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Defence Force JournalContributions of any length will be consideredbut, as a guide, 3000 words is the ideal length.Articles should be typed double spaced, on oneside of the paper, and submitted in duplicate.All contributions and correspondence should beaddressed to:The Managing EditorDefence Force JournalBuilding C, Room 4-25Russell OfficesCANBERRA ACT 2600(062) 65 2682 or 65 2999PhotographyD.P.R. Stills Photo SectionPublished by the Australian GovernmentPublishing Service, Canberra, for the Departmentof Defence.8 Commonwealth of Australia 1989ISSN 0314-1039R 85/1198(17) Cat. No. 86 1366 2
DEFENCEFORCEJOURNALNo.75 March/April 1989Journal of the Australian Profession of ArmsCONTENTS3. Letters to the Editor4:'/-• 'd|' ; '''I ,',"•s>. ."£•""Cover: Changi Chapel, RMC Duntroon— By Jeff Isaacs.Board of ManagementAir Commodore F. J. Tipping, RAAF, (Chairman)Captain G. Heron, RANGroup Captain J. T. Huet, RAAFColonel P.D. Gibbons, AMBrigadier S. GowerManaging EditorMr M. P. TraceyAssistant EditorIrene Coombes5. Defending Freedom and Pursuing PeaceThe Reverend Campbell Egan, ARES9. The Case for Establishing a Retired MembersEmployment Stream within the ADFLieutenant Colonel R.J. Dace, RAAOC13. The RAAF Writes its DoctrineWing Commander David Schubert and Wing CommanderBrian Kavanagh, RAAF19. Army Recruit Training Injuries "Indemic orEpidemic"W02 James P. Brennan, (QMSI), APTC29. Remnants of the RajJudy Thomson38. Australian Public Opinions of DefenceLisa Keen, Department of Defence43. The Rt Hon Sir George Foster Pearce (1870-1952)Major Warren Perry, RL56. Mobility for Infantry Engaged in Low-LevelOperationsMajor S.F. Larkins, RAInf62. Book ReviewContributors are urged to ensure the accuracy of informationcontained in their articles: the Board of Management acceptsno responsibility for errors of fact.Permission to reprint articles in the Journal will generally bereadily given by the Managing Editor after consultation with theauthor. Any reproduced articles should bear an acknowledgementof source.The views expressed in the articles are the authors' own andshould not be construed as official opinion or policy.Printed by Ruskin Press, Collingwood
Two Royal Australian Air Force FA/18 Hornets, fly in formation over RAAF Base Williamtown, NewSouth Wales.
Letters to the EditorDivided LoyaltiesDear Sir,Major R. A. Hall's timely letter regardingProfessor Blaineys' opinions on the negative effectsof multiculturalism upon our DefenceForce should provide plenty of food forthought.Major Hall correctly argues that Aboriginalsand Torres Strait Islanders will be an invaluableasset in any future conflict especially in NorthernAustralia.But it is not so easy to brush aside thepossibility of divided loyalties. As a member ofthe Cadre Staff of an ARES Officer CadetUnit, I remember a Cadet of foreign descentsaying that he would never raise his rifle againstthe people of his ethnic origins regardless ofAustralia's stand in any conflict.NO. I'm not a bigot nor do I have any specialantipathy towards multiculturalism I simplyrepeat the sober statement of a potentialAustralian Officer who, along with his parents,held Australian Citizenship.Recently, a reportedly Australian born 16year old was shot protesting at the YugoslavConsulate. The reason for his protest? Ill treatmentof minorities in his homeland. I don'tknow whether the Blainey view is absolutelyright, if only I could be sure that it's wrong, ifC. T. AinslieCaptainConventional DeterrenceDear Sir,Lieutenant Colonel Smith's article, ConventionalDeterrence and Australian MilitaryStrategy, (DFJ Jul/Aug 88) approaches thesubject of conventional deterrence from aglobal perspective, then relates the lessons toAustralia's geostrategic circumstances.If approached from an Australian perspective,that is from the point of view expressed inendorsed strategic guidance, a strategy containingelements of deterrence is worth consideration.Based on possible contingencies pronouncedby Defence of Australia 1987, deterranceneeds to be examined at two levels. First,in the shorter term to deter an aggressor from acampaign of low-level operations; second, inthe longer term to deter an aggressor from largescale conventional operations.In relation to shorter term contingencies, anadversary's strategy is expected to indirect.That is, his military operations will be secondaryto other means of progressing the conflict.Andre Beaufre's excellent analysis of indirectstrategy in 'Introduction to Strategy', narrowsthe scope of this strategy when he describes the'erosion method'. The types of activities hedescribes here can be directly related to currentenemy concepts being discussed in Defencecircles. Beaufre further describes measures tocounter this 'erosion method'. Large scaleresources should not be used and the concept ofthe 'exterior manoeuvre' needs to be applied.This manoeuvre is designed to assure freedomof action while simultaneously 'paralysing theenemy by a multitude of deterrent checks'. Hestates, 'As with all operations designed to deter,action will of course be primarilypsychological; political, economic and militaryresources will all be combined towards the sameend.'This would seem to place deterrence forshorter term contingencies at the level of nationalstrategy not military strategy. By combiningother elements of national power withmilitary power, Australia can have a believableand affordable national strategy to deter anenemy in the shorter term.In regard to longer term contingencies, someof Colonel Smith's conclusions and lessons mayappear valid. But again they are related toglobal perspectives and the replacement, as AirCommodore Ashworth pointed out (DFJNov/Dec 88), of the superpower nuclear deterrentwith conventional deterrence.Colonel Smith dismisses Langtry and Ballbased on historical evidence that 'indicates thatfar from being deterred from conflict, a positionof inferiority may actually provide acatalyst for military action.' Langtry and Ball'sdiscussion on relative combat power, doeshowever have relevance to a strategy of deterrencein longer term contingencies. The bottomline of this discussion is that an aggressor would
4 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89need a minimum of a 3 to 1 capability and forceratio before contemplating large scale conventionaloperations against Australia. Thereforeeach $1 spent on Australian capability means atleast $3 spent by an aggressor to retain capabilityratios. This is still too simplistic an equation,for an adversary would need additional investmentin the maritime capabilities to transportand support his forces. Few economies in ourADM1 could be expected to support that levelof military expansion without suffering severeconsequences. This will not mean an arms raceeither. Even our current forces, regular andreserve, indicate that an adversary would needat least a reinforced corps with significant navaland air support to even contemplate this type ofoperation.Thus the primary deterrent value of the ADFlies not in its use pre-emptively or in threat ofretaliation, but as an economic deterrent in thelonger term.Consequently there is a place for a strategy ofdeterrence within Australia's geostrategic environment.Its place is at a national level wherecorrectly applied it could be supported ingeneral terms by the current capabilities of theADF.MA. F. WebsterMajorTable of DecorationsDear Sir,Receipt is acknowledged with thanks of additionalcopies of Issue No. 73 of the Journal,availability of which is greatly appreciated byour Association.There is a printing error on page 24, where inthe table of decorations awarded to 2/14 Battalionin 1942, the number of MM's is shown as"1" instead of "11". We would be grateful if acorrection could be included in a future issue. QJ. C. McA Hester
Defending Freedom and Pursuing PeaceBy The Reverend Campbell Egan, A RESIntroductionnational POW memorial was opened andA dedicated in the grounds of RMC Duntroonduring 1988. The memorial consists ofthe Catholic chapel used in Changi POW campduring the second world war. The building wasdismantled, stored, transported and nowreconstructed,and is a splendid memorial thathonours our POWs and especially those whopaid the supreme sacrifice.On the island of Singapore a war cemeterypreserves the memory of the Changi experience.The cemetery is maintained immaculately.Hundreds and hundreds of little white crossescover the lawns. They stand for fallen warriors.On the central memorial stone these words arecarved:THEY DIED FOR ALL FREE MENIn Australia today there are two movementswhich go their separate ways but which have agreat deal in common. They are both interestedin gaining, maintaining and enhancing peace.Anzac TraditionLarge sections of the Australian nation pausefor a while on the 25 April. This truly nationalday helps citizens to honour the sacrifices madeby men and women in previous days in preservingthe freedom that we enjoy today.Ordinary men and women from all walks oflife, at various times in our history and from allparts of the Commonwealth responded whenthe Government of the day made a commitmentto particular military conflicts. Australia wascommitted to the two great world wars and successivecampaigns in the past 40 years, includingcommitments to peace keeping initiativesof the United Nations Organisation.The National Government made the decisionto be committed to these conflicts, and ordinaryAustralian men and women responded.Anzac day reminds the nation of the importanceof values such as national pride and nationalservice, devotion to duty and selfsacrifice, bravery the defence of freedom,resistance to aggression and the preservation ofpeace.Anzac 1989 stresses the fact that had ourfighting men and women of previous days notdeterred the aggression of Japan and defeatedthe evils of Nazism, then life in this land of theSouthern Cross might well be radicallydifferent.The nation should never be allowed to forgetthe sacrifices of Australian people of previousdays who fought for freedom and the preservationof peace. The nation should not forget thesacrifices made by our fighting men andwomen, but also the sacrifice and contributionto the national cause by those who remained athome.The moral qualities of the Anzac tradition —resistance to aggression, courage in conflict,sacrifice for the common good, the defence offreedom and the pursuit of peace — should notbe allowed to be washed away by the unthinkingtides of materialism, hedonism and carelessforgetfulness.Peace MovementIn recent years another powerful movementhas developed with a strong interest in thewelfare of the nation and indeed the preservationof the whole world. This movement islargely, though not exclusively associated withPalm Sunday. Marches, rallies and meetingsare held throughout the nation. The necessityof peace pursuing policies, programmes andperceptions is emphasised. The movementlooks more to the future than to the past. Itstresses the danger that arises from man's increasedtechnology in the production of moreand more powerful weapons of destruction andmore effective delivery systems. It highlightsthe dangers of the nuclear age, and the fragilityof a world peace that rests on mutual fear ofannihilation. The Peace Movement challengespoliticians and the public to think more ofpeace than the heroics of the past, more of thefuture than the days of yore, more of friendshipbuilding than reliance on bigger and more lethalweapons of destruction.ExcessesI believe that these two movements have agreat deal in common when shorn of theirexcesses.
6 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89The Anzac tradition is not enhanced by theglorification of war or of the rattling of thedrum of jingoism. A boozey celebration of the'one day of the year' does not uplift the trueessence of the Anzac tradition.Similarly for many the shrill 'go home yank'shouts of many marchers, and the adoption ofan impractical: 'No to the nuclear age', detractfor many, from the moral tone of the peacemovement. A tendency to dishonour the contributionsto national service of men andwomen in the defence forces by some, is notnecessary to promote the virtues of the peacemovement.Common InterestsThe realism of the Anzac tradition and theidealism of the Peace Movement need to belinked. The Anzac tradition reminds us thatfreedom has been defended and peace preservedat enormous cost both to the nation and tofamilies and citizens. This tradition is committedto peace. This however can be achievedsometimes, only by the use of military power.Appeasement to an aggressor is like tissuepaper to a rampaging bull. Often in life a bullycan only be contained by force.On the other hand however, the idealism ofthe Peace Movement is vital. Peace based onmutual terror is a fragile peace. Peace that restsonly on military might is inadequate. The PeaceMovement projects a vision of world peace inwhich reliance on military hardware is reduced,and peace is promoted by friendship, toleranceand trust. It advocates that more resources atthe disposal of the governments of the worldshould be directed to enhancing human life andso reducing some of the causes of conflict. Itadvocates that fewer resources be directed tothe invention of more and more lethal instrumentsof destruction and to the accumulationof massive arsenals. That more resourcesbe directed to peace making endeavours.People of both movements should cultivate adialogue. Bridges of goodwill and trust shouldbe developed. We need to sit down and genuinelylisten to the advocacy of the other side.We need to get behind the catchcries andslogans we employ, often merely to win pointsin a debate. People of the Anzac tradition andpeople of the Peace Movement should togetherexplore the true nature of peace and freedomand devise realistic ways of advancing the causethey share in common.Major ConflictA major moral issue facing the world for thepast several decades has been the contrast betweenthe police state and the free state.Totalitarian regimes, whether to the left or theright of the political spectrum, rule by might.The police and military dominate. Freedom ofmovement, expression, assembly and worshipare severely curtailed. Political dissent isminimized by imprisonment or liquidation. Nosensible person can deny this reality in a scoreof countries in different parts of the world.In contrast to the police state, the westerndemocracies despite all their defects maximiseindividual freedom of thought, expression andaction.The conflict between the open and closedsocieties constitutes one of the most dominantmoral issues of the second part of the twentiethcentury.Since the descent of the iron curtain and theerection of the bamboo curtain, the relationshipbetween the nations of the western allianceand the countries of the socialist empire hasbeen marked by suspicion, fear, malice andmistrust. In more recent years the 'cold war'has thawed somewhat with the emergence ofdetente and then in more recent days thepolicies advanced by the Soviet leader, namelyglasnost (openness) and perestroika (renewal)have generated warmer and friendlier attitudes.These developments should be welcomed byall.The people of the Anzac tradition would cautionagainst lowering the guard in the face ofremarkable changes that appear to be endorsedby the leaders of the USSR. Despite all advanceshowever the totalitarian states of communismhave a vast way to go to achieve thelevel of personal freedom that marks the societyof western democracies.The dictum is relevant — "The price of libertyis eternal vigilance."Australia retains a moral commitment in thecause of freedom by its association with thewestern alliance. The nation is firmly weddedby the American alliance to peace throughnuclear deterrence. The joint Australian-American bases are an essential part of thenuclear defence structure. This commitmentnow has been extended for another ten years.This commitment is not merely a national insurancepolicy. It is also a moral commitmentto one of the critical issues of the day. It is a
DEFENDING FREEDOM AND PURSUING PEACE "commitment to the free society in contrast tothe police state.When members of the Peace Movement expresstheir idealism in political terms such as ananti-American stance, and advocate a reversionto a pre-nuclear era, they engage in politicalutopianism and antagonise many who sympathizewith their vision of peace.Peace MakingThe Peace Movement advocates policies thatbreak down the walls of divisions and the curtainsof mistrust. They promote concepts suchas bridging the political and social gaps byfriendships. The things that are conducive towar are suspicion, fear, ignorance, mistrust aswell as a desire by people and nations to controlresources and people.Some of these negative and destructive attitudescan be removed or at least reduced, bypeople coming together in a variety of ways.Exchanges between nations and peoples atevery level are more likely to produce peace andgoodwill than by the peoples snarling their fearsand hates through barriers of ignorance andprejudice.The Australian Government should, in myopinion, advance more policies and programmesthat result in people exchanges. To haveChinese table tennis players, Russian iceskaters, Polish dancers, South Africancricketers, Brazilian footballers and Indonesiancraftsman visit and perform in Australia is a farmore effective pursuit of peace than tradeboycot economic sanctions, and propagandasalvo.One of the most creative peace making initiativesin recent times was that of theAmerican Peace Corps. Programmes that performa similar function now should beexpanded.Australia should put more resources intopeace making programmes at every level fromarms control and disarmament negotiations tostudent exchanges and sporting, cultural interchanges.When people meet each other at thehuman level and talk, and play and engage inconstructive enterprises, then the seeds of goodwilland trust are planted which eventually producethe flowers of peace and trust.The Peace Movement draws attention to thedistressing in feature of modern life that somany resources, natural and human, aredirected to a military end while genuine humanneed increases through neglect.Somehow the idealism of the PeaceMovements needs to be harnessed and expressedin political programmes. Peace needs to bepursued. It does not just happen. The reality ofhuman life is that it is easier to poison relationshipsthrough ignorance, fear and malice thanto build up goodwill, trust and respect."Lest we forget" in 1989 should synthesizethe realism of the Anzac tradition that peaceand freedom at times have to be achievedthrough military strength, the idealism of thePeace Movement which points to the future andthe necessity to make peace and not merely totalk about it and wistfully hope that it will happenat the end of a military programme.A Pillar Of PeaceIn Jerusalem there stands a tall pillar on thetop of which is a sculptured likeness of a dovewith an olive branch in its beak. It is a powerfulsymbol for peace.The monument was erected in honour of theEgyptian leader Anwar Sadat. Sadat togetherwith the American President Jimmy Carter andthe Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begintranscended religious, national and politicaldifferences to gain a peace in Sinai.That achievement was fuelled by a vision ofpeace. It was achieved only by strong and determinedleadership. The dove and the olivebranch remains an abiding symbol of peace, adesire and a hope shared by most people. Thepeople of the Anzac tradition acknowledge thesacrifices made by our fighting men andwomen. They honour the determination,dedication and sacrifice made by them to gainfreedom and achieve peace. That tradition inAustralia should never be forgotten. The peopleof the Peace Movement share that same vision,that men and women, nations and racesmight dwell together on this planet and live inpeace. The vision of peace never becomes areality without hard work, determined leadershipand genuine bridge building enterprises.In the Christian tradition these two strandsof thought are combined. There is the visionthat one day 'swords' would be beaten into'ploughshares' and 'spears into 'pruninghooks', and that "nation will not take up swordagainst nation, nor will they train for war
8 1)1.UNCI I K(I IOIRNAI No. 75 March \pril 89anymore. Every man will sit under his own vineand under his own fig tree and no one will makethem afraid." That is the vision, the idealism.On the other hand however the Christian Faithhas a down to earth realism about humannature. It acknowledges that man the individualand man in corporate collectives is greedy,lustful, aggressive, envious and very proud. Individualsalways fight and brawl. Nationsalways strive to gain the upper hand and so conflict,tension and a fierce competitivenessmarks inter-nation relationships. Realism interms of human nature requires vigilance andthe readiness to defend and protect, and so theimportance of military preparedness.The idealism should not be allowed to flowerinto utopianism, nor the realism degenerate intoan iron or nuclear ghetto. The two must belinked in the defence of freedom and the pursuitof peace.UThe Reverend Campbell Egan has served in the Army Reserve since 1970, mainly as SeniorChaplain (Presbyterian) in the 4th and 2nd Military Districts. He trained at the Universities ofSydney and Edinburgh and holds the degrees B.A.. B.D., Theol. M. He has served in variousparishes in NSW — Thirroul. Broken Hill, Artarmon. Wagga Wagga and is now Minister of theUniting Church in Australia at St. Columba's Braddon. ACT. Chaplain Egan has been keenly interestedin Church and Nation matters and served for 10 years as Convener of the Church and NationCommittee in the Presbyterian Church in NSW. 2 years as Secretary of the NSW Council ofChurches, and four vears as an Alderman of the Wagga City Council. He was also Moderator of thePresbyterian Church in NSW in 1979/80.Presently he is serving as a Staff Officer to the Principal Chaplain, Chaplain Ern Sabel, at ArmyOffice, Russell, ACT.UK SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEFENCE ARRIVES IN CANBERRAThe United Kingdom Secretary of State for Defence, Mr George Younger, arrivedin Canberra in March for high level talks with Government and Department ofDefence officials.During his visit he held talks with the Minister for Defence, Mr Kim Beazley;the Minister for Defence Science and Personnell, Mrs Ros Kelly; the Secretary of theDepartment of Defence, Mr Tony Ayers; and the Acting Chief of the DefenceForce, Vice Admiral Michael Hudson.Mr Younger had already visited HMAS Stirling in Perth and the DefenceScience and Technology Organisation in Salisbury, Adelaide, since his arrival inAustralia.The Secretary of State for Defence attended the handover of new Land Rovervehicles to the Australian Army at Victoria Barracks in Sydney, before returning tothe United Kingdom.
The Case for Establishing a Retired Member EmploymentStream within the ADFBy Lieutenant Colonel R. J. Dace,RAAOCIntroductionIT is a fact that for most members of theADF, regardless of rank, there comes apoint in their career when they have exhaustedtheir promotion potential, when the circumstancesof domestic living in a peacetimeenvironment tend to make them less mobile,and when pressures increase to move intoemployment which will be available for the restof that member's working life. This tends to bearound the time when that member becomeseligible for a Service pension.The net result of these factors is that manymembers of the ADF leave while they still havethe potential to make a valuable contribution tothe defence of Australia. The consequences ofthe current high separation rate, in terms ofdeclining defence capability, financial costs andthe morale of those who remain, are wellknown. The most widely touted proposed solutionhas been to increase the rates of pay, butwhile this would no doubt be widely welcome itmay not be the only — or even the best —option.In an effort to mitigate the effects of thiswastage, and at the same time fill new positionsseen as essential to meet new Defence commitments,numerous studies are being undertakento identify service positions which couldbe transferred to the Australian Public Service— yet these seem doomed to achieve onlymarginal success.Even were the APS willing to take on newresponsibilities within the tight manpowerlimits which currently apply, there is a highdegree of military resistance to these proposals.While there are no doubt many Service positionswhere arms will never need to be borne,the expertise gained as a result of years ofmilitary training and service is seen as a crucialfactor in carrying out the responsibilities ofthose positions.Is there a solution based upon the experienceof others?The UK ExperienceIt was in response to very similar circumstancesin the UK many years ago that ledto the creation of the Retired Officer employmentstream within the UK Civil Service. Underthis scheme a number of military positions wereidentified as requiring the expertise which camewith extensive military service but which didnot require all those attributes which werenominally required of the serving officer eg.physical fitness to a high degree, domesticmobility, and which did not play a significantpart in the career development of officers.These positions were then given a uniquecategory within the Civil Service, and are offeredexclusively to retired Service officers.When a retiring UK officer accepts employmentas a Retired Officer (RO) he/she takes his/herpension, his/her lump sum commutation, andis subsequently paid on a Civil Service pay scaleLESS the annual Service pension.The UK scheme retains expertise in theDepartment of Defence, but without the accusationof 'double dipping' that is sometimeslevelled at ex-Service personnel now employedin the APS. In return the RO receives employmentuntil age 60, (in an environment wherehe/she is both happy and well suited), and witha subsequently enhanced Service pension at age60.If the UK scheme works as well as it appearsto do, could we have a similar scheme in theADF?A Retired Member (RM) EmploymentStream For The ADFWhile there may be a need for somelegislative or administrative amendments, theanswer is clearly yes; but can we adapt the UKscheme to more closely meet the current needsof the ADF? And can we overcome some entrenchedattitudes regarding a role for retiredservice personnel in what has been seen bymany as a traditional preserve of the PublicServant?
