PERMANENT MISSION OF THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO to the United NationsMAJA STOLLEAMBASSADORPosition PaperThere is a strong will on the part of the highest executive power in the country His Majestythe King Mohammed VI, to personally give special care to the Moroccan community abroad.He is clearly in favour of promoting and structuring the relationship between Morocco and itsresidents abroad as well as guaranteeing excellent relations with its European neighbours,especially Spain. This materialized in the establishment of a Delegated Ministry in Charge ofMoroccan Community Residing Abroad and the establishment of various non-governmentalagencies. The Kingdom of Morocco participates regularly in international meetings in orderto place the issue on a transnational policy agenda within the South-South or the Euro-Africanrelations. Morocco was one of the initiators for the Global Commission on InternationalMigration (GCIM) of the UN, which was launched on December, 9, 2003.Based upon the fact that Europe is the most important commercial partner to the Kingdom ofMorocco we are keen on establishing and maintaining good relations and cooperation withEurope. The regulation of migration is therefore a considerable part in the attempts to tacklethe problems of migration. Migration issues are a top priority on the political agenda at thenational echelon of our country. This concerns different Action Plans of the ministry in theshort, medium and long-term level, treating economical, juridical and socio-cultural matters.After the ratification of the UN Convention on Migration Morocco passed the 2003 Lawwhich includes: the organisation of the entrance and residence of foreigners in Morocco, therules of illegal migration and the transnational rules allowing the application of the laws. Thisis in accordance to the principles of the international agreements on migrants’ rights and theUN Protocol and expresses our will to combat illegal migration. This is also in line with theratification of the UN agreement to combat organised crime. The necessity of vigilance insideMorocco and the cooperation with similar institutions in Europe in order to control thefrontiers illustrate the first outcomes. As a result, more than 1,200 networks specialised inhuman trading have been dismantled and more than 65,000 illegal migrants have beenarrested after 2003 – reducing the illegal outflow by 25%. The Spanish Authorities haveintercepted almost 50% of all cases on the Mediterranean coast. This shows that Moroccocannot completely control all access and transit points used by smugglers. Furthermore, otherroutes – certainly more inhumane – might shift migration flows to different countries, but donot solve the problem itself.Regarding migration, the Ministry of the Interior is especially engaged analyzing gaps inillegal migration issues (from and to Morocco). The Ministry pursues two goals: to stopillegal migration and to uproot and combat its causes. Illegal migration – primarilyeconomically determined – from and through Morocco has recently gained importance andstarted to have serious negative impacts on the country itself and Europe. Additionally,Morocco is faced with the recent phenomena of becoming a transit country from people of theSaharan countries, due to social and economic disruptions in the concerning countries. Illegalmigration is also creating highly structured trafficking networks which create inhumanexploitation of the illegal migrants.
In order to reduce further illegal flows of migrants we recommend agreements with the sourcecountries. We also pledge for Europe to financially foster repatriation costs in the sourcecountries – which are the poorest nations of the world.The restrictive migration policies in Europe have also lead to an increased number ofundocumented labour migrants, particularly in Spain and Italy. In addition, thediscontinuation of the “return option” (circular migration) explains why many migrantsdecided to stay in Europe. Providing that migrants’ residency status positively affectscirculation we give the following facilitating suggestions:• to sponsor temporary worker schemes with more flexible and open workingarrangements; and• to remove disincentives to circulation that discourages permanent migrants fromreturning.Migration has infiltrated public opinion – mostly in a negative way, and ratifying Conventionsthus becomes a highly controversial issue in politics. This threatens the implication of themigrants’ rights, especially for the group of the undocumented migrants. The ratification ofthe Convention by European states would not only foster migrants’ rights in these regions: itwould also have a spill-over effect on other non-Western countries. Migration should not be acompetition issue between states, but focus on the main actors: the migrants and theircontribution to the countries.The regulation of migration towards Europe represents an important factor – both for thecountries of origin and host countries. Persistent demand for migrant labour in the WesternEurope in agricultural, construction and service sectors suggest that emigration is likely tocontinue. Therefore, Morocco stresses a common action and concerted cooperation, includingon the operational level in order to better address the real causes while paying attention to therespect of human dignity. Hence, Morocco insists upon the necessity of joint communicationand multilateral interaction to succeed in overcoming global problems.In order to formulate effective policies there is a need to:• ratify the Convention of the UN on Migration for all countries;• take a note on the changing patterns of migration and react with adequatemeasures, especially in the regions where migration is socially determined (as aresult of conflict, natural disasters and poverty) for humanitarian purposes; and• devise mechanisms to deal with unlawful or undocumented migrants, especiallythe trafficking in women and children.We are clearly in favour of a better management of legal and illegal migration bringingtogether the various policy areas that are relevant to migration, including good governance,human rights and development policies. We strongly believe that the UN is the mostappropriate mechanism to carry out and coordinate the work of various agencies. Hence, wesearch for a better cooperation of the international sections, for example, in the concernedNational Agencies for Employment. Governments must work together to find structural highlevelsolutions that will be effective solutions.