CSRP Annual Report 2007/2008 - Australian Sustainable ...


CSRP Annual Report 2007/2008 - Australian Sustainable ...

Looking ForwardThe review of the Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program is a major input into the planning for CSRP as we enter our final twoyears of our first term. Planning for the continuation of CSRP’s work beyond this will obviously consider the bid for further fundingsunder the revised CSRP program, as well as pursuing options outside the CRC program. This, together with a continued emphasison implementing demonstration projects, will be the major focus for the Executive team during 2008/09 to ensure that maximumvalue is delivered form the outputs of CSRP.Stevan GreenChief Executive OfficerMalcolm MacphersonChairmanNational research prioritiesThe Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing (CSRP) covers two of Australia’s National Research Priorities. The main focus ofCSRP’s research is based in the “Environmentally Sustainable Australia” priority. Leading edge research undertaken does crossinto the “Frontier Technologies for Building and Transforming Australian Industries” priority with many of the technologies and toolsdeveloped being used in industries other than the Mineral Processing Industry. The table below reflects how CSRP is contributing toAustralia’s National Research Priorities.executive summaryNATIONAL RESEARCH PRIORITIES CRC RESEARCH (%)AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AUSTRALIA – Transforming the way we use our land, water, mineral and energyresources through a better understanding of environmental systems and using new technologies.Water – a critical resource 5Transforming existing industries 30Overcoming soil loss, salinity and acidity 5Reducing and capturing emissions in transport and energy generation 30Sustainable use of Australia’s biodiversity 10FRONTIER TECHNOLOGIES FOR BUILDING AND TRANSFORMING AUSTRALIAN INDUSTRIES – Stimulating the growth ofworld-class Australian industries using innovative technologies developed from cutting-edge research.Breakthrough science 10Advanced materials 10CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -3

Governing Board Members and Committee MembersBOARD MEMBER ORGANISATION POSITION IN CSRP KEY SKILLSMr Malcolm MacphersonMrs Karen FieldMs Erica SmythMr Dave OlneyDr Ray ShawDr Bart FollinkProf Don McKeeIndependentIndependentIndependentVice President,Technology,AlcoaGeneral Manager,Technology Support,Rio Tinto (until 02May 2008)Chief, CSIROMineralsDirector, SustainableMinerals Institute,University ofQueenslandQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQChairman, Governing BoardChairman, GovernanceCommitteeIndependent Director,Governing BoardChair, Audit CommitteeMember, GovernanceCommitteeIndependent Director,Governing BoardMember, Audit CommitteeIndustry Director, GoverningBoardMember, Audit CommitteeIndustry Director, GoverningBoard (until 02 May 2008)Research Director, GoverningBoardResearch Director, GoverningBoardMember, GovernanceCommitteeExtensive experience in the titaniumminerals industry and the Australian miningsector.Consultant with extensive experience in theinternational mining industry.Extensive experience in projectmanagement, government approvals andcommunity consultation in the minerals andoil and gas industries.Extensive experience in the internationalalumina processing industry.Extensive experience in numerous sectorsin the mineral processing industry.Extensive experience in senior research andgeneral management roles, both in industryand the public sector.Extensive experience in process controland metallurgical development projectsand significant experience with CooperativeResearch Centres.CEO and Executive MembersEXECUTIVE MEMBER POSITION IN CSRP TIME ALLOCATIONMr Stevan Green Chief Executive Officer 1.0Dr Dan Churach Education Manager 0.6Ms Lisa Laurie Communications Officer 1.0 (from 19 February 2008)Dr Mark Neville Business Manager 1.0Dr Tony Rickards Operations Manager 1.0 (until 29 April 2008)6