10 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89If we were to introduce a RM employmentstream in the ADF or Department there arefour specific matters that would need to be addressed.These are:Eligibility,Identification of suitable positions,Salary scales, andConditions of Employment.EligibilityThe first, and major difference, between theUK and an Australian proposal would berecognition of the valuable contribution whichWarrant Officers and Non Commissioned Officersmake to the overall effectiveness of theADF. To deny ourselves access that that considerablepool of talent residing in service personnelin their late thirties/early forties makesno economic sense. And moreover, to do otherwisereflects adversely upon those concepts ofleadership and 'man-management' upon whichthe Services pride themselves.An Australian RM employment streamshould therefore be open to those who haveheld those ranks between PO/SSGT/FSGT andCAPT(RAN)/COL/GPCAPT. Those belowthe rank of SSGT(E) would be unlikely to havethe range of experience and skills to fill positionswhere continuity is a significant factor.A further constraint would be to restrict entryto RM employment to members who havesatisfactorily completed a minimum period ofService in the Regular Forces: perhaps 21 yearsfor WOs and NCOs, up to 28 years for theCOL(E). Such a constraint would encouragemembers to complete a significant period ofRegular service without the fear of being tooold to obtain later employment.Identification of Suitable PositionsSuitable positions would need to be identifiedby the three Services. These would essentiallybe positions identified as 'non-combatant', inEstablishments where there is no significantchange of role between peace and war. ThoseEstablishments might include static headquarters(such as Russell Offices), storesdepots, training units, etc.There would be obvious incentives to the Servicesto identify the maximum number of positionsfor conversion to a RM stream: the Serviceswould reduce their military manpowercommitment while retaining military skills,there would be a reduction in the indirect costsassociated with employing military members(removal expenses, provision of marriedquarters, the military training of replacements),and they would be identifying positions inwhich there could be a vested long term selfinterest.Nor should the ADF/Department overlookthose positions which might previously havebeen civilianised and which are currently difficultto fill eg. the Technical Officer employmentcategory in the APS.On the basis of some preliminary calculationsthere would appear to be in the some 2500military positions throughout the ADF whichcould be filled by Retired Members, without inany meaningful way diminishing the operationalcapability of the ADF.Salary ScalesUnlike the UK scheme, the pay of RMsshould not be reduced by an amount equal totheir service pension, but nor should there betotal 'double dipping'. The RM salary scalesshould be tied to, but not be equal to, PublicService ASO grades. The ASO pay level shouldbe abated by an amount to reflect the fact thatthe RM is employed in a protected category, ie.in a position not open to public entry. It shouldhowever, still reflect that the RM possessesskills which a member of the APS could not beexpected to possess, and must also acknowledgethat the Service pension has already beenearned.The suggested abatement could vary by ASOgrade but might average around 33% of thepension after maximum commutation has beentaken. For a WO(E) that abatement would be inthe region of $4400 a year, while for aLTCOL(E) it would be around $5600 a year.The direct savings to the Department ofDefence would be the abatement x the numberof RM positions, an estimated $13.5m eachyear. In addition, indirect savings would beworth a further $lm each year.The following indicative pay scales for RMgrades might form the basis for discussion.
THE CASE FOR ESTABLISHING A RETIRED MEMBER EMPLOYMENT STREAM WITHIN THE ADF 11Draft Status and Pay Levels — RetiredMember Employment Stream(il Pensionpa *$16 139$16 950$15 531$14 376"$13 251$12 066$10 881"AbatedASO Pa\$37 994$33 055$29 101$25 503$23 084$22 134$18 119* Based on 25 years service " Estimated pensionRM GrossRM Grade Income1 $54 1332 $50 0053 $44 6324 $39 8795 $36 3356 $34 2007 $29 000The linking of specified ASO levels to RMgrades would facilitate the indexing of RM payscales. In arriving at appropriate rates of paythe aim should be to recognise the equivalentwork value of the military position, LESS anamount for those unique conditions to which amilitary member is subject. In these rates ofpay, as with the condition of employment,neither the Department nor the RM should seekto maximise their finanicial potential to thedisadvantage of the other.Conditions of EmploymentIn developing the conditions of employmentfor RMs the opportunity should be taken tomeet both the manning needs of the ADF, andthe employment requirements of the retired servicemember. Perhaps the following would beappropriate:employment would be in a separateemployment category within the ADF whichwould not provide for subsequent transfer intothe Australian Public Service ie. no 'backdoor' entry into the Public Service. (Retiredmembers would of course retain the right tojoin the APS in the normal way);the base pay level, ie. the abated ASO pay,would be tied to the median level of ASO paywithin each level;the RM would be eligible for employmentwithin the RM stream until age 60, subject tomaintaining a satisfactory level of performanceand subject to meeting specifiedhealth and fitness criteria;the RM would, once employed within theRM stream, be eligible to apply for positionslisted as RM positions but would not be eligiblefor any financial remuneration or reimbursement associated with taking up thatposition;a retired service member would normallybe eligible for appointment to a RM Gradeequivalent to, or one above or one below theequivalent retiring service rank eg. a MAJ(E)would be eligible to apply for RM Grade 2, 3and 4 positions.RMs would not be eligible for Service accommodationor married quarters unlessfacilities surplus to Service requirements existed:in such circumstances an economic rentwould be charged to the RM occupant;RMs would not be eligible for treatmentunder Service medical and dental arrangements.RMs would pay the fullMedicare levy;RMs would be employed under contractarrangements which would allow the CDF,with the approval of the Minister, to 'callout' RMs for extended service in circumstancesfalling short of a NationalEmergency eg. a natural disaster. Duringsuch periods of employment their salarywould be supplemented in recognition of additionalhours worked or additional responsibilities,eg. a RM Grade 5 would during theperiod of call out be paid as a WO 1 (E) PLUSthe pension entitlement.RMs would not be eligible for overtimepayments but would receive time off in lieu;andRMs might be eligible to continuesubscribing to the DFRDB in order to receivean enhanced pension at age 60, or at someearlier retiring age. RMs may opt not to continueparticipation in the DFRDB scheme.AdministrationGiven the range of skills which exist withinthe ADF, RM employment should not belimited to areas of members previous militaryservice. Employment should be on the basis ofmerit and ADF requirements, although itwould not be unreasonable to expect that acareer in a specific Service would offer an advantagefor employment as a RM with thatService.Any RM scheme which might be introducedcould either be administered through the singleService offices, by the Department, or by HQADF. There are apparent advantages anddisadvantages to each option, and it would benecessary to weigh these before any finalmanagement system were put into place.ConclusionThe introduction of a Retired Memberemployment stream would appear to offer to
12 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89the ADF a number of significant advantages atthis time:the prospect of reducing the number ofestablished Service positions in the ADFwithout sacrificing capability or the experiencenecessary for the effective performanceof essential funcitons,encouragement to Service retention withthe prospect of continuing employmentbeyond the normal retiring age in a familiarenvironment, andthe potential to reduce expenditure on thepersonnel function by around $ 14.5m a year.The question that now has to be asked, is theADF ready and flexible enough to grasp the opportunitieswhich a Retired Member employmentstream could offer?UL TCOL R. J. Dace enlisted into the British Army, into the Intelligence Corps, in 1961 and wascommissioned into the RA OC in 1964. While in the RA OC he served in a number of Regimentaland Staff appointments, as well as on the Directing Staff of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurstand the Royal Military College of Science. He resigned from the British Army and wascommissioned into the RAAOC in 1982. His service qualifications include ato, psc, andjssc. Hehas a Diploma in Management Sciences from Manchester University. l.TCOL Dace is currentlyposted to Materiel Branch-Army as SOI Materiel Programming.BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER FACILITIES OPENED IN TOWNSVILLEThe Minister for Defence, Mr Kim Beazley, opened new facilities for theArmy's Black Hawk battlefield helicopter unit, the 5th Aviation Regiment, atRAAF Base Townsville on 14 March."The opening of the $19.3 million administration and maintenance facilitiesmarks a major milestone in the implementation of the White Paper which calls forthe development of highly mobile forces to protect Australia's vast northernregion," Mr Beazley said.Twenty-seven new Black Hawk utility helicopters will use the facility and becapable of airlifting a company group of 150 troops over a radius of 160 kilometresin one operation.Later this year, some of the Black Hawks will play an important role in ExerciseKangaroo 89, providing training prior to the unit becoming operational at the end ofthis year.Mr Beazley said he was particularly pleased with the way Air Force and Armyhad collaborated in bringing about the battlefield helicopter transfer to the new regiment.The decision to transfer battlefield helicopters from the RAAF to the Armywas announced in November 1986."The Black Hawk has performed credibly in hot, dusty conditions during ExerciseSwift Eagle last year, proving itself well suited to the testing northern Australianenvironment," Mr Beazley said."United States Black Hawk units will work closely with the 5th Aviation Regimentduring Exercise Kangaroo 89 later this year."
The RAAF Writes its DoctrineBy Wing Commander David Schubert andWing Commander Brian Kavanagh, RAAFIn a reference to doctrine and doctrinewriting, General Momyer, USAF (ret'd) oncewrote,"We find ourselves constantly in a dilemmaas to whether too much detail has beenpresented or whether we have become soterse that the meaning (of doctrine) is cloudedand darkness descends upon the reader. "A mere discussion of doctrine causes some peopleto shudder, others to expound, at length, onthe many different views of its meaning, whilethe remainder seem to sink slowly and interminablyinto Momyer's darkness. Mention ofdoctrine within the RAAF will elicit, at best,confusion, and at worst, looks of derision frommany. In the words of the indomitable ProfessorJulius Sumner Miller, "Why is it so?"A Borrowed DoctrineThe straightforward answer is that in the pastthe RAAF has not perceived a need for anAustralian doctrine. This has been a consequenceof Australia's earlier 'Forward Defence'policy whereby the assistance of 'big league'sponsors such as the UK and the US has allowedthe RAAF to adopt, wholesale, the doctrinesof air forces of these nations. This luxury has,at the same time, proved a disincentive to theindependent development of air power strategicthought here in Australia. RAAF doctrinetherefore has been the doctrine of others, notdirected specifically at this nation, nor influencedsignificantly by members of its air force. Inshort, few members of the RAAF have thoughtabout doctrine; of those who have, even fewerhave contemplated it in an Australian context.An example of the borrowed doctrine was theRAF AP 1300, Operations manual. Thismanual was a significant influence on theRAAF until a major shift in UK strategic strikedefence policy in the sixties rendered much ofits content obsolete. Until that time, conceptsused in Australia such as 'The Balanced AirForce' were derived from this useful manual,which was for years the unofficial 'bible' of airoperations in the RAAF.Times have changed. Major shifts in worldpolitics — the US 'Guam Doctrine' and theemergence of regional economic and nationalpowers, just to name two — have alteredAustralia's strategic circumstances. In turn,Australia's national strategies and defencepolicies have changed; old reliances are now irrelevantand the absence of a specificallyAustralian doctrine is becoming apparent. TheRAAF can no longer rely on the doctrinalprecepts of other, generally larger, broader basedair forces which support fundamentally differentnational policies and military strategies.Their doctrines are at times outdated, but moreimportantly, inappropriate to Australian conditions.Moreover, reliance on other air forces toformulate how this nation will use its air powerin future hostilities is contrary to the fundamentalprinciples of Australia's newlyadopted defence policy of self reliance.There is however another, more important,philosophical reason why an increasingly selfreliant fighting force should have its unique,formalised doctrine. Unless a fighting force hasa clear understanding, which is manifested in adefinitive statement, of how it is going to fightin war, it has no explicit and absolute basis onwhich to forcus its strategy and planning. Ofequal importance, without a requsite doctrinethat fosters broadly based understanding, afighting force lacks those shared assumptionsamong commanders and subordinates thatenable them to know intuitively what each islikely to do under the pressures that cause confusionin combat. For doctrine, if it is sound, isthe means of reducing the 'fog' and 'friction' ofwar and is the foundation of all successfulmilitary enterprises.Doctrine — The Holy Writ?Contrary to popular folklore, doctrine is notlocked up as some kind of codified law enunciatingimmutable rules on how to fight war,nor is it a dusty book of commandments kept inan old trunk in a deep, dark cellar, guarded bymonks and brought out only for Kangaroo Exercisewashups. This idea suggests somethingsacrosanct, that is to say, unchanging and unchallengeable.This is not doctrine, this is
14 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89dogma. The rigidity of dogma inevitably leadsto failure — as history and experience show.Military operations do not aim to fail, sodogma has no place in their domain.Military doctrine is a body of central beliefsabout war that guides the application of powerin combat: it is authoritative but only a guideand requires judgement in its use. Doctrine isderived from a synergy of two sources — fundamentalprinciples and innovative ideas aboutthe best use of combat power. Fundamentalprinciples draw on experience and are timehonouredas the optimum way to succeed, or,what has worked best in the past. Conversely,innovative ideas look only to the future and includetheoretical as well as practical applications.Fundamental principles are, by nature,relatively permanent, evolving slowly, whereasinnovation embraces continuous change. Theoverall interaction of the two therefore makesmilitary doctrine a particularly dynamic processbounded only by the limits of our imagination.Air Power DoctrineWe have defined doctrine here in a generalsense, as it applies to any combat power. Airpower doctrine however has a more specificfocus. Firstly, consider what air power is. Thewidely recognised, Mason and Armitage definitionproclaims air power as;"... the ability to project military force byor from a platform in the third dimensionabove the surface of the earth."So air power doctrine can be described as thecentral beliefs about the conduct of war thatguide air services in the application of militarypower within the third dimension above the surfaceof the earth.Note that air power doctrine is not just concernedwith the air war nor confined solely toair forces. . . . Air power doctrine is about thebest use of air services to exploit the intrinsicqualities of air power in the achievement of nationalobjectives. The characteristics of airpower, its advantages and limitations, must beconveyed within the context and form of futurewarfare. While air power doctrine logically maybe based on the past and established in the present,its prime concern is with the future. LordTedder, as an exponent of air power, encapsulatedthe concept of doctrine when he stated,"We must look forward from the past . . ..not back to the past"The Shaping of Air Power Doctrine inAustraliaLet us then take Lord Tedder's advice anddwell for a moment on the historical events thathave shaped air power doctrine both globallyand nationally. In this way we will have a betterunderstanding of where RAAF doctrine is todayand where it should go from here.Throughout the relatively short history of airpower, some 75 years, opportunities fordevelopment of air power doctrine have beenfew. This was initially the result of a harmfuleffect on the efficacy of air power doctrine bysome over-earnest, politically motivated proponentsof air power who were actively seekingthe independence of air forces. It was also theresult of undue emphasis on air power's responsibilityto support land and maritime powers,often to the detriment of singular developmentof operations within the dimension of the air.Air power can be applied in support of othercombat powers; it can also be applied independently.Both applications are vital to anation's security, yet history suggests the latterhas received a disproportionate emphasis in thepast.An unrelated, but parallel development wasthe attitudinal change to warfare since the endof WW II. The idea of global confrontation,either conventional or nuclear, which was thedriving force behind Western military doctrineimmediately after WW II and for the next twentyyears, has steadily given way to greater emphasisnow on limited warfare. For political ormilitary reasons, modern warfare now seekslimited objectives rather than the total victoryof the past, and conflicts may take the form ofcounter-insurgency, guerrilla warfare orcounter-terrorism. The Granada invasion andthe Libya raid are examples of the modern useof combat force, and are acknowledged in today'swarfare lexicon with its reference to lowintensityconflict, or in Australia's case,escalated low-level conflict. The attitudinalchanges to warfare over the four decades sinceWW II have had a major impact on the applicationof air power.Technology too has had an impact.Technology has improved the performance ofmilitary equipment with the direct result thatnumbers of weapons and weapon systemswithin military inventories have decreased. Thishas not been without corresponding anddramatic rises in costs. Also, the cost of retain-
THE RAAF WRITES ITS DOCTRINE 15ing and training personnel has increasedrelative to the past. In short, past capabilitescan now be matched with fewer resources, butrising costs and diminishing numbers of assetsare factors of concern within a modern militaryforce.There is no doubt that the RAAF today is ahigh technology force, but it is still a smallforce with a decreasing inventory and, paradoxically,an increasing demand for provision ofair services. This latter point is exemplified inthat RAAF air power assets are now needed forfleet protection following disbandment of theRAN Fleet Air Arm. At the same time strategicguidance from the White Paper emphasiseshow the newly adopted Australian defencepolicy of self reliance and defence in depth;"... gives priority to the air and seadefences in our area of direct militaryinterest."Furthermore, this large area of Australia'sdirect military interest is unlikely to decreasein the future.To reiterate, air power in Australia todayfaces different challenges to those of the pastin terms of perceived real threats, forms ofcombat and tasks. Air power is now responsiblefor defence of an enormous, Australianarea of direct military interest using morelethal but more expensive and graduallydecreasing numbers of air assets. Allocationof these limited assets is now the most significant,single issue of command and controlwithin the ADF. This last point is controversialbecause there is increasing pressure todivide unnecessarily Australia's air services— a concept which defies doctrinal preceptson the best use of air power.Considerations When Writing DoctrineDoctrine was defined earlier, and from thatdefinition an understanding of air power doctrinewas developed. While this theoreticalaspect is important and necessary, it is not asufficient condition for doctrine to be successful.The practical consideration must bethat doctrine is recorded, in order that the bodyof central beliefs is accurately reflected and correctlyperceived. The right perspective is an integralpart of the revision and refinement whichmake doctrine a dynamic process. Recordingthe collective memory of central beliefs enforcesa discipline and clarity of thought whichhelps sustain this dynamic process.*>—2 |PlftaNdwnM/2' I \~~ 1>Figure 1: THE DOCTRINAL STILL0 :DOCTAIN£PORC£sfftutTueFrom the earlier theoretical appreciation,doctrine was shown to have its roots in therelative permanence of fundamental principlesand the dynamics of innovative ideas. It is thisrelative permanence associated with fundamentalprinciples that provides the keystone fordoctrine writing. When these principles, whichchiefly arise from combat experience, aredistilled more or less in a vacuum, they will providean ideal foundation to develop air powerdoctrine. The foundation of principles is thenmelded with innovative ideas and the reactionof the two becomes the core or philosophicalbasis of doctrine. But a working doctrine cannotend there; in this form it is sterile, it is in avacuum and for it to be effective for theorganization, it must be adjusted to the dominantinfluencing factors and realities of theorganization.The realities that directly influence the doctrineof a military organization are the defencepolicy of the nation, the geography and geostrategicperspectives. An offensive nationaldefence posture, for example, would engendera far different military doctrine from one that isintrinsically defensive. Similarly, a doctrine forprotecting an island nation with a vast area ofnational interest and regional influence must bedifferent from that of a small land-lockedcountry with hostile borders. Other influencessuch as economics and threat assessment add tothe equation, but they shape the defencepolicies and geo-strategic perspectives more sothan directly influencing military doctrine.Force structure — or the current force in being— is an influence that must be considered inthe task of initially recording air power doctrine.No military organization starts from a
16 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89'clean slate'; existing conditions are alreadypart of the central body of beliefs. Once doctrineis written, based on the present organization,force structure should then be reactiverather than proactive to the dynamics ofdoctrine.Figure 1 is an attempt to show the complexitiesand dynamics of a viable, continuous doctrine.It represents a symbolic still. In thedistillation process the container is theframework and fabric of a nation and itsperspectives of warfighting. The fluid to bedistilled — a mix of national defence policy andnational geostrategic perspectives — is both activatedand fed by a 'yeast' containing the coreelements of principles and innovation — boththeoretical and practical. This core is alive,volatile and is capable of crystallization orprecipitation depending on the state of the solution.The product distilled is doctrine. Doctrineslowly reacts with a force structure prescriptionthus changing the force structure over time.Eventually the modified force structure feedsback, maturing and mellowing the originaldistillation process.This analogy attempts to show the interactionsof the various dynamic elements andstresses that doctrine development, being akinto an ongoing chemical reaction, should beviewed as a continuum. There is no suggestionthat the 'still' or its ingredients have not existedin the past. The process of distilling doctrine isperennial — the end product, after all, is a bodyof thought. There is also no suggestion that thedistillation process will not operate without allthe ingredients, however in that situation theend product may not be the best available. InAustralia's case defence self reliance has changedthe content of the ingredients, and now thereis a need to critically examine the quality of the'yeast' used previously. Given the changed ingredients,the most appropriate 'yeast', and thecontinuing 'chemical' reaction, the best doctrinaldistillate will flow as a matter of course.Relevance of Doctrine to the RAAFAfter all that good theory you may askyourself, "so what, how is all this doctrinal'moonshine' relevant to the RAAF and what'sit got to do with aeroplanes?" Perhaps the bestway to begin to answer this question is to determinewhat we in the RAAF believe a doctrineshould achieve, or why we think we need to formaliseour doctrine.It is common sense that an organization thesize and proportions of the RAAF which sharesresponsibility for the security of the nation,should have a common set of assumptions,ideas, values and attitudes as a guide to itsfuture actions, and that all members from theinitial trainee through the operational aircrewto the highest ranking leader share anunderstanding of how air power can best be appliedin an Australian context. This can beachieved by documenting that understanding.Once recorded, the central beliefs provide thecommon baseline for education and disseminationof the collective thought. Should nothingelse be achieved, recording a doctrine is at leasta common starting point from which to educateRAAF Servicemen.A recognised, accepted and duly recordeddoctrine will also provide a commonframework for planning within the RAAF. Itwill also influence the future force structure ofthe RAAF. So, establishing a doctrinalframework gives direction to force structureand to development of the most appropriatestrategies from which evolve in turn the operationalart and, at the unit level, the best tacticsfor use of its resources. Once again the point isstressed that doctrine is only a guide, it showsthe direction — it is not a panacea but is ratherone particular, but necessary part of the planningprocess.Viewed simplistically, the whole fabric ofplanning can be likened to developing a playingfield. The National Defence Policy dictates therange of games to be played. Doctrine is the initialselection and clearing of a patch in thewilderness, levelling the ground and growingthe grass. Some long-range planning is thenneeded so that the correct lines can be drawn onthe ground and the appropriate goalpostserected. Once this is done team leaders andmembers can then determine the best strategies,operational art and tactics to play the game.There is nothing to prevent a team working outits plays in advance, provided these plays arefor the range of games dictated. There is moreto playing the game however than strategies andtactics, and the results may not be as hoped for,particularly if the game then has to be played inthe wilderness.So, in answer to the sceptics — doctrine has alot to do with the RAAF and is not just aboutflying aeroplanes. Doctrine gives all RAAF personnela common understanding of why the
THE RAAF WRITES ITS DOCTRINErService exists and how air power can best be usedto protect the nation. Doctrine, as a guide,influences every level of planning for the bestemployment and support of aircraft. Furthermore,it directly affects the selection of theRAAF's future aircraft, weapon systems andair power capabilities.Why a Single Service Doctrine?Most military commanders in Australiarecognise that the ADF is at present firmlycommitted to joint operations, and that futuredefence commitments for this country will mostlikely be joint in nature. Why then should theRAAF pursue its own doctrine in what appearsto be an increasingly joint service environment?Or, in other words, is a dedicated single servicedoctrine applicable within today's ADF whichstrives for jointness?Jointness, when used in the context ofmilitary operations, means two or more independentservices functioning in their ownoperational environment, whether land, sea orair, under a single point of command to meet acommon aim. The point to stress here is thatalthough command is centralised, the servicesstill function in their unique realm. Each strivesto exploit the characteristics of its own combatpower within its operating medium to complementthe combat powers of the other two.As long as ships continue to ply the seas,tanks roll over the ground and aircraft take tothe skies, there will always be fundamental differencesbetween the three arms of the defenceforce. The differences will continue to bemanifest in a number of ways. First, their forcestructures for the most part will remainseparate because of basic differences in equipmentand operating conditions. Also, thepeculiarities of the land, sea and air will demanddifferent skills, applications and tacticalthinking of the people who operate in theirrespective environments, such that training requirementswill continue to differ. More importantly,the roles that each service undertake willcontinue to be aligned to their environmentaldimension, and in many cases can be carriedout as single service tasks just as readily as jointservice tasks.There is nothing to suggest therefore thatjointness means integration of the three armedservices. Equally, there is nothing to suggestthat increased jointness will reduce the need forsingle service roles in the future. The diversitiesbetween land, sea and air as military operatingmedia are too vast to permit an amalgamationof their essential functions and the applicationsof land, sea or air power cannot simply belumped together for economic, technical or anyother expediency. Perhaps this may be feasibleif and when a military vehicle is built which iscapable of operating across the full spectrum ofthe world's operating environments, includingspace. Until then, for overall defence efficiency,some support functions may be joint orgiven over to one service; but, while the functionaldivisions remain, there will always be arequirement for single services to carry outspecialist roles and tasks unique to their ownenvironment.Justification of single service doctrine wouldnot be necessary if jointness was looked at in itstrue perspective. In 1942, during the NorthAfrica campaign of WW II, Field MarshalMontgomery and Air Marshall Coninghamcreated the Allied Tactical Air Forces and introducedair land battle doctrine. They showedthat the quintessence of jointness in an air landbattle was cooperation — cooperation, in thiscase, between land and air forces with their uniquefunctions, and also cooperation amongstallied nations. Having all the joint doctrine andprocedures in the world, but without cooperation,will not bring together three organizationsas disparate as the fighting arms of a nation.Conversely, with cooperation, jointness willtriumph with even a modicum of preordination.The true perspective is absent: jointness isbuilding up a momentum of its own, almost asan end in itself rather than a means, somethingwhich tends to de-emphasise the need for singleservices yet avoids fully fledged service integration.And all too often, initiatives which are inthe "interests of jointness" are consideredsacrosanct. To challenge them borders onheresy. Perhaps we need to rigorously questionsome joint initiatives, particularly those whichmay reduce a service's capacity to operate effectivelywithin its own medium. Perhaps weneed to engender a sense of cooperation amongthe services which will have the way for jointoperations in war, rather than manufacture anartificial construct which compromises betweencontinuing demands, yet will detract from individualperformance.
