRS) officially resumed on March26 at 11:00pm, following a plannedclosure that began on Dec. 10, 2010.The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers(USACE), who maintain the eightCSRS locks and dams, successfullyreplaced three downstream gatesat The Dalles, John Day and LowerMonumental navigation locks and performed maintenanceon the five others during the outage.“River system stakeholders, who have closely followedthis historic lock maintenance outage, applaud the teameffort, led by the Corps of Engineers and its contractors,”stated John Pigott, President of the Columbia River TowboatAssociation. “They successfully delivered the Columbia-SnakeRiver navigation system back to its users and customers. Weare thrilled today to have the river system intact and resumingits role as a reliable, major marine transportation corridorconnecting our region, and nation to the world.”The CSRS is a vital transportation link for the states ofIdaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The economies ofthese four states rely heavily on the commerce that flows upand down this system. The CSRS is the #1 U.S. wheat exportgateway, #1 U.S. barley export gateway, #1 West Coast woodexport gateway, #1 in West Coast mineral bulk exports, and#2 on the West Coast for auto imports. The deep draft channelsupports 40 million tons of cargo each year and 40,000 localjobs. The inland system supports 10 million tons of cargo,valued at $2 billion annually.“Overall trade on the system is expected to increase significantlyover the next 15 years,” said Glenn Vanselow, PNWAExecutive Director. “The infrastructure investments, maintenance,and repairs made during the closure have long-termbenefits for the Northwest and those who depend on goodsthat travel by river. With the success of this closure, the riverPORTLAND DISTRICT OF U.S. Army Corps of Engineers PHOTOThe Shaver Transportation Company tug Cascades passesupriver through The Dalles navigation lock March 25. Thelock’s downstream gate, along with those at John Day andLower Monumental dams, was replaced during an extendedthree-month outage.system will remain a tremendous assetto handle the expected upsurgein waterborne commerce in thefuture.”WAWG is a member of the PacificNorthwest Waterways Associationand has been actively involved inreviewing the lock closure process.More farmerrepresentationat EPA on thehorizon?Members of Congress in both partiesrecently introduced a bill that would give the Secretaryof Agriculture the authority to appoint up to three membersto the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science AdvisoryBoard.The Representation for Farmers Act was introduced bySens. Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.) and Dick Lugar (R-Ind.) andReps. Bruce Braley (D-Iowa) and Marlin Stutzman (R-Ind.).The proposal aims to give farmers an increased voice in thegovernment’s decision-making process for environmentalpolicies that could affect farmland throughout the country.“It is important for farmers to have a say about the rulesand regulations that will have a direct impact on their livelihood—beforethose rules become the law of the land,” saidSen. Ben Nelson (D-Neb.), a member of the Senate AgricultureCommittee. Nelson also signed onto the legislation as a cosponsor.“By giving farmers a voice in the review process, wecan limit the unintended consequences of new policies. Goodintentions and common sensecan come together to protect theenvironment without hurting theabilities of American farmers toproduce the safest, highest qualityfood in the world.”While this is a good bill intheory, some argue that farmersand ranchers already have a voice14 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

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WLPOLICY MATTERSat the agency through the EPA’s Farm,Ranch, and Rural Communities FederalAdvisory Committee. This committeewas created in 2008 “to provide independentpolicy advice, information andrecommendations to the administratoron a range of environmental issues andpolicies that are of importance to agricultureand rural communities.” Committeemembers include representatives fromacademia, industry (e.g. agriculture andallied industries), non-governmentalorganizations and state, local and tribalgovernments.PNW Repsco-sponsorNPDES billFrom NAWGThe House Transportation andInfrastructure Committee approved bya 46-8 vote the pending bill that wouldprevent the need for extra permitting toapply pesticides.The bill, H.R. 872, was considered andapproved by a voice vote by the HouseAgriculture Committee earlier. The twocommittees share jurisdiction over theissue.It would amend the FederalInsecticide, Fungicide and RodenticideAct (FIFRA) and the Clean Water Act toeliminate the requirement for NationalPollutant Discharge Elimination System(NPDES) permits for applications of pesticidesapproved for use under FIFRA.This new requirement emerged froma 2009 Sixth Circuit Court ruling that saidpesticide discharge is a point source ofpollution subject to additional regulationunder the Clean Water Act.The Court issued a two-year stay ofthe ruling to give regulators at the stateand federal levels time to implement thewide-ranging decision, but most remainunprepared. If a legislative solution forNeighbor takes helm at NAWGPacific Northwest wheat farmers have a neighborat the helm of the National Association ofWheat Growers this year. Wayne Hurst of Burley,Idaho, was elected and installed as president ofthe organization this spring.Hurst started farming 31 years ago. His parentswere both teachers who farmed part-time, butboth of Hurst’s grandparents were farmers. “I grewup working on the farm, and I enjoyed it,” he said.Today Hurst and his family operate a diversified,irrigated row crop farm. Their major crop is wheat(mostly soft white), and Hurst has also grownsugar beets, potatoes, dry beans and forage crops.“My maternal grandfather said ‘son, you canmake a good living raising wheat.’ I remember that advice, and I agreewith him,” Hurst said. Located on the edge of what’s known as the MagicValley in south central Idaho, the Hurst farm sits at an altitude of 4,400 to5,000 feet in some areas. “We irrigate out of the Snake River. There’s a lotof small 40- and 80-acre fields in our area. It’s a very intensely managedagricultural area.” He added that most farmers in the area use wheel lines toirrigate, but some are moving to pivots. “This is good wheat country. It’s notuncommon to raise 100-120 bushel-an-acre wheat on irrigated land here,”he said.Hurst has held a number of leadership positions in agricultural organizations.He is a graduate of the Wheat Industry Leaders of Tomorrow (WILOT)program and the Leadership Idaho Agriculture Program. He also servedas an officer for the Idaho Grain Producers Association and on the NAWGBoard. Wayne has also served on the NAWG Budget Committee and chairedthe NAWG/U.S. Wheat Associates/WETEC consolidation committee in 2006.Now at the helm of NAWG for the upcoming year, Hurst sees his job ascontinuing the tradition of excellence in the organization. “I am proud thatNAWG represents the grassroots policy of our farmers,” he said. “It’s fair andopen. Once the policy is set by our state grower organizations, it is carriedout by our staff.”Hurst believes one of the biggest challenges the industry will face is theuncertainty of biotechnology entering the arena. “We are seeing lawsuitsattacking certain crops, such as sugar beets, over GMO plants. This leads toa lot of uncertainty. Hopefully those challenges will be resolved, and we willsee the technology evolve in order to feed the world. In the next 40 yearsour world will grow from six billion people to nine billion people. We haveno more land or water to feed that increase. We will have to produce moreon a limited amount of resources.”Idaho is one of Washington’s partners in the PNW tri-state effort alongwith Oregon. Hurst and his fellow Idahoans will be joining WAWG for the2011 Tri-State Grain Growers Convention held in Spokane this fall. Oregonfarmers will also be attending.16 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011


RAILROADSWATERWAYSTransportation NewsRail-to-rail competitionand its importanceto agricultureBy Dr. Ken CasavantDirector of the Freight Policy TransportationInstitute, School of Economic Sciences,Washington State UniversityThis series of articles in Wheat Lifeabstracts from the recent USDA reporton agricultural transportation inthe United States, done with the assistanceof Washington State University’sTransportation Group (TRG) in the Schoolof Economic Sciences, which was asked topartner in conducting that national study.This article looks specifically at the findingsof that study which looks at the railrate structure for agricultural commoditiesand compares it to rates for other commodities.The link for the overall study is www.ams.usda.gov/RuralTransportationStudyAny examination of the effects ofderegulation and the performanceof the Surface Transportation Board(STB) under that deregulation shouldinclude an analysis of railrates that have evolvedsince implementation of theStaggers Act of 1980 (StaggersAct). Subsequent articles inWheat Life will discuss theimpact of those rates.Importance of ReasonableRail Rates to AgricultureBecause grain and oilseedsare bulk commoditieswith a low value inproportion to their weight,the costs of rail transportationto market represent asignificant percentage of theaverage on-farm price of thecommodities (Figure 1). Forexample, average rail tariffrates as a percent of the farmprice of wheat have variedfrom 11.3 percent in 2007,when wheat prices were high,to 23.1 percent in 1999, whenwheat prices were low. Recent wheatprices would shrink that percentage.Rail transportation costs for individualmovements of agricultural productshave been as much as 40 percent of thedelivered price.Agricultural producers are “pricetakers” rather than “price makers,”with little control over the price theyreceive for their products. They areunable to pass cost increases ontocustomers and must absorb thembecause of their lack of market power.Consequently, increases in transportationcosts result in decreased producerprofit. For agricultural shippers withno cost-effective alternative to rail,and located far from markets, rail isthe only transportation available. Therail rate determines the net price theproducer receives.When wheat prices increase, as$0.80$0.75$0.70$0.65$0.60$0.55$0.5019951996199719981999200020012002in the current situation, (railroadsbelieve) growers can afford to paymore for transportation services fromrailroads. Thus, increases in rail ratesare often seen, as indicated in thechart below. It appears in some casesthat railroads have increased theirrates proportionately more than theincrease in farm prices and then havebeen reluctant to follow the price ofgrains down.Despite these concerns, rates forland transportation of agriculturalcommodities in the United Statesremain among the lowest in the world.Although rail rates for agriculturalcommodities have not fallen as muchas rates for some other products (suchas coal), Figure 1 shows that the railtransportation cost during 2007, asa percentage of the price of a bushelof wheat, was at a 13-year low.Figure 1: Wheat-Average Rail Tariff Compared to Average Farm PriceAverage tariff rail rate per bushel4.554.303.603.383.40 3.400.6302.652.780.6390.6132.55 2.620.588 0.5920.584 0.5850.572 0.573 0.577Year*200320040.69420053.4020064.266.480.7460.7322007$7.00$6.00$5.00$4.00$3.00$2.00$1.00$0.00*Marketing year ending May 31* Marketing year ending May 31Sources: AMS, Rail Tariff Data: STB Waybill Samples, 1995-2007;Sources: AMS, Rail Tariff Data: STB Waybill Samples, 1995-2007; Average Farm Average Price: Farm USDA/NASS, Price: Crop Crop ValueSummarySummaryAverage farm price per bushel20 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WLFEATURERecent Rail Rate Levels – THE RESULTSSTB waybill rate data is used in Figure 2 to examinethe real revenue per ton-mile for the period 1985 to2007. STB uses the Tornqvist Index to track rail rates. TheTornqvist Index measures the change in prices in categoriesand assigns a percentage weight to each category basedon its share of total revenue. The index is essentially theweighted average of price changes within the various categories.Both the prices within the various categories andthe weights assigned to each category can vary.The downward pressure on rates identified above as aresult of railroad efficiency improvements and competitivepricing is evident. From 1985 to 2004 the rail rate indexfell almost continuously, with only a slight increase beingnoted in 2002. However, as frequently stated to the STB byshippers, the years since 2004 have seen rapidly increasingrates for shippers. Starting in 1985, rail rates dropped about10 percent in the first two years, continued dropping atnearly that rate through 1992 and then declined at a slowerrate during the period between 1992 and 2000. Over thenext few years, the rates hovered in a narrow range, varyingboth positively and negatively until 2004. From 2004 to2007, the rate index has increased nearly 12 percent, from56.8 to 65.5.Various studies have agreed with the findings that overallrail rates decreased substantially from the mid-1980s toTornqvist Index100908070605040Figure 2: STB Rail Rate Index 1985 to 2007Real Revenue Per Ton-Mile (1985=100)100.094.4 90.588.1 83.780.8 77.072.471.869.667.265.9 64.4 62.4 60.8 60.8 64.358.158.6 58.8 57.2 56.819851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007Yearthe early 2000s. The causes of the decrease included:• The rationalization of the rail network, with abandonmentsand creations of short line or regionalrailroads decreasing costs while maintaining muchof the original traffic.• The ability of railroads and shippers to engage inlong-term contracting as provided by the StaggersAct of 1980.• The increase in trainload shipments.• The shifts to larger-capacity rail cars and technologyinnovations.But the story doesn’t continue as positively for agriculture.A recent STB study of railroad rates from 1985 to2007 found that “inflation-adjusted rates” increased from2005 to 2007. STB wrote, “This represents a significant changefrom prior years, given that inflation-adjusted rail rates declinedin every year but one from 1985 through 2004.” STB furtherelaborated, “In fact, adjusting for the purchasing power of thedollar, shippers spent $7.8 billion more in 2007 than they wouldhave if the rate levels of 2004 had remained in place.” The STBrate study further points out that well over half the increasein rail rates between 2004 and 2007 could be attributed tohigher fuel costs. Yet, even after consideration of fuel costs,railroad rates have been steadily increasing during the lastfew years.65.5Source: STB, study of railroad rates: 1985-2007The Government AccountabilityOffice (GAO) has reported that thepercentage of traffic in tons travelingat rates above a revenue-to-variablecost ratio (R/VC) of 300, whichis substantially above the statutoryregulatory level of 180, has generallyincreased from 1985 through2005. The share of tonnage travelingat rates over 300 percent R/VCincreased from 6.1 percent in 2004to 6.4 percent in 2005.But the story is incomplete. GAOreports that the railroad industryrevenue reported as miscellaneousincome during 2005 increasedtenfold from 2000, rising from $141million to more than $1.7 billion.This revenue includes some fuelsurcharges, congestion fees andrevenue derived from railcar auctions.These revenue streams are inaddition to recent rate increases.24 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

