Wind Power in the UK (PDF). - Sustainable Development Commission

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Wind Power in the UK (PDF). - Sustainable Development Commission

10 Aviation and radar2. They can then submit their proposal using astandard proforma to Defence Estates for amore detailed analysis. Their proposal iscirculated to a number of relevant agencies xliiiand experts by Defence Estates to determineits likely status: ‘no concerns’, ‘possibleconcerns’, or ‘serious concerns’.3. If any issues have been raised, the developercan then ask to discuss possible mitigationmeasures or technical solutions throughDefence Estates.4. Using the advice obtained, the developer canthen decide whether to seek formal planningpermission. Defence Estates will use theirfinal assessment as the basis of theirrecommendation to the planning committee.Out of the 4,000 pre-planning requests receivedsince 1996, around 2,000 received ‘noobjections’ advice. There are currently plans tospeed up this process through the introductionof a web-based pre-planning submission serviceand Defence Estates aim to reduce the replyperiod to less than seven weeks.10.6 International experienceOther countries in Europe have had a generallydifferent experience of the relationship betweenwind turbines and air traffic control or airdefence radar. A report commissioned by the DTIWorking Group on Wind Energy, Defence andCivil Aviation Interests in 2002 found that onlythe German Ministry of Defence had a formalsafeguarding consultation zone around its radarssimilar to the system in the UK, and that "allother countries have a much more relaxedattitude to the potential impacts of windturbines on radar-dependant operations andassess proposals on a case-by-case basis." 65In the Netherlands, several wind farms havebeen built in the vicinity of its busiest civilairport, Amsterdam Schiphol, in the past fewyears. These include a 14-turbine developmentin the Amsterdam Western Harbour, 10km northof Schiphol, and under the final approach pathto one of its runways, a four-turbine wind farm15km away at Haarlem, five turbines at Velsen,20km NW of the airport and ten 100m turbinesat Flevoland, 25km east of Schiphol. Althoughsome of these had been erected withoutfollowing the established consultation processwith the Dutch air traffic control authority, LVNL,none of the wind farms subsequently appearedon the airport's radar. LVNL believes this is dueto processing originally applied in the radar toeliminate spurious returns from road traffic.Denmark has the most extensive experience ofwind turbines operating within line of sight ofradars. In late 2001 the country had more than1,800 wind turbines located within 30km of airtraffic control radars and over 500 within 30kmof air defence radars. Many of these turbines aresmall single units but due to the predominantlyflat terrain, radar visibility is generally good.Other than at Copenhagen Kastrup Airport, theDanish experience has been that wind turbinesdo not adversely impact air traffic and airdefence radar operations.Kastrup has 71 wind turbines within 30km,including eight located only 2km from theairport's SSR and 4km from its main primaryradar, and a major 20-turbine offshore windfarm at Middelgrunden, 7-10km north of theairport. The Middelgrunden turbines lie directlyunder several instrument approach procedures.On commissioning, it was found to generateprimary radar clutter and SSR false plots,although in each case the effects were not asxliii These include CAA, NATs, and Ofcom, who are consulted over possible telecommunications disruption– see following section.sustainable development commissionWind Power in the UK 103

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