18 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89The Way AheadWhere then does RAAF doctrine go fromhere? If, as stated, single service doctrine is stillnecessary and written doctrine is so important,then a doctrine suitable for the RAAF mustsurely be recorded. Well, that is precisely whatis happening.The Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal Funnellhas taken the initiative and nominated twoofficers from RAAF Development Division asproject officers in the development of a recordedRAAF doctrine. These two officers, (theauthors of this article) are tasked directly byCAS and now work in relative isolation atRAAF Staff College. Their project is todevelop a manual of air power doctrine for usewithin the RAAF and to determine a means bvwhich this recorded doctrine can be continuallyverified and updated within the organization.The task is a 'first' for the RAAF; it is alsorather onerous because, as the historian R.F.Futrell pointed out,". . . the writing of manuals is perhaps oneof the most difficult tasks in the field ofmilitary writing."Yet the stakes are high, the future of air poweris vital to Australia. The RAAF has a compellingresponsibility to more enlighten and alignits Servicemen. Equally, the RAAF has a moralduty to make air power better understood andappreciated within the defence community ofAustralia. The alternatives are ignorance,suspicion, misemployment and inefficiencies —characteristics which nestle comfortably underthe mantle of Momyer's darkness. UWing Commander Schubert is a recent graduate of the USAF's Air War College (AWC),and was posted to his present position, the CAS Project of writing doctrine for the RAAF, fromAWC. He is a graduate of the RAAF Academy, RAAF Staff College and RAF AerosystemCourse. As a navigator he flew P3s with I iSqn and on exchange with the RNZAF's 5Sqn. WingCommander Schubert has held command and staff positions, including CO of Officers' TrainingSchool and a posting in JIO. He is co-author with Wing Commander P. J. Criss, AFC of aresearch paper on air power application in Australia that is soon to be published as a book.Wing Commander Kavanagh has been working on RAAF doctrine for eighteen months.After Air War College, he was posted to Air Force Plans — Doctrine, which led to his subsequentposition on the CAS Project for doctrine. Wing Commander Kavanagh has extensive anddiverse expertise; a tour in Vietnam, Hying maritime with both 10 and 11 Squadrons, Commands,including Commanding Officer of the Joint Communications Unit at Nurrungar, as wellas staff positions briefly summarise over twenty years experience in the RAAF. He is the authorof a book on water sources for desert survival in Australia; a result of his knowledge and expertisebuilt up in working with combat survival for the RAAF. A research paper on the changing-
Army Recruit Training Injuries "Indemic or Epidemic"By W02 James P. Brennan, fQMSI), A PTCRecruit Training Injuries: Indemic or EpidemicIntroductionTHE numbers of young recruits lost to theArmy early in the training process in recentyears, because of injury, has given grave causefor concern. With wastage levels as high as35%, it is a problem that has Army Chiefspuzzled and concerned.After being posted to 17th TRG REGT RAand DEPOT, Woolwich, London, in October1986, from the Queen Elizabeth MilitaryHospital, also in Woolwich, where many of theinjured recruits were treated, W02 (QMSI)Brennan carried out an analysis of the possiblecausative factors influencing the high injuryrate in this Unit, and which seemed generalthroughout the training system. This analysisrevealed that Regimental Instructional Staff,comprising some 85% of the Recruit TrainingTeam were, in aspects of the physical standardsasked of their recruit groups, somewhat at avariance to the standards demanded by theCMS(R). To resolve the immediate misinterpretationalproblems of the Regimental Staffand so that an unclouded view of the actual injuryproblems could be assessed, the followingmeasures were implemented:To assist the injury problem assessment, thefollowing areas of concern were considered incorrectpractice.F101 Any additional remedial training in thefirst four weeks, other than post injury.1. Any off syllabus and extra to that programmed,PT.2. Any Regimental Staff and non-qualified initiatedPT.3. Any form of PT as a reward for misconduct.Making a Start to Improve PresentInjury StatisticsAfter the above problem areas had been addressed,the following measures were introducedas normal working practice, on a daily basis:• All physical training staff were instructed tobecome more aware of safety, lesson content,correct programme planning, with special attentionto accurate syllabus interpretationand application.• All new physical and regimental training staff(JNCOs) were instructed to be more sensitiveand sympathetic toward recruits with injuries,earlier in the acute phase.• More efficient post-injury physiotherapytreatment regimes were introduced, withgreater therapist involvement throughout thetraining process.• Follow-up remedial programmes were givenin the sub-acute phase of injuries, performedin the Gymnasium during PT sessions, thuskeeping the recruits with their peer groups.• Co-ordination groups between the trainingstaff, Doctor and Physiotherapist metregularly to discuss problem areas.• The syllabus was adjusted to allow more progressivebasic physical training in the gymnasiumin the early weeks and less vigorousendurance and obstacle training.• Senior Officers in charge of general programmingwere requested to programme recoverydays in between hard and vigorous workingdays, to allow physical recovery.• Good quality training shoes were introduced,replacing the old Army plimsolls.• Boots, combat high, were not worn byrecruits for any physical activity, "exceptDrill", in their first four weeks of training.Boots were gradually introduced in the latterfourth and throughout the fifth week oftraining.In the twelve months following the introductionof this control programme, dramaticresults were achieved. The wastage rate ofrecruits through injury in the first four to sixweeks was reduced from 30% to 5%. However,as significant as these results were, the overallinjury rate remained high.Background to This General ProblemLocal left wing council policy on Education,especially in the United Kingdom, has influenc-
20 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89ed the way in which the physical educationpolicy of many schools has been interpreted. Ageneral policy of non-competitiveness in allsports may have affected the physical quality ofyoung people leaving schools and colleges andpossibly thinking of a military career. Withgovernmental policy graduating towards ageneral reduction in the recruit training programme,training these young people to becomepotential soldiers becomes more intensive,stressful and generally harder for young lowerlimbs to cope with. The high incidents of injuriesrecorded proves a big problem exists.Preventative MeasuresTraining in GeneralOnly thorough training leads to good results,enabling the recruit to build up his muscles,strengthen his joints and bone structure and improvehis co-ordination. Active training willeventually produce the desired performancelevels. It is important that the body parts thatare loaded during training should be given theopportunity to rest and recover. The harder thetraining the longer the break needed for fullrecovery. Exercising repetitively with a heavyload, for example, would require 1-3 daysrecuperation before the next session. Runningand other less strenuous forms of training, onthe other hand, can be practised daily.Daily training, however, after a very longlay-off, or if the individual is physically unfit, isof little benefit and may lead to over use syndromesand/or injuries. Perhaps more anlysisshould take place by Army Chiefs on thedemands placed upon young recruits, and whatis actually required of them in the training process.Apart from the specialised techniquesdemanded of the recruit, there are other factorswhich may influence performances. Those incharge of training should consider the followingquestions:A. What factors influence performance duringtraining?B. Which of these factors can be influenced toimprove training?C. How should the system change to influenceeach of these factors? andD. How much time should be devoted to training,in order to influence each specific factor,which will eventually help the recruit intraining, prevent injury?Is Military Fitness Too High a Standardof Basic Fitness and, if so, Should weDemand it of Our Recruits?Basic Physical FitnessIt goes without saying that good physicalfitness is of the utmost importance in avoidinginjury. Those whose basic fitness is below normalare more prone to injury both from accidentsand from over-use. This becomes moreacute as one gets older. After a period of inactivity,the ability of the body tissues to absorboxygen decreases noticeably. In one experiment,five health test subjects stayed in bed for20-days without any physical activity whatsoever.This relatively short period of inactivityreduced their capacity to absorb oxygen by20-45 per cent. This and similar experimentsdemonstrate how quickly the body adapts tothe physical demands made upon it. When thedemands are reduced there is a correspondingdecrease in the cardiac output, muscle massdecreases (atrophy) and blood volumedecreases. The body is less efficient in transportingoxygen from the lungs to the tissues and, asa result, the energy supply of the muscles isreduced.A basic physical fitness can be achieved byexercises and general physical activity carriedout throughout the year. All training aimed atachieving good basic fitness should be progressive,especially in those not so young. Duringa period of rehabilitation following illness,injury, or a break in training, it is importantthat a reasonable level of basic physical fitnessis reached through remedial programmes,before PTT/BFT or recruit training resumes.Military FitnessMajor Stephen J. Rudzki RAAMC definesMilitary fitness (P28, DFJ Aust No 70May/June 1988) as, "the ability to performmilitary tasks in adverse situations. That is, tofunction effectively and delay fatigue whilstundergoing arduous tasks". He goes on to say,"the context of military environment involvessimultaneous multiple task performance, egwalking, weight carriage, visual scanning andaudio alertness, whilst patrolling". Is it not theresponsibility of our recruit trainingestablishments to provide only the fitness platformon which the above physical demands canbe developed, or are these establishmentsdemanding too much of young civilians in Ar-
ARMY RECRUIT TRAINING INJURIES "INDEMIC OR EPIDEMIC 21my uniform by trying to achieve "Militaryfitness" too soon. I agree with Major Rudzki,that occupationally orientated fitness trainingfor trained soldiers matching their function androle in war is essential and I also agree that thepresent Australian PTT is perhaps a test fortestings sake on regular soldiers. However, ahigh proportion of our young trainee recruitsare still getting injured.The Biomechanics of Training RelatedInjuries (In Brief)Biomechanics is the Science of MechanicalFunctioning of the human body, includinglocomotion. An application of the laws ofmechanics helps to explain the mechanisms ofinjuries caused by accidents and overloading.Some of the laws of classical mechanics canbe used to explain the relationships between thehuman body and its environment, while otherlaws cannot, of course, be entirely accurate intheir prediction when applied to the humanbody because of individual variations andbecause of the difficulties encountered in obtainingprecise descriptions of the mechanismsof injury. Nevertheless, they provide usefulguidelines.LoadPhysiological Load and AdaptabilityMan thrives on a certain amount of physicalactivity which exercises his muscles, skeleton,soft tissue and joints physiologically. That is,within an injury free range. Body tissues canadapt to strain and progressive loading. Thisadaptability is more evident in the young.However, physiological limits may be exceededand injury is the result.Overloading InjuriesBody tissue will break when its innatestrength is exceeded. These properties and theload applied will decide individual tolerancelevels; this is determined by the magnitude offorces brought to bear, the direction and time.Resultant injuries may involve tearing, breaking,or permanent structural change and, as aconsequence, functional impairement.Force and MotionInjuries caused by the force of gravity mayoccur when no fall is involved, for exampleSprains. The relationship between forces whichaffect a body and the state of motion orequilibrium of that body can be summarised bythe three laws of motion: The Law of Inertia;The Law of Acceleration, and The Law ofEqual and Opposite Reaction.Action and ReactionForces develop at the points of contact betweena body and its environment. The effect ofthe body on the environment is an action forcewhile the effect of the environment on the bodyis a reaction force. According to Newtons ThirdLaw: "For every action there is an equal andopposite reaction". Every force acting on abody possesses a point of action, magnitudeand direction. The effect of force on the body isdetermined by all these factors. Thus, when aperson stands up, walks or runs, in accordancewith Newtons Third Law, the force of the footagainst the surface is always equal, but oppositeto the force of the surface against the foot.EquilibriumWhen a body is at rest or moving in a straightline, with constant velocity, certain laws ofequilibrium apply. One relates to theequilibrium of the centre of gravity and theother to the equilibrium of rotation motionaround a joint.According to Newtons Second Law, a body isin equilibrium if the forces acting on it fulfil thefollowing conditions:— the sum of all external forces acting on thebody is zero (the condition for staticequilibrium); and— the sum of all external torque acting onthe body is zero (the condition of rotationalequilibrium).The law of The Lever and its Importancein the Mechanism of InjuriesTwo boys, Peter and John, are going to playon a seesaw (see diagram One) Peter weighs30-kg and John 20-kg, roughly equivalent to300 N and 200 N respectively. The seesaw is 6mlong and is balanced on a central support. Johnis sitting at one end. How great is the force onthe support and, where should Peter sit for theseesaw to balance? The weight of the seesawitself can be ignored. Let us assume that theforce on the support is x newtons and that thedistance between the point where Peter is sittingand the central support is y metres. If the up
22 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89hard force is regarded as positive, it followsfrom the low of equilibrium that:X — 200 — 300 0X 500Therefore, the force on the support is 500N.According to the law of movement it followsthat:300 .Y — 200 0Y 2Therefore, Peter should sit 2m from thefulcrum. The later equation can also be written:300 .Y 200 .3stating in effect that the moment of rotation,that is, the product of each force and thedistance from its line of action (the pivot of theseesaw), is equal.This is called the law of the Lever. The Lawof the Lever implies that a small force can havea large moment of rotation if its lever is long.Similarly, the force must be large to achieve themoment of rotation if the lever is short.Diagram OneThe laws of equilibrium; an example of thelaw of the lever:X the force on the support.Y the distance from the fulcrumThe law of the lever can be used to explainwhy certain sports/training injuries, such assprains, occur near joints or as a result of poorlandings from, for example, assault courseobstacles, etc. Ligaments and muscle attachmentsnear a joint usually have short leverscompared to those of the external force. Accordingto the law of the lever, the force acting onthese body structures is greater than the externalforce. The strength limit can easily be exceededif the relationship between the levers isunfavourable. The result is an injury.Injuries Specific to Recruits in TrainingThe lower part of the leg comprises the shinbone (tibia) and the splint bone, the non-weightbearing (fibula). It is connected at the top to theknee joint and at the bottom to the ankle joint.There are many injuries which may occur inthis area of the body, but only the most commoninjuries experienced by Army recruits willbe considered here, along with follow-up actionand treatment.FracturesThere are many types of fractures which mayoccur in this area, too many to discuss individuallyhere. However, to help assess thepossibility of a fracture occurring in your facility,observe the following first aid procedures:Symptoms and Diagnosis(a) Intense, instantaneous pain in the injuredarea.(b) Tenderness and swelling over thefracture.(c) Inability to use injured leg.(d) Loss of normal bone alignment and legcontour.Treatment(a) Cover any open injury with a clean bandageor cloth.(b) Carefully immobilize the limb bysplinting.(c) Elevate the injured limb.(d) Arrange transport to hospital immediatelyfor X-ray.Stress FracturesThe healthy foot has two jobs to do in itslong working life. Firstly, it acts as a rigid leverto help you move across the ground, andsecondly, it helps to absorb the shock caused byimpact with the ground.The foot can cope with these functions up toa point, but repeated and prolonged impactwith the floor can cause stress and produce injuriesto the feet, lower legs, knees and eventually,the hips and lower back. Young recruitsare subjected to such intensive stresses in allaspects of their training process. Research hasproven that appropriate footwear can reducepotential harmful stress on feet and legs. Whilethere can never be a boot designed that is the"best" for all recruits, the ideal design andshape should provide shock absorption on heelstrike and on the ball of the foot, they shouldalso control undesirable motions of the footwhen and while coming into contact with the
ARMY RECRUIT TRAINING INJURIES "INDEMIC OR EPIDEMIC" 23floor. The boot should also allow natural footmovements and not restrict mobility or normalblood flow.The tibia, fibula and metatarsal bones are thesite of stress fractures in the lower leg. They occurafter prolonged and repeated over-loading,for example, intensive Drill, running, jumpingand obstacle training. They occur in two mainways to young recruits:1. As previously mentioned, jumping on tohard surfaces from heights and over exuberanceswith incorrect techniques duringDrill sessions.2. The pull of hyperdeveloped, lower limbanti gravity muscles on young bone, whenthe bone has not had time to have adjustedits lines of stress resistance (Trebeculea) tocope with the new extremes of both musclepower and opposite ranges of movementintensity.Symptoms and DiagnosisA. Pain usually develops slowly as a dullache, exacerbated by continued running,Drill and assault course activity, until furthercontinuous exercise is impossible, dueto pain with the individuals, usually gaitaffected.B. There is local pain and tenderness, withswelling over the fracture sight.C. Initially, the fracture may be so fine itwill show on an X-ray. A repeat X-rayshould be taken 2-4 weeks after the firstone. Often then the fracture is detectable inthe healing phase only.D. If new periostal bone formation is seenon X-ray, it should be interpreted as a sightof a stress fracture.TreatmentRest and non-weight bearing remedial exerciseprogrammes. Immobilisation is notnecessary, but is sometimes implementedshould a problem persist. The patient shouldprotect the area and not return to normal exerciseuntil re-X-rayed and directed by a MedicalOfficer.Overuse SyndromesMany injuries can develop from the overusesyndrome and usually follow this pain cycle:The Pain CycleOVERLOADINGTISSUE INJURYINFLAMMATION 4ATION CONTINUED , ACTIVITYREST - HEALINGOveruse Syndromes are particularly difficultto diagnose and treat. These injuries are becomingincreasingly common as recruit trainingshortens and intensifies. Despite documentationon overuse injuries as early as 1855, littleresearch has been carried out and today'sknowledge is based mainly on experiencedtherapists practical and clinical interest in thisarea.Overuse injuries are generally caused byoverload of repeated microscopic injuries to themuscle-skeleton system. Tissues can withstandgreat loads, but there is a critical limit to thiscapacity, which varies greatly between individuals.Over-use, without rest days has provento be one of the causative and most exacerbatingfactors to the injury problems of recruitsin training. However, other predisposing intrinsicand extrinsic factors also make the tissuessusceptible to injury.Intrinsic: Such as mal-alignment of the leg,muscle imbalance and otheranatomical factors.Extrinsic: Such as training errors, faultytechniques, incorrect use of equipment,surfaces and poor trainingconditions, plus non-qualifiedtrainers.The actual frequency of injury due to overuseis unknown, but the percentages whichmanifest as painful incapacitating injuries torecruits who have to seek medical help is on theincrease.
24 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Muscular and Soft Tissue Conditions inthe Lower LegThe musculature of the lower leg is enclosedin four tight, intrinsic compartments of connectivetissue which are anchored to the tibia andfibula. In front, between the tibia and fibula,there is the interior compartment which containsthe tibialis anterior muscle, the toe extensorsand the blood vessels and nerves whichsupply the front of the lower leg and foot. Atthe back, the lower leg is divided into two compartments,one deep and one superficial. Thedeep one, which is located between the tibia andthe fibula and behind the tight connective tissueband (interossius membrane) that connects thetwo, contains the long toe flexers (flexordigitorum longus and flexer hallucis longus)and the tibialis posterior muscle. Nerves andblood vessels pass to the back of the lower legand sole of the foot through this deep compartment.The posterior superficial muscle compartmentat the back contains the broad, deepcalf muscle (the solens) and the superficial calfmuscle (the gastrocnemeus). On the lateralaspect of the leg, around the fibula, is a lateralcompartment which encloses the long and shortmuscles that arise from that bone (the peroneuslongus and brevis).Chronic Compartment SyndromesChronic compartment syndromes can occuras a result of the increase in muscle bulk followingprolonged intensive training. The increasein bulk causes the muscle to grow larger than isallowed for by the surrounding fascia sincethese tight membranes are not particularlyelastic. When the muscles are at rest there is noproblem, but during muscular work thousandsof smali blood vessels dilate, in order to increasethe blood flow and thus increase the bulkof the muscles too.Pressure is increased (which can cause pain)if a muscle in the lower leg is then required towork for any length of time and the blood flowis obstructed, causing a relative lack of oxygen.This changes the cell environment by the formationof lactic acid and fluid begins to lea'r;from the capillaries. Swelling (oedema; occurswithin the muscle and this further increases thepressure (and pain) on the muscle compartment,impairing blood flow even more. Thisvicious circle continues unless exercise ceases.Muscular contraction within the compartmentscan also exert traction on the periosteum,causing it to become inflammed (periostitis).Compartment syndromes can give symptomsat the front, at the back and on each side of thelower leg.Symptoms and Diagnosis(a) Anterior (front) compartment syndrome(acute)- A characteristic symptom is acute painwhich gradually increases until it becomesimpossible to continue running.- Weakness can occur when the foot is bentupwards.- A sensation of numbness extending downthe foot may be felt.- Local swelling and tenderness can be presentover the tibialis anterior muscle.- Pain can be triggered when the foot ortoes are passively bent downwards (plantarflexion).Treatment:The Recruit/Patient- Rest actively;- Cool the injured area.The Therapist- Apply ice compression and elevation.- Slow active non-weight bearing footmovements in the second 24-hours.- Gentle massage from ankle upwards tomobilise venus blood, lymphatics andoedema.- Pulsed ultra sound in the actue phase.- Rest.The Doctor- Prescribe diuretics.- Prescribe anti-inflammatory medication.- Check effectiveness of treatment bymeasuring the pressure in the musclecompartment.- In extreme cases, perform surgery(facialotomy).Symptoms and Diagnosis(b) Anterior Compartment Syndrome(chronic)- Pain which increases under load andwhich finally makes continued musclework impossible.
ARMY RECRUIT TRAINING INJURIES "INDEMIC OR EPIDEMIC" 25Treatment- The pain disappears after a shortperiod of rest, but recurs when physicalactivity is resumed.- A Sensation of numbness in the cleftbetween the big toe and second toe.- Marked weakness in raising the foot(Dorsiflexion).- Local swelling and tenderness overthem muscle belly on the outside of thetibia.- Passive plantar toe flexion will provokepain.- Increased pressure can be measured inthe chronic phase, and it tends to remain.The Recruit/Patient- Rest until pain is resolved.- Apply contrast heat and cold therapy.- Analyse running surfaces, runningtechnique, training, type of shoes, andso on.The Therapist- Treat as for the acute condition, but insiston more rest.The Doctor- Treat as for the acute condition, butfacialotomy may not be ruled out inthese chronic cases.Symptoms and Diagnosis(c) Posterior Deep Compartment Syndrome- Difficult to detect which muscle ormuscles are involved without specific intrinsicexamination.- Increased pressure in the muscle compartmentafter provocation of pain.- Periostitis must be considered (inflammationof periosteum).- Usual course is an increased muscle bulkdue to prolonged intensive training.- Always perform examination afterprovocation.- Pain presents on kicking, taking off, heelraising etc. It starts insidiously andgradually intensifies until physical activityis rendered impossible.- A sensation of numbness in the foot andweakness on taking off from the surface.Treatment- The symptoms abate after resting, butrecur when there is renewed exertion.- The treatment by Recruit, Therapist andDoctor is as for previous acute andchronic conditions in this area.- Treat symptomatically.Medial Tibial Stress (Periostitis ofthe Medial (inside) Margin of the Tibia"Shin Splints").Symptoms and DiagnosisPerhaps the single most commonly complainedabout condition in this area of the body.- Recruits/athletes who train on alternatingsurfaces, shoes, techniques and constantlyvarying intensities in workload and musclerange of movement, experience thiscommon complaint.- There is tenderness over the distal medialmargin of the tibia and is especially pronouncedover the lower half of the bone.- A certain degree of swelling can be feltand seen.- The pain eases at rest, but returns onrenewed loading (see pain cycle diagram).- Pain is triggered when toes or ankle jointsare bent downwards (plantaflexion).- An X-ray examination is indicated whensymptoms persist (to rule out a stress fracturepossibility).- Pressure in the compartment is usuallynormal.Preventative Measures- Move careful progression in variety andintensity of training programme andtraining areas.- Correct equipment (shoes etc) for thetraining area and surface.-Correct and careful warm-up.Treatment- Training and competition should cease asearly as possible.- Pain is the warning which should signalrest.- Training should not re-commence untilthere is no pain under load conditions,and tenderness over the tibia has gone.- Fitness levels may be maintained by swimmingand cycling etc.