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WLFEATURERates1. 3: Rate Changes for Coal, Grain, Mixed Shipments and Motor Vehicles19851986198719881989CoalGrain199019911992199319941995Motor vehicles19961997Misc mixed shipments19981999200020012002GDP price index200320042005Source: GAO analysis of STB data50 percent higher in 1997.Where We Are NowCaptive shippers, whohave carried a large partof railroad fixed and commoncosts since railroads were deregulated,expected their ratesto drop as railroads gainedeconomically stability, but thathas not happened. Not onlyare rail rates for agriculturalproducts higher than thosefor other commodities, butthe rates have increased morerapidly from 2004 to 2007. Thecurrent Surface TransportationBoard actions have not moderatedthis impact.Because individual farmerscannot raise the prices of theircommodities to reflect risingcosts, any increase in costsAgriculture Rates are Higher Than Those of Otherreduces their profit. High rail rates damage the economicCommoditiesIhealth of the farming sector and rural communities andn another study, the GAO found that “although ratesalso make it more difficult for America to compete in exportmarkets.have declined since 1985, they have not done so uniformly,and rates for some commodities are significantlyhigher than rates for others” (Figure 3). Specifically, GAOfound that “grain rates declined from1985 through 1987, but then divergedFigure 4: Average Freight Revenuefrom the other commodity trends andincreased, resulting in a net 9 percentPer Grains and Oilseeds Carloadincrease by 2004.” In 2005, rates for allcommodities increased by 9 percent3,300over 2004 rates, the largest annualincrease in 20 years. Rail rates for grainincreased 8.5 percent over 2004.2,800Grains and oilseeds up 73 percent, 2008 over 2003.All other commodities up 50 percent, 2008 over 2003.2,809According to the American2,369Association of Railroads Freight2,3002,2512,063Commodity Statistics, agricultural ratesnot only are higher than those of other1,7861,800commodities, but also have increased1,5591,613 1,615 1,608 1,609 1,6241,556more rapidly (see Figure 4). For instance,rail rates for grain and oilseeds1,2811,3621,300increased to $2,809 per carload in 2008,1,1711,004 1,008 1,017 1,028 1,030 1,039 1,078up 73 percent from 2003; rates for allother commodities increased to $1,556800per carload, up 50 percent. In addition,1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008grain and oilseed rates during 2008were 81 percent higher than those paidby all other commodities, compared toAll other commodities Grains and oilseedsDollars per carload26 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

Bruce Kelly photoThe New Holland CR 9070Twin Rotor • 463 Max HPThe NH 9070 Twin Rotor ® design generates more centrifugal force thanany other rotary design for faster separation and excellent grain quality.With a 350 bushel capacity and an unloading auger that delivers over 3bushels per second, you’ll run at peak efficiency.Units in stock with Hillco hillside leveling systems!S.S. EquipmentNOW SERVING YOU FROM SEVEN CONVENIENT SUPER STORE LOCATIONSPasco Othello Quincy509-547-1795 509-488-9607 509-787-3595Walla Walla LaGrande Hermiston509-522-9800 541-963-8144 541-567-3001Moses Lake509-764-8447www.sseqinc.comAlso in stock: Degelman HarrowsWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 27

cut hereREQUIRED DOCUMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL VEHICLESTRAVELING IN WASHINGTON STATEIf vehicle weights are: Operation CDL Medical Certificate Log Book Age10,000 to 26,000 lbs GVWRInterstate No Yes Yes* 21Intrastate No No Yes** LLD26,001 lbs GVWR or MoreInterstate Yes Yes Yes** 21Intrastate Yes Yes Yes** 18HAZ-MAT (Placarded Amount) Any size vehicleInterstate Yes Yes Yes** 21Intrastate Yes Yes Yes** 18Farm HAZ-MAT Refer to WAC 446.65.010(3)+ - - -Farm/Combination 10,001 to 26,000 lbs GVWRInterstate No Yes Yes** 18Intrastate No No Yes** JAPFarm/Combination 26,001 lbs GVWR or MoreInterstate Yes*** Yes Yes** 18Intrastate Yes*** Yes Yes** JAPFarm Straight Truck 10,001 to 26,000 lbs GVWRInterstate No Yes* Yes** 18Intrastate No No Yes** JAPFarm Straight Truck 26,001 lbs GVWR or MoreInterstate Yes*** Yes* Yes** 18Intrastate Yes*** Yes* Yes** JAPBeekeeper 10,000 to 26,000 lbs GVWRInterstate No No++ Yes** 18Intrastate No No++ Yes** LLDBeekeeper 26,001 lbs GVWR or MoreInterstate Yes* No++ Yes** 18Intrastate Yes* No++ Yes** 18KEY Legal Definitions Federal Regulations Rev Code of WA WA Administrative CodesCDL Commercial Vehicle Drivers License CDL 383 46.25 446.65LLD Legally Licensed Driver Medical Certificate 391 46.32 446.65JAP Juvenile Agricultural Permit Log Book 395 46.32 446.65* Over 150 Air Miles Hazmat 397 46.48** Over 100 Air Miles Definitions 390 46.04*** Over 150 Statute Miles Farmers 395.1(k) 46.04+ Hazmat-Exemption Farmers N/A N/A 446.65.01(3)++ Must be transporting bees Apiarian Industries 391.2 46.32View complete codes and regulations at http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/CommercialVehicle/default.htm.3000-150-032 (8/09)

WLFEATUREa solid agricultural product.• You are transporting no more than 16,094 pounds ofammonium nitrate fertilizer in a bulk container andthe ammonium nitrate is an oxidizer, Packing GroupIII.• You are a farmer who is an intrastate private motorcarrier.Other exceptions applying to farmers may be found in:173.315 (m) nurse tanks, 173.8 liquid petroleum products,and 173.6 Materials of Trade.Note: The retailer is responsible for providing shipping papers andplacards when these are required.Other rulesWho does NOT need aCDL?According to the 2010-2011 WashingtonState Commercial Vehicle Guide, the lawexempts certain groups of drivers fromthe requirement to obtain a CDL (RCW46.25.050):Farmers transporting farm equipment,supplies, or products to or froma farm in a farm vehicle are exempted,provided the vehicle is operated by afarmer or farm employee, as long asthey stay within 150 miles from thefarm.possess a current medical certificate as required in §§391.41and 391.45.Oversize Load Signs“OVERSIZE LOAD” signs are required on all overdimensionalloads, except as provided for in WAC 468‐38‐075.Signs must be 7 feet long and 18 inches high with black letteringat least 10 inches high. Signs on escort vehicles mustbe at least 5 feet long, 10 inches high, with black lettering atleast 8 inches high on a yellow background.Farm Permit RequirementsA farm implement 16 feet wide or less does not requireFederal Motor CarrierSafety AdministrationCode 391.2(medical cards)What driver qualification requirementsmust a farm vehicle driver (as defined in§390.5) comply with in part 391?Guidance—Drivers meeting thedefinition of ‘‘farm vehicle driver’’ whooperate straight trucks are exemptedfrom all driver qualification requirementsof part 391. All drivers of articulatedmotor vehicles with a GCWR of10,001 pounds or more are required toCabernet-(Tested as RSI 95WV 10616)is undoubtedly the single best choicefor irrigated DNS production in theCentral Basin. It is short in stature, heavytillering and is early maturing. Lessresidue after harvest makes second cropestablishment much easier. We had manyreports of yields exceeding 135 bu/acrein recent years. Cabernet prefers warmerenvironments and responds well toslightly higher seeding rates.ALSO AVAILABLE:KelseMalbecLouiseAlpowaWB FusionHollisStand Fast AlfalfaDeKalb AlfalfaDeKalb Corn SeedForage BlendsDeKalb Canola SeedEverleaf OatsShooting Star OatsCRP BlendsSEED CONTRACTS AVAILABLE1-866-627-4500CRAIG O. TEELContact at 509-528-4851DANA L. HERRONContact at 509-546-1300Connell, WA Office: 509-234-2500www.TriStateSeed.com30 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

FEATURE WLa permit when traveling on the highway system. A farmimplement permit can be issued from over 16 feet wide, butless than 20 feet wide for one year.A quarterly or annual permit to move farm implementsmay be purchased by a farmer or by a person engaged inthe business of selling or maintaining farm implementsto move within a designated area, generally three to fourcounties.The permit is required to be physically present at thetime of movement.An original or faxed permit will allow the person orcompany identified on the permit to draw, drive, or haulany farm implement on state highways.For farm implements over 16 feet wide and less than 20feet wide, a letter must besubmitted for approval to the followingaddress. The counties must be specified.5026 ROTARY CUTTERHydraulic phasingcylinders for level liftSpring steel bushingsat all major pivots1000 RPM heavy-dutydive lineSuspension for center& wing frames15’, 26’ & 42’ ModelsRS320 ROCK PICKER3.2 Cubic yard hopperSuperior rock picking performanceSRW 1400 ROCK WINDROWERSPerfect match for your Rock Picker Unit!WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 31

For more than a year the Washington Association ofWheat Growers has been monitoring and communicatingwith agency officials on the problems between theEndangered Species Act and common chemical use practiceson the farm. A few years ago environmental groupsargued that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)failed to properly consult with NOAA’s National MarineFisheries Service (NMFS) on more than 50 commonly usedfarm chemicals in regards to their effects on salmon. Thesalmon in the Columbia-Snake River System are endangered.No surprise, the environmental groups won thelawsuit.Under court order, the NMFS has been reviewing thosechemicals and issuing biological opinions (BiOps) as recommendationsto the EPA on how the chemicals should beused in order to protect salmon. Many of the BiOps, however,recommended a "reasonable and prudent alternative" tothe current registrations by• requiring setbacks for the application of insecticidesthat would be 500 feet away from salmonid habitatsfor ground applications and 1,000 feet for aerialapplication;• limiting application in high wind;• requiring a 20-foot strip of vegetation near surfacewaters connected to salmonid habitats;• requiring regular reports concerning fish mortality;and• limiting application when soil moisture is, or islikely to become, high.These suggestions could ultimately lead to new labels onour chemicals.Some wonder how this affects farms that sit miles awayfrom any potential salmon-bearing river. The fact that intermittentstreams (water bodies that hold water for at least 45days) are a part of life throughout the Pacific Northwest hasmany on the offensive. These intermittent streams have thepotential of flowing into salmon-bearing waters. This factorhas the potential to take massive amounts of the PNW’sfarmland out of production according to the WashingtonState Department of Agriculture (WSDA). The proposedbuffers for pesticide application would apply to everyA recap of the EPA/NMFS issuestream and canal flowing through farmland, regardlessof their distance from salmon habitat, and would affect 61percent of land in the state, according to Heather Hansen,executive director of Washington Friends of Farms andForests.NMFS has issued four BiOps so far. The most recent wasreleased in March and it reviewed captan, chlorothalonil,2,4-D, diuron, linuron and triclopyr BEE.“A lot of people believe that if they can issue a findingthat claims 2,4-D puts salmon in jeopardy, then theycan easily say the same about every chemical out there,”said Ben Barstow, current president of the WashingtonAssociation of Wheat Growers (WAWG).The extreme measures outlined in the NMFS BiOpsmade WAWG and other ag groups look into the “science”behind the BiOps. The groups learned in 2010 that NMFS’sdata has been based on computer modeling, not real-watersamples. This data also doesn’t reflect typical use...it reflectsillegal use rates and illegal numbers of applications. In fact,the BiOps have ignored current water sample data compiledby the WSDA, which shows that pesticide levels arepractically non-existant for most chemicals in the Columbiaand Snake rivers. The latest draft BiOp suggests lower tolerancelevels for streams and rivers than are currently set fordrinking water. They have also ignored the fact that salmonrun numbers in the Snake and Columbia rivers have beenat record highs in recent years. Ag groups hope to persuadethe EPA and NMFS that a change in their review processand computer modeling reliance is vital to gain the bestscientific review available.This summer, WAWG will be hosting officials from bothagencies on a tour of Washington’s agricultural lands. Theyhope to explain the devastating effects the BiOp recommendationswill have on production agriculture. They willalso showcase the typical use of the chemicals on farms.On a side note, in January the Center for BiologicalDiversity filed a landmark lawsuit against the EPA for failingto consult with federal wildlife agencies regarding theimpacts of more than 300 pesticides on endangered species.The lawsuit seeks protection for more than 200 endangeredand threatened species throughout the United States,including the Florida panther, California condor, pipingplover, black-footed ferret, arroyo toad, Indiana bat, bonytailchub and Alabama sturgeon.

WLFEATUREcontributing factor. Innovation is our lifeblood. When weput a new compound up for review we want to insure it isheld in a science-based arena.”Wilbur-Ellis echoed the same philosophy, addingthat each chemical endures thorough testing. “It’s a veryslow process getting new products to the marketplace,”said Rawlins. “It’s a slow process by design for thoroughreview.”The makers of Diacon, a grain storage insecticide, agreethat there have been changes in the industry. “I’ve seensome of the older chemistry, the persistent chemicals likesome organo-phosphates, disappear,” said Randy Scottof Central Life Sciences. “We now have chemistry thatdoesn’t have heavy metals. Most are focusing on chemistrythat is safest for the applicators, the environment andthe end users to consume. Now there’s either no residuein our food and fiber, or so little that it has a negligibleeffect.”Many chemical companies argue that their products gothrough rigorous, science-based testing to gain the FIFRAlabel. “Whenever we bring a product to the marketplace,we spend a lot of time working with farmers and applicators,”said Rea. “We make sure the product is used safelyin conjunction with the label. We want our farmers to useour products effectively. This happens when they use ourproducts according to the label.”“EPA really scrutinizes things,” said Scott. “The averageperson doesn’t realize how much these chemicalsare scrutinized. It’s not pay to play. You pay, pay, pay fortesting. Chemical companies pay for analysis and reviewof data all done under the EPA’s Good Laboratory PracticeStandards making sure it’s safe for all concerned before iteven comes close to the FIFRA labeling process.”Some wonder, however, if the chemical companiescare about their older technology since they are continuouslyworking on newer formulas. If chemical companieschoose not to invest in the re-labeling of older formulas,farmers fear this could limit the variety of tools availableto them in the future. Eliminating tools could lead todependence on only a handful of new products, and somefear chemical resistance in pests could grow.Both BASF and Wilbur-Ellis believe in keeping olderformulas in the toolbox for farmers. “BASF has a maturegroup of products,” said Rea. “There’s no backing awayfrom BASF to protect older chemistries. We continue toinvest in formulations and labeling of old products. Wehave an ongoing commitment to older formulas as well asto bringing new products to the marketplace. Farmers andapplicators need a choice.”“Any new product will have some kind of toxicity level,”said Bill Bagley, manager of Application Technologyat Wilbur-Ellis. “Buffer zones will be a factor on all futurelabels that will mitigate potential drift. New products willnot solve this problem.”This is a good sign for farmers. Knowing they havepartners in the industry striving to bring quality productsto the table and to protect those already with a seat at thetable is reassuring. As long as future agency testing relieson the best available science, many can feel confident inthe future of crop protection tools. WAWG is here to makesure a change in the EPA/NMFS’ philosophy happens.Companies makeinvestments inenvironment protectionNot only do most national chemical companies investmillions in their products, they are also investingin environmentally friendly measures. Most utilizenumerous resources to train farmers and applicatorson the proper use of their chemicals. In additionto this training, a group is also investing in testingfacilities for the broader good.University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) has partneredwith BASF, Winfield Solutions and Wilbur-EllisCompany to expand their research into pesticide driftamid new legal and regulatory concerns. The UNL researcherswill evaluate drift through different nozzletypes, application pressures and spray solutions andat different wind speeds.The addition of the new facility will enable researchto be conducted on spray collection efficiency,pesticide penetration into the plant canopy, and sprayquality and pesticide efficacy comparisons.Plans at UNL’s West Central Research andExtension Center are to build a system of two drifttunnels, which would be only the second in thecountry to conduct such research. This will be thefirst commercial testing wind tunnel facility in theU.S. The tunnels will cost about $1.2 million to build,and will be funded by the three national companiesas a joint venture with UNL. Other support is beingprovided by the UNL Extension and AgriculturalResearch Division, both part of the Institute ofAgriculture and Natural Resources.34 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