26 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89INJURYBLEEDINGPAIN AND TENDERNESS MB SWELLING gfc IMPAIRED HI Al INC.INCREASED PRESSUREON THE TISSUES- Contrast heat and cold therapy will helpthe healing process.- Heat retainer sleeves may help the healingprocess during activities involving hardand repeated loading.- Physiotherapy treatment as for previouslymentioned conditions in this area of thebody.- The Doctor can also treat as for previouslymentioned conditions in this body area.It is considered that after close statisticalanalysis the conditions mentioned are the mostcommonly documented in recruit trainingestablishments, medical record offices.General Treatment and Rehabilitation TipsIf injuries are to heal satisfactorily they mustbe treated in the right way at the right time. Thetreatment must be based on accurate diagnosis.This is assured when there is close, therapist,doctor and patient co-operation.Training and sport injuries are often acuteand caused by contact impact on the training/sportsfield. In such cases urgent action isrequired, in order to limit bleeding and/orswelling. The more prompt the follow-up treatment,the quicker the healing process.As previously mentioned, other injuries arecaused by over-use and their treatment iscovered earlier in this article. Various alternativetreatments of training/sports injuries arealso available.RestAfter an injury it is usually necessary to restthe affected part, and sometimes a period ofbedrest is prescribed.In cases of over use and/or ligament injurieswith swelling, strapping and taping will beuseful to give relief, accompanied by elevationof injured limb. This reduces blood flow to thearea, helps reduce swelling and pain by reducingpressure.Rest without load, but with gentle muscle action,(active rest) is permissible in certain cases,such as ligament injuries or slight musclehaematoma, either immediately after the injury,or after an interval of 24-48 hours.Active RestComplete rest after an injury is, as a rule, unnecessary.The injured part should be restedand unloaded while all other parts of the bodyare exercised by active muscle contraction andconditioning.Advice When in PlasterEven when an injury necessitates a plaster cast,other parts of the body can still be exercised. Alower leg plaster does not prevent physicalfitness from continuing. The plastered limbshould be supported in elevation and exercisedwith static contractions. If your immobilisedlimb feels painful, numb or cold, medical adviceshould be sought.Cooling (Cryotherapy)Cooling is a common and important methodof treating acute soft tissue injuries. Its aim isto minimise the bleeding and swelling which arean inevitable accompainment of such injuriesand can interfere with the healing process.Cooling also helps reduce the pain and musclespasm (analgesic). When applying ice, treat theskin first with oil or tissue between ice pack andskin.Cooling is beneficial because- The patient feels an improvement in hissymptoms.
ARMY RECRUIT TRAINING INJURIES "INDEMIC OR EPIDEMIC" 27- The treatment is easy to carry out and iswell tolerated.- There are few contraindications.- It is inexpensive.Heat Treatment (Thermotherapy)Heat has been used for thousands of years inthe treatment of different types of pain. Experienceshows that it has a beneficial effect onpain arising from inflammation which is thebody's defence mechanism in cases of injurycaused by trauma or over-use.Heat is beneficial because- 48-hours post injury - it helps in the healingprocess when the risk of haemorrhageis over.- It increases blood flow.- It increases the elasticity of collagen (connectivetissue) fibres, ie Tendon is composedof 90 per cent collagen fibre.- It decreases joint stiffness.- It relieves muscle spasm.- It reduces the risk of further injury.Other forms of heat application- Heat lamps, heating pads, hot baths andsauna baths increase blood flow and mayhave a beneficial effect on stiffness aftertraining etc.Short WaveShort wave treatment involves a high frequencyalternating current passing through thebody, generating heat in deeper tissues.UltrasoundHigh frequency ultrasonic sound waves passingthrough soft tissue can generate heat byvibration. Acoustic streaming the dosagepenetrates heat to the deeper tissues.InterferentialThis treatment consists of a varying mediumfrequency current which penetrates into thetissues.Heat Pads or PacksHeating pads or packs contain a gel which hathe capacity to store both cold and heat. Theyare immersed in hot water before being appliedto the area to be treated.Some statistical information showing percentagesrecorded, numbers and main injury sitesINJURIES SUSTAINED IN AEROBIC DANCE(103 of 105 Instructors had 220 injuries)NEWINJURIES1234567-TOTAL 141:SITEShinFootBackAnkleKneeCalfHipOther70
DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89intensity, frequency and lack of recovery time.All these factors inevitably lead to the developmentof overuse syndromes, which without restmanifest as painful acute and lead to chronicinjury problems.Is this Service problem with recruits injuriesout of control? If one considers the outstandingresults from 17th Trg Regt recorded by theAPRE team from the RAE, then it would appearthat there is light at the end of the tunnel.Further continued success could still be achieved.Those involved in recruit training mustwork as a co-ordinated team, and not as individualsseeking higher ideals.Ignorance of standards and mass misinterpretationof the CMSR also must be resolved.Young recruits must only have those demandsplaced on them required of the CMSR in itsessence, only then will we be on course towardsthe total resolution of the problem. UW02 (QMS1) J. P. Brennan A PTC joined the A PTC from 1 PARA in January 1971, qualified as a Remedial Gymnastin 1978 (MSRC), was promoted W02 in March 1979. He qualified as a Chartered Physiotherapist (MCSP) inDecember 19i>5. Since then has specialised in sport and training related injuries. He is due to complete his Servicecareer in April 1989, where upon he will begin his own business career in private practice in London and Europe.AUSTRALIAN SOLDIERS COMPETE AT INTERNATIONAL SKILLS MEETINGA team of 40 soldiers, from Army units Australia wide,participated in theBrunei International Skill at Arms Meeting (BISAM) 1989 in Brunei recently.The Australian team contested the four small arms categories of self-loading rifle,sub-machine gun, pistol and Bren light machine gun.The 40 soldiers attending BISAM won their places in the team during eliminationcontests throughout Australia. The competition ended on March 30.
Remnants of the Rajby Judy ThomsonForewordThree months after our marriage in 1955,my husband, Major David Thomson, wasposted to Quetta. We travelled by P & Oship to Bombay and by cargo boat to Karachiwhere we stayed briefly with the AustralianHigh Commisioner and Mrs Cawthorn —old Indian army hands. Mrs Cawthorn didnot approve of the thread-bare Mohamed,our predecessor's Bearer who had come toKarachi to meet us. But his tatty clothes weremeant to remind us that we were responsiblefor clothing him in a new and suitably fittingBearer's uniform. Another remnant of theRaj.Remnants of the RajAT Karachi Railway station an endless lineof red-clad baggage coolies squatted ontheir haunches waiting for the train. As theBolan Mail pulled in, passengers and cooliesfought over bags until 2nd and 3rd class travellerswere settled onto hard benches, purdahladies and servants had found their separatecarriages and the Thomsons were alone in aVictorian double coupe with a splendid picnichamper from the Residence to last the twentyhourjourney north.'Everything all right Sahib?' Mohamed's faceappeared at our window every time the trainlurched to a stop — like Dr Aziz on that fatefultrain journey to the Malabar Caves. Our Passageto Quetta had brought us overnight throughthe Sind desert broken now by distant rockyfoothills. 'Chota hazri, Sahib, Memsahib. Youare sleeping well?'We peered out from our bedrolls and gladlytook the cups of tea. 'Yes thank you, but it'smuch colder Mohamed.''Very cold Sahib. At Sibi we are getting moreengines to climb the mountain. Then not longafter we are coming to Quetta.'The main road and a camel track now ranbeside the line. Biblical bearded men led camelscarrying bedding and tents, cooking pots, wivesand hens. Secure in our carriage, 1 thought ofFrancis Thompson's 'Arab Love Song' anddoubted the romance of their lives as they ploddedby on hunched camels.We slowly climbed through the Bolan Pass,one of the historic routes to and from Afghanistan.Reaching Mach, the train continued alonga brown barren valley to Quetta, 6000 feet up.Quetta in mid winter, with a bitter wind blowingoff the snow-capped Murdah Mountain.Elspeth Wotton, a British instructor's wifewho'd travelled with us to Bombay, was waitingon the platform. Leaving David with Mohamedand a Pakistani staff officer to help sort outour baggage, she bundled me out of the bitingcold and into her car. Skirting the main town,we were soon driving through the cantonment,which in 1900 had been the largest militarystation in the Indian sub-continent, to reach theStaff College, and our house amongst the familyquarters, at 22 Williams Road.?w^ * imp * swu ^ fMajor Sahib and Memsahib, Bombay 1955, enroute to Quetta.
30 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Karachi Railway Station 1956, awaiting Bolan Mail.On the small porch of a large faded concrete,earthquake-proof house sat another British instructor'swife, turning up the hems of ourcurtains. She had collected and installed ourArmy issue furniture and fittings and engagedthe staff: Dost the Sweeper was polishing thered concrete floors inside; Subhan Khan, theCook, stood awaiting my instructions.Astrakhan cap on head, eyes gleamingthrough black-rimmed spectacles, he burst out,'Me first-class English cook, Memsahib. Roastdinner, caramel custard, cheese souffles. Verygood cook Mem. I am going bazaar Mem. Youtell me. 1 buy meat, eggs, vegetable.' What didwe need? Elspeth rescued me by suggesting asimple menu for that night and inviting us forlunch with her.Later we unpacked the crates. I stared bewilderedat the mounting pile of toilet paper,vegemite, tinned cheese ... 1 could open ashop. 'Mem must lock these all away. No goodmen otherwise use all up. And Mem is lockingup tea and flour rations from quartermaster'sstore. Each day, Mem is giving out enough . ..' The wisdom of Mohamed.There was a general shortage of food, barelyenough for the local population. We wouldsoon tire of stringy chickens, tough mutton orwater buffalo steak and butter, but we werecomparatively well off.Next the Dhobi boy arrived and 1 was sortingout some washing for him. Mohamed drew upa chair. 'Mem is sitting down and making list.I am finding dirty clothes.'•Bolan mail passes through Sind Desert. BolanPass ahead.
RLMNANTS OF THE RAJ }].J!,:*.Wood wallahs with hooded donkeys deliver wood at Australian quarter, 22 William Rd, Quetta.A band of AH Baba's decendants appeared— the wood wallahs. Their small donkeys, almostbuckling under their loads, were blindfolded,whilst Mohamed supervised the weighingof the wood, piece by piece, on hand scalesand argued the cost with the swarthy desperadoleader. A Staff College truck delivered our coalration and by evening, coal fires were warmingsome of the house.We sat down to hot soup served meticulouslyby the Bearer; the table laid with our best silver.Finally crawling exhausted into a small hardbed, my toes touched a hot water bottle.Mohamed, that 'seedy, grubby fellow', was indeeda Bearer beyond price.Next day, David signed on at the Quetta StaffCollege which was modelled on Camberley inEngland and provided a post-graduate year forCaptains and Majors 'on the way up'. Australia,Canada and India had similar Collegesand they all exchanged students. Some Britishinstructors remained, but they were rapidlybeing replaced by Pakistanis. That year, twoBritish, a Canadian, an American, Turk andIraqi made up the other foreign students. Onthe plaque listing students for 1911, CaptainT.A. Blarney's name had a star to show he'dreach Field Marshal. Australia's first studentat Quetta had made his mark.The Deputy Commandant, Brigadier ShahabzadarYaqub Khan' addressed the studentson the importance of maintaining high standardsof work and warned against cheating. Headvised that required reading for current affairswould be American Time and Dawn, Pakistan'smain English language daily.Two weeks later, Dawn's editorial thunderedagainst a proposed routine visit to Pakistan ofFirst Sea Lord Mountbatten, 'this principal instrumentof the rape of Kashmir and of themisery of millions'. Dawn reminded readersthat from March 23rd Pakistan would be aRepublic, that the Navy would no longer beRoyal and therefore Britain's First Sea Lord'nobody to it'. The Pakistanis blamed Mountbatten,last Viceroy of India, for all the troubleswhich followed the Partition of India in 1947.Pakistan still remained in the Commonwealth,but the British were on the way out.How would we colonials be accepted? Currentaffairs for David might be tricky.Each morning he hurried off early to meetwith the ten men of his Syndicate. Very often,they returned to our house to work together onan Appreciation of a Military Situation in whichAIDNI was the enemy. (I didn't have to be acryptic crossword fan to work out who thatwas.) Whilst they planned, I remained on stand
DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89by. As each page was hand-written I would typeit with perfect Minor Staff Duties, even to thecommas and fullstops. That was easy. Typingcompleted, the Syndicate Leader would race offby bike to hand the Exercise in on time.I fell part of their team and was glad to helpbut I didn't realise 1 was starting a thirty yearunpaid job as home secretary.Major Staff Duties were not as simple. Ididn't know who did what in my household.'No problem, Mem,' said Mohamed. 'Dost isSweeper. He is carrying coal, cleaning toilets,sweeping floors to top of skirting boards. TheBearer, Mem is dusting and polishing silver,waiting on table, looking after the MajorSahib's clothes.' I soon found he was LordHigh Everything Else except when it came tocleaning up after a newly-acquired puppy. Thatwas the Sweeper's job. And more often, mine.The Cook, however, had his own rules.'Subhan. How can you use twelve eggs forone pudding for two people?' We were studyinghis daily cookbook. 'And every day a puncture?''You like my chocolate souffle Mem? I ambeating it many hours for you.' Yes, on a Hatplate with a fork. It was delicious. 'And theroad, Mem, is very bad. Every day, bike-wallahis repairing tyre.' Five annas for a puncturewas his percentage.Staff College tower and buildings, Quetta 1956.'Why you go every day to bazaar?' But Iknew the answer. Meat had to be freshly killedfor Muslims each day.I he Major Sahib was longing for a hoi CUITJbut that was beneath our first-class Englishcook. Instead, his wife, hidden away in hisrooms in the compound at the bottom of ourgarden, was persuaded to make one for us.Subhan was never satisfied. 'Mem. My paynot good. American sahib in town pay more.'Blackmail, but 1 knew I'd never manage his oldfuel stove. I stalled and said I'd talk to theMajor Sahib.Baluchi Pipe Band, officers quarters area, Quetta 1956.
REMNANTS OF THE RAJI was budgetting very carefully. We couldn'tafford to hire a car, horse-drawn tongas werea luxury. We borrowed the servants' bikes. NowMohamed said the bike we'd brought him fromAustralia was no good. Would we lend himmoney for a new one and for his sick wife!Keeping a staff of five, keeping up face, clingingto this remnant of the Raj seemed ridiculous,but it was expected of us. And of the Pakistaniofficers too. Servants were a way of life. It wasuseless questioning it.One morning 1 was debating whether to readanother John Master's book or write a letterwhen Elspeth's car pulled up outside. 'The doublebed that you hired from the bazaar shouldbe here in a couple of hours,' she said. 'I passedtwo men pushing it by barrow on my way homefrom Quetta.''Oh no,' 1 blushed. 'Everyone will see itcoming. Can't you hear their comments?' Iturned hurriedly to another problem. 'I don'twant to spend my mornings playing bridge ormahjong or sitting around waiting to type forDavid. You've got your physio job. There mustbe something 1 could do.'And Elspeth, like the other instructors' wives,who were used to counselling the newcomers,answered, 'Let's see what the Wives' meetingbrings up.'Subhan Khan, first-class English cook.**Cv \2Mohamed. the Bearer, faithful friend to anumber of Australian students, Quetta 1956.Major General Mohammed Latif Khan, theCommandant, was a remote Orson Welles figurewho strode past our house exercising threeAlsatians. He was reputed to have a pricelesscollection of Persian carpets. His wife, BegumLatif, who was rarely seen, summoned all thewives to Morning Coffee in the Ladies Roomat the Mess.Pakistani Officers were discouraged frombringing more than one wife to the Staff College.Wives were expected to come out of purdahand to mix socially with their husbands.For those who came from remote villages, spokea dialect and knew neither Urdu nor English,it was very difficult to shed the veils or burqas(those all-enveloping tents) which had shieldedthem from the sight of other men. Others, withliberalised, Anglicised husbands, who'd learntEnglish in Purdah schools, were more at ease.The American wife and I walked into a roomfull of brilliantly plumed, chattering women,some in saris others in shalwar (baggy trousers)and quamez (long-sleeved top) — vermilion red,grass green or white threaded with gold; eyes
34 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89outlined in black kohl and arms and anklesladen with golden bangles. The few dowdy palefacessat together, or discussed children, theweather and gardens with those begums whospoke enough English.A senior wife read out Begum Latif's message:'In future, we will meet regularly and sewtoys for charity so that men will not say ladiesonly gossip and waste their day.'Quite right, but Elspeth, whose four-year oldson was dying to go to school, had meantimedreamed up a better idea for me. Why not runa small kindergarten? My last pupils had beenteenagers from London's East End whom I'dsupervised for woodwork, whilst employed asa supply teacher in 1953. Compared with havingmy back to the wall, never daring to turn awayin case a tool became a handy weapon, a kindergartenwould be child's play.And so Mrs Thomson's Little School openedfor two hours each morning at our house.Begums begged me to help their little ones learnEnglish, but I decided to limit numbers to fourPakistanis and three English children — all Icould manage with my limited skills and oneempty room.Materials were scarce. Mothers provideddrawing paper and scraps of wool for sewingcards, a blackboard and chalks. 'Now Inam,hold your pencil like this. John stop fidgetting.That's a beautiful C for Cat and C for Christopher.No more writing. Let's sing a songtogether. Tim bring your stool closer to SherjAJP"*MiDhobi boy delivers Sahib's uniform andwashing.ernaz.' I was happily fitting in to my schoolma'am role — a cross between Joyce Grenfelland Anna and The King of Siam. I was singing'Three little ducks went out one day . . . Useyour fingers Nadim. Pretend they're the littleMali with weekly ration of one hour's irrigation water for garden.
REMNANTS OF THE RAJ 35fe4ft%*utJSt'^r •-- "> • V-" HUT ce.•*"Black tents of Powindas at top of Bolan Pass.ducks.' Suddenly our song was interrupted bythe strains of 'Scotland the Brave' from pipesand drums. 'School' disintegrated as the childrenrushed outside to watch the Baluchi Regimentalband, resplendent in puggarees, whitejackets and dark trousers, marching proudlypast. Beyond, following their traditional route,another nomadic family was moving westwardalong the same dusty road.Each year hundreds of thousands of thesePowindas or tribal nomads travelled seasonallybetween the plains of Pakistan and the hills ofAfghanistan. 2 We had visited a friendly encampmentnear Mach, with its low-slung blackcamel-hair tents and herds of goats and fattailedsheep and seen them in the bazaar atPishin, near the Afghan border, bartering skinsand unscoured wool for raw lump sugar orembroidered woollen jackets studded withBaluchi mirror work. Colourful people to us,but a problem for the government who felt theiranimals were using precious grazing areas andcarrying diseases across the border.Sunday 11th March '56Dearest Mum and Dad.Our life here is settling into a routine nowand the kitchen crises are decreasing. Davidhas to work in most spare hours so I'mthrown back on my own devices more. Howeveram reading a lot. If you can get holdof Leonora Starr's 'The Colonel's Lady' youwill have a pretty good and most amusingpicture of Quetta pre-War and pre-earthquakeand at the same time an idea of Quettaarmy life today, except for the ascendancyof the Paks, the descendancy of gay life atthe Club and climatically far less water . . .David is helping to exercise the polo poniesof a British officer friend at the polo-cumcricket-cum-racecourse. Yesterday I had mysecond ride on the quietest most placid horsewith David tutoring me on holding the reinsand gripping by the knees. The ground isreally grassy and quite a thrilling sight afterthe stony desert everywhere else.Sharing such an exotic life, laughing over ourendless problems with the cook, yet realisingthat having servants allowed us more time together— all these things were helping to makethat first year of marriage exciting and different.A Bearer arrived one morning with a chitti,'Would you care to dine on Friday next afterthe Cinema? Reply by Return Bearer.' Therewere no telephones.The durzi squatted on the floor taking upthe hem of my best dress; Bundoo, visitinghairdresser, set my hair in the bathroom. Whatwould happen to him when the last British left?Mohamed laid the Major Sahib's dinner jacketout and then saluted us approvingly as wewalked off to the home of a very pukkah Englishofficer, not far away.All the guests were pale-faces. We sippeddrinks for an hour until their Bearer announcedthat dinner was ready. The table was laid with
36 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89magnificent pieces of silver, crystal goblets andcandles glowing. During the four course meal,1 looked over my shoulder to thank the Bearerwho was serving and found our Mohamedbeaming back at me. He had come with ourchina — by Servants' gentleman's agreement.British army life, pay and unknown fellowofficers were discussed. After dinner, the ladiesretreated to the fire for coffee, liqueurs andmore of babies, ayahs, children, servants, untildulled or lulled to silence. The men lingeredover port. 1 sat there hating being separatedfrom what might have been more interestingconversation.When it was our turn to be hosts, we consideredcasual dress but Mohamed was quitedistressed. 'Not right Sahib.' After dinner.David, prompted by me, asked the gentlemento join the ladies for port. The officer fromthe Queen's Bays remarked, 'Of course, wedon't do this in our country.' Colonials still.Dinner with the Bengali Ikramullahs was quitedifferent. Their quarter was sparsely furnished.Like many, they had lost most of their possessionswhen fleeing to Pakistan after Partition.However, Japanese scrolls, an Edinburgh plateand Toby jug told of our hosts' overseas travels.We all drank orange juice except David whowas plied with expensive whiskey. At dinner,ladies sat at one end and the gentlemen theother. From a sideboard we selected khebabs,grilled mutton, curried eggs or delicately spicedliver. Dessert was a coconut ice covered ingolden syrup. We ate everything pressed on us.Afterwards we were introduced to pan —betel nut and a bitter lime paste wrapped ingreen leaves (not an easily acquired taste). Theothers chewed happily all evening as we discussedMuslim versus Christian marriages whichthey thought 'Flippant: married one day, divorcedthe next.' They played us a favouriteUrdu song about the lady and her dupatta (veil)which falls romantically at the feet of a farmer.That night we returned home exhilarated. Thiswas more like the real Pakistan which we wereso keen to discover.On Republic Day we wrapped up warmly tosit in the main street and watch unit after unitof Pakistanis march by, their leaders turningby mistake to salute David — the red felt onhis 'blues' cap making him look like a general!That night the Officers' Mess held a ceremonialdinner. For the last time, the officers toastedHer Majesty the Queen and David saw tears inA Powinda family on move.the eyes of many Pakistani officers; then greatpride when a toast to Jinnah, President of theirnew Republic was called, thus signalling formallythe end of the Raj.Spring came and my strange dry garden suddenlyblossomed with hyacinths, verbenas andmarigolds. With the weekly ration of an hour'sirrigation water, 1 couldn't resist joining theMali (our gardener) paddling barefoot as wechannelled and blocked off water for the (lowerbeds. Mohamed watched me disapprovingly.The month of Ramazan coincided with thefirst really hot weather. All good Muslimsneither ate, drank nor smoked from sunrise tosundown and everyone's work suffered. Ourstaff moved in a daze and serving meals wastorment for them.It was hardly the best time to go for a drivinglicence, but a sick friend had briefly lent us hiscar. We found offices closed with no explanation,or staff too tired to understand our questions.Finally we discovered the Superintendent.He asked many questions. 'What would you bedoing if your brakes failed on a steep road with
KI \|\ WIS ()1 IHI R VIVa precipice ahead.' Our licence depended onthis.'Pray hard,' we chorused.'Correct. And Inshallah, God Willing, youwould be saved.'Ramazan ends with the sighting of the newmoon.Humphrey Davy, the last British PoliticalAgent, still administering justice amongstthe tribes, combined ancient wisdom with moderntechnology and sent up a small plane to flyover the mountain and return with the news ofthe moon's appearance.Jubilation. Celebrations. Fireworks, partiesand gifts for staff and friends. 'Eid Mubarak'was the greeting as they presented us with halvacarrot cake, enveloped in real silver foil, thelatter with supposedly aphrodisiac properties.In the July break, we travelled by plane, trainand crowded local buses north and up into themountains until we reached Nathia Gali, a tinyhill station looking towards Kashmir. 1 sketchedthe pine forests whilst David studied or wewandered peacefully along winding tracks.Two months later the tenor of my letterschanged. Instead of descriptions of picnics withfriends at Dak Bungalows or gatherings of Pakistanisand pale-faces at the Pool, 1 was writingto my mother asking her to book me into acheap Melbourne hospital. 1 would be returnm:alone by plane for Christmas. David had tocomplete a tour of India and would then travelby cargo boat from Bombay.Suddenly my letters were full of baby talk.I could now compete with the other wives. Iwas no longer the bride of the year. Elspethtaught me relaxation exercises. The Canadiansold me her glamorous maternity clothes and Istarted knitting furiously. Mohamed solemnlybrought me Horlicks sitting in a saucepan onthe silver salver, after serving David his port.Not even the Suez Crisis seemed to faze me.There was no television which today might haveincited local reaction against British residents.Early in November I wrote:The Suez dispute has certainly had everyoneon their toes here. We've heard the BBCquite often and generally tried not to get intoargument with our Pak. friends who arelargely pro-Nasser. The newspapers refer toEden as the next Hitler and made a greatbloomer saying that it was really a war betweenthe Muslims and a Christian-Zionistunion. The next day the paper recanted sayingthat of course there were still some goodChristians, e.g. the Americans. We had greatamusement with our American neighbours,chipping them over this. . . the Iraqi student,usually a most jovial soul, snubbed us completely. . .The invasion of the Suez Canal by English,French and Israeli soldiers and the subsequentblocking of the Canal meant that passengerships could no longer travel that route. 1 didn'twant to stay in Quetta to have the baby, norcould 1 risk the slow journey homeward. In myletters I looked only on the bright side anddidn't let on that I was very anaemic, burstinto tears every time I had to have an ironinjection or sat through a sad movie. What hadhappened to that tough, tomboyish young wife?She was pregnant and dreamt of lamb chopsand green peas, of Haverbrack Avenue, homeand mother.In Melbourne the Suez Crisis and the OlympicGames were supplanted in my mother'sconversation by the news of a future Thomsongrandchild.^NOTKSShahabzader Yagub Khan is now Ministerfor Foreign Affairs in the Pakistan government.Perhaps today's Quetta student could tellof the fate of these gypsy-like people forwhom the Afghan civil war must havespelt disaster.Remnants of the Raj is a chapter from an unpublished autobiography completed in 1987.Judy Thomson has since researched and edited Re: :hing Back, an oral history describing thelives of some Aboriginal people associated with the earliest days of Yarrabah Mission in FarNorth Queensland. It is being published this year by Aboriginal Studies Press, the publishingsection of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.Judy Thomson is the wife of Brigadier The Hon David Thomson, MC, RL.
Australian Public Opinions of DefenceBy Lisa Keen, Department of Defence.IN these days of rapid technological advances,mass media coverage and changing politicalclimates, it is an elusive matter to pinpointpublic opinion. Glib asertions of 'norms' ofpublic opinion can often cloud the very complexattitudinal stances which people take inreaction to a barrage of information, and howthis fits into their personal beliefs and values.Nevertheless, the process of monitoring publicopinion is central to the efforts of the PublicRelations organization, and over time, detailedinvestigations can identify trends which willdirectly impact upon the organization as awhole. While care must be taken in methodologyand interpretation, it is important to gainan overview of the various ideologicalpreferences of the population, and to trackthese over time.The Directorate of Public Relations recentlycommissioned two Market Research surveys intopublic attitudes towards Defence issues.While some of the results simply validate orreinforce presumptions of the public perceptionsof these issues, there has also been a rangeof complex findings that enable a useful breakupof the community's views (based on age,gender, ethnicity and level of educationvariables). They also indicate some prevalentattitudinal trends which have significant implicationsfor the larger Defence organization,and more particularly, for the ADF.For those service personnel who operateunder the assumption that the general public isneither interested nor very supportive of theiractivities, the findings of the two major marketresearch surveys may offer some satisfaction.This article briefly investigates the findingsof the studies and explores in greater depthsome specific attitudes towards Defence issues.Some of these findings have clarified areas ofcomplex and inconsistent attitudinalstandpoints.Other findings have virtually invalidatedpopular beliefs, for example, the assumptionthat women and NESB people have 'barriers'towards Defence issues in general, and the ADFin particular.Finally, it will be revealed that where popularideology has tended to interpret public opinionin a fairly generalized way, the current findingsshow that issues relating to Defence produce acomplex range of attitudes. The one clear andconsistent opinion which emerges from thesediverse views is the public's overwhelming supportand high regard for the Australian DefenceForces.Note On MethodologyThe methodology of public opinion pollingcan have significant effects on the findings. Forexample, the wording of questions and thepresentation of alternatives for answer can becrucial in either exaggerating or minimizingbias.A 1972 US study found that the provision of"don't know" or "no opinion" options (filteroptions) is essential in polls researching areas ofcomplex attitudes, such as foreign policy polls.'They found that 10-20% of respondents use afilter when it is offered. This process lessens thetendency of respondents to construct an opinionon an issue when in fact, they have no opinionat all.The use of such filter options in the twostudies in questions has allowed for more accuratemonitoring of the levels of public consciousness,knowledge and concern aboutDefence issues.The Attitudes of AustraliansWhere some members of Australia's DefenceForces have interpreted the current tone ofpolitical debate on Defence issues in this countryas implying negative opinions of service personnel,the research findings have found otherwise.It has been demonstrated that a significantshift in public opinion has occurred duringthe 80s towards a more supportive andfavourable view of the Defence Forces. Somekey findings were:— A majority of respondents stated that theythink of ADF personnel in favourable termsand are interested in the values and idealspromoted by the ADF,— The great majority of the respondents(86%) regards the average member of the
AUSTRALIAN PUBLIC OPINIONS OF DEFENCE y>Army, Navy or Air Force as being capable,— 95% of people are of the view that it is importantto have a permanent Defence Force.Another recent study which has collated allDefence related public opinion poll researchundertaken since 1947 has found that ageneralized level of support has been evidentover an extended period of time:"Australian's have consistently affirmed theview that Australia's (Defence) Forces shouldbe substantially increased in size and that theGovernment should pay more attention toDefence issues." 2Conversely, there are several areas wherepublic opinion is divided. In general, this divisionis evident on issues where the level ofknowledge is low. For instance, research intosubjects such as training, the Reserves andDefence equipment has produced disparate and'scrambled' findings based on low levels ofknowledge. The University of Wollongongsurvey found that many respondents withnegative opinions towards various Defenceissues gave completely wrong answers in theknowledge test. They later commented:"It is understandable that there is a fairamount of confusion concerning the role ofthe ADF since its peacetime activities are notwell publicised and Australia has not beenunder any imminent threat of attack sinceWorld War II". 5The main message here is that the publicgenerally does have a positive attitude towardsthe ADF, and most people are interested in obtainingmore information about a range ofDefence issues. This is a favourable positionfrom which to start a program which will addressthe information requirements of the communityand clarify areas where a lack of informationhas lead to confusion.Some Myths DispelledThe Attitudes of Women.It has traditionally been assumed that womenhave an innate 'barrier' to Defence issues due totheir particular socialization as nurturers andcare-givers, and therefore, that they are likelyto repudiate activities associated with warfighting.These assumptions have been questioned inpart by the findings of the University ofWollongong. In terms of attitudes towards, andlevel of interest in Defence issues, the researchshowed that there was virtually no differencebetween women and men. In fact, the researchfindings suggest that if there is a difference,women in general have more positive attitudestowards the ADF than men.The Education Variable.The most significant disparities in public opinionwere found to be attributable to thevariable of level of education rather thangender. Both males and females with tertiaryeducation were found to be more critical onsubjects such as the Australia/US alliance, andof Defence issues in general.The Attitudes of Non-English Speaking People.Recent estimates of the proportion of peoplefrom a non-English speaking background (NESB)serving with the Forces have suggested that theyare severely under-represented.It has further been postulated that NESBgroups may have reservations of cultural origin(or through actual experience) which result innegativity towards certain defence issues. TheUniversity of Wollongong was tasked to investigatethese possibilities. Their findings havebeen diverse and sometimes surprising.Taken generally, the attitudes of NESB peoplewere found to be more supportive of the USalliance. National Service, employment with theADF and the ADF's capabilities than the generalcommunity. There were, however, quite diverseviews which could be separated by particularethnic origin. The research findings suggest thatpeople of Polish, Vietnamese and Cantonese descenthold the ADF in higher esteem than thegeneral population. Conversely, the English.Italian, Greek and South Slav groups tend to befar more sceptical.One of the main findings in this area is thatNESB people (in general) are much less likely toknow where to obtain information about theADF than the control group. At the same time,they are; "twice as likely to think the ADF wouldbe effective in the event of an attack" than theanglophone group, and "far more favourablydisposed towards service personel". 4Given that there is a markedly higher level ofsupport for the ADF amongst many people fromnon-English speaking backgrounds, these findingsprovide valuable indicators for future campaignsto address information requirements, andto build upon this positive attitudinal base.
40 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Levels of Knowledge and InformationRequirementsThe two research studies discovered awidespread lack of knowledge and understandingin the general population about subjectssuch as strategic issues, the ADF, the Reserves,employment in the Forces and defenceindustry.While the majority of respondents feltthemselves to be ill-informed on Defence issues,they self-assessed this level of knowledge to be"about average". At the same time, at leasthalf of all the people surveyed stated that theywould like more information on variousDefence issues such as allies, strategies, defencespending and the role of the ADF.In terms of preferred sources of information,an overwhelming proportion of respondentsfelt that they would go directly to ADF promotionsfor reliable and credible information. Thisfinding correlates with the favourable attitudeswhich the majority of the community holdtowards service personnel.Of all respondents, those with service acquaintanceswere found to be the best informed,most interested and most concerned groupsin the community. The ANOP researchers commentedthat;"Servicemen and women have fairlywidespread contact with the community andour results suggest that they convey afavourable view of Defence Force life . . .Nevertheless, considering the extent of theircontact with the community, and the community'sgenerally low level of knowledgeand understanding of Defence issues, theytend to be a rather 'silent service', and anunder-utilized form of communications andimage building." 5The conclusions of the University ofWollongong study confirmed these views andemphasised the importance of providing relevantand interesting information to the public:"There is sufficient evidence that theAustralian public does have in interest in,and opinion of the ADF and Defencepolicies. Unless the information supplied tothe public is accurate and of interest to them,they will continue to form and maintain opinionsthat are perhaps based onmisinformation."'Complex StandpointsIn many ways, public opinion research canpose as many questions as it answers. Whereissues such as alliances and strategies are concerned,the state of play with internationalpolitics can have marked effects on the findings.Precisely because they are complex issues,it is necessary to analyse related public opinionin greater depth.The ANOP research has allowed for thetracking of public opionion on specific issuesover the last decade. It has identified somesignificant shifts over this period. One of themajor trends evident from the analysis is that aremarkable shift has occurred in relation to theDefence Force and its capability, which links inwith the increased community confidence inAustralia's defence capacity.This level of confidence also needs to be interpretedin the context of public perceptions ofthreats to Australia. This correlation can beseen in the changing attitudes of young peopleover recent years. When young people weremost concerned about the possibility of anuclear war, they tended to believe that they,and Australia, were powerless. At this timethere was a corresponding crop in the level ofimportance placed on having a permanentDefence Force and its perceived effectiveness."The perception of threat among young peoplehas dropped from 66% (believing that externalthreat was likely) in 1980 to 38% in 1987. Inturn, their level of support for the ADF hasrisen significantly.These are fairly straight-forward links. Thereare, however, far more complex attitudinalstances which impact upon people's overallconceptions of Defence issues.The University of Wollongong study revealedthat many respondents held critical opinions ofthe Australia/US Alliance.For example;— A large proportion of respondents feltthat the alliance encouraged the threat of attackto Australia,— A majority believed that Australia reliestoo heavily on the alliance for defence,— A majority considered it true thatAustrlaia's interests are often overlooked infavour of foreign interests.On the face of it, these findings appear to indicatea significant groundswell of opinionagainst the alliance. Conversely, the ANOPresearch found that the Defence strategy
AUSTRALIAN PUBLIC OPINIONS OF DEFENCE 41favoured by the majority of respondents was"to be as self-reliant as possible in defendingAustralia, but also to maintain our ties with ourallies." (This was, incidentally, the optionwhich most closely expressed the currentDefence Policy). Related public opinionresearch undertaken in 1988 also found that ofthose people with a view on the alliance, 88%strongly supported it. 8It can be seen that opposition to somemanifestations of the alliance does not translateinto opposition to the alliance per se. Thepublic is aware that there are some costs involvedin the alliance, but the great majority believethat the benefits far outweigh these costs.Similarly complex findings were evident inrelation to public perceptions of Australia'sdefence capacity. ANOP found that in 1987,53% of respondents felt that Australia couldnot defend itself effectively. (This was a markeddrop from the 73% who considered this tobe true in 1980). Of the people holding this viewin 1987, the main reasons given to explain theirbeliefs were related to the size of the DefenceForce, the vastness of the coastline and theperception that the equipment was largely outdated.Of those 42% of respondents who wereconfident of Australia's defence capacity, themain reasons given were; Australia has a welltrained,effective Defence Force, the ADF iswell equipped and up to date, and thatAustralia's allies would lend assistance in theevent of an external threat.Aside from a dichotomy of views relating toequipment, the findings reveal a basic faith inthe capability of the Defence Force. Evenamong those who do not think that Australiacould defend itself effectively, their concernspertained to the size of the ADF and the efficacyof Defence equipment rather than thecapabilities of the personnel. As with thealliance issue, it can be seen that scepticismrelating to Australia's defence capacity doesnot necessarily reflect people's opinions of theDefence Forces.From their research over three surveys,ANOP concluded;"An important trend evident Irom theanalysis of these reasons is that the mostsignificant shifts have been related to theDefence Force and its capability (rather thanfactors related to geography, allies or defenceexpenditure), indicating the link between increasedcommunity confidence in Australia'sdefence capacity and the enhanced image ofthe ADF"."The FutureThe DPR sponsored research has producedsome significant and far-reaching findings concerningpublic opinion on Defence. It has beenable to reveal evident discrepancies betweenpopular assumptions and the statedbeliefs of some sections of the community. Inaddition, various areas of seemingly inconsistentor complex attitudinal standpoints havebeen clarified. Trends in public opinion, andchanges over time have been monitored in orderto obtain as accurate a picture as possible. Thisprocess will continue.Public opinion represents the perceptions ofthe community at a particular point in time,and is influenced by events, media portrayalsand popular ideologies. In circumstances wherethe public's level of knowledge on Defenceissues is low, or where information emanatingfrom alternate sources has a negative bias, asituation exists which allows misnomers andnegative opinions among some sections of thecommuunity to persist. The Chief of theDefence Force has highlighted this issue;"Political expediency often means that untruthsare publicised, or conversely that thetruth is hidden. Both, if they are uncheckedrun the risk of causing Australians to loseconfidence in the ADF, depresses the ADFitself and, of a more serious concern, sendsthe wrong signals to neighbours and allies." 1This situation indicates the particular needfor the provision of accurate information to thepublic which is interesting, well presented andpositive. There is an obvious lack of knowledgeand understanding in the population on variousDefence issues, despite the fact that there is acorresponding interest in these issues.It is evident that a strong supportive base existsfrom which communications activities canbe projected to relevant sections of the community.Further research is now being plannedwhich will examine the underlying value systemheld by Australians, and how this impacts onpublic opinion regarding Detence issues. Currentinitiatives will identify the best ways to addressthe specific information and education requirementsof various sections of the community,and to capitalise on the existing levels ofsupport and high regard for the ADF. II
42 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Notes4. Michael Mornssey and Colleen Mitchell, "Summary otFindings — By Ethnicity", Females and Ethnic1. J.P. Robinson and R. Meadow, "Polls Apart", as Minorities: Attitudes to Defence, University ofquoted in D. Collins, Altitudes Towards Defence Issues Wollongong Centre for Multicultural Studies,— Experiments on Question Form, Frank Smalls and September 1988.Associates, 1988. 5. ANOP, op. at., p. 51.. _ . , . „ , ,, ,. r, ,, ,-, u 6. Morrissev and Mitchell, op. cit., "Findings — Total2. David Campbel, Australian Public Opinion on No- s , Information Sources and Needs".tional Security Issues, Working Paper No. 1, Peace 7 ANOp d[ p 34Research Centre, ANU, 1986, p. 11. g; Frank ^ma „ s and Associates, op_ ciL3. ANOP Research Services Pty. Ltd. Public Attitudes to 9. ANOP, op. cit., p. 39.Defence, 1987, p. 45. 10. General P. Gration, The Australian, 1 October, 1988.The Public Opinion polls referred to thoughout this article are both recent studies commissioned by the Directorate ofPublic Relations. The first was through Australian National Opinion Polls (ANOP). It was designed to;(1) monitor trends from two previous ANOP surveys (1980 and 1984), and to(2) explore public attitudes to Defence issues in greater depth and monitor the image of, and attitudes to, Defence Forceemployment.The second survey was carried out by the Centre for Multicultural Studies at the University of Wollongong. This researchwas intended to investigate the attitudes towards, and knowledge levels about, the ADF, of two groups of people: Namely,women of all ethnicities and migrants of non-English speakling background (NESB). The University of Wollongong surveyused three variables to test the groups surveyed. These were; ethnic background, gender and level of education.Lisa Keen completed an Honours degree in Politics and History in 1986. She joined theDepartment of Defence as a Graduate Administrative Assistant and has worked in Marketingand the Office of Defence Production. Lisa is currently working as a Research Officer forDefence Public Relations.SUCCESS FOR FAMILY INFORMATION NETWORKMore than 1000 Defence families and personnel have called the new Family InformationNetwork for Defence (FIND) service in its first two weeks of operation.The Minister for Defence Science and Personnel Ros Kelly officially launchedthe 008 telephone service for Defence families in March.She said the response rate was a clear indication of the success of the FINDinitiative."FIND is available to every Service person and family to make sure they are informedof the changing areas of service conditions and family entitlements."The number of people who have already made use of FIND demonstrates thatit is meeting a need in helping break down the feeling of isolation sometimes experiencedby Service families."Mrs Kelly said it was essential that families were aware of the range ofallowances and the help available, particularly when they were in areas or cities unfamiliarto them."No question is too trivial. FIND is confidential and callers can remainanonymous."FIND operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Operators are available between9am and 4pm on working days and messages may be left after hours."Defence families can contact FIND by phoning (008) 02 0031 Australia wide,or 57 2444 for Canberra callers," Mrs Kelly said.