FEATURE WLvisit us atwww.wheatlife.orgmore interactive ag newsagri solutionsInsuring farmers and theircrops for over 60 years.Customized Insurance Plansto fit your farming operation• Crop Insurance • CRC • Multi-PerilFarm Insurance We Provide• Crop • Equipment • Liability• Livestock • Auto • Property/BuildingsLewiston, ID Clarkston, WA Spokane, WA(208)743-1506 (509)758-5529 (509)755-4500Craigmont, ID Genessee, ID(208)924-5232 (208)285-1661http://stonebrakermcquary.comWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 35

Keeping perspectiveLocal chemical companies weather regulations as they come and goBy Kara RoweIn the battle over the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) regulations, local chemical companies are the ultimatemiddle man. They don’t manufacture the chemicals,and, in some cases, they don’t apply the chemicals. Theydo, however, sell the chemicals. They also, in most cases,act as the main communication source between the manufacturersand applicators or farmers. Hosting seminars,grower meetings and other educational tools, local dealersare the rural face of the national chemical companies.“We are caught in the center of the issue,” explainedCrop Protection Manager Gordon Cockrum of TheMcGregor Company, which is headquartered in Colfax.“On one end of the spectrum you have the manufacturer.On the other end, you have the actual user. In this legislative/regulativearena, the end user has a much strongerpoint of persuasion. Farmers have the most importantvoice in this issue.”So far, the BiOp recommendations by the NationalMarine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have not been put intoeffect by the EPA. Nothing has changed for local dealersor applicators this season.“Until the new label is out, there are no changes weneed to make,” said General Manager of Ag Link MitchIngham. Ingham also said they deal with label changeseach year, but they are on relatively minor issues. Whileno label changes have been made regarding the BiOps,headlines keep local dealers aware of possible futurechanges. They try to balance preparation with innovation,as well as a good dose of reality.“As a local dealer, when we hear things we don’t panic,”explained Dave Barta of Crop Production Services (CPS).“We try to be defensive and progressive. If a regulation isimposed, we assume it’s for a good reason. We don’t havethe resources to prove or disprove the regulation.”While local dealers act as a third party in policy makingwhen it comes to regulation changes like the NMFSis suggesting, they definitely have an opinion and animportant role.“At times, some of the past criticisms of our industryhas driven awareness,” said Cockrum. “Part of this wholeEPA/NMFS issue could change how the EPA approachesthings like this. In reality, there’s no way to implementthe strategies NMFS is suggesting. States do not have theinfrastructure or funding to be able to enforce it. These areludicrous suggestions. In the 35 years I’ve workedin this industry, a high percentage of the time logicfinally seeps in. I hope that’s what happens.”Alex McGregor and Gordon Cockrum of The McGregor Company36 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

BUSHELS PER ACRE LOST IN WHEAT WITHA NON-LEVELING COMBINE ON VARYING SLOPES(harvesting at full level-land speed)% OF SLOPE06 12 18 246$7.0012$35.00$84.0018BUSHELS PER ACRELeading Manufactuer of Combine Leveling SystemsLEVEL WITH US2430Wheat price basedon $7.00/bu.36Non-Leveling Combine$147.00Leveling CombineTEST BACKGROUND- Test was performed by a class 7combine with a 35’ head in 93 bu/ac wheat. Combine wasequipped with yield mapping and auto steer.DISCLAIMER: The information regarding crop loss as a function of slope and speed was obtained as a resultof extensive testing conducted at the request of Hillco Technologies, Inc. and every effort was made duringtesting to create “average” harvesting conditions and yields. However, since there are countless numbers ofvariables that impact hillside harvesting performances, your performance may vary from our test results. HillcoTechnologies, Inc. expressly disclaims any warranty that if you purchase a Hillco Leveling System, you willachieve the hillside leveling performance indicated by our test results.WE UNDERSTANDCOMMITMENTFor decades Edward Jones has been committed to providingpersonalized investment service to individuals.We offer:• Convenience Face-to-face meetings, when and whereyou’re available• Timely information Technology that gives you instant accessto information on our account and other investments• Personal service Investment guidance for your personal needsCall or stop by today.Ryan Brault, AAMSPasco, WA509-545-8121888-545-8126Brian E. Bailey, AAMSClarkston, WA509-758-8731866-758-9595Chris GroverCheney, WA509-235-4920866-235-4920Think Level. Think Profit.www.hillcotechnologies.com 800.937.2461WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 39

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By Nat WebbIn the March column, I talked about the people andorganizations that deal with our grain after we transportit to the local elevator. In this column I’d like to address aspecific part of that system.Approximately 60 percent of our region’s grain is transportedon the Columbia-Snake River System. This pastDecember, that system was shut down for approximatelythree months to replace navigation lock gates on threedams. By the time you read this, the Corps of Engineerswill have the system up and running again with the openingof the Dalles’ navigation lock on March 26.Most of the dams on the river system have been in existencefor 50 years. Although it’s reasonable to anticipate a100-year lifespan for these monolithic structures, like theequipment we operate on our farms, they need periodicmaintenance to ensure they’re in good operating condition.If a lock should fail unexpectedly, the outage woulddrag on much longer than the three-month interruptionwe’ve recently completed, and it would cost much more.I, for one, am grateful to the Corps’ efforts in maintainingthe integrity of the river system and the expedited naturewith which it completed recent repairs. However, withmore dams on the system needing maintenance, we arelikely looking at additional shutdowns in the future.Many of you probably didn’t give the river closure agreat deal of thought, or if you did, you trusted your localelevator managers and boards to determine how thesituation would affect them and how best to cope with it.But the planning went much further than that. Behind thescenes, the Corps spent nearly two years preparing for theoutage and communicating with barge companies and thegrain industry about what it would entail. Barge operatorsand rail lines considered how to cope with the temporaryshutdown. Exporters also addressed how best to deal withits impact upon their overseas business. All in all a lot ofthought went into the topic well before the closure.The Washington Grain Commission was among thegroups that recognized the impact the shutdown couldhave on the state’s farmers and on our ultimate end users.Initially, we made sure the affected parties in our regionwere aware of the situation, and then we turned our attentionto overseas customers.U.S. Wheat Associates (USW) is the organization ultimatelyresponsible for the overseas marketing of wheatproduced in the United States. At the outset, USW thoughtthe river closure was a local problem and probably notsomething that merited concern on a national level. Weat the WGC felt differently, and prior to the scheduledNovember 2009 USW board meeting, we requested a spoton the agenda to bring up the subject.Both Glen Squires and Tom Mick of the WGC puttogether data detailing the potential impact this closurecould have on the grain industry. At the meeting, I proposeda motion that USW notify countries that dependupon the Pacific Northwest for their wheat shipments tomake them aware of the impending shut down and planaccordingly. Thanks to our nudging, USW did an in-depthstudy of the facts and notified our customers about thesituation. Because of USW’s timely heads up, the trade wasable to adjust its purchasing schedule to accommodate itsneeds.The entire episode, however, has served as a warningto us. Although we understand the importance of ourNorthwest port infrastructure and its gateway status tothe world, it turns out many others are unfamiliar withthe volume of cereal commodities we export from ourregion. And it’s not just wheat in all its different classesthat’s heading overseas from the PNW. The volume ofcorn and soybeans being exported is also important tothe wheat industry since these commodities add to portcongestion as U.S. farmers work to feed the world.During the recent river closure most of our regularcustomers’ needs appear to have been met. Many preboughtlocal wheat prior to the closure and turned toother products that were available by rail when the riverwas down. It wasn’t a perfect state of affairs. Some companiesthat emphasize their barge receiving capacity didn’tmake offers on tenders as a result of uncertainty over theirtransportation alternatives. And it’s almost certain somesoft white wheat that could have been sold into the MiddleEast as a result of the turmoil there was trapped upriver.Hopefully, with the system open again, we can now meetthat unanticipated demand.Our appreciation goes out to all those who helped planfor the river closure. I want to extend my special thanks toU.S. Wheat Associates. Once notified of the importance ofthe closure, they did a superior job of alerting our customersand maintaining the motto that’s come to symbolizethe U.S. wheat industry over the last few years: “Thewheat you want from the producers you can depend on.”It’s good to be a reliable supplier.WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 41

WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONIf it ain’t broke. . .“A penny wise, pound foolish approach.”That’s how Nat Webb, chairman of theWashington Grain Commission, summedup the proposal to cut the $200 millionMarket Access Program (MAP) and the$34 million Foreign Market DevelopmentProgram (FMD). In a letter sent to theentire Washington CongressionalDelegation, Webb said the programs,which aid in the establishment, expansionand maintenance of foreign marketsfor U.S. agricultural products, includingwheat, “work and work well.” A CornellUniversity economist found that everydollar invested by the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture returned $115. “In an eraof increasing trade deficits, agricultureremains one of the few U.S. industriesthat consistently demonstrates a positivetrade balance—thanks in part toprograms like FMD and MAP. As agriculturedoes its part to rebuild our nation’seconomy, funding these crucial programsmust continue,” Webb wrote.Midwest cocktailgoing overseasU.S. corn exports are already on a tear, but if the ethanolindustry has its way, more of the grain will be heading outof the country—in liquid form. Rising oil prices are boostingdemand for ethanol, but the U.S. market is already saturatedat the 10 percent blend level with regular gasoline. Althoughthe Environmental Protection Agency has approved a 15percent blend, auto makers and refineries are worried aboutlitigation if the higher percentage damages vehicles. U.S.ethanol exports in 2010 topped 350 million gallons—aboutthree times the amount shipped in 2009. About 13 billion gallonsof ethanol were produced in the U.S. last year.Internally displacedSomali children lineup to receive food aidat a food distributioncentre in Mogadishu,Somalia.Mohamed Sheikh Nor/APTime’s up for the malnourishedCutting food aid to balance the U.S. budget deficit is like subtracting a secondfrom a 100-year clock, but a Republican proposal would do just that, reducing U.S.international food assistance by 42 percent to its lowest levels in a decade. EllenLevinson, executive director of the Alliance for Global Food Security, a coalitionof humanitarian and industry groups that deliver food aid, said the move wouldbe particularly devastating now with food prices soaring and low income fooddeficit countries struggling with hunger and unrest. The U.S. has traditionallybeen the world’s biggest donor of food aid. U.S. farm groups, including U.S. WheatAssociates and shipping companies, have formed a coalition with humanitariangroups to include food aid in the farm bill and other legislation.Who’s ox ya gonna gore?The reason it’s so hard to cut the federal deficit is becauseno organization wants to voluntarily sacrifice programsthat benefit their members. In the case of Milling & BakingNews, the Obama Administration’s suggestion that theCommerce Department drop funding for industrial productiondata—which would end quarterly flour outputreports—is a bad idea. “It seems nearly unbelievable thatsuch a step would be recommended at a time when concernsabout food supply adequacy are circling the globe.Hardly anything underscores the strength of America andits food system more exactly than the data on wheat flourproduction,” the magazine said.42 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WSU PhotoGo Jim Go!Jim Cook, former dean of the College of Agricultural, Human and Natural ResourceSciences at WSU and an emeritus professor of plant pathology and crops, will share inthe $100,000 Wolf Prize, awarded annually by the Israel-based Wolf Foundation. Thefoundation promotes science and arts for the benefit of humankind. Cook is beingacknowledged for “seminal discoveries in plant pathology and soil microbiology thatimpact crop productivity and disease management,”noting that his work has improved diseasecontrol in wheat and barley and altered paradigmsof plant disease control in other crops. The prizepresentation takes place at a ceremony at theKnesset Building in Jerusalem. Cook said being inthe company of people who have won the Wolfprize is fantastic. “All the work that led to this wasdone at WSU. I’m deeply grateful to my many researchcolleagues who helped me do the best scienceI could. Our goal was always to work at the cutting edge, but then to apply thatresearch to the real world. I worked with a lot of great farmers, too, who were our partnersin science.” Farmers may best know Cook’s work through his tireless promotion ofconservation tillage and the term “green bridge” with its emphasis on the importanceof killing out weeds and volunteer crop plants prior to planting a new crop in order toprevent pathogenic microbes from contaminating the new stand.More from lessWater efficiency technology which enables farmers to produce high yields underreduced water conditions is part of a global licensing agreement between ArcadiaBiosciences and two seed companies. Limagrain Cereal Seeds receives exclusiverights for use of the technology within North America. Vilmorin receives exclusiverights outside North America. Besides an up-front payment and milestone payments,a share of commercial sales revenue will return to Arcadia. The company, which isbased in Davis, Calif., with additional facilities in Seattle and Phoenix, is also a leaderin developing nitrogen-use-efficient GMO crops.Globalwetting?Two studies suggest that globalwarming has led to strongerrain and snow stormsthat cause flooding,property damage anddeath. One study thatlooked at the strongestrain and snow events in the Northernhemisphere between 1951 and 1999found that more recent storms were 7percent wetter. Another study connectedflooding and climate change inthe United Kingdom in 2000. That yearwas the wettest in England and Walesin 230 years of record keeping. Forthose who argue natural variation isresponsible for the increase in storms,the scientists conducting the 1951 to1999 study said it was only when theeffects of greenhouse gases were includedin the computer model that thereality came close to the simulation.Gulp!It’s easy to get caught up in the lightness of the moment over wheat demand and prices. But read the U.S.Department of Agriculture’s 10-year wheat forecast and gravity kicks in. According to the USDA, the 2011-12through 2020-21 wheat supply and demand reflects “a mature market,” bureaucraticspeakfor “don’t expect growth.” Specifically, the federal agriculture agency expectsthere will be less U.S. wheat produced in 2020 than in 2011. Planted area was expectedto decline from the current year’s 57 million acres to 51 million acres in 2019 and 2020.At the same time, the USDA projects wheat imports to move from 110 million bushels in2011-12 to 130 million bushels in 2020-21. As for exports, the agency anticipates them tofall from 1,300 million bushels for the current year to 900 million bushels in 2013-14 andto hold there “for the remainder of the baseline period.” Lower production and lessacreage, meanwhile, won’t mean higher prices. The USDA expects the average priceto fall to $5.90 per bushel in 2012-13 and then hold within a range of $5.45 to $5.60per bushel “for the rest of the forecast period.” The only question left is whether tobelieve that the USDA’s crystal ball is accurate. Recent history has shown the grainmarket is anything but static.WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 43