The Rt Hon Sir George Foster Pearce (1870-1952)Trials and Triumphs of an Australian Defence MinisterBy Major Warren Perry, RLIntroductory RemarksIT is our business tonight to commemoratethe centenary of the birth of Senator Pearce 1and to do this by examining a few of hisachievements, as Minister of State for Defencein the Commonwealth of Australia, and topaint, by way of conclusion, some kind of wordpicture of his personality.Any discussion of Australia's defence historysince Federation would be incomplete if it failedto mention, and to mention often, the nameof Senator Pearce. Yet today his part in makingthis history does not seem to be widely knownin any detail. Indeed he may be himself partlyto blame for this situation for in discharging hisministerial duties in the Department of Defencehe does not seem to have considered anythingbeyond the demands of good day to day publicadministration and he certainly did nothing toseek publicity for himself. He kept no privatediaries; he kept no personal papers in anysystematic way; and so what he bequeathed toposterity in the way of personal records of hispublic life were disappointing quantitatively.George Foster Pearce was born in humblecircumstances on the 14 January 1870 at MountBarker in South Australia. It was later in thatyear that the British Government withdrew thelast detachments of its troops from duty inAustralia. 2 Pearce was 11 years old when he leftschool to become at first a farm labourer andlater an apprentice carpenter; he was 31 yearsold when the Commonwealth of Australia wasinaugurated in 1901; he was 44 years of agewhen, in August 1914, the War of 1914-18began and he became, in the following month,Minister for Defence; and in his 69th year heleft, for the last time in June 1938, the Parliamentof the Commonwealth of Australia in theSenate of which he had sat continuously as anoriginal member since 1901.Pearce's political career, although a successfulone in terms of tenure and achievementsas a cabinet minister, was one of sustained conflictin a political environment of friction, provocationand hostility. He knew the hisses ofthe ill-informed crowd; he endured the intoleranceand rancour of political opponents;he felt the private silence of former politicalfriends; and he long knew well the truth of theGerman proverb that "Ingratitude is thereward of the world". A weaker and less practicalman than Pearce would have sunk underthe load of undeserved unpopularity andunmerited abuse that he had to bear throughouthis long ministerial career; but especially duringthe War of 1914-18, when he crossed the floorof the Senate. Indeed, there were few contemporarieswhose public work was more persistentlymisinterpreted, more bitterly assailedor more ignorantly judged than that of SenatorPearce. But like President Truman later,Senator Pearce withstood "the heat in the kitchen"and survived politically until the electionsof 1937.Although in his post-war parliamentarycareer Senator Pearce was Minister for Homeand Territories on one occasion and on a laterone Minister for External Affairs and Territories,he is more widely remembered probablyfor his work, as Minister for Defence,which occupied the greater part of hisministerial career. We will be concerned,therefore, solely with his work as a ministerialhead in administering the Department ofDefence. We will not be concerned with his activitieswithin the political parties to which hebelonged; and we will be concerned very littlewith his activities on the government and oppositionbenches in Parliament.Mr John Merrit of Western Australia said in1963, in his unpublished thesis, George FosterPearce: Labour Leader, that: "No attempt hasbeen made to study in detail Pearce the administrator."In December of that year,however, an important paper was published entitled"Sir George Pearce as Administrator" bySir Peter Heydon' of Canberra who had beenSenator Pearce's private secretary duringPearce's last year or so as a minister in 1936-37.I propose, therefore, to proceed to an examinationof six major areas of Senator
44 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Pearce's Departmental work as an administrator.These are:(a) The introduction of Universal Training in1911.(b) The establishment of the Royal MilitaryCollege at Duntroon.(c) His part in the War of 1914-18.(d) His work in London in 1919.(e) The re-construction of Australia's postwarArmy in 1920-21.(f) His attendance at the Washington Conferencefor the Limitation of Armamentsin 1921-22.The Introduction of Universal TrainingCompulsory military training was discussedin Australia for more than a decade prior to itsadoption by statute in 1909.The Defence Acts of 1903 and 1904 imposedon all male citizens of Australia, between theages of 18 and 60, liability to service in time ofwar. But these Acts did not make the obligationeffective because they did not provide for thetraining in peacetime of the persons liable. Thisomission was remedied when the DeakinGovernment enacted the Defence Act 1909. Bythis Act the principle of universal liability to betrained, militarily, was made law for the firsttime in an English-speaking country. 4 Regulationsmade under this Act also provided byregistration, enrolment and exemption.Statutes were subsequently passed extending ormodifying the legislative provisions, removingobstacles and difficulties and, where necessary,providing administrative machinery.At the invitation of the Deakin Government,Field Marshal Lord Kitchener visited Australia.He arrived in Australia in December 1909 andthe object of his visit was to advise the FederalGovernment on ways and means for the effectiveexecution of the provisions of the DefenceAct 1909; and to inspect and report onAustralia's military forces and establishments.Pearce said: "There were two Kitchenerreports: one to be made public and one forMinisters only. In the former he dealt almostentirely with the new proposals, but in the confidentialone he spared nobody. He picked outthe misfits and the inefficient, but he also pickedthose who, he thought, would help to makethe new scheme a success."-At the time of the Field Marshal's visit,Pearce was, of course, out of office; and he wasin Western Australia when Lord Kitchenervisited that State in January 1910. Through theefforts of the State Governor, Sir GeraldStrickland, Pearce met Lord Kitchener atGovernment House in Perth. There Lord Kitchenersaid, in effect, to Pearce: "I have beeninformed that you have been a Minister forDefence and that if there should be a change ofGovernment, you will be Minister for Defenceagain. There are some things that I am tellingthe Minister for Defence which 1 will not put inmy report. I have the Minister's permission totell them to you." Then, said Pearce: "Fortwenty minutes he outlined these things. Theydealt mainly with the transition period of thechangeover from the old Militia system to thesystem of universal military training." Theydealt also with questions of the officers whocould have responsibility for the new system.Mercilessly, he analysed the capabilities or lackof them as he summed them up. When he hadfinished Pearce asked him some questions; andhe said that, "to all he had a ready reply, a replythat went straight to the heart of theproblem." sAlthough the Defence Act 1909 was assentedto on 13 December 1909 it did not come intoforce until the 1 January 1911. By that time thesecond Fisher Government was again in power;it had been sworn in, eight months earlier, inApril 1910; and Pearce had again become theMinister for Defence in this second FisherGovernment. The main physical preparationsfor the introduction of the scheme and the provisionof the necessary commanders, staff officersand instructors became Pearce'sresponsibility.The training of Senior Cadets began on 1 July1911;" and the first intake of UniversalTrainees into the Citizen Forces began on 1 July1912.For the nation at that time the UniversalTraining scheme was a big one, organisationallyand administratively. On the whole,however, the scheme worked well from theoutset; but it needed a great deal of close supervisionand adjustment to adapt it to the socialconditions in which it had to work. Peace watchedits development too but not from his officechair; he went out into the field to talk toofficers and men and to observe closely thescheme's operation at the grass roots level. Inplanning a scheme of this magnitude foresightwas bound to overlook some things. One cause
THE RT HON SIR GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE (1870-1952)of friction was the behaviour of conscientiousobjectors who protested against their obligationsto serve and who, in some instances,refused to serve. But this aspect of the schemehas been covered in some detail in Dr L.C.Jauncey's book, "The Story of Conscription inAustralia" and so we must leave Pearce's introductionof the Universal Training scheme atthis point.The Royal Military College at DuntroonConcurrently with the introduction anddevelopment of the Universal Training scheme,Pearce was engaged on a related task — theestablishment and opening of a military college.Discussions in Australia on the need for amilitary college were almost as old as Pearcehimself. This need first became apparent probablyafter the opening of the Royal MilitaryCollege of Canada at Kingston in June 1876.*Facilities of varying degrees of efficiency wereavailable in the military forces of the Australiancolonies to enable their part-time officers to beinstructed in their duties. But there had alwaysbeen difficulties in obtaining persons, suitableeducationally and otherwise, for commissionsin the permanent forces for instructional andadministrative duties.As far back as December 1886 the Governmentof the Colony of Victoria got as far as introducinga Bill to establish a college formilitary education — "The Wellington CollegeBill 1886". The purpose of the college was togive "Instruction in the military profession andof promoting the study of the sciences and artsthereto pertaining". But the Bill was subsequentlywithdrawn. Three years later MajorGeneral Sir J. Bevan Edwards of the British Armycarried out inspections of the military forcesof the Australian colonies. In his report to theHorse Guards in London, dated 10 October1889, he recommended the establishment inAustralia of a "Federal Military College"similar to that of the Royal Military College ofCanada. In the first Federal Defence Bill 1901introduced into the House of Representatives inJune 1901 but later withdrawn, provision wasmade in a proposed amendment to this Bill forthe establishment of "The Australian MilitaryCollege". But, after Federation, almost adecade passed before some effective action wastaken to establish a military college inAustralia.The Deakin Government's Defence Act 1909authorised the establishment of an Australianmilitary college for the training of cadets forappointment to the Permanent Military Forcesas combatant officers. But before the DeakinGovernment could execute the provisions ofthis Act it was succeeded, in April 1910, by theFisher Government in which Peace was theMinister for Defence. It therefore becamePearce's responsibility to implement the provisionsof this Act.Universal Training was probably the weightthat tipped the scales in favour of the openingof a military college. At that time the immediateobject of the Universal Trainingscheme was to build up the Citizen MilitaryForces to a strength of 80,000 men of all ranks.This object required the provision of thenecessary number of adequately trained regularofficers to train, instruct and administer thislarge part-time army. The provision of these officersbecame one of Peace's most serious andmost urgent problems.Four weeks after Peace had resumedministerial control of the Department ofDefence, that is on 30 May 1910, ColonelBridges returned to Melbourne from an inspectionof overseas military colleges; and, onSenator Pearce's recommendation he was appointed,as from that date, to command theMilitary College of Australia with the rank ofBrigadier General. At this stage, of course, thecollege had no physical existence. Bridges madehis headquarters, temporarily, in the Departmentof Defence then located at Victoria Barracks,Melbourne. There he set to work andconcurrently selected and assembled a staff toassist him with this work.It was Pearce and Bridges who jointly gavethe College its physical existence. Five daysafter Bridges became Commandant of the College,he submitted to Senator Pearce an outlineplan, based on Australia's requirements, forthe creation of a military college. Senator Peaceagreed with this plan and it was approved bythe Fisher Government. The Governmentdirected that the college be built in theAustralian Capital Territory. Bridges visitedthat area and, on 1 July 1910, he selected"Duntroon" as the site for the college. Thiswas the homestead area of a sheep stationwhich was owned by Colonel John EdwardCampbell. On 1 October 1910 Senator Pearce,after inspecting alternative sites, agreed with
46 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89the Duntroon site selected by Bridges as the sitefor the new college. Eight months later the collegewas ready to begin its first course.A contemporary military writer, CaptainNiesigh (1862-1931), said that the model chosenfor the administration of the college was thefamous United States Military Academy atWest Point. Lieutenant General Sir EdwardHutton, Major General Sir John Hoad, andMajor General Bridges had preferred "WestPoint" to "Sandhurst", "The Shop" atWoolwich or the Royal Military College ofCanada and other military colleges. Field-Marshall Lord Kitchener had also agreed withthis preference for West Point." Therefore,Senator Pearce accepted the responsibility formodelling "Duntroon" on "West Point".His Excellency the Govrenor-General, theEarl of Dudley, opened the College officiallyon Tuesday afternoon 27 June 1911 and namedit The Royal Military College of Australia. Thisopening ceremony was conducted in thepresence of Ministers of State, Official Guests,the Commandant and members of his Staff, thefirst intake of Staff Cadets and members of thepublic. 1 " This ceremony was one on a smallscale; it was not comparable in scale and splendourwith a ceremonial parade of the Brigadeof Guards in London at a Trooping of theKing's Colour; and it can be presumed thateach of the Corps of Staff Cadets present wasfilled with thoughts about how he was "goingto run in the grand military steeplechase of anarmy career".There were two notable absentees from thisimportant event in Australia's military history.Senator Pearce was absent in London and MajorGeneral Sir John Hoad, who was the Chiefof the Australian General Staff, was absent onsick leave. Senator Pearce had gone to Londonto attend the Imperial Conference of 1911" andto witness the coronation of King George V.Four months after the opening of the CollegeGeneral Hoad died. 12The War of 1914-18.Some of the nation's Defence leaders wereabsent from their posts in Melbourne when theWar of 1914-18 began officially. Governmentand Opposition members of the Federal Parliamentwere scattered throughout Australia conductingan election campaign. The InspectorGeneral of the Forces, Brigadier GeneralBridges, was in Queensland on duty; the recentlyappointed Chief of the Australian GeneralStaff, Colonel J.G. Legge, was on his wayhome to Melbourne to take up duty after havingspent the previous two years at the War Officein London; and the permanent head of theDepartment of Defence, CommanderPethebridge, reached Melbourne on 5 Augustafter an absence of about two months spent inthe Union of South Africa.Pearce, as a member of the Opposition hadno ministerial responsibilities at this early stageof the war. He was in the Denmark district ofWestern Australia when the news reached himof the outbreak of war. At the request of theLeader of the Opposition, Mr Andrew Fisher,he returned without delay to Melbourne. There,Pearce said, it was decided not to form a NationalGovernment, as was proposed, but toproceed with the election campaign.The Cook Government was defeated at theseelections. The third Fisher Government wassworn in, in the sixth week of the war, on 17September 1914 when Senator Pearce replacedSenator Millen as Minister for Defence.Senator Pearce's Department of Defence wasthe only Service Department in 1914.Therefore, it administered directly the Navyand the Army which, until after the War of1914-18, included the Air Force. It alsodischarged industrial functions until early in1939 when these functions were transferred toother Government authorities. In addition theDepartment of Defence was responsible forcivil censorship during the War of 1914-18. Butduring the War of 1939-45 this responsibilityhad been transferred to another Governmentauthority. It is beyond the scope of this paperhowever to deal with the history of the Departmentof Defence after the close of SenatorPearce's Parliamentary career in June 1938.The burdens of office, which pressed heavilyon Pearce in the Department of Defence, werenot wholly consequences which flowed fromthe outbreak of the war. They were due partly,at least to causes which had their origins inearlier times. These causes resided inweaknesses in the Department's organisation,its system of administration, and the system forthe recruitment and training of its civil staff.Senator Pearce informed the Senate, in October1914, that:. . . we have inherited a legacy of an almostvicious character from State Administrations.Prior to Federaton, the Minister of
THE RT HON SIR GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE (1870-1952) 47Defence of each Colony had comparativelyan easy time. He had only a small naval forceand a small military force to deal with. Theconsequence was that he was able to give hisattention to the minutest details of administration,and members of Parliamentwere able to bring under his personal noticeminute questions of administration.Then, with the coming of Federation in 1901,what happened to these administrative systems?Senator Pearce gave the answer by saying:At Federation all these six administrationswere formed into one Department, but, unfortunatelywe inherited the system of administrationthat was previously carried outin the various Colonies. Under that systemthe Minister had to approve of the minutestdetails of administration, and we havefollowed the same system. It is impossible forthe Minister under Federation to deal with allthe matters of routine that are now left tohim as a consequence of the system we haveinherited."At this point Pearce's immediate predecessor inthe office of Minister for Defence, SenatorMillen, interjected to say: "Compensation tothe extent of 2 for a wounded horseman cannotbe made without the matter coming before theMinister for Defence."We must now leave this aspect of Pearce'sministerial work; enough has been said to showthat he was submerged in a mass of detail whichleft him insufficient time to devote to more importantdecision making and to policy matters.In some ways Pearce was fortunate when hetook over the ministerial control of the Departmentof Defence, in September 1914, fromSenator Millen. He found that the previousGovernment had already done much of thespade work concerned with placing Australia ina state of preparedness for war. It had, on 10August 1914, transferred all vessels, officersand seamen of Australia's naval forces to thedirect control of the Admiralty in London; thistransference was agreed on at the Imperial Conferenceof 1911 in London at which Pearce waspresent. In addition the Cook Government hadtaken the initial steps to raise two expeditionaryforces for active service overseas. This wasnecessary because the Defence Act did not permitthe Federal Government to send itspeacetime land forces overseas.When Senator Pearce assumed ministerialcontrol of the Department of Defence inSeptember 1914 his immediate tasks, whichwere military rather than naval, were:(a) To maintain the Australian Naval and MilitaryExpeditionary Force in German New-Guinea;(b) To complete all preparations necessary forMajor General Bridges' first contingent ofthe A.I.F. to embark and sail, with navalescorts, to its overseas destination.(c) To complete the mobilisation of the secondcontingent of the A.I.F. to enable it to proceedoverseas. It consisted of the 4th InfantryBrigade, A.I.F. Two days before theCook Government went out of office ColonelJohn Monash had been appointed tocommand this brigade.Pearce said: "It will probably come as a surpriseto many Australians when I say that in theearly stages of the organisation of our militaryoverseas forces I was subjected to some verybitter criticism on the question of the appointmentof Colonel John Monash . . . [to] theA.I.F." What caused this criticism? AlthoughMonash was born in Melbourne his parents,who died before Federation, had come fromPrussia. Pearce said: "A whispering campaignbegan against Monash" and that "It was saidthat he had strong German sympathies". ButPearce said that he was "quite satisfied thatMonash was loyal" and so nothing was done bythe Fisher Government to cancel Monash's appointmentto the A.I.F. Pearce said that: "If Ihad listened to gossip and slander, as I was urgedto do, Monash would never have gone to theWar"." In taking this stand in defence ofMonash, Pearce displayed very considerableand indeed very unusual moral courage.In May 1915 Major General Bridges, whencommanding the 1st Australian Division in theGallipoli campaign, was mortally wounded inaction. Senator Pearce, with Cabinet approval,sent his C.G.S., Major General Legge,'" to takeover Bridges duties. Legge had done good workas Australia's first wartime Chief of theGeneral Staff and he had been of greatassistance to Pearce in this appointment. Hehad earlier done much of the planning of theUniversal Training scheme which Pearce hadput into operation in July 1911. At this time hewas one of the best of the senior staff officersthat the Australian Army had produced. Hismilitary career had been superimposed on agood academic and legal background. He was a
48 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89graduate in Arts and Law of the University ofSydney; and before he became a regular officerin 1894 he was practising at the New SouthWales Bar.Senator Pearce's new Chief of the GeneralStaff in 1915 was Colonel (later Major-General)G.G.H. Irving (1867-1937). His family hadclose connections with the University ofMelbourne. His father Lieutenant-ColonelM.H. Irving, MA (Oxon) held the Chair ofClassical and Comparative Philology in theUniversity of Melbourne from 1856 to 1871;and his son Brigadier R.G.H. Irving(1898-1965), late of the Australian Staff Corps,occupied in the University of Melbourne, at thetime of his death in December 1965, the appointmentof Secretary of the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee.Pearce's work load, as Minister for Defence,continued to increase and in July 1915 he wasobliged to take action in Parliament to have theMinistry increased from seven to eightmembers. In moving the second reading of theMinisters of State Bill 1915 in the Senate, on 9July 1915, Pearce said:. . . in the early years of Federation, our totalexpenditure on defence, both Naval andMilitary, was less than £1,000,000. Ourdefence system of today was not then inoperation. We had a defence system of themost casual character. Under that system itwas possible for the Minister to give attentionto details on comparatively minor matters.After an interjection Senator Pearce went onto say:The necessity for systematised defence hadnot then become so apparent. It was onlyafter world-wide events of great significancethat the truth was brought home to Australiathat our defence system must become a realone. I confess, without any compunction,that the event which first awakened me to itstrue significance was the Russo-Japanesewar. Prior to that struggle I had regarded thequestion of defence as an extremely minorone for Australia. But the war forced uponme the conviction that we had been drawn intothe maelstrom of world politics, and fromthat time onwards defence to me became amatter of absorbing interest and of vital importanceto the Commonwealth. 1 'This Bill was assented to and on 12 July 1915;a Minister for Navy, the Hon J.A. Jensen, wassworn in; and a separate Department of theNavy was created. This change reduced thework load of Senator Pearee.Four months later Pearce informed theSenate that the Prime Minister, Mr Hughes,had accepted an imitation of the BritishGovernment to go to London to obtain a moreintimate knowledge of the war situation. MrHughes left Sydney, secretly, on 16 January1916 for London via Canada and the U.S.A.During his absence of seven months fromAustralia, Pearce acted as Prime Minster; buthe continued to discharge concurrently hisduties as Minister for Defence.In the month following the Prime Minister'sdeparture for London, Senator Pearce made animportant announcement concerningAustralia's expanding war effort. He announcedon 9 February 1916 that the AustralianGovernment had decided to increase thefighting strength of the A.I.F. from two to fivedivisions. Two of these divisions, he said — tobe designated the 4th Australian Division andthe 5th Australian Division — were to be formedin Egypt; and the remaining division — to bedesignated the 3rd Australian Division - was tobe formed in Australia." The 3rd AustralianDivision with 1st reinforcements — a total of20,092 all ranks — embarked in Australia duringthe months of May and June 1916 and sailedfor England where it concentrated inSouthern Command under the command ofMajor General Monash.Since becoming the wartime Minister forDefence, Senator Pearce had often spoken inParliament of the inadequacies of his Department'ssystem of administration. In those timesthe Commonwealth Public Service did not produceofficers who were skilled in high levelorganisation and methods work. The Department'sdaily administration did not pass thetests of war; and it was strongly criticised in thepress and in Parliament. Defects came to noticefirst on a major scale in the Paymaster'sBranch. There the staff, without efficienthigher direction, had failed to cope effectivelywith the unforeseen expansion in the volumeand complexity of their work. After obtainingadvice from Brigadier General Sir Robe:.Anderson, a former Town Clerk of the City oSydney and a forerunner of the present dayManagement experts, Pearce re-organised thisbranch and improved its direction and control.In 1916 a number of public accountants were
THE RT HON SIR GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE (1870-1952) 49appointed to the Department from privatepractice.It had also become evident to Senator Pearcethat the immense volume of purchases by theDepartment for its fighting services could notbe carried out efficiently and promptly unlessbetter trained and more highly experienced officerswere employed than those who had sufficedfor peacetime requirements. In order tocorrect this unsatisfactory situation Pearce hadestablished, in November 1915, a Contracts andSupply Board and henceforth all Departmentalpurchases were made only through this board.By taking advantage of its strong position indealing with tenderers, in breaking down combineswhen necessary, and in ruling outundesirable contractors, this Board, under thechairmanship of Mr M.M. Maguire,'" who wasthe Assistant Secretary of the Department ofDefence, prevented exploitation and profiteeringat the expense of the public.Nevertheless, rumours of irregularities in administrationcontinued to cause public anxiety.Senator Pearce was obliged to take notice ofthis situation too. On 2 July 1917 a Royal Commissionwas appointed to investigate the entirebusiness administration of the Department ofDefence. Under the chairmanship of Mr W.G.McBeath 20 the Commission conducted its investigations;and it issued its findings andrecommendations in four separate reports.On 22 March 1918 The Age announced that"three more reports" of the Royal Commissionhad been made public the previous day. TheCommissioners criticised severely the Departmentof Defence's accounting and payingsystems. This criticism, The Age said,"constituted a most amazing and damning indictmentof the Department, and it aboundswith instances of lax administration, irregularities,and official ineptitude". The Commissionersrecommended that the "businesssections" of the Department be directed andcontrolled, under the Minister's direction by aBusiness Board of Administration. SenatorPearce approved of this and the Hon GeorgeSwinburne became the Board's full-timechairman.Senator Pearce made a public statement onthe work of the Royal Commission and by wayof conclusion he said:/ do not claim for myself or the military staffinfallibility, but I do say, without hesitationthat we have tackled the onerous and responsibletask with all our powers, and that, whenall the circumstances are taken into consideration,we have achieved a very fairmeasure of success. In almost everybelligerent country similar complaints havebeen or are being made, while in somecharges of corruption have been laid at thedoor of the army administration. Happily,nothing of the kind in regard to Australia ismooted in these reports."At this time, when Pearce was having towithstand these attacks against his competenceto administer the Department of Defence, theGerman High Command launched on 21 March1918 a gigantic offensive on the Western Frontin Europe. The Allied forces, in taking the firstimpact of this offensive, were greatlydemoralised and until order was restored it waswidely believed that the Allied forces faced imminentdisaster. But in due course the tide turnedin favour of the Allies. At last the "ceasefire" was sounded at 11 a.m. on the 11November 1918 in all theatres of war at sea, onland and in the air in response to a request bythe German Government for an armistice. Animportant contribution towards the bringingabout of this military result had been made bythe commander whom Pearce had succeeded inhaving placed in command of the A.I.F. on theWestern Front in June 1918, after a verydistinguished career as a divisional commander— Lieutenant General Sir John Monash."With the "Cease fire" the war was over asfar as the fighting soldier was concerned. But itwas not, figuratively speaking, a "Cease fire"for Senator Pearce. The immediate post-warproblems which crowded in on him were asonerous and as voluminous as were those withwhich he had to cope during the conduct of thewar.His Work in London in 1919.With the cessation of hostilities theAustralian Government was faced with theneed to disband its overseas war organisationand to repatriate to Australia as quickly aspossible about 180,000 members of the A.I.F.and civil workers engaged on war workoverseas.General Monash was appointed DirectorGeneral of Repatriation and Demobilisation,with headquarters in London, and he took upduty there on 1 December 1918. : ' He workedunder the ministerial direction of the Prime