BPA PhotoBut will Mikey eat it?One acre of slime can produce as much protein as 95acres of wheat. That’s right, with a growing populationto feed, algae may be the happening food ofthe future for animals and human food supplements.In fact, a recent International Algae Conference washeld recently in Lexington, Ky., which could be thealgae capital of the U.S., what with a new $200 millionalgae facility opening nearby. For the record, thereare roughly 800,000 species of algae.Cloudywith achance of USDAHave you heard that the U.S. Department ofAgriculture is shifting to a cloud-based system forits email? It becomes the first Cabinet-level agencyto make the move to running computer applicationsdirectly from the web. It’s called “cloud-basedcomputing,” but not really. The USDA’s informationwill now be stored in a Microsoft data centerlocated in suburban Chicago. Previously, USDAemployees were on 21 different email systems, sothe change is expected to save big bucks. Manybelieve cloud computing is the next big thing, andthere are expectations that those of us who nowuse computers will simply have terminals that connectto the internet “cloud” in the not too distantfuture.May the wind turbinebe always at your backWind generation on Bonneville PowerAdministration’s system reached a new all-timepeak recently, generating enough electricity toserve a city three times the size of Seattle forone hour or 3,006 megawatts—while the windwas blowing, of course. There are 35 wind generationsites within the BPA system and a totalof 2,100 wind turbines. BPA expects to havebetween 5,000 to 6,000 megawatts of windpower connected to its system by 2013.WGC REVIEW WLPass it alreadyIn another example that scoring politicalpoints has become more importantthan governing in the nation’s Capitol,House Republicans are holding up passageof the free trade agreement withSouth Korea until progress is made ona similar accord with Colombia. Thelatter deal faces stiff opposition fromlabor unions and liberal Democratswho cite a legacy of violence againstlabor leaders in the South Americancountry. If the U.S. does not pass aColombia trade deal, wheat growersare likely to lose the market to Canadawhich approved a trade pact with thecountry in 2010. Meanwhile, 62 of 85Republican freshman signed a letterto President Obama saying they wantto work with him on passage of theSouth Korea, Colombia and Panamatrade deals. Howard F. Rosen, a tradeexpert at the Peterson Institute forInternational Economics, said that in 30years, “I have not seen trade policy insuch disarray as it is now.”Soft white woesNew dietary guidelines released recently by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services emphasizewhole grains, encouraging consumers to more than quadrupletheir consumption in the category. Given that whole grains havebeen found to reduce the risk of dying at an early age, that’s goodfor consumers and wheat growers. Presently, however, most grainconsumption is in the form of refined grain—that isflour which does not have the bran and germincluded. Currently, Americans consume 200percent of the refined grain goal set forthby the guidelines. Particularly dissed aregrain-based desserts, ranking numberone as the “leading calorie source in theUnited States.” Grain-based dessertsare high in added sugars and solidfats, the report said, such as cake,cookies, pie, cobbler, sweetrolls, pastries and donuts.What do many of thesehave in common? Softwhite wheat is the flour ofchoice.WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 45WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSION

EPORTS RWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONThe grain testWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONfarmersLove to hateFalling number reveals sprout, smiles, scowlsThe term “falling number” has nothing to do with theeconomic loss a wheat farmer faces for failing to meet theminimum threshold on a test by the same name. But itcould.In fact, the name refers to the length of time it takes aplunger on a Falling Number machine to drop througha cooked slurry of flour and water. The longer it takesthe plunger—as measured in seconds—to fall throughthe batter, the better. Therefore, a falling number of 350(seconds) is superior to a falling number of 250 (seconds).Anything below 300 will wind up costing a grower astiff discount and could relegate his wheat to feed status.Why? Because in the late 1980s the grainindustry concluded a better method thanvisual assessment was needed to ascertainwhen sprout had begun to developin wheat.Sprout is what a kernel of wheat is supposedto do when it’s planted. Bringingthe seed in contact with moisture commencesa cascade of activity, includingthe production of an enzyme (alphaamylase)that turns starches to sugar tofeed the emerging root. The reason theplunger falls through sprouted wheatquicker than non-sprouted wheat isAndrew RossBy Scott A. Yatesbecause alpha-amylase acts like a pair of scissors, cuttingstarch up into fragments and reducing its ability to holda structure.Sprout at harvest is something farmers don’t want, andit’s one of the reasons Eastern Washington is so wellsuitedfor growing sprout-susceptible white wheat (redwheat better withstands sprouting). Historically, it rarelyrains in the July/August harvest time frame, and evenwhen it does, the sun and wind usually aren’t far behindto dry the crop out. Except when they aren’t, which hashappened in different parts of the state over the lastfew years. This has led to farmers losing hundreds ofthousands of dollars as a result of sproutdiscounts as determined by the fallingnumber test.Before the falling number test, sprout wasexclusively determined by a visual inspectionby Federal Grain Inspection Servicegraders. They would look for the telltalesign that the kernel was swelling and theradical (root) was emerging. Problem is,by the time a wheat seed has gotten to thepoint where the sprout can be seen, alphaamylaseproduction is already well underway.This compromises the integrity ofthe flour when the wheat is milled and the46 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WGC REPORTS WL“This presence (alpha-amylase)in otherwise sound grain hasthe potential to reduce fallingnumbers, and it is this whichhas caused a lot of heartburnhere and in other places,particularly Australia.”—Craig Morris, DirectorWestern Wheat Quality Lab in Pullmansubsequent capacity of the baker to achieve quality end-useproducts.Andrew Ross, an associate professor in the crop scienceand food science department at Oregon State University,has been working on sprout issues since 1984, starting inAustralia. Along the way, he has discovered that sproutis very non-homogenous. That is, it can vary from field tofield, from truck to truck and even plant to plant.Variables, like trees in a crop boundary shading a portionof the crop, can influence sprout. Specific varietiescan also withstand sprout conditions better than othersbecause of inherent sprout resistance, the tightness of theirglume, their ability to shed moisture and how the head ispositioned. Even sprout within a single head may not beuniform.And then there’s the issue of sampling. At least someEastern Washington farmers who have received sub-300falling number scores have had their wheat retested andwound up over the 300 minimum the second time around.Farmers believe this goes to the inaccuracy of the test, oreven the possibility of manipulation of the test in order toimpose discounts on good grain which can then be soldat a higher price. Ross, however, said the variance is morelikely the result of each sample that’s tested being slightlydifferent from the one before. Even a few kernels of spouted“You can test a line andrelease it and have it gothrough foundation andregistered seed until finallyyou have a bunch of certifiedacres planted, and only thenfind out you have a problemwith LMAA.”—Mike Pumphrey, Spring Wheat BreederWashington State Universitywheat in a 250-gram sample can make a big difference in thefalling number outcome.“Falling number is a destructive test. You never really repeatthe same test. You repeat it with a different sub-sample.And even the most well-mixed sample is going to have astandard deviation. Even if you tested perfect wheat over andover, you would come up with slightly different numbers,”he said.While exporters can blend wheat for test weight, proteinand dockage, blending low falling number wheat with highfalling number wheat is much trickier and not somethingexporters like to do. Ty Jessup, grain merchandiser at CLDPacific in Portland and a member of the Washington GrainCommission, said there is no mathematical formula where acertain number of bushels of high falling number grain canbe blended with low falling number grain to arrive at an acceptablelevel.“With test weight or protein it’s a one-for-one blend. AddThere is no mathematicalformula where a certainnumber of bushels of highfalling number grain canbe blended with low fallingnumber grain to arrive at anacceptable level.—Ty Jessup, Grain MerchandiserCLD Pacific in Portlandequal amounts of 58-pound test weight wheat with 60-poundtest weight and you’ve got 59-pound test weight. It’s the samewith protein—blend an 8 percent protein with a 10 percentprotein and you’ve got 9 percent protein. With falling numbers,you just never know how it blends out,” he said.That’s why exporters seek to avoid receiving grain withlow falling numbers at their terminals and will levy stiff discountsif it does make it through the system. Just ask KevinWhitehall, manager of Central Washington Grain Growers,based in Waterville and a board member of the WGC. In2009, the cooperative sent a train to Portland without checkingfalling numbers and lost a bundle. Since then, the cooperativehas invested in many more falling number tests, eachof which cost $15.The Colfax office of the Washington State Department ofAgriculture Grain Inspection Program has two machinesWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 47

WLWGC REPORTSWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONand was doing 150 samples a day during the 2010 harvest.Even as late as March, graders were running 70 to 80 fallingnumber tests a month. Don Potts, Eastern Washingtonregional manager for the program, said the falling numbertest is not the best process, “but it is the only process.”Nowadays, with warehouses more aware of the huge financialrisk they take from not testing, “even if the grain getsspit on, it gets a falling number test.”Unfortunately, it’s not just ill-timed moisture that canresult in a low falling number score. There are wheat varietiesbeing grown in the Northwest that have what is referredto as Late Maturity Alpha-Amylase (LMAA) that can alsoresult in a low falling number. But this tiger only shows itsstripes when there are wide variations in temperature duringgrain fill.LMAA wheat mimics sprout even when there has been norain and there is no sprout. End-use problems, however, arethe same as if sprout was present.Although LMAA is worse in certain areas of the country,particularly California that has a lot CIMMYT (theInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) backgroundin its germplasm, some varieties grown in EasternWashington are also suspect.Craig Morris, director of the Western Wheat Quality Labin Pullman, said growers need to understand that a low fallingnumber is primarily about the presence and level of thealpha-amylase enzyme.“There are two ways that alpha-amylase can be present.One is associated with the process of germination, whichis the more traditional sense of pre-harvest sprouting. Thesecond has to do with a biological defect. In LMAA theremay be no rain and no sprout, the embryo and the germmay not have started to do anything in terms of re-growth,but nevertheless, the seed has started to synthesize alphaamylase.This presence in otherwise sound grain has thepotential to reduce falling number, and it is this which hascaused a lot of heartburn here and in other places, particularlyAustralia,” he said.Late Maturity Alpha-Amylase48 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011Anna Brewer illustrations

WGC REPORTS WLMike Pumphrey, spring wheat breeder at WashingtonState University, said spring wheat is particularly vulnerableto LMAA because of the wide temperature swings that canoccur with the later maturing crop. Areas can be dry at harvest,but nevertheless have the earlier temperature fluctuationsthat are part of the conditions necessary to trigger thephenomenon.“This is the quickest way to go to feed wheat there is, andfor a grower it is particularly bad because they can do everythingright, plant on time, control weeds, harvest on time andstill take a hit at the elevator,” he said.Pumphrey said it will take time and money to figure outwhich lines are prone to LMAA issues, and for a problem thatmay not occur every year, there’s the question of risk versusbenefit. Nevertheless, he’s nervous about what he calls a silentand invisible problem.“You can test a line and release it and have it go throughfoundation and registered seed until finally you have a bunchof certified acres planted, and only then find out you have aproblem with LMAA. I’m not trying to be alarmist. We knowwhat we can do in terms of identifying the genetics, but it isgoing to cost money,” he said.So, what about coming up with a better, more reproduciblemethod of determining sprout levels than the FallingNumber machine? Ross agrees companies are always lookingfor the next best thing, but as an experimental scientistin Australia, he spent years trying to develop a superiortool. His team did identify a method that was faster but notnecessarily cheaper. Ultimately, it was adopted by the grainindustry for testing starch properties.Now, said Morris, it’s probably too late to move to anothersystem. The term “falling number” is so entrenched withinthe marketing system’s vocabulary he can’t see it going away.“Consequently, there is a sense that, irrespective of liking itor disliking it, growers are going to have to learn to live withit and understand the effects that both pre-harvest sproutingand LMAA have on the value of their crop,” he said.Pre-harvest SproutingWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 49

WLWGC REPORTSHow Falling Number got its nameWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONThe Washington State Grain Inspection Program inColfax generally receives three-pound samples of grainfrom elevator companies upon which they perform variousgrading tasks, including the falling number test.The first step in the process entails reducing the threepoundsample to 1,000 grams. This is done using a BoernerDivider, a device that splits a sample into sub-samplesrepresentative of the original. It is from sub-samples of the1,000-gram sample that such tests as moisture, dockageand protein are also performed.The falling number test is conducted on a 250 gram,dockage-free sample. The 250 grams, which is approximately7,500 kernels of wheat, accurately represents theoriginal three-pound sample. Which means, as the U.S.Department of Agriculture falling number testing directiveputs it, “A small number of sprouted kernels can affectthe FN result significantly.”Graders at the Colfax office of the inspection programput the 250 grams in a grinder made especially for the fallingnumber test. It’s a large, specialized piece of machinerymostly consisting of a large electric motor that spinsthe wheat so fast it is forced through a small screen whichturns it into a fine version of whole wheat flour.This flour is then poured by the grader between twopans 10 times, with the emphasis on making sure thesample is flipped and folded amongst itself. Then, twoseven-gram samples are weighed into different pans. Eachseven-gram sample is subsequently put in its own testtube.At this point, 25 milliliters of distilled water are addedto the test tubes. This is done with an automatic dispenserto ensure accuracy. The test tubes are then put into theShakematic 1095, a machine which agitates the samples20 times. Once this step is complete, the grader places aplunger into the top of the test tube and puts both tubesinto a bath of boiling water in the falling number machine.The machine mixes the sample 110 times (more than 60seconds) and then drops the plunger into the sample.The machine counts how long the plunger, poweredonly by gravity, takes to fall through the slurry which hasformed within the test tube. The whole testing processtakes about 15 minutes.Depending upon the quality of the crop and the interestin obtaining falling number scores, a machine may becalibrated once or twice a year—or not at all. Among otherthings, calibration depends on a barometer to check on theoperating conditions of the falling number bath.Elevated locations can have higher falling numberscores than those at sea level, which is why altitude correctionsare applied at locations above 2,000 feet. The Colfaxoffice, which is where falling number tests in Washingtonare performed, is at 1,962 feet.Bon Lee of the Wheat Marketing Center in Portland, Ore., demonstrates the falling number test.50 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

So much to do, so little time:Trade servicing in the Middle EastIan Flagg, center, and Amer Badawi answer questions following the crop quality seminar in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.By Glen W. SquiresWheat trade servicing involves meeting with customerson their own turf to educate, address concerns, solveissues, strengthen friendships and develop new relationships.The work continues 24/7 nearly 365 days a year bythe overseas staff of U.S. Wheat Associates (USW), workingin concert with state wheat commissions, to promoteU.S. wheat.Representing the Pacific Northwest (PNW) wheat commissions,the last week of February was a brief opportunityfor me to promote the quality and availability of PNWwheat in a region with spreading turmoil, yet growingdemand for wheat. For the Cairo, Egypt, office of USW,it was just another couple of days doing what they dobest—meeting with decision makers and promoting thepurchase and use of U.S. wheat.This time, it was meeting with representatives of theGrain Silos and Flour Milling Organization (GSFMO) inRiyadh, Saudi Arabia, followed by a very unique, firsttimeseminar with Iranian flour millers in Muscat, Oman.And while the itinerary was compressed into a few shortdays, traveling mostly at night and meeting during theday, much was accomplished.The Cairo office covers 30 countries across the MiddleEast, North Africa and East Africa. Considering thedynamics of population growth, expanding economiesand corresponding demand consumption, this part of theworld is a driver in wheat demand, representing a whopping32 percent (39.4 mmt) of world imports.Dick Prior, USW regional vice president in Cairo, andhis crew have the challenge to see that U.S.-producedwheat is not only in the demand mix, but increases amidstiff competition from Europe, Australia, Canada andBlack Sea exporters. As of March 1, the region had takennearly a quarter of U.S. exports.In this part of the world, relationships in business aredoubly important. That’s what makes USW’s efforts sovaluable and critical to the future of U.S. wheat utilizationthroughout the region.Dick, originally from Washington State, has been inCairo for nearly 30 years. He has built extensive trustamong the myriad of wheat industry and political playersas a knowledgeable, unbiased third party when it comesto wheat and trade issues.Watching him interact with others reveals he really isa friend first. The work of promoting U.S. wheat followsnaturally because of the relationships and trust he hasdeveloped over time. Dick seems to know everyone. HeWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 51

WLWGC REPORTSWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONCairoEgyptRiyadhis not alone. Ian Flagg, assistant regional director, and Hesham Hassanein,regional marketing and special projects manager with the Cairo office, bringadditional expertise and effectiveness when it comes to trade servicing workand understanding cultural nuances.SAUDI ARABIAIn an effort to conserve water resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia isdetermined to shift from self-sufficiency in wheat production to total importdependency with a target for zero domestic wheat production by 2016. Theprocess is well underway. In 2007/08the Kingdom imported just 75,000metric tons (MT). This marketing year,imports are expected reach beyond 2million metric tons (MMT).The Deputy Director General andAssistant Director General for GSFMOalso discussed, in an intimate meetingprior to the seminar, the government’sefforts to privatize the flour mills inthe Kingdom. As the country is intransition, the Crop Quality Seminarcouldn’t have come at a better time forsome 50-plus attendees.The all-day seminar was loadedwith information, interrupted onlyby a noon prayer break. Dick Prior explainedhow to use the USW-producedCrop Quality Report with its detailedSaudi ArabiaMuscatOmanRecently, the USW staff from the Cairo, Egypt office traveled across the middle east to meet withdecision makers and promote the purchase and use of U.S. wheat. The Cairo office covers 30 countriesacross the Middle East, North Africa and East Africa.Flour mill located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.crop information. I provided specificquality data on hard red winterwheat (HRW) and soft white wheat(SW); Hesham covered hard redspring (HRS) and durum followedby Ian’s concise and effective pricingand basis discussion.John Oades, vice president ofUSW, explained the dynamics ofworld supply and demand resultingin less available milling wheat thisyear. Amer Badawi, vice presidentof Columbia Grain in Portland,Ore., discussed how the U.S. exportsystem works. He gave insight intohow to create a clear, concise, realisticand effective invitation for bid(IFB) document to ensure the Saudi’sobtain accurate bid offers, and ultimately,the wheat they need for theirspecific end uses.The presentation that created themost discussion, however, was PeterLloyd’s description of the benefits(consistency, functionality, maximizingsales and minimizing costs) ofblending wheat or flour to obtainoptimum value. Peter is regionaltechnical director for USW, based inCasablanca, Morocco. He explainedthat most countries have doubled52 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WGC REPORTS WL(Above) Dick Prior discusses how USW can further assist GSFMO to meetwheat import needs. (Below) Representatives of GSFMO attend USW CropQuality Seminar in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.and tripled the number of flour types being produced by atypical miller in the last ten years.Using the USW-produced Wheat Blending Calculatorwith an example blend of HRW and HRS at differentprotein levels, Peter illustrated that a mill could obtainthe same functionality as using a single class, with a differencein gross margin of $26.61 per MT wheat cost. Ona 500 MT mill this equates to a savings of $10,215.70 perday or $3,064,710 per year on 300 days. His message wassimple. If you’re not blending, you’re leaving money on thetable. Blends of soft white with hard red wheat were alsonoted.Peter emphasized that just knowing or specifyingprotein quantity is not enough. It is imperative that buyerspay attention to the protein quality in the wheat they buy.In the many blending formulations he presented, inclusionof soft white wheat provided the highest componentgross margin.Peter stayed in Riyadh to spend in-mill time workingwith millers. In a subsequent email correspondence henoted that the GSFMO mill site in Riyadh is “somethingto behold” with 520,000 MT of storage silos, 2,500 MT perday of milling capacity and “really pleasant people to topit all off.” Peter has been asked to come back for an extensivevisit to all their sites across the Kingdom. In concertwith the work currently under way, the Washington GrainCommission is looking at the possibility of providing acouple of containers of SW wheat to assist in further developmentof the market.Is there value to U.S. producers in USW trade servicingwork and providing buyers with quality specific dataregarding the wheat the U.S. has to offer? Yes! While notalways so direct, a couple of days following the crop qualityseminar the Saudis tendered and subsequently bought275,000 MT of wheat, of which 220,000 MT wasWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 53

WGC REPORTS WLWashington state growers diversify certified seed sourceswith OSU, private companies commanding the marketBy Scott A. YatesNearly two-thirds of the soft white and club wheat certifiedvarieties planted in Eastern Washington in the fall of2010 were developed someplace besides Washington StateUniversity (WSU).That’s what the 2010 Washington State CropImprovement Association (WSCIA) AuditedFall Poundage report reveals. Proprietaryvarieties and WSU varieties are neck-in-neckat 25.34 percent and 25.35 percent of the totalcertified seed winter wheat sold in the state.About 92 percent of all wheat planted inEastern Washington is certified, the highest inthe nation.Oregon State University (OSU), however,has the largest percentage of certified winterwheat seed planted in Washington at 36percent or about 670,000 acres. Most of that, Mike Miller26 percent, is ORCF-102, the Clearfield tolerant(Madsen) type wheat released in 2004 thatis popular in the southern part of the state,especially around Walla Walla.Developed through a process of mutagenesis—whichused a chemical to mutate thegenetic structure of the wheat plant to createherbicide resistance and not genetic engineering—thegene was released to breedersaround the country by the chemical companyBASF. Regional breeders were then allowed totransfer the resistance into adapted varieties,something that then-OSU breeder JimJerry RobinsonPeterson embraced.WSU’s winter wheat breeding programmade the decision in the 1990s not to pursue the technologyas a result of concern it would be a short-lived answerto controlling goat grass. There was also fear that thetool could create a bigger problem if the tolerance geneout-crossed to the weed species, essentially creating aClearfield-herbicide-tolerant weed.WSU has since reversed its decision, and Kulvinder Gill,the Vogel Chair in Wheat Breeding and Genetics, has fasttracked a two-gene tolerant variety that should be availableto Washington growers within the next several years.A two-gene Clearfield variety is expected to be superiorto the one-gene version by preventing problems associatedwith overspray and die-back when theClearfield herbicide is sprayed. WSU is hopefulof regaining some of the ground it haslost with this introduction.In the meantime, however, OSU hasbecome the dominant player in EasternWashington winter wheat—if only withina distinct geographical region. A Clearfield-Eltan-type wheat targeted to the cooler anddryer region north of Highway 2, ORCF-103,was released in 2008. It has not been as popularas its predecessor, however, gaining only2.3 percent of the certified seed poundage.The original Clearfield wheat released by theOregon program in 2003, ORCF-101, representsonly .45 percent of the acreage plantedin Washington in 2010.Proprietary varieties developed by companieslike Westbred and AgriPro have alsomade inroads into Washington winter wheatground. Approximately 470,300 acres wereplanted to 11 different soft white varieties infall 2010. The WSCIA-audited report does notreveal the names of the private varieties, onlythe poundage they command. (Acreage isfigured on a 67-pound-per-acre seeding rate.)The dominant private variety was planted onmore than twice as much acreage as the varietythat came in second place. The nine other proprietarieswere in much smaller increments.Mike Miller, who serves on both the boards of theWashington Grain Commission and WSCIA, said in someways Eastern Washington has served as a laboratory forWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 55

WLWGC REPORTSWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONprivate companies and OSU becauseof growers’ high certifiedseed use. A state like Kansas,which has a much larger productionof winter wheat thanWashington, plants only 25percent to certified seed.“Washington growers arevery sophisticated and discerningwhen it comes to choosingtheir varieties. Not to mention,we also have some of the bestseedsmen in the U.S. They’re theones you see at field days gettingup close and personal withthe numbered lines that haveyet to be released. They makesure their customers get the bestbang for their buck,” he said.While Miller said the WSCIAauditednumbers should be aconcern for WSU, he believesthat competition is inherentlya good thing, not to mention awake-up call. With new breedersArron Carter and MikePumphrey on board, he’s lookingforward to the next generationof WSU varieties becomingmore competitive with OSU andprivate operations.“Wheat breeding is a longtermprocess. This is not goingto happen overnight, but I’mvery optimistic the pendulumwill shift,” he said.Of the certified soft whitewinter wheat in EasternWashington, Xerpha, releasedin 2008, represents 7.5 percent.That’s followed by the 2000 clubwheat release, Bruehl, at 6.7 percent;Eltan, a 1990 release at 6.6 percent;Rod, a 1992 release at 2.4 percent,and Masami, a 2004 release at 1.09percent. The Agricultural ResearchService release, Madsen (1988),comes in at 5.8 percent.“These statistics only representWSCIA, NASSnumbers disagreeThere are two sources of wheatvariety information available inWashington, and as Tom Mick, chief executiveofficer ofthe WashingtonGrainCommissionnotes, theirnumbers do notalways match up.Besides theWashingtonState CropImprovement Association (WSCIA) auditednumbers, the National AgriculturalStatistics Service (NASS) conducts anannual varietal survey each year for theWGC which is released in July. Mick saidthe NASS numbers, which are basedon interviews with growers, showWashington State University varietiesbeing grown on a larger acreage thanthe WSCIA numbers, which are basedon actual poundage.“We have brought the two groupstogether and have not had much luck inreconciling the differences,” Mick said.“We are continuing to pursue a solutionto the discrepancies found between thetwo agencies.”certified seed. There is another estimated8 percent of non-certified seedplanted in the state, which is mostlyEltan, Bruehl and Masami,” Millersaid.When it comes to hard red wintervarieties, private companies areclearly in the catbird seat. Of theapproximately 272,000 acres WSCIAestimates were planted to HRW inthe state last fall, almost 60 percentare private varieties. Again, theWSCIA numbers do not revealthe names of the private varieties,but the largest is seeded onapproximately 47,000 acres.Looking at public HRW varieties,OSU is in the lead with its2007 release, Norwest 553, comingin with 17.5 percent of thecertified poundage planted inWashington in 2010, followed bythe 2008 WSU release, Farnum,at 13.58 percent and then the2005 WSU release, Bauermeister,at 4.77 percent.With the industry looking towardred wheat demand, WSUhas ramped up their program inthis area, Miller said. Researchon attaining adequate proteinlevels should yield results forpublic varieties for this class inthe near future.A segment of the seed marketthat is small but growing is facultativehard red spring wheatcertified seed sales. Here again,private companies commandthe market. Of the approximately33,000 acres of certified springvarieties planted in the late fall,all but 311 acres, planted to theWSU release, Scarlet, are proprietarytypes.Jerry Robinson, managerof WSCIA, said the auditednumbers are merely a snapshotin time and not reflective of theWSU program as it goes into thefuture.“I think WSU has the breeders andthe infrastructure now, even withrecent budget cuts, to move thesestatistics in a more positive direction.My hope is that people will use thesenumbers as motivation, to say, ‘Thisis where we are and how we canimprove,’” he said.56 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WGC REPORTS WL30,000,00020,000,00010,000,000Top public soft white winter wheatvarieties grown in WashingtonSoldVariety in Wash. (lbs.) Released ByORCF-102 32,631,032 2004 OSUEltan 9,404,446 1990 WSUXerpha 9,356,718 2008 WSUBruehl 8,407,936 2000 WSUMadsen 6,927,295 1988 ARSTubbs06 4,534,235 2006 OSUBrundage96 4,283,610 2001 UIRod 2,960,350 1992 WSUORCF-103 2,858,130 2008 OSUStephens 2,857,407 1977 OSUTen proprietary soft white winter wheat varietiesreleased between 2005 and 2009 grown in Washingtontotal 31,511,062 pounds0ORCF-102ProprietaryEltanXerphaBruehlMadsenTubbs06Brundage96RodORCF-103StephensWSU leads incertified softspring wheatWhen it comes to soft white springand club wheat, Washington StateUniversity is the leader in certifiedseed, with its varieties commanding53 percent of sales in 2010.According to the WashingtonState Crop Improvement Association(WSCIA) audit, Louise, a 2005 releasefrom former spring wheat breederKim Kidwell’s program, is top dogin the category. Its 12,335,000 poundsof certified seed sold was enough toplant approximately 137,000 acres lastyear (based on a 90-pound-per-acrerate).Coming in a distant second inpublic varieties was the soft whiteclub, Eden, another Kidwell releasefrom 2003. It sold enough seed to beplanted on 20,000 acres. In third placein public varieties was Alpowa, a1994 release, which sold enough seedto be planted on 12,000 acres.An unnamed proprietary varietywas actually the second most plantedspring soft white after Louise.Enough certified seed, 7 millionpounds, was sold for it to be plantedon 77,000 acres.The situation is reversed when itcomes to hard red spring wheat. Inthis category, WSCIA sold 18.6 millionpounds of 12 different privatecompany varieties, enough to plantabout 206,500 acres.In the public HRS arena, Jefferson,a 1998 Idaho release, was number onewith 4.4 million pounds of certifiedseed, enough to plant 48,500 acres.The 2002 WSU release, Tara, was justbehind Jefferson in total poundage at4.3 million, or enough to plant 47,600acres.WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSION

WLWGC REPORTSIttakesWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONa village(of ARS scientists working together to develop new wheat varieties)anyone can put paint to canvas. Anyone can chip apiece of marble. And yes, anyone with the knowledgeof plant breeding can develop a new wheatvariety. But to develop a variety that will be rememberedand provides exceptional value, takes skill, patience and,yes, artistry.At the U.S. Department of Agriculture-AgriculturalResearch Service (ARS), a portrait of cooperation issomething scientists attempt to develop at every stage ofthe process. The ARS group, hosted by Washington StateUniversity (WSU) since 1931, has expanded over the yearsto include 16 lead scientists dedicated to wheat variety improvementand production practices. These ARS scientistshave forged a strong partnership with their state-fundedcolleagues, but serve the entire Western U.S., not justWashington.The seven lead scientists in the Wheat Genetics, Quality,Physiology and Disease Research unit focus on weavingtogether the genetic crosses and basic and appliedresearch that will provide the stress tolerance, diseaseresistance and end-use quality wheat growers seek in theirvarieties.Historically, USDA-ARS scientists have had a strongimpact on Washington and worldwide agriculture. TheGreen Revolution had its beginnings at WSU in 1961thanks to the 20 percent yield increase from semi-dwarfwheat varieties developed by USDA-ARS wheat breederOrville A. Vogel. Varieties developed by Vogel and otherARS breeders, Clarence Peterson and Robert E. Allan,have served as a foundation for the USDA-ARS and WSUBy Camille M. Steber and Daniel Z. SkinnerARS Scientist Camille Steber, left, studies genes controlling drought toleranceand seed germination with help from graduate student ElizabethSchramm.58 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WGC REPORTS WLARS scientist Scientist Xianming Chen studies all aspects of foliar disease and stripe rust, including characterizing new stripe rust races as they arise, identifyingsourcesof sources wheat of genetic wheat resistance genetic resistance and developing and developing procedures procedures for anti-fungal for anti-fungal application. application.wheat breeding programs.alone. ARS wheat varieties Madsen and Cara were amongARS varieties are big business in Washington. The ARSthe most resistant last year.variety “Madsen” released by Allan in 1987 has contribut-Chen also coordinates a nationwide monitoring efforted billions of dollars to the Northwest economy. Associateto detect newly emerging races of rust pathogens. HeDean Kim Kidwell acknowledges Allan’s mentorship dur-serves public and private breeding programs throughouting her early years as the WSU spring wheat breeder.the nation and screens over 15,000 new lines of wheat and“When I started in 1994, WSU did not have a springbarley lines for resistance to specific stripe rust races eachclub breeding program. Based on grower interest, Iyear. According to WSU spring wheat breeder Michaelpartnered with Dr. Allan to convert existing winter clubPumphrey, “Dr. Chen’s is the only program in the U.S. thatvarieties to spring types. Bob provided much of the germ-does routine analysis of stripe rust races. He is recognizedplasm used to create the program and showed me the nu-as one of the world’s leading stripe rust pathologists, andances associated with breeding club wheat. ‘JD,’ our latesthis program is critical to breeding efforts and protection ofspring club variety, is an outcome of that work,” she said.the U.S. wheat crop.”ARS scientist Xianming Chen studies all aspects of fo-Environmental stresses are another yield-limiting challiardisease and stripe rust, including characterizing newlenge confronting wheat in the field. ARS scientist Camillestripe rust races as they arise, identifying sources of wheatSteber studies genes controlling drought tolerance andgenetic resistance and developing procedures for anti-fun-seed germination. Wheat and other cereals have probgalapplication. Stripe rust can have a devastating impactlems with pre-harvest sprouting when rain occurs prioron wheat. In 2010, the U.S. lost about 88 million bushels,to harvest. Steber aims to increase pre-harvest sproutingworth about $609 million, to the disease. That year genetictolerance without compromising seedling emergence—anresistance saved roughly 73 million bushels in Washingtonimportant yield component.WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 59

WLWGC REPORTSWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONIt’s all in the staffingThe Agricultural Research Serviceof the U.S. Department of Agricultureincludes the equivalent of 129 full-timepositions staffed by 140 federal employeesin seven management units inPullman. Payroll for the group standsat $16.5 million in salaries and supportin permanent funds.Another 150 employees (approximately)are hired each year on fundstransferred to WSU (which mayinclude temporary grant funds). ARSis currently supporting 31 graduatestudents at WSU.The seven management units withinthe Pullman ARS location are:• Wheat Genetics, Quality, Physiologyand Disease Research (Dan Skinner,research leader)• Root Disease and BiologicalControl (David Weller, researchleader)• Land Management and WaterConservation (Brenton Sharratt,research leader)• Plant Germplasm Introduction andTesting (Jinguo Hu, research leader)• Grain Legume Genetics andPhysiology Research (GeorgeVandemark, research leader)• Animal Diseases Research (DonKnowles, research leader) and• Location Administrative SupportStaff (Curtis Hoesing, administrativeofficer)The Agricultural Research Servicealso has research stations in Prosser,Wapato and Wenatchee, Wash. In total,the Agricultural Research Serviceemploys the equivalent of 230 full-timefederal positions in Washington, including68 research scientists and theirsupport staff working on problemsconfronting Washington’s diverseagriculture.Kim Garland Campbell, left, USDA-ARS geneticist and club wheat breeder, works closelywith ARS Scientist Camille Steber on various projects including hormonal control of seedgermination and pre-harvest sprouting.ARS Scientist Daniel Skinner is an expert in wheat frost tolerance.He and ARS Geneticist and Club Wheat Breeder Kim Garland-Campbell screen hundreds of breeding lines each year for freezingtolerance. WSU winter wheatbreeder Arron Carter said eachyear, they submit about 100breeding lines to the ARS forcold-tolerance testing. “Coldtesting under artificial conditionsallows us to push the extremeand find the upper limitto cold tolerance,” he said.Deven See heads the Western RegionalSmall Grains Genotyping Laboratory(WRSGGL) in Pullman. The lab provides researchersand scientists the ability to followmolecular markers in wheat genes.Since 50 percent of U.S. wheatis exported, high-yielding linesare not enough to keep U.S.wheat competitive in internationalmarkets. That’s why theARS Western Wheat QualityLab (WWQL) in Pullman evaluatesvarious wheat classes forquality before they’re in thefield.“It isn’t enough to check varietiesbefore they are released,”said ARS Cereal Chemist CraigMorris, director of the WWQL. “We have to evaluate early breedinglines to guarantee that breeders don’t waste effort on lines that won’tmake the cut.”The WWQL evaluates 4,500 samples per year, supporting breeding60 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

WLWGC REPORTSNew tri-state preferred variety brochure availableWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONFor the first time since preferred variety evaluations wereintroduced in the region (2005), all three Northwest stateshave combined to release a harmonized publication.The new 2011 Washington, Oregon and North IdahoPreferred Wheat Varieties tri-fold pamphlet was producedby the PNW wheat commissions in an effort to provide uniformquality rankings on varieties grown in the region.Until now, preferred variety brochures were produced ona state by state basis. With adequate historical data, the timecame for the university wheat quality labs in Washington,Idaho and Oregon to sit down together with the USDA/ARSWestern Wheat Quality Lab (WWQL) in Pullman, Wash.,and hammer out a brochure applicable to the three stateswith both winter and spring varieties listed.Varieties are ranked statistically by quality groupingswithin each class, based on end-use quality from grain,milling and product quality testing. The scores are reviewedyearly as new data becomes available and are subjectto change. For complete results, please visit the websitehttp://www.wsu.edu/php/index.php.Quality scores reflect a minimum of three years’ data inthe genotype and environment (G&E) study conducted bythe WWQL, along with data from relevant breeding nurseries.The list has eliminated some varieties with limitedacreage.The central premise of the publication is that givensimilar agronomic characteristics and grain-yield potential,a grower should choose the variety with the higher qualityranking. This will help to increase the overall quality anddesirability of PNW wheat. Growers are encouraged to consultthe Washington State Crop Improvement AssociationSeed Buyers Guide and university variety testing programsfor details on agronomic characteristics forvarieties.These rankings are based on the results of the Genotypeand Environment Study (G&E) quality testing conductedby the USDA Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, theWashington State Univeristy Wheat Quality Program,the University of Idaho Wheat Quality Laboratory, andthe Oregon State University Cereal Quality Laboratory,including relevant breeding nurseries.End-use quality determinations were based on resultsfrom grain, milling and product quality tests.The quality scores presented here reflect a minimumof three years’ data in the G&E study, using a referencevariety for each class. The scores are reviewed yearly asnew data becomes available, and are subject to change.Varieties not listed have not been tested or have lessthan three years of data. For complete results, please visitthe website:www.wsu.edu/~wwql/php/index.phpFor agronomic information, please consult: 1) the Washington State CropImprovement Association Certified Seed Buying Guide; 2) WSU UniformCereal Variety Testing Program (http://variety.wsu.edu); 3) North IdahoExtension Cereals Program (http://cals.uidaho.edu/cereals/nidaho);4) Oregon Elite Yield Trials (http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/wheat/state_performance_data.htm).Washington Grain Commission2702 West Sunset Blvd, Suite ASpokane, WA 99224(509) 456-2481E-mail: wga@wagrains.comWebsite: www.washingtongrainalliance.comOregon Wheat Commission1200 NW Naito Pkwy, #370Portland, OR 97209-2879(503) 229-6665E-mail: dthompson@oregonwheat.orgWebsite: www.owgl.orgIdaho Wheat Commission821 West State StBoise, ID 83702-5832(208) 334-2353E-mail: connie@idahowheat.orgWebsite: www.idahowheat.org2011WASHINGTON • OREGONNORTH IDAHOPREFERREDWHEATVARIETIESbased on end-use qualityMost Desirable (MD) refers to varieties that generallyhave high test weights, appropriate protein content (kernelproperties) and excellent milling and end-use properties.Desirable (D) varieties are those with kernel, milling andend-use qualities ranging from good to very good and aredesirable in international trade.Acceptable (A) varieties have acceptable to good characteristicsbut a variety may possess minor flaws. Thesevarieties are currently accepted in international trade asthey are typically purchased in blend. In reality, too muchof these varieties may erode quality and end-use performancefor the buyer. This is why buyers are very interestedin knowing specific variety quality as they make their ownevaluations of the crop. There have been times when theytargeted questionable quality varieties. This is why growersare encouraged to choose higher quality rankings whenchoosing between varieties with similar agronomics.Least Desirable (LD) varieties contain one or more criticalflaws in quality. The intrinsic quality of PNW wheat will beimproved if these varieties are not planted.The PNW wheat commissions in Washington, Oregonand Idaho have been at the forefront of providing qualitydata. Extensive testing has and will continue to providevital information for growers. The overall quality of thedifferent classes should continue to increase as growers approachplanting decisions with an eye for improved qualityvarieties grown in their areas which are destined for theworld market.The brochure will be available from seed dealers, localelevators and at field days. If you would like additionalcopies please contact the Washington Grain Commission at(509) 456-2481, Oregon Wheat Commission at (503) 229-6665or Idaho Wheat Commission at (208) 334-2353.Club2011 Quality RankingsVarieties are listed by statistical quality rankings by class.When making a decision between varieties with similaragronomic characteristics and grain yield potential, choosethe variety with the higher quality ranking. This will helpto increase the overall quality and desirability of PacificNorthwest (PNW) wheat.Most Desirable (MD)—These varieties generally have hightest weights, appropriate protein content (kernel properties),and excellent milling and end-use properties.Desirable (D)—The kernel, milling, and end-use qualitiesof these varieties range from good to very good. The qualityattributes of these varieties are desirable in internationaltrade.Acceptable (A)—The kernel, milling, and end-use qualitiesof these varieties range from acceptable to good. Individualvarieties may possess minor flaws. The quality attributesof these varieties are acceptable in international trade.Least Desirable (LD)—One or more critical flaws in qualityare present in these varieties. The intrinsic quality of PNWwheat will be improved if these varieties are not planted.Chukar ........................................... MDCara .............................................. MDEdwin .............................................. DBruehl .............................................. DRely ................................................ DCoda ............................................... DSoft White Winter Hard Red WinterLegacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDORSS1757 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDBitterroot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDBrundage96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDBruneau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDLewjain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDSalute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDBrundageCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MDFinch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DMasami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DConcept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DLegion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DCashup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DWB 523 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEltan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DLambertCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DSkiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DMohler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DSimon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DORCF101R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DWB528 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DStephens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DLambert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DMadsen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DORCF103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DORCF102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AGoetze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AXerpha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AORCF101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARJames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AAP700CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWB1020M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWB456. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AGene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ATubbs06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AEddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MDFinley ................ MDJuniper .............. MDWhetstone .......... MDPaladin .............. MDDW .................... DBuchanan ............. DFarnum ................ DHard Red SpringHard White Winter 1Peregrine .............Rimrock ...............Declo ..................Norwest553 ...........Bauermeister ...........Residence ..............Symphony ..............LEstica ...................LHollis .................................................MDTARA2002 ............................................MDHank .................................................MDScarlet ..................................................DWinchester .............................................DJefferson ...............................................DBullseye ................................................DKelse ...................................................DWB926 ..................................................DJedd ....................................................DBuck Pronto ............................................DExpress .................................................ADarwin ...............................................MDMDM ...................................................ANuDakota ..............................................A62 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011USDA Western Wheat Quality LabCraig Morris, Lab DirectorDoug Engle, Lab Manager(509) 335-4062E-mail: morrisc@wsu.eduWebsite: www.wsu.edu/~wwqlThe G and E Study is financially supported by the WGC,OWC, and IWC.Spring ClubProvided courtesy of: The Washington Grain CommissionThe Oregon Wheat Commission • The Idaho Wheat CommissionJD .................................................MDEden ..............................................MDSoft White SpringDiva .................................................MDPetit .................................................MDZak ..................................................MDLouise ...............................................MDAlturas ..............................................MDWhit .................................................MDBabe ................................................MDNick ...................................................DWakanz ................................................DWawawai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DCataldo ................................................DAlpowa .................................1 Hard whiPalominio ..............................................AHard White Spring 1Macon ................................................MDClear White ...........................................MDLochsa .................................................DBlanca Grande 2 .........................................DOtis .....................................................D