50 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Minister, Mr Hughes, until, early in the followingmonth, when Mr Hughes went to France totake part in the long drawn out preparations forthe Peace Conference which took place at Versaillesin June 1919. In France Mr Hughescould give Monash in London little if anyassistance. The Australian Government decidedthat Monash's work in London needed to bepresided over by a Senior Australian Ministerand so, on 20 December 1918, the Acting PrimeMinister, Mr W.A. Watt, informed the Houseof Representatives that Senator Pearce hadconsented to go to London for this purpose. 24This announcement of Senator Pearce's missionto London in 1919 released a torrent ofpublic abuse in Australia against SenatorPearce. Much of it originated in R.S.L. subbranchesand it reflected on the whole an appallingignorance, on the part of the critics, ofthe functions of the Stateman and the Soldier inmatters of policy and its execution. Pearce saidhimself that: "It was urged that ... Sir JohnMonash could quite adequately do the job.What these critics did not realise was that I, as aMinister, could and did go direct to Britishministers to obtain ships and facilities for thedemobilisation of our soldiers. Sir JohnMonash could not do this but could only makehis representations to officers like himself." Onthe 16 January 1919 The Argus published thefull text of a long letter from Senator Pearce tothe Victorian Branch of the R.S.L. in which hepointed out that:The Army of which you have been part is admittedto have been the best equipped, thebest paid, and the best fed of all the armiestaking part. Your leadership has been good.All these factors have been the foundationupon which your success has rested. Withoutthem your success would not have been asgreat as it has. These things did not merelyhappen, or come by chance, but were thedirect and unquestionable result of administration.How has that equipment for instancebeen provided? Let me remind youthat before this war —from 1910 to 1913 I,as Minister for Defence, was by my administrationpreparing Australia for war.During these years by strenuous work . . . Ibuilt up equipment in Australia of a moderntype spending no less than over £.600,000 tothis end, with the result that when the timecame for our first divisions to enter the fieldwe had arms and equipment with which tosend them forth — the direct result of the expenditurereferred to.Pearce sailed from Melbourne on 25 January1919 and he arrived in London on 19 March1919. This was his first visit to England sincehis attendance at the Imperial Conference inLondon in 1911. His six months in London onthis occasion was spent in work of great benefitto Australia; it was also work which dealt withwider aspects of the war than repatriation anddemobilisation. He said that: "Among the mattersI had to deal with whilst in London wasthat of the financial adjustment with the BritishGovernment of charges for expenditure in andarising out of the war. :5 The Australian Governmenthad undertaken to finance all its war efforts,and the disentangling and dissection ofaccounts was a gigantic task." He was assistedin this work by the Australian High Commissionerin London, Mr Andrew Fisher, and hisstaff.The financial relations which had developedbetween the British and Australian Governmentsin connection with war and post-war expenditure,and particularly that connected withthe repatriation and demobilisation of theA.I.F., covered a wide range and involved largesums of money. On matters of financial adjustmentwith the War Office in London, SenatorPearce said:The A ustralian Government provided or paidfor the equipment of the A.I.F., with the exceptionof the Air Force, heavy artillery andmotor transport. A t the end of the war practicallyall the equipment on charge to theA.I.F. was partly worn and the War Officeagreed to give the Australian Governmentnew equipment, in exchange for the partwornequipment, for five infantry divisionsand two light horse divisions. They also madeus a free gift of 100 aeroplanes.^In due course the work in Europe, whichSenator Pearce and the Australian PrimeMinister had gone there to do, was finished. MrW.M. Hughes, whose work on this occasionhad reached its zenith in the previous month atthe signing of the Treaty of Versailles betweenthe Allies and Germany in the Palace of Versailleson Saturday 28 June 1919, was the firstto go, accompanied by the Australian Ministerfor the Navy, Sir Joseph Cook. They left Londonby train on Tuesday 8 July 1919 forPlymouth. En route Mr Hughes addressedAustralian troops staging at Sutton Veny,
THE RT HON SIR GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE (1870-1952)SIwhere the A.I.F. Training Depot had been convertedinto a Holding Depot for troopsawaiting embarkation for Australia. That sameday the Prime Minister and the Minister for theNavy sailed from Plymouth for Australia wherethey disembarked at Melbourne on Saturday 30August 1919.Senator Pearce followed later. He sailedfrom Tilbury, on or about 27 September 1919,for Fremantle, accompanied by Lieutenant-General Sir Talbot Hobbs of WesternAustralia.Any notions which had been held earlier thatSenator Pearce's visit to Great Britian was a"joy ride" were later dispelled by the evidencewhich emerged from the work he did there. 2 "His public statements were usually characterisedby the completeness and accuracy of the informationthey contained. So after his arrival atFremantle, on or about Thursday 30 October1919, his press interview ran true to normalform and it makes interesting reading even today.In one part he said:// was essential that there should have beenan Australian Minister in London to meetBritish Ministers on an equal footing and toput forward Australia's claims for just treatment.No official could initiate these matterswhich were those involving policy. Had therenot been a responsible Minister in Londonthese important questions would have had tobe initiated in Australia, and passed throughofficial channels, by Ministers who could nothave had the full information that could beobtained on the spot. 2 "He commented, also at this press interview inPerth, on the work of Repatriation andDemobilisation in the United Kingdom. Thiswork had been almost completed at the end ofOctober 1919 for there were only 18,281Australian soldiers, munition workers anddependants left at the time in the UnitedKingdom. Very good work had been done, hesaid, by the Department of Repatriation andDemobilisation in London 2 '' and the FederalGovernment had been very fortunate in havingofficers like General Sir William Birdwood,Lieutenant General Sir John Monash andBrigadier General T. Griffiths to direct andcontrol this work. Senator Pearce went on tosay that:Some time prior to leaving London I gave instructionsfor the closing down of suchcamps as could be conveniently closed andthe concentration of troops at Sutton Veny.This was arranged accordingly. Instructionswere also given that from 1 October 1919 theRepatriation and Demobilisation Staff wereto be amalgamated with that of Headquarters,A.I.F. with Brigadier-General Jessin charge. 3 "This has been a fast gallop through six importantmonths of Pearce's ministerial career inLondon; we have hardly had time to look at themile-posts as we raced along; but time is runningout and we must now turn to his task of reconstructingAustralia's post-war Army.Australia's Post-War Army.At the opening of the new year in 1920 theAustralian defence situation, administratively,was as follows: Senator Pearce's Department ofDefence administered the Army and the AirForce; and the Air Force was still a branch ofthe Army. The Navy was still administered bythe separate and independent Department ofthe Navy.The Federal Government set up separatecommittees to formulate plans for the nation'spost-war naval, military and air defence. Themilitary committee had its first meeting, on 22January 1920, in Melbourne; it was presidedover by Senator Peace who explained that theproblem of the re-organisation of Australia'snaval, military and air fores would be reviewedby the several committees appointed for thepurpose with due regard to the experiencewhich had been gained in the late war and withdue regard, also, to Australia's conditions athome and overseas. The military committee,under the chairmanship of General Chauvel,submitted its report, dated 6 February 1920, toSenator Pearce.A meeting of the Council of Defence tookplace in Melbourne, on 9 February 1920, underthe Chairmanship of the Prime Minister, MrHughes, to consider and co-ordinate the naval,military and air defence schemes which hadbeen worked out by the respective committeesduring the previous three weeks." SenatorPearce attended this meeting, accompanied byhis military and air advisers — Lieut-GeneralChauvel, Lieutenant General Monash, MajorGeneral Legge (C.G.S.), Major General SirBrudenell White (C.G.S. designate) and LieutenantColonel Richard Williams (Air Force).Seven months later, on the 17 September1920, Senator Pearce made a policy statement
52 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89on Defence in the Senate.' 2 It was based on thereports of the naval, military and air committeesand the comments of the Council ofDefence. After referring to the effects of thelate war on the nation's defence system andpointing out that a fresh policy had becomenecessary in consequence, he said that theGovernment adhered to the policy of maintainingits military forces on a Citizen Force basis;that permanent troops were to be maintainedonly in sufficient numbers to administer and instructthe Citizen Forces, and to provide thenuclei of certain technical services. Later in thisspeech Pearce said that the Governmentadhered to the policy of Universal Trainingwhich had been applied for the previous nineyears; and that the peace establishment of thisnew army would be approximately 130,000 allranks.This post war part-time field army adoptedthe divisional organisation of the A.I.F. on theWestern Front in Europe. This change involvedthe grouping of infantry brigades into divisionsand the numbering of formations and units inaccordance with the system that had operatedin the A.I.F. Hitherto the largest tactical formationin Australia's peacetime forces hadbeen the infantry brigade; but henceforth it wasto be the division. This new organisationdemanded larger establishments of senior commandersand staff officers. Early in February1921 Senator Pearce announced the names ofthe seven new divisional commanders" whoseappointments became effective on 1 May1921.' 4 All these divisional commanders, exceptone cavalry commander, had been subordinatecommanders of General Monash on theWestern Front in the late war; and only one ofthese divisional commanders was a regular officer.Each divisional commander was to bereponsible direct to the Military Board then inMelbourne. The scheme lowered the status ofthe District Commandants and changed theirtitle to that of Base Commandant. SenatorPearce explained that this re-organisation wasnot big enough to provide a command appointmentfor General Monash; but the PrimeMinister proposed to invite him to become amilitary member of the Council of Defence.Monash subsequently became a militarymember of this Council to date 13 April 1921.But in this Council, which was advisory andwhich did not meet regularly, the Governmentcould not make the optimum use of Monash'smilitary knowledge and high level command experience.The Army would have gained greaterbenefits from his services if he had been aMilitary Member of the Military Board. Butthat would have cost money even if only to givethe Chief of the Australian General Staffequivalent rank.Two comments on this re-organisation ofAustralia's land forces after the War of 1914-18may be of interest even at this late stage.Organisationally, it was a mistake, some mayconsider, to have truncated this new organisationfor the field army at the divisional level.The five divisions could have been groupedunder two corps headquarters. This arrangementwould have provided training and experiencefor two corps commanders — one aregular commander and the other a non-regularcommander. This would have provided morecareer prospects for the officers of theAustralian Staff Corps also.A second grave defect in this new organisation— an organisation in which the C.M.F.provided the field army — was the failure toprovide for a general officer of the C.M.F. tobe a full Military Member of the MilitaryBoard. This defect was surely indefensible onany military grounds. Any financial objectionscould have been overruled as negligible.There is just time now to take a last look atPearce in another role which again took himoverseas but, this time, to Washington.The Washington Conference inDisarmament, 1921-22.In July 1921 the United States Governmentissued invitations to a number of governments,including the British, French, Italian andJapanese, to attend a conference inWashington. Its purpose was, mainly, to devisea scheme to arrest the ruinous competition,among the major powers, in naval armaments.Political problems relating to the Pacific werealso considered.The British Government accepted the invitationto attend on behalf of the British Empireand it requested Australia and other Dominionsto nominate delegates to attend with the Britishrepresentatives. Mr A.J. Balfour led the BritishEmpire Delegation which included SenatorPearce as Australia's representative.The Conference opened in Washington on 12November 1921. Its four principal figures were:Mr A.J. Balfour (U.K.), Mr Charles Evans
THE RT HON SIR GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE (1870-1952) 53Hughes (U.S.A.), Mr Briand (France) andBaron Kato (Japan). The conference was a longdrawn out one of three months duration; and itended on 6 February 1922."Pearce's performance at this Conference impressedMr Balfour very favourably. Balfour,by that time an elder British statesman and oneof the pre-eminent European political figures ofhis age.' 6 In War Memoirs of David LloydGeorge, Mr Lloyd George has bequeathed to usa personality sketch of Mr A.J. Balfour inwhich he said of him: "His was a trained mindof the finest quality, of the ripest experience, ofthe greatest penetration, piercing and dissectingproblems and laying them bare before his colleaguesfor their examination and judgment."(Vol.1, p.607). Mr Balfour had great confidencein Pearce's judgment and he hadprivate discussions with Pearce daily on thebusiness of the Conference. These consultationswere stimulating and beneficial experiencesfor Senator Pearce. Although he wasa senior and widely experienced AustralianMinister of State, when he went to thisWashington Conference, he enriched hisknowledge and experience there still furtherand his biographer, the late Sir Peter Heydon,has told us that: "The Washington Conferencewidened Pearce's horizon and gave him abroader concept of Australia's future internationalrole"; and that he discovered during thisvisit to the U.S.A. a "lack of adequate informationabout Australia overseas even in mostfriendly countries." 17Senator Pearce reported on his attendance atthis Conference in a speech in the Senate inMelbourne on 27 July 1922. He expressed somejudgments in this speech which, for the age inwhich he was speaking, had elements of prophecywhile others, in the course of time, provedto be wrong. He foresaw the importance ofgood relations between Australia and Asiancountries; his estimates of Japanese intentionswere cautious and in part erroneous; and hepredicted that the U.S.A. would in due courseend its isolation."We have already seen that the course ofPearce's political life never ran smoothly. Inthe post-war era his detractors were as activeand as vicious as they had been in previoustimes. A leader in The Sunday Times of Perth,on 11 February 1923, said: "He [Pearce] put ina bill for 8500 for a little jaunt to Washington,where he was merely a mole on the back of theConference."' 9The Summing UpWe have only been able to take a few fleetingglances at Senator Peace, as he journeyed alongthe roadway of life discharging his public dutiesquietly and promptly and with efficiency andfearlessness. But time is fast running out. Soafter a few general observations we must closethis lecture commemorating the centenary ofSenator Pearce's birth at Mt Barker in SouthAustralia.Pearce was a tall, well-built man physicallyand in his earlier years he had rather long,unruly hair. He lived through his period of immaturity,as a politician, quickly. By the timehe first entered the Federal Cabinet in 1908 hehad matured. He had ceased to be arrogant andimpatient with members of the Opposition; andhis speeches had ceased to be dogmatic and provocative.He was no orator as Brutus was. Butas a Minister his speeches were well preparedand informative; although they were rarely inspiring.He enjoyed a joke and he could see thehumorous side of things; but he was not himselfeither witty or humorous; and he wisely madeno attempt to be the one or the other in publicspeeches or in private conversation. Because hismanner was discreet, restrained andundemonstrative, political audiences did notidolise him as they did Sir George Reid and MrW.M. Hughes.Pearce was a quiet and even tempered man;and in public he seldom showed agitation or excitement.He had none of the behaviouralcharacteristics or physical features which cartoonists,lampoonists and feature writers eagerlylook for in public men. He was indeed amodest and undemonstrative man who shunnedpublicity.In 1910 Pearce had a nervous breakdown. Ithad been caused by worry and overwork; andwhen he recovered he took effective precautionsto prevent a recurrence. These precautionsincluded a number of refusals. He refusedhenceforth to take official work home to do; herefused to meet people at home to transact officialbusiness there; and he refused to reviewdecisions once he had made them unless he wasconvinced that new evidence demanded revision.He worked 8 hours daily; he worked a 5 Yiday week; and even during the war he did notchange these working conditions and hours.
54 DEFENCE; FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89Pearce's standards of behaviour wereunimpeachable. During his parliamentarycareer no suspicion of corruption or scandalwas ever associated with his name. He amassedno great fortune; he sought no honours; and hewas awarded but few despite the length andachievements of his public service. But hisname will live on for it is inseparable fromAustralia's defence history since Federation. Itis associated with important Defence conferencesof his time; it is linked with thebuilding up of Australia's own navy; it is connectedwith the creation of the Royal MilitaryCollege at Duntroon and the Royal AustralianNaval College at Jervis Bay; it is linked withAustralia's first national service trainingscheme; it is linked with the building up, theoperational achievements and the demobilisationof the first A.I.F.; and his name isassociated with the reconstruction ofAustralia's army after the War of 1914-18.Sir George Foster Pearce died in Melbourneon 24 June 1952, aged 82 years. Tributes werepaid to his work in the Federal Parliament on 6August 1952. The Prime Minister, Sir RobertMenzies, and the Leader of the Federal Opposition,Dr H.V. Evatt, spoke. Another speakerwas Pearce's wartime Prime Minister, MrW.M. Hughes. He knew Pearce longer andmore intimately than either of the other twospeakers, for Hughes and Pearce had beenoriginal members of the First Federal Parliament.They had shared together in moments oftriumph and in times of crises, the dust andashes of success. Let us therefore close bylistening to the words of Mr Hughes, who wasno mean orator, when he said in the House ofRepresentatives in Canberra on this occasion:It was my privilege to know the late SirGeorge Pearce intimately. We entered theParliament together and for many years wereclosely associated as fellow members ofParliament and as members of the samegovernments.He was one of the best administrators I haveknown. He was tireless in his efforts to servehis country and to promote the well-beingand interests of members of the defenceforces and of the people generally. It is inevitablethat memories of the past shouldcrowd in upon me on the occasion when weare lamenting the passing of a greatparliamentarian. Sir George Pearce may beso called, because he passed the greater partof his life in parliaments.Nobody is better able than I am to speak ofhis many great qualities. He had wide visionand ripe judgment. Keenly alive to the vitalissues at stake in World War I, he bent all hisefforts to perfecting our defence. He had agift for details, and the defence forces ofAustralia, which covered themselves withglory, owed much to his sleepless care. Hestood in the forefront of the governments ofhis day. His outstanding quality, however,was his gift of administration. It has been myfortune to be associated in governments withmen who had great oratorical powers andwide learning, but whose administrativequalities fell short of perfection. Sir GeorgePearce, as a parliamentarian, administratorand stateman earned for himself a high placeon the roll of distinguished men who guidedand led Australia through its darkest years.During my absence in England in 1916, hewas the Acting Prime Minister. I can say ofhim that he was a man upon whom one couldsurely rely. He was my friend, faithful andjust to me/"UNotes1. A Public Lecture delivered in the Copland Theatre ofthe University of Melbourne on Wednesday evening 30September 1970 to commemorate the Centenary of thebirth of the Rt Hon. Sir George Foster Pearce at MountBarker in South Australia on 14 January 1870. Nochanges of substance have been made in its text since itwas delivered.2. Warren Perry, "When the Redcoats left: Departure ofthe British Troops from Sydney in August 1870". TheUnited Service Quarterly, Sydney, October 1959,pp.5-8. See also Warren Perry, " One Hundred Yearsago; the withdrawal of British Troops from theAustralian Colonies in 1870." Sabretache, Melbourne,October 1970, pp.28-31.3. P.R. Heydon, "Sir George Pearce as Administrator".Public Administration. Vol.22, No.4, Dec, 1963,pp.313-328.4. Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia.No. 15 — 1922, p.914.5. Sir George Foster Pearce, Carpenter to Cabinet. Hutchinson& Co. (Publishers) Ltd, London, 1951, p.71. Ihave not sighted this Second Report mentioned by theauthor, W.P.6. Pearce, Carpenter to Cabinet,, p.72.7. Since this paper was written the following relevant bookhas been published: Dr John Barrett, Falling In.Published by Hale and Iremonger, Sydney, 1979, pp.xii320 including Index.8. Professor R.A. Preston, Canada's R.VfC. Published bythe University of Toronto Press for the Roval MilitaryCollege Club of Canada, 1969, p.50.9. Captain J.W. Niesigh, "The Royal Australian MilitaryCollege". The Lone Hand. Sydney, March 1913,
Mobility for Infantry Engaged in Low-LevelOperationsMajor S. F. Larkins,Generali iRAInfA Low-level conflict is defined as one in./xwhich the opponent engages in politicallymotivated hostile acts, ranging from nonviolentinfringements of, to small scale militaryaction against Australian sovereignty or interests.'"This article considers the mobility problemsencountered by conventional infantry unitsagainst the background of low-level operations.It examines the concept of using mototcyclesas a possible means of overcoming the mobilitylimitations currently evident, thereby significantlyenhancing the capability of the infantrybattalion in this environment.Low-Level OperationsThe probability of a low-level conflict developingeither in isolation or in concert with ahigher level of enemy activity in Australia orits Territories, is a contentious issue. 2 Whetheror not an antagonist could land, sustain andextract forces in pursuance of such a strategywas critically examined in LtCol Crawshawsarticle.As was demonstrated on Exercise K-83, smallgroups of enemy operating in civilian vehicles,can move with relative impunity over much ofour area of direct defence interest, even in theface of a significant military effort.The fact that the enemy force in that exercisewas largely indistinguishable from the localpopulation, was not inserted from a neighbouringcountry, had organic non-militarytransport, and was Iogistically supported from"on-shore" presents significantly different circumstancesto those which could be reasonablyexpected in a "real" contingency. 2However, the current rate of change in theeconomic and military balance of power in ourregion coupled with alarming demographictrends and political instability in neighbouringstates provides fuel for any number of scenariosto be considered. The possibility of low-leveloperations against us cannot be discounted; neithercan higher level conflict particularly in themedium to long term.For better or worse, we have grasped thenettle of low-level operations as the most crediblenear term Defence contingency. The focalscenario of current ADF planning represents aconsiderable divergence from the requirementsof the medium-level conflict contingencies uponwhich doctrine and procurement policy werepreviously based. Existing organisations andequipment have to be adapted for use in whatis for most of our Army, still an unfamiliaroperating environment. In adapting to meet thechallenges of the low-level operations environment,maximum consideration should be givento innovation aimed at enhancing existing capability,rather than radical alteration to forcestructure and major equipment procurement.Area of OperationsThe north of Australia is seen as the focus ofour area of Direct Military Interest in the lowlevelscenario. Because it is closest to neighbouringland masses from which incursionscould be launched, and the fact that it containssignificant natural resources and associated economicactivity, it is perhaps one of the mostlikely areas in which a dispute could develop.Stretching from the Pilbarra to the Pacific coast,the land area concerned is contained within aradius of 2000 km from Darwin as the geographiccentre. The area is characterised by alow population density, large distances betweencentres of population, economic and defenceactivity, and a limited transport and communicationsinfrastructure.The terrain is varied in type, but is generallyopen. Large areas of wooded savannah grassland,and semi-arid plains extend across muchof the region. The area thus defined also includeslarge expanses of desert, including theGibson, Simpson and Great Sandy Deserts.Close country, including tropical forest, is foundprimarily on the Pacific seaboard extending westinto the mountains and in the far north, to theGulf of Carpentaria. Mountainous areas existin the Kimberleys, the Pilbarra (Hammersley