WGC REPORTS WL...D..A..A..A.ALDDDOREGONWASHINGTONNORTH IDAHO2011PREFERREDWHEATVARIETIESbased on end-use qualityClubChukar ..............MDCara .................MDEdwin .................DBruehl .................DRely ...................DCoda ..................DSpring ClubJD ...................MDEden ................MDSoft White WinterLegacy ..............MDORSS1757 ............MDBitterroot ............MDBrundage96 .........MDBruneau .............MDLewjain ..............MDSalute ...............MDBrundageCF .........MDFinch ..................DMasami. ...............DConcept ...............DRod ...................DLegion. ................DCashup ................DWB523. ................DEltan ..................DVarieties are listed by statistical quality rankings by class. When making a decision betweenvarieties with similar agronomic characteristics and grain-yield potential, choosethe variety with the higher quality ranking. This will help to increase the overall qualityand desirability of Pacific Northwest (PNW) wheat.Most Desirable (MD)—These varieties generally have high test weights, appropriateprotein content (kernel properties) and excellent milling and end-use properties.Desirable (D)—The kernel, milling and end-use qualities of these varieties rangefrom good to very good. The quality attributes of these varieties are desirable in internationaltrade.Acceptable (A)—The kernel, milling and end-use qualities of these varietiesrange from acceptable to good. Individual varieties may posses minor flaws. The qualityattributes of these varieties are acceptable in international trade.Least Desirable (LD)—One or more critical flaws in quality are present in thesevarieties. The intrinsic quality of PNW wheat will be improved if these varieties are notplanted.LambertCF ............DSkiles ..................DMohler ................DSimon .................DORCF101R .............DWB528. ................DStephens ..............DLambert ...............DMadsen. ...............DORCF103...............DORCF102...............AGoetze ................AXerpha ................AORCF101...............ARJames ................AAP700CL. ..............AWB1020M..............AWB456 ................AGene ..................ATubbs06 ...............ASoft White SpringDiva .................MDPetit .................MDZak ..................MDLouise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MDAlturas ..............MDWhit. ................MDBabe ................MDNick ...................DWakanz. ...............DWawawai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCataldo. ...............DAlpowa ................DHard Red WinterEddy ................MDFinley. ...............MDJuniper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MDWhetstone ..........MDPaladin ..............MDDW ....................DBuchanan. .............DFarnum ................DPeregrine ..............DRimrock ...............ADeclo. .................ANorwest553 ...........ABauermeister ..........AResidence ............LDSymphony ............LDEstica. ................LDHard Red SpringHollis ................MDTARA2002 ...........MDHank ................MDScarlet. ................DWinchester ............DJefferson ..............DBullseye ...............DKelse ..................DWB926. ................DJedd. ..................DBuck Pronto ...........DExpress ................AHard White Winter 1Darwin ..............MDMDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANuDakota .............APalominio .............AHard White Spring 1Macon. ..............MDClear White . . . . . . . . . . MDLochsa. ................DBlanca Grande 2 ........DOtis ...................D1Hard white wheats are scored forexport quality requirements suchas bread quality and potentialnoodle quality.2Can exhibit late maturityalpha-amylaseWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONThese rankings are based on the results of the Genotype andEnvironment Study (G&E) quality testing conducted by theUSDA Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, the Washington StateUniversity Wheat Quality Program, the University of Idaho WheatQuality Laboratory and the Oregon State University Cereal QualityLaboratory, including relevant breeding nurseries.End-use quality determinations were based on results fromgrain, milling and product quality tests.The quality scores presented here reflect a minimum of threeyears’ data in the G&E study, using a reference variety for eachclass. The scores are reviewed yearly as new data becomes available,and are subject to change. Varieties not listed have not beentested or have less than three years of data. For complete results,please visit the website www.wsu.edu/~wwql/php/index.php.WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 63

WIDE WORLD OF WHEATWASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONXinhua PhotoHarvesting wheat in Kaifeng City in centralChina’s Henan province.China announced it will set upits own seed companies to ensurethe country’s food security will notdepend on multinational firms.Genetically modified seed will notbe an immediate priority. Non-GMOseeds are expected to play a key rolein boosting grain production over thenext five years. However, the ChineseState Council said the country will usehomegrown biotechnology to set uplarge seed breeding bases by 2020.Meanwhile, drought fears in China’swheat region have subsided, and thecountry is expecting another bumpercrop.Government officials in Russia wererecently crowing about the countrycoming back from its drought-plagued2010 harvest to regain world marketshare, but a Bloomberg survey of 19producers, traders and analysts saidthe crop there will drop 2.3 percentto 64.2 million acres this year becausefarmers don’t have the income to plantmore. Meanwhile, diesel is 30 percenthigher and nitrogen fertilizer has alsoincreased by up to 12 percent since lastyear, which will mean less usage andlower yields. “The situation in Russiais absolutely critical,” said a Londonbasedcommodity analyst.Iran increased its wheat storageReuters Photocapacity by 1.3 million metric tons (mmt) to 8.7 million metric tons with the inaugurationof 37 silos across the country. Iran’s wheat production is expected to reach 14.4mmt in the year that began March 2010. Although Iran celebrated self-sufficiency inwheat production in 2004, cold winter weather in 2007-08, followed by a drought, hitagricultural output and forced the country to briefly resume importing grain.India has banned the export of wheat since 2007. Despite there being plenty ofthe grain and the country’s farm minister calling for a resumption of exports to takeadvantage of high global prices, it’s unlikely to happen. Food inflation in India ran at18 percent last December, which has led to demonstrations around the country. Indiais the world’s second largest producer of wheat after China and currently has a 14.6mmt stockpile. The country wheat production is on track to hit a record 84 mmt in2011.In a year when rain during harvest devastated Australian wheat quality, farmerson the country’s east coast are looking at planting older varieties that have bettersprout resistance. However,the older varieties also haveinferior yields, not to mentionweaker disease resistancepackages. The logic of farmers,however, is that they will beable to keep fungal diseasesunder control by sprayingfungicides while they haveno management options forsprouting. But plant pathologistColin Wellings said useReuters PhotoFlooding in the Australian provinces of Queensland and NewSouth Wales.of disease susceptible butsprout resistant varietiescould be troublesomebeyond the current crop.“There’s going to be a dangergoing back to old varieties, and while I understand why growers may be thinkingof growing old lines, it could lead to a green bridge of infected volunteer crops oversummer next year as well,” he said.A team of experts who visited North Korea found people there reducedto searching for wild grass to eat as aresult of crop failures due to the cold. Inaddition, rising global food prices havemade it difficult for the country to importsufficient food supplies. The communistregime—which prides itself on a philosophyof self reliance—kicked out fiveaid groups in March 2009. Meanwhile,more than 30 percent of North Koreanfive-year-old children are said to bephysically stunted as a result of malnutrition.Recently, President Barack Obamaspurned calls for a dialog with North Korea over food aid until it clearly abides by64 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

past promises not to pursue nuclear weapons. That positionappears to be softening. Washington’s special envoy to NorthKorea recently said the country had requested aid, and it wasunder active consideration. In the past, soft white wheat hasbeen among a basket of items sent to North Korea. A lack ofmilling facilities in the Communist nation means the wheat isboiled and served as a sort of porridge.Secretary of State Hillary Clinton recently visited Yemen,an important soft white wheat customer. She is the firstSecretary of Stateto visit the countrysince 1990.The United Statesviews Yemen asa critical frontin the ObamaAdministration’swar against alHani Mohammed/APYemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh shakes handswith U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as shearrives at the Presidential Palace in Sanaa, YemenQaeda. The terroristorganizationreportedlyhas training basesin the ArabianPeninsula country from which at least two major plots havebeen launched against the U.S. The U.S. has raised developmentaid to the country to $130 million from about $17 millionin 2008. It’s reported that one in three of Yemen’s 23 millionpeople struggle with food insecurity. Almost half the populationlives on less than $2 a day. Recent unrest in the countryhad the current president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, attacking theU.S., claiming it is responsible for the problems occurring inthe Middle East.Record crop prices are driving farmers in Brazil to plantacreage they would otherwise use to graze their cattle. Thephenomenon is expected to result in planted crop acreageovertaking grazing acreage in Brazil, forcing cattle ranchers tofeed their animals more grain and soy meal. In the meantime,Brazil has extended a program that subsidizes loans to farmersfor the purchase of new farm equipment.The Canadian Wheat Board recently purchased twoships for $65 million, adding to the 3,400 rail hopper cars theorganizationalready owns.The vessels willply the GreatLakes to easternCanadian portsSeaway Marine Transport illustrationwhere the wheatwill be transloaded for export to Europe, Africa and LatinAmerica. The new ships, which will begin service in 2013, arefaster and will emit about 50 percent fewer emissions than thevessels currently in service. Not everyone is happy with thepurchase. Canada’s Agriculture Minister called the purchasean irresponsible scheme that puts farmers’ money at risk.Agricultural authorities in Rawalpindi, located in the Punjabprovince of Pakistan, said wet, humid weather has led toan outbreak of disease and insects on the wheat crop. “Thecontinuous wet spell this month is the major reason for thedisease,” said the district agricultural officer. “The crop is in theinitial stages and needs sunlight and dry weather.” A farmerwith 10 acres of wheat said his crop has been hit by a mysteriousdisease. “Wheat is gold for me, and I am quite worried,” hesaid.Turkmenistan will export wheat for the first timethis year. The country, which is a little larger than the state ofCalifornia, is located north of Iran and Afghanistan. Turkmenfarmers expect to harvest 1.6 million metric tons of grain thisyear. The country generally imports about a quarter of thecereals it consumes.Wheat flour mills in Ghana have been asked to enrichtheir products with micro-nutrients to boost the health ofconsumers. National Food Fortification Project officials wantto see wheat flour have specified levels of iron, zinc, folic acidand vitamins A and B. A special logo will differentiate fortifiedfoods from non-fortified.The world grain market reacted to the massive earthquakeand tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, falling on fearsthat the country’s tribulations would slow commodity purchases.Japan is thePacific Northwest’slargest market for softwhite wheat and oneof the world’s biggestimporters of wheat,corn and soybeans. Agrain market alreadyon edge from eventsin the Middle East willbe closely watchingKyodo/Reutershow long it takesJapan to recover and re-open its ports. It’s expected the directimpact from the earthquake on milling plants in the countryshould be limited.Argentina’s tax agency raided the offices of dozens ofgrain companies it suspects of being involved in tax evasion.According to the head of the agency, the companies mayhave failed to pay $37 million in taxes through the use of dummycorporations and other means. Last year, the tax authorityaccused Bunge Ltd., Cargill Inc. and Molinos Rio de la Plata SAof not paying all their taxes.Consumers will be paying 12 to 15 percent more for wheatflour, maize meal and pasta in Namibia, in southern Africa.The price increase is due to revolutions in the Middle East andclimatic disasters worldwide, said the commercial manager ofNamib Mills. Ian Collard also said future prices will remain highas “sentiments still remain negative due to higher consumptionas the world economy is starting up again.”WASHINGTON GRAIN COMMISSIONWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 65

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. planters . fertilizer applicators . rippers . chisels . cultivators . planters. harvesters . rod-weeders .rippers . fertilizer applicatorschoppers . ripperschisels . choppersrod-weeders . chiselsCan’t find ROD-WEEDER replacement parts?R & H has a full line in stock!!!SPROCKETSWe offer chain drive, rod drive, and idler sprockets.COLLARSOur collars can be turned to obtain even longer life.SPOOLSWe have spools with and without set-screw collars.GOOSE-NECK POINTSWe have goose-neck points, with RH chrome rod installed.WEAR BLOCKSWear blocks are available to fit all types of our spools.BOOT POINTSWe have regular, rock, and universal boot points.R & H MACHINE 115 ROEDEL AVE. CALDWELL, ID 83605 1-800-321-6568Setting the Standard for Wear!. planters . fertilizer applicators . rippers . chisels . cultivators . planters. harvesters . rod-weeders .rod-weeders . chisels . choppers . rippers . fertilizer applicatorsNorthCentralWashingtonFence L.L.C.AllTypes ofResidential &Industrial Fence• Vinyl Fence • Split Cedar• Chain Link • Master Halco DealerServing All Eastern WashingtonBus. 509-765-2950Fax 509-765-4277Ask About Wheat Grower DiscountNORTHNCW954K4FARM & HOME SUPPLY1-888-643-3395 • 509-843-3395www.herreschevy.com Pomeroy, WAAVAILABLE FOR RENT, LEASE OR PURCHASECase IH Steiger 450, Triples, PTOCase IH Steiger 500 QuadTrac, PTOWestern Whitman Co.Land auCtionTues. May 17, 2011, 2pmBest Buys In Used EquipmentJohn Deere Sale1998 JD 9200 Wheel Tractor, triples ..........................$92,7501995 JD 8870 w/triples, 24 spd Quad 4, DiffLocks, 350 hp,7,300 hours ............................................................$70,7251996 JD 8770 w/triples, 24 Speed,Quad 4 Transmission ...............................................$67,750JD 8650 Wheel Tractor, w/PTO ...........................Coming SoonJD 8630 Wheel Tractor, w/50 Series engine, 280 hp,24.5 x 32 duals, PTO ...............................................$17,500Kubota L4400 MFD, loader, low hours .......................$19,700Case IH 9270 Wheel Tractor, duals ............................$61,950Case 2470, 176 hp, 4WD, duals ...................................$5,750Case 1190 Wheel Tractor, w/Great Bin Loader, quick attachbucket .........................................................$12,750 ... OBO1997 Ford NH 2120 Loader Tractor, 4x4 w/cab ..........$15,975Great Plains 3S-4000 Drill, 7.5” spacing, 3x13press wheels ................................................................CALLGreat Plains Turbo-Till, 30’ w/rolling harrow ...... RENT/LEASEGreat Plains 30’ Multi-Flex 10” Hoe Drill,21” Steel D Packers ................................................$15,950IH 760, 20’ Disk on rubber ..........................................$9,7002010 Schulte 5026 Rotary Cutter ....................... RENT/LEASE2008 GMC 3/4 Ton Crew Cab SLT, 4x4, Duramax Diesel,loaded, #DA80, new tires .......................................$39,7501976 IH 1700 LOADSTAR Truck, HD single axle, 16’ Steelbed and hoist, Grain racks and stock Racks ..............$6,7501983 Case IH 1480 Combine, level land, 30’ 810 headerw/cart .......................................................................$7,700IH 810 30’ Header on cart ...........................................$4,995JD 6622 Titan 2 Combine, JD 222 header w/cart .........$8,70025’ Love Pea Bar .............................................$3,500 ... OBOA&L 700 Bu. Grain Card, hyd. drive ..........................$17,950KIOTI 4WD TRACTORS20-90 hp, with loaders, some with cabs ........... CALLAVAILABLE FOR RENT, LEASE OR PURCHASEwww.herreschevy.com• 1600+/- acres grazing/pastureland offered in 3 parcels.• Excellent State Hwy 26 &C.D.Palouse“Butch”River frontage.BookerReal Estate Broker/AuctioneerC.D. “Butch” Booker• Includes shop, barn, 2 houses.Real Estate Broker/AuctioneerAuction location: LaCrosse Community Bldg,409 S Main, LaCrosse, WAContact C.D. “Butch” Booker,Broker/AuctioneerFarms Office & Ranches, – 509-397-4434 Residential,Equipment, LivestockOffice Office - – 509-397-4434401 S Main, Colfax, WA 99111E-mail www.kincaidrealestate.com- kincaidre@colfax.comSeewww.kincaidrealestate.comall our listings at:www.kincaidrealestate.comWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 67

WLFEATUREFawning overFal ineFor five months, at the request of the state game department, the Nelsonfamily raised a baby deer. From bottle feedings and snacking on the flowergarden to riding in the station wagon, the fawn, Faline, becamea treasured member of the family.Story and photos by James A. Nelson68 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

FEATURE WLJim’s daughter, Merri, was 4 years old when the familywas asked to care for a fawn.“Hi Lois, kids, come see what Dad hasbrought home,” I yelled, as I came throughthe back door, carrying a cardboard boxwith a small, precious, soft animal sleepinginside. I was almost afraid to put it down.Lois, my wife, was the first one into thekitchen as I gently sat the box on the floor.She took one look and said, “Oh Jim, it’s ababy deer, and it’s so little.”“About 2 1⁄2 pounds,” I said. “I got itabout an hour ago from the state gamewarden. He called me at work and askedif I would give it a home for about fivemonths. Someone brought it into theiroffice, and they had no place to keep it. InSeptember they will pick it up and place itin a game refuge. A safe home for animalsafter they are old enough to take care ofthemselves,” I explained.One by one my three children, Kim,10, Lori, 8, and Merri, 4, rushed into thekitchen. I had never heard so many gleefulsounds and so many questions as theygazed down at the tiny animal.“Where did you get it?”“Can I hold it?”“Not now,” I said. “We have to wait until it gets used to us and her newhome.” By this time I had determined she was a girl deer, or fawn, as babydeer are called. The questions kept coming.“Where did you find her?”“Can I hold her?”“Do we get to keep her?”“Where is she going to sleep?”“Whoa, hold on. One question at a time,” I interrupted. “I got her fromthe game warden because they had no place to keep her. For food we willfeed her just like you would a baby or any small animal with milk froma bottle to start and other food, as she grows older. As for a name, I’llleave that up to you. I have to get back to work.” As I left I could still hearsqueals of delight. The question “What shall we name her?” followed meout the door to my car.When I arrived home that evening Merri, so named because she hadbeen born on Christmas, met me at the door.“Dad, I got to name her.”I smiled and said, “Ok Hon, what’s her name?”“Faline,” she said as she bounced up and down with excitement!“For sure,” I said. “That’s a great name. We all know about the characterin the movie Bambi. Let’s hope that our Faline will grow up and have ababy of her own someday.”Now began five months of care and love enjoyed by the entire family.Faline was a constant joy. She was very clean, well mannered and quiteloving. She took to us all but her favorite family member was Merri. That’sbecause Merri was home during the day and got to feed her most often, ajob she loved to do. When she got hungry Faline would search her outFaline nibbling buds in the flower garden.WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 69

WLFEATUREwith a bleating sound like a sheep, “Ba-Ba-Ba-Ba,” verysoftly. After locating Merri she would remind her it wastime to eat by gently nudging her with her head. Merrinever tired of this job. Faline rewarded Merri by staring ather with those soft brown eyes and making quiet lovingsounds while she drank. Duke, our springer spaniel, becameher instant protector and played this part throughouther stay in our big backyard. Anytime Faline becamefrightened she would run to his side. He would gently lickher and give her a mother’s tender look, and all would beright in her small world once more. To watch them playtag and wade together in the wading pool was alwaysheartwarming.Mittens, our cat, seldom noticed Faline and didn’t likeit when Faline would dance and prance in front of her,trying to make her run. After all, playing tag was fun evenwhen you are a deer.Faline’s greatest treat was to go out in the backyard earlyin the morning and nip each new flower bud that hademerged in my wife’s flower garden. Because we loved her,we never scolded her. We knew these tasty flowers werepart of her daily meals. In the wild she would be eatingsimilar treats, including sweet-smelling clover buds, andno one would correct her there. We would laugh and say“Faline is going outside for her dessert” as she headedfor the door after she had her bottle. We wondered whichbuds or flowers she would choose first: roses, daises orpansies? I always said pansies because these dainty littleflowers were truly her favorite. You could almost see asmile on her face as she munched the colorful little flowers.Especially the yellow ones. Lois would be standing nearbyMerri and Faline resting while Faline watched television.Jim’s daughter Lori feeding Faline.with her hands on her hips, smiling, as Faline would bequietly eating up her flowers. Funny thing, in summerspast, if any one of us or our pets had damaged one of herplants, we would not have been looked at with a smile.Faline just had a way of making everyone smile. We lovedher, and she showed her love for us often with a gentlemuzzle with her nose and a soft bleat, all the while staringat us with her dark eyes with those long lashes.Faline’s bedroom was Merri’s room, where she slept ona blanket at the foot of her bed. Somehow she knew Merri,being the youngest in the family, needed her nighttimenearness. “She’s like Merri’s night light,” I would say. “Toobad she doesn’t have a shiny red nose like Rudolph theRed Nose Reindeer,” and we would chuckle.Our summer routine was made more fun as wewatched her growing and playing in our big back yard.One afternoon, I took her to a friend’s house. They wereraising a boy fawn for the game department also. Falinewould have nothing to do with the little fawn and ranback to our station wagon. After all, she thought she washuman like us.70 WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011

Call or check out our website forFall-Winter Specials Nov-DecConnell Grange SupplyWe DeliverTop QualityFuels• 24-Hour Pumps• Bulk Fuel TanksFor Sale• Farm HardwareIn Stock• Full Tire Services• Cattle Equipment343 S. Columbia • Connell, WAhttp://www.connellgrange.com 509-234-2631CANOLARoundup Ready :: Clearfield :: Liberty Link - Herbicide Tolerant :: ConventionalNew Winter Canola Now Available - FalstaffSUNFLOWERS :: SAFFLOWERCAMELINA :: TRITICALEPLOW-DOWN MUSTARDIncrease yourwheat yields, break diseasecycles and reduce weeds withspring and winter crop rotationsTake Advantage of the explodinglocal BioFuel market opportunitiesSpectrum CropDevelopment :: Ritzville WAVertical tillage is the new thing indryland farming. Canola can achievethe same results for your soil, withoutthe purchase of expensive equipmentEnjoy domestic marketing opportunitiesand try out alternate crops beforeforeign nations’ over-production forcesyou to grow other commoditiesCurtis 509-659-1757Todd 509-641-0436CLASS 8 TRUCKS521 N. EASTERN • SPOKANE, WA(509) 534-9088 • Fax (509) 534-7701Gil Rieck, left, and President Jerry Schaubleof Inland Empire Milling Co., in operationsince 1919 with facilities in St. John, PineCity and Pleasant valley. They provide grainstorage, seed and pea contracts, bulk feedand more! 509-648-3366The Best Direct Seed Drill System Just Got Better!• Matching Seed Cart For The Cougar Drill• Built-In Load-Unload Auger• Steerable With Higher Capacity Poly TanksNORTH PINE AG EQUIPMENT, INC.2007 E. Babb Road Rosalia, Washington509-994-2133 or cschmidt@att.net• Precision Placement Of Seed &Fertilizer• Proven 7.5” Paired-Row Design• Fertilizer placed Between and 2.5”Below The Paired RowsWhat did the boss buy? Husch & Husch, afamily-owned fertilizer co. in Harrah, WA,bought this truck. Driver Alvin Morrow andshop manager Dennis Balch were sent topick it up. Man, were they relieved with thegreat truck with super specs their bosshad picked out!We won’t steer you wrong, either! Callor stop in today. We have the ability andthe efficiency to help YOU find the perfecttruck.Marc B. Lange (509) 991-9088Gary Evans (509) 456-2687Butch Johnson (509) 990-3153REMEMBER... WE HAVE TRAILERS TOO!www.class8trucksales.comWHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 71

EASTERN OREGON FARMS724.80 acres – Condon, Oregon11 miles south of Condon, OR. 497.9 acres is in CRP. 296.90 acres indry land pasture. Good hunting, with one room cabin.$280,000 #WL01910UKIAH, OREGON376.61 total deeded acres composed of three tax lots. Outside citylimits. Owens Creek runs through pastures and meadows. Perimeterfencing for cattle grazing. County road access. $338,400 #WL00809EASTERN OREGON wheat farmHigh yielding and good location. Manicured farmstead with wellmaintainedbuildings; 3 homes, grain storage, shop and outbuildings,1736 total acres, 1711 crop acres. Good soils. Includes machinery.$3,972,915 #WL02309989.40 ACRESWith 346.2 currently under CRP contract. Improvements include twocabins. Douglas Fir is the principal species of timber. Grazing consistsof 643+/- acres of native pasture and timber land, and includes sevenponds. Wind power is presently being looked at.$1,900,000 #WL02609Gilliam County366 acres on Upper Rock Creek, South of Arlington, OR. Includes188 irrigated acres and 177 acres of range. 2 pivots, 2 wheel lines andhand lines from well. Includes 2 story home w/5 bedrooms, 2 baths.Livestock barn. Recreation and LOP Tags. 3 tax lots.$599,000 #WL01209The Whitney Land Co.(541) 278-4444 www.whitneylandcompany.comMcKay Seed Co., Inc.Now Serving YouFrom Three Convenient LocationsSEEDS FOR SUCCESSSpring Wheat Varieties Available:• Certified AgriPro Bullseye Hard Red • Certified JD Club• Certified Louise Soft White • Certified Whit Soft White• Certified WestBred Jedd CL Hard Red • Certified WestBred Fuzion Hard Red• Certified WestBred Nick Soft White • Certified WestBred Waikea Hard White• Spring Barley Certified WestBred ChampionRosalia, WA(Wilhelm)509-523-3471Moses Lake, WA509-766-9894800-258-4599(Near Wheeler Water Tower)Almira, WA509-639-2293800-998-6694Choose McKay • The Company You Can Trust$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$$$$ it’s$$human nature$$$ to$$$ resist change$$Make the change. Maximize Profits.Growers who are serious aboutmaximizing profits work with theagronomists at NuChem, season...after season... after season............P.O. Box 603Pullman, WA 99163(509) 334-25911-800-272-8882$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$WHEAT LIFE APRIL 2011 73

Advertiser Indexaemsco, inc. 13Ag Enterprise Supply, Inc. 13AGPRO 25AgVentures NW 66Barber Engineering Co. 67BASF–Headline 76BFI Native Seeds 5Booker Auction Company 19Butch Booker Auctioneer 19, 67Byrnes Oil Co. 5Central Life Sciences–Diacon 7Central Washington Grain Growers 5Class 8 Trucks 71Coldwell-Tomlinson Ranch & Home 25Coleman Oil 25Connell Grange Supply 71Connell Oil Co. 17Country Financial 21Diesel & Machine 23Dowland Spray Systems 13Edward Jones 39Farm & Home Supply 67Farmland Tractor Supply 5Helena Chemical–CoRoN 9Hermance Insurance Agency, LLC 73HILLCO Technologies 39Jones Truck & Implement 66Kincaid Real Estate 19, 67Klesor Equipment 17Kralman Steel Structures 19Landmark Native Seed 25Les Schwab Tire Centers 40Lyman Dust Control 9M-K Industries 23, 71McKay Seed Co., Inc. 73Meridian Manufacturing Group 17Micro-Ag 40Morrow County Grain Growers 66North Central Washington Fence 67North Pine Ag Equipment 71NU-CHEM 73OXARC 19Palouse Grain Growers, Inc. 25Pbi/Gordon–Hi-Dep 11PNW Farmers Cooperative 9Pomeroy Grain Growers, Inc. 19RH Machine 67Rock Steel Structures 19Ronald J. Perkins, CPA 67Smith Air 27Spectrum Crop Development 71SS Equipment 23, 27State Bank Northwest 31Stonebraker-McQuary Insurance 35Syngenta–Axial 15T & S Sales 23The McGregor Co. 35, 40The Whitney Land Co. 73Tri-State Seed 30Walter Implement 31WestBred, LLC 21Wilbur-Ellis–NDemand 75Thank you to all of our advertisers.Support those who support your industry.

DemanD moreFrom Your nitrogennDemanD Brings grower resultsGrowers are seeing a 1 to 2-point boost in protein content anda yield increase of up to 5 bushels/acre as a result of using 1 to2 gpa of NDemand 30L as a foliar treatment on wheat.For more information on how NDemand is right for you, callyour Wilbur-Ellis specialist today.www.wilburellis.comImportant: Always read and follow label directions before buying or using this product. WILBUR-ELLIS Logo, Ideas to Grow With and NDemand are registered trademarks of Wilbur-Ellis Company. K-0111-039

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