MOBII ITY FOR INFANTRY ENGAGED IN LOW-LEVEI OPERATIONS 57and Chichester ranges) and on the Pacific seaboard.Much of the area is negotiable by militaryvehicles travelling off-road. However, operationsin the "Wet" can be severely hamperedby marked deterioration in trafficability. As theroad network is so limited, a significant levelof off-road use must be expected of other thanthird line logistic vehicles.MobilityFor the purposes of this article, the followingdefinitions are applied.a. Strategic Mobility. The capacity of a forceto deploy into a theatre of operations, froman outside base.b. Operational Mobility. The capacity of aforce to be redeployed within a theatre ofoperations.c. Tactical Mobility. The capacity of a forceto manoeuvre tactically, to win encounterswith the enemy.ODF infantry battalions are optimised for ahigh degree of strategic mobility, primarily bythe use of transport aircraft. The provision ofoperational mobility is effected generally by thesupport of rotary wing (R/W) aircraft, andtactical fixed wing aircraft. A limited amountof wheeled transport is also available, but spaceand weight limitations in supporting aircraftnormally preclude the carriage of useful numbersof vehicles in conjunction with a troopmove, either strategic or operational.At the tactical mobility level, the capacity,of the ODF is almost exclusively pedestrian. Itcan be argued that R/W aircraft and wheeledtransport offset this to some extent, but thelimited availability of these resources is suchthat it is rare that more than one sub-unit at atime can be allocated sufficient aircraft or trucksfor a simultaneous move of all personnel. Inany case, once the supporting agency departs,the infantrymen revert to "shanks pony". Whilethis presents no problem in close country operationsor urban warfare, the rate of movementthus afforded is inadequate for the more opencountry which typifies our area of interest. Thisinadequacy applies to low and higher level operations,given the very limited military resourcesavailable.The remaining formations of the Army lackthe strategic mobility of the ODF in that theyare less easily transported by air. They wouldneed to deploy by road (with major logistic andsecurity implications), sea (limited capacity) orrail (which extends only to Alice Springs, andwould involve the difficulties of gauge changesin many cases). However, these formations dohave a higher operational and tactical mobilitybecause of the larger number of wheeled andtracked vehicles in their inventories. Non ODFinfantry battalions suffer mobility penaltiessimilar to those of their light scales colleagues,unless they are given the benefit of APC or Bvehicle support.Enemy Military OperationsLow level contingency scenarios are based onthe supposition that small parties of enemypersonnel could operate in the area of concern,in support of the political objectives of a nationin dispute with Australia.Foreseeable enemy action embraces smallscale raids on specific military, economic orpolitical objectives, or perhaps longer term harassmentand attack of the same objectives bysmall mobile parties of enemy similar to thescenario of Exercise K-83. Although there aredifficulties associated with the conduct of thelatter category of operation as described by LtCol Crawshaw 2 , it would by no means be impossibleparticularly in the early stages of conflict,or if conducted in concert with disturbancesin another region.The ResponseTo contain enemy activity, we look to a "VitalAsset Protection" strategy, supplemented byextensive Reconnaissance and Surveillance.However, all this can become very manpowerintensive, and the ADF manpower bill quicklyspirals. "Large scale military operations in thearea, to control designated assets, could onlybe supported with a massive logistic effort".'Because of the limited infrastructure of thearea, a support operation of unprecedented scalewould be required to sustain a major deploymentin the area, such as will be undertakenfor Exercise K-89. If such an operation had tobe sustained for an indefinite period in the faceof an apparent threat, our capability to sustainit must be questioned. Quite apart from thelogistic difficulties, a major deployment of conventionalforces against a small number of enemycould well work in favour of the enemy.In such a situation, the ADF response couldvery easily be made to appear out of all proportionto the perceived threat. The prospect
58 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89of a mobile, fleeting enemy evading a seeminglyinept and cumbersome response force would behumiliating and damaging for us, and encouragingto the hostile nation and its supporters.Indeed, such a result must be considered aprimary objective of our low level antagonist.There is also the danger of deploying a significantcomponent of the ADF, and generatingthe enormous associated logistic effort leavingprecious little in reserve to deal with possibledevelopments elsewhere.It is desirable, therefore that the best possibleuse is made of a limited force deployed as acounter to low level military action. Any formof combat power multiplier should be consideredin attempting to limit the size of the deployedforce, until of course the situation developsbeyond the "low level threshold"(however that is defined).The Regional Force Surveillance Units(RFSU) based in the area of interest are thefirst level of a military response. With the imminentredeployment of 2 Cav Regt to Darwin,a unit of appreciable size and capability willsupplement the RFSU. However, to counter theinsertion of a force of small groups across awide area, greater resources than those availablein the immediate area would be required. Theinsertion of a conventional infantry based force,probably based on the ODF, is the next logicalstep, and was practised on Exercise K-83. Aswas glaringly evident then, and is still the case,the effectiveness of the battalion is severelylimited by its lack of tactical mobility.Even if the Vital Asset protection role is takenover by the ARES, the effectiveness of infantrybattalions as instruments of containment or destructionof the enemy is severely limited bytheir lack of mobility. Mobility is more importantthan firepower, if we are to accept the"credible contingency" scenario. The ability toprovide timely large area coverage is important.B vehicle or APC support can create as manyproblems as it solves. The escalation in logisticeffort and manpower to support large scalevehicle operations would be of critical significance.At the same time the human cargo islittle more than ballast for much of the time,making little real contribution to the coverageof the area concerned.However, a battalion in its current state cando little more than employ a Key Point securityapproach, man static OPs, or with the limitedmovements assets available, dispatch the occasional"knee-jerk" response group of up tocompany size. Such an approach is inherentlymanpower intensive, and tends to cede the initiativeto the antagonist. To be more effective,the battalion must be able to adopt a morepositive posture. With enhanced mobility thebattalion could make use of highly mobile patrolsto locate and fix the enemy groups, andthen summons, if needed, an airmobile responseforce of up to company strength.The requirement exists for a means of increasingthe tactical mobility of infantry units,but without significantly degrading the levels ofoperational and strategic mobility inherent inthe organisation and equipment of these unitsin the air mobile and air landing contexts.It is considered that the use of motorcyclesof an appropriate configuration can fulfil therequirements described above, significantly enhancingthe effectiveness and flexibility of infantryunits operating in the low level operationsenvironment.Historical AnalogyThe Australian Light Horse of WW 1, andthe Colonial Mounted Infantry of the Boer Wardemonstrated the utility of a highly mobile infantryforce compared to their pedestrian counterparts.In both instances, the horses were primarilyused as an agency of tactical andoperational mobility. They were not "fightingvehicles" as such; with the notable exceptionof Beersheeba, and a number of small scaleactions, these units fought dismounted.In the open expanses in which they operated,manoeuvre and mobility were the key elementsof success. In the Boer War particularly, theanalogy is most appropriate; the ColonialMounted Infantry units were the first to puteffective pressure on the fast moving Boer Commandos.Modern ApplicationsThe resurrection of a horse/camel mountedforce was examined some years ago. 4 Livestockdo offer many advantages over vehicles, particularlyin the case of Regional Force SurveillanceUnits. The exploits and experience of theWW II Northern Observer Units provide someinteresting and relevant lessons for their modernday counterparts. However, as was admitted byMaj Guy in his article, the use of livestockmounts by units who are normally based outsidethe Area of Operations, such as those likely to
MOBII ITY FOR INFANTRY ENGAGED IN LOW-LEVEL OPERATIONS 59constitute a response force, is not a practicaloption.There are major drawbacks associated withthe use of livestock. The skills needed to supportthe formation and maintenance of a horse/camel mounted unit are not widely available.Horsemanship and livestock care were imbuedin our Light Horsemen as a result of theirlargely rural upbringing. Most of our soldiersare "urbanites" and are more at ease withmotorcycles than with animals. Horsebreakers,farriers, veterinaries and saddlers would needto be identified and recruited, or trained, andthe soldiers themselves trained to ride and carefor their mounts.Livestock also lack the endurance of machines;a statement of the obvious perhaps, buta fact often overlooked. A study of Light Horseand Imperial Camel Corps operations in Palestineand Syria puts some of the limitationsof livestock into perspective. Distances coveredin tactical manoeuvre were generally in the orderof 30-40 km per day. The animals were justas susceptible to exhaustion as their riders, andrequired considerably more in the way of dailyattention than would be the case with a motorcycle.Perhaps the single most detrimental aspect isthe lack of compatibility with strategic mobilityresources that livestock would impose. Theywould preclude any form of air mobility, becauseof the difficulties involved in movinglivestock in aircraft.The Motorcycle OptionAs was stated earlier, any options for improvingthe mobility of infantry forces in thelow level environment should not result in asignificant degradation of the existing capacityfor strategic and operational redeployment;namely the airportability inherent in the organisationand equipment of the infantry battalion.At first glance, this might appear to be arather tall order, but it is the contention of theauthor that the use of motorcycles of a configurationsimilar to the in service Suzuki DR250sPatrol Motorcycles, could well provide an effectivesolution.Motorcycles of this class, in conjunction witha suitable loading frame accommodating perhapsfour bikes, could allow the transportationof riders and "mounts" in both fixed and rotarywing aircraft. The C 130 could have sufficientcapacity for as many as 32 such vehicles andtheir riders; in other words, a platoon of motorcyclemounted infantry. The procurement ofSikorsky Blackhawk helicopters provides a significantimprovement in capacity, range andslung load performance over the ubiquitous UH-1H Iroquois. It is the contention of the authorthat the internal carriage of troops, and theirmotorcycles as an underslung load, is a practicaloption in these aircraft.While it is immediately apparent that fewernumbers of "mounted infantry" would be thustransportable than would be the case with exclusivelypedestrian infantry, the advantagesshould be equally apparent. As has been thecase in numerous instances, both historicallyand on contemporary exercises, a platoon ofsoldiers able to influence the course of eventsat the site of an incident is patently better thanany number some kilometres distant and unableto close the gap.The Equipment RequirementA number of criticisms may be addressed atthe viability of motorcycles in this role. Manymotorcycles are noisy, a characteristic that doesnot sit well with any self-respecting infantryman.Motorcycles require replenishment andmaintenance. The vehicle must accommodatethe rider, and his equipment; the term "lightscales" is often a misnomer as far as the loadscarried by individual soldiers is concerned.Wheeled vehicles have proven vulnerable to tyiestaking in the north of Australia. Motorcyclistsare vulnerable to hazards such as fences or moreintentionally installed hazards of similar effect.On top of such considerations is of course theeffect of the machines on the command andcontrol of sections, platoons and companiesthus equipped.However, none of these problems are suchthat they cannot be adequately addressed bythe application of either technical solutions, ora measure of flexibility and common sense.Equipment CharacteristicsAs a starting point for determining specificelements of the equipment requirement, it isconsidered that an infantry patrol motorcycleshould have the following principal characteristics;• Endurance. The motorcyle should be capableof an un-refuelled range of 300-400km, on an unsealed road at an averagespeed of 70 kmh. This provides a signifi-
60 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89~ *. < a.Cycle Mounted Patrol Deployment.1. Ground and release slung carry frame.2. Troops deplane.cant operational mobility capacity independentof aircraft, or the capacity to operateoff-road for a considerable period.• Capacity. The motorcycle must be capableof carrying an infantry soldier equipped tomarching order. The carriage of sectionweapons or a platoon radio must be providedfor.• Reliability. The machine is to be used separatedfrom significant logistic support. Itmust be inherently simple, affording easeof operator maintenance. It should have ahigh (85-90%) probability of completing itsbattlefield mission without major subsystemfailure due to mechanical or electricalbreakdown. On such equipment, major subsystemswould constitute;(1) Power Train, and(2) Suspension.Operating RequirementsBattlefield Mission.• Duration. The vehicle should be capable ofoperation over a 48-hr period, without theneed for servicing, replacement or replenishment.3. Unload cycles, and re-connect slung load.4. Aircraft and troops depart LZ.• Distance. A Mission distance of 200 kmover the 48-hr period is considered appropriate,comprising;(1) 80 km on rough tracks,(2) 40 km cross country, and(3) 80 km on second class roads.• Operating Time. It is anticipated that thevehicle would generally be subjected to upto twelve hours intense operation duringthe 48-hr period comprising;(1) 10% idling,(2) 45% cross country from rest to maximumsafe speed,(3) 25% rough tracks from rest to maximumsafe speed, and(4) 20% second class roads from rest tomaximum safe speed.Automotive.• Engine. An air cooled, 4-stroke ULP fuelledengine is preferred. Air cooling is specifiedin the interests of simplicity. A 4-strokeengine is more amenable to noise reductionmeasures than a 2-stroke, and eliminatesthe need for pre mixed fuel. ULP is specified,as a motorcycle engine designed forULP and without a catalytic converter, can
MOBILITY I OR INFANTRY ENGAGED IN LOW-LEVEL OPERATIONS 61use either Super or ULP. A diesel enginewould impose significant weight penaltiesin this application.• Transmission. A drive chain system is preferredfor reasons of simplicity.• Electrical. A magneto based electrical systemwould be preferable, eliminating theneed for a battery.Weight. The vehicle should have an unladenmass not exceeding 135 kg, including CES carriedon the machine.Maintenance. The daily operator maintenancetasks should not take one man more than10 minutes, using standard tools carried on themachine.Noise Levels. It is essential that noise levelsbe kept to a minimum in the interests of reducingoperator fatigue as well as the moreobvious requirements of concealment. It maywell be that measures to reduce noise coulddetract from the performance of the machine.The penalties would have to be considered anda compromise decided on.Tyre Slaking. Tyre staking is a major problemconfronting wheeled vehicles operating offroadin northern Australia. While motorcyclesare inherently less susceptible than larger moreheavily laden vehicles, the problem remains,even if to a lesser extent. "Run-Flat" tyres areoften cited as the universal panacea for thisproblem; however they provide an emergencysolution only, in the case of vehicles with morethan two wheel stations. Even then, they areonly good for about fifty or so kilometres,before the tyre starts to disintegrate. In the caseof motorcycles the utility of such tyres wouldhave to be questionable as the effect on therider and the suspension of the motorcyclewould be detrimental at least. Trials are currentlybeing undertaken to evaluate the utilityof a tyre self sealant, as a means of combatingstaking. This latter approach is probably morelikely to produce the results needed for theapplication envisaged. There are commerciallyavailable repair kits which are capable of speedyrepair of staked tyres; these could also be anoption in countering this rather significantproblem. Combined with design features suchas quick release wheels, such problems are unlikelyto present the same difficulties as is thecase with the more heavily loaded wheels oflarger vehicles.Performance. It is not considered appropriateto attempt to specify levels of performance atthis stage, other than to suggest that characteristicssuch as gradability and torque powerlevels are probably of greater importance thanspeed and acceleration.Operational Employment.The employment of motorcycles in an infantrybattalion would allow a considerable extensionof the area of influence of the battalionitself, and of course its component elementsdown to section level. It is not necessary oreven desirable that each of the rifle companiesbe simultaneously cycle-mounted; it is envisagedthat one company group, with elements of supportcompany, would provide an airmobile assaultforce, capable of reacting to and destroyingan enemy group once located and fixed bythe mobile patrols.The use of motorcycles would foreseeablyresult in a greater emphasis on section andplatoon level operation. Just as in close countryoperations on foot, the demands of navigationand control would be considerable. However,motorcycles would provide an opportunity toget lost more quickly and by a greater marginthan is currently the case. A change in navigationtraining may be warranted to providesoldiers with an alternative to the map/compassapproach.Infantrymen have often lamented the lack ofa section radio. In this environment, small handheld VHF sets would greatly assist operations,allowing smaller groups to operate over widerareas, yet retaining a reasonable degree of communicationsbetween elements.Just as the Light Horse operated in four-mansections, infantry elements based on a fire teamof four men might be more appropriate than aseven to nine man section.An increased logistic burden is immediatelyapparent. However, the experience of the RFSUand their predecessors should be drawn on toaddress the problems of rations, water and POLresupply, recovery etc. The temptation of loadingthe soldier and his machine to beyond sensiblelimits as a means of reducing the frequencyof resupply must be vigorously resisted. Medevacmay also pose problems, but they areunlikely to be insurmountable, particularly ifaviation support is available.ConclusionLow-level operations in northern Australiapose a wide range of problems for the planners
62 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89of military operations. The "tyranny of distance",associated logistic implications and thenature of the threat demand alternatives to theapplication of "combat power" in the conventionalsense. Adaptation and innovation canprovide effective solutions to some of our capabilityproblems. Directing a major proportionof the ADF effort against such a threat wouldbe a waste of resources leaving very little inreserve.Infantry units have the manpower, can beeasily deployed, are relatively easily supportedlogistically, and have more than adequate firepowerto deal with the low-level threat. Whatthey currently lack is an effective means ofcovering the distances over which they wouldbe expected to operate in the tactical environment.Motorcycles offer the infantry battaliongreatly enhanced tactical mobility without significantlydegrading it's inherent operationaland strategic mobility. With their mobility thusimproved, infantry battalions could then exerta much more effective presence against a lowlevel antagonist.UNotes(1) WOLFE, Maj K, "K 83: An Exercise With a Difference"Defence Force Journal No 42, Sept/Oct '83(2) CRAWSHAW, Li Col R, "Low Level Conflict — ACloser Scrutiny" Defence Force Journal No 69, Mar/Apr '88(3) JUCHA, Maj W. A. "Preparing to Defeat the LowLevel Threat" Defence Force Journal No 60 Sept/Oct'86(4) GUY, Maj J. D. "The Military Potential of the FeralHorse and Camel in North West Australia", DefenceForce Journal No 40 May/June '83.i jfe-Major Larkins graduated from OCS in December 1976. He has served in Regimentalappointments with 3 RAR, 2/4 RAR and 10 RSAR. He attended Division 11 of the BritishArmy Staff Course at RMCS in 1987, and is currently posted as S02 Mobility EngineeringDivision, at the Engineering Development Establishment Maribyrnong.Book ReviewNO AUSTRALIAN NEED APPLYby C. D. Coulthard-Clark.Published by Allen & UnwinPrice $29.95.Reviewed by Colonel John Buckley,OBE.THIS is the story of Lieutenant General GordonLegge, who played an important role inAustralian military history before and duringWorld War 1.Legge was intensely Australian in outlook,but he was the loser in the battle between theAustralian nationalists (generals) and theBritish Imperialist generals to keep Australianofficers from high command on Gallipoli andin France. Hence the apt title. The Britishgenerals exhibited the same tactics in WorldWar 2.The author has carried out his research withgreat dedication and ability. It is a significantcontribution to Australian history. Little hasbeen written about Legge, although at varioustimes he was Chief of the General Staff andCommander of the A.I.F. overseas (after thedeath of General Bridges on Gallipoli).Coulthard-Clark infers that war historianBean had his 'pet' generals and some of his conclusionson a few could be questioned. Likewisethe Government-General, Munro Fergusontried to interfere with higher appointments inthe Australian Army, especially if the officerswere "nationalist" in outlook.It is about time Legge's contribution to theprogress and performance of the Australian Ar-
BOOK REVIEW 63my was published. The author has done this ina sympathetic and understanding manner. Thebook is a worthy successor to his biography ofSir William Throsby Bridges — "A Heritage ofSpirit"."No Australian Need Apply" — its a goodbook and I recommend it to all readers interestedin Australian history. I hopeCoulthard-Clark continues with hisbiographies; there is still much to be done toplug the gaps in our history.WESPRIT DE CORPSTHE HISTORY OF THE VICTORIANSCOTTISH REGIMENT AND THE 5THINFANTRY BATTALIONEdited by Brigadier F. W. Speed OBE, ED.Allen and Unwin, Australia, 1988, $39.95Reviewed by Lieutenant Colonel R. E.BradfordTHAT intangible asset, Esprit De Corps,could be regarded as a necessity for any unitthat is to be committed to operations. In manyregards it is also a necessity in peacetimesoldiering, as it allows the unit or organizationinvolved to react to and overcome the manyproblems involved in peacetime activity. In thisbook, the authors have attempted to describeand analyse the regiment's role in the manycampaigns during the two world wars, its trainingactivities and organization in peacetime,and how it survived the many re-organizationsof the Army during its lifetime. At the end of itall, the regiment still survives. Not only survive,but maintain its Scottish heritage, its traditions,and especially a high 'esprit de corps'.The Victorian Scottish Regiment was firstformed in 1898 as a volunteer unit (unpaid), forScots and Scottish descendants. It was initiallysponsored by the Caledonian Society ofMelbourne and towards the end of 1899 beganparading in kilts. Only very keen officers andmen remained in the regiment because they hadto purchase their own uniforms, and before goingto camp procure two blankets, a groundsheet, a tin plate, a tin pannikin and a knife,fork and spoon. Soldiers this keen would undoubtedlyestablish a firm basis for highregimental pride. It is about this time that menfrom the Regiment first saw active service in theBoer War, although not as a formed body, butas part of the Victorian contingent.The first change to the Regiment occurred in1908 when its name was changed to the FirstBattalion, Victorian Scottish Regiment. Withthe advent of universal training in 1908 the regimentchanged its name to the 52nd Infantry,and two years later became the 52nd (HobsonsBay) Infantry.With the outbreak of war in 1914, the 5thBattalion AIF was raised with a cadre ofvolunteers from the 52nd (Hobsons Bay) Infantry.The 52nd continued as a separate unit duringthe war but was largely inactive. Fivechapters in the book are devoted to the operationsof the 5th Battalion AIF and the unit wasto serve with distinction at places such asGallipoli, the Somme, Bullecourt, Ypres,Menin Road, Passchendaele, and the Hindenburgline. Vivid descriptions abound in thesechapters as to the kitting out, training and activeservice undertaken by the Battalion. Theissue of clothing to the unit for example, ofdefective boots, odd sizes of clothing etc did littleto dampen the enthusiasm and morale of thetroops. The fifth chapter (Gallipoli) providesexcellent graphic description of the conditionsin the trenches especially the problems withfood, water shortages, flies, water and poorhealth.With the end of the War, and the demobilizationof the 5th Battalion AIF, universal trainingwas re-introduced in 1919, and the 52nd (HobsonsBay) Infantry underwent re-organizationand became the 2nd Battalion, 5th InfantryRegiment. When the divisional organizationwas introduced in 1921, it became the 5th Battalionand again in 1927 underwent reorganizationwith the name changing to the 5thBattalion Victorian Scottish Regiment. Oncethe Scottish title was regained the Scottishtraditions were strengthened and again helpedto develop the 'esprit de corps'.World War Two saw the raising of the 2/5Battalion AIF and similar to World War One, anucleus of 5th Battalion members enlisted inthe new unit. The 2/5 Battalion saw a great dealof action in North Africa, Syria, Greece andNew Guinea, and a number of chapters aredevoted to these campaigns. Whilst the AIFBattalion was absent from Australia the 5thBattalion served in various Australian areas includingWestern Australia and Northern Territoryuntil it was disbanded in 1944.
64 DEFENCE FORCE JOURNAL No. 75 March/April 89With the establishment of the CMF in 1948the 5th Battalion Victorian Scottish Regimentwas reformed. In various forms as part of the1st Battalion Royal Victorian Regiment, 5thBattalion Royal Victorian Regiment, part of 1stBattalion Royal Victorian Regiment and finally5th/6th Battalion Royal Victorian Regiment,has continued serving to this day. Despite thepeacetime re-organization and the wartime activities,the spirit of the original Victorian ScottishRegiment has remained. The survival of thePipes and Drums of the regiment today, andthe traditions they maintain epitomise the pridedisplayed by generations who served in theRegiment over the last 90 years. The manytamperings with organizations, structure andthe various military systems over the years hasdone little to dampen the obvious pride thesegenerations of soldiers have in their Regiment.The eight authors who co-operated in writingthe book have achieved excellent results. Thedescriptions of wartime soldiering are graphic,without getting over involvement in personalactions or endless detail. The provision of mapsthroughout the book is generous and remainmost helpful in the reading and understandingof the operations.Overall the book is most pleasing in itspresentation and layout. The use ofphotographs, and as I mentioned map, provideexcellent support to the text. I do not hesitate torecommend the book to anyone interested inAustralia military history.QTHE PIONEERS — 2/1 ST AUST.PIONEER BATTALIONEdited by the late Lieut-Colonel GordonOsborn.Published by M. D. Herron 3 Enoggera Rd.Beverly Hills NSW.Reviewed by Colonel John Buckley,OBE.THE book has been written by members ofthe battalion and edited by Gordon Osborn,who was able to complete his book before hisdeath in August 1987.The battalion had an excellent war record. Its_Battle Honours include North Africa, Defenceof Tobruk, The Salient, Kokoda Trail,Ioribaiwa, Borneo and Balikpapan.The foreward has been written by its lastCO. Lieut-Colonel Adrian Buckley (no relation).With a name like that it would have to bea good battalion!There are several people in this unit whoshould be mentioned. Its first R.M.O. wasStanley Goulston, who was a legend in Tobrukfor his bravery during the seige. He won theM.C. and several M.I.D.s. later, as a Major,RAAMC serving on Australian Army Staff,London, he gave outstanding service to thewounded during a VI strike (pilot less bomb) atAustralia House in 1944. Like all of thosewounded at the time, I have never forgotten hisdedicated attention, then and after. Now an ex-President of the Royal Australian College ofPhysicians, Stan is regarded by his peers as oneof the most outstanding physicians inAustralia.Major Vic Tunbridge served from Lieutenantto Administering Command of the battaliongave very destinguished service. After the warhe became a legend at Geelong GrammarSchool serving with Sir James Darling. Vic wasthe "Mr Chips" of the School until he retired afew years ago. I have never heard one oldG.G.S. boy ever say anything but praise for"Old Vic".Capt. (later Brigadier) S.T.G. Coleman wasthe first adjutant. Nicknamed "Dave" he was awell known character during his Army Service.An expert on Infantry and infantry weapons,Dave gave excellent Army service.Lieut. Colonel Paddy MacGillicuddy was thefirst CO. He gained fame and the gratitude ofmany convalescent officers in Cairo by throwingthe objectionable CO. of the ConvalescentLeave Boat into the Nile. Unfortunately as theofficer was a close briend of the G.O.C it didnot do much for Paddy's promotion in theA.I.F.The maps and photographs and the statisticaldata are first class, but there is no Index. Allmilitary history book should have an INDEX.The book will have wide appeal — it is wellwritten — and clearly describes the excellentperformance of the unit in Tobruk and theS.W.P.A.H