Program LeadersPROGRAM LEADER ORGANISATION POSITION IN CSRPTIMEALLOCATIONDr Jim AvraamidesDepartment of Industry andResources WAIncubator Program Leader 0.2Prof David Brereton University of Queensland Sustainable Development Program Leader 0.2Mr Warren BruckardCSIROZero Waste and Minor ElementsProgram Leader0.2Dr Evan Jamieson Alcoa Bauxite Residue Program Leader 0.4Dr Sharif JahanshahiCSIROCO 2Breakthrough in Metal ProductionProgram LeaderDr Michele John Curtin University of Technology Regional Synergies Program Leader 0.5Prof Malcolm PowellUniversity of QueenslandEnergy Efficient Liberation andComminution Program LeaderProf Arie van Riessen Curtin University of Technology Geopolymer Program Leader 1.0Technical Advisory PanelThe Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) is responsible for providing a conduit to respective “home” organisations and promoting theactivities of CSRP within their organisations and beyond, participating in projects of interest to their organisation by providingadvice, access to personnel, site and operational information as appropriate and assisting with the development of researchproposals related to their field of operation.TAP membership is comprised of technical member representatives from all Participants in CSRP:Alcoa – Dr David CoolingKwinana Industries Council – Mr Chris OughtonAlcoa – Dr Evan JamiesonAnglo Platinum – Mr Neville PlintANSTO – Dr Lou VanceBHP Billiton – Dr Brian SmithBHP Billiton – Mr Ian WoodBlueScope Steel – Dr John MathiesonCSIRO – Mr Warren BruckardCSIRO – Dr Sharif JahanshahiCurtin University of Technology – Dr Michele JohnCurtin University of Technology – Prof Arie van RiessenDepartment of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts –Mr Damien HallDepartment of Industry and Resources WA – Dr JimAvraamidesGeopolymer Alliance – Dr Terry GourleyGHD – Dr Chris LundHatch – Mr Philip BangerterHatch – Mr Andrew Murphy0.51.0Minerals Council of Australia – Dr Kevin TuckwellMurdoch University – Dr Nimal SubasingheNewmont – Mr Aiden GiblettOneSteel – Mr Phil RidgewayOrica – Mr Geoff BrentRio Tinto – Dr Ted BearmanRio Tinto – Mr Chris GoodesRocla – Mr Greg JohnsonUniversity of Newcastle – Prof Geoffrey EvansUniversity of Newcastle – Dr Andrew JohnsonUniversity of Queensland – Prof David BreretonUniversity of Queensland – Dr Glen CorderUniversity of Queensland – Prof Chris MoranUniversity of Queensland – Prof Malcolm PowellURS – Mr Peter ElliottXstrata – Mr Joe PeaseXstrata – Mr David WayGovernance,Structure and managementCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -7

esearch activities and achievementsCSRP research programs have continued to develop fundamental understandings of the variousmechanisms involved in mineral processing and have also increased activities associated withdevelopment and demonstration of tangible outcomes for the industry.QQQQQQQQQQQQQQHighlightsThe deployment of the JK Rotary Breakage Tester with five units now delivered to industry and realimprovements in efficiency already evident at a number of sites.New research capabilities have been developed both within individual research organisations and acrossmultiple organisations.Three substantial pilot plants have been commissioned all with good prospects of large scale plant trials in thenext few years: The JK Rotary Breakage Tester (JKRBT) unit installed at University of Queensland’s JKMRC which will assistwith ore characterisation and optimisation of mineral processing plants to improve energy efficiency andmineral recovery. Heat recovery from molten metalliferous slags through dry granulation pilot plant installed at CSIRO’sClayton site. This technology will allow iron (and other metals) producers to recover waste heat, reducewater consumption and produce a valuable building material from the waste slag. ReSand® pilot plant installed at Alcoa’s Wagerup site and capable of producing 10 tonnes per hour ofrecovered sand from bauxite residue for use in construction projects.Additionally new research facilities and equipment have been installed at each of our core research providers.A significant body of knowledge has been developed with more than 120 technical reports, articles andconference proceedings published this year. This together with the 300 publications from previous years is asubstantial legacy of CSRP.The SUSOP® (SUStainable OPerations) concept was developed – a comprehensive mechanism designed toincorporate sustainable development principles into the design and operation of industrial processing plants.Geopolymer concrete demonstrations continue to be implemented with more planned for the near future.During 2007/08 CSRP has carried out research under the following programs:Sustainable DevelopmentProgram Leader: Prof David Brereton (University of Queensland)CO2 Breakthrough in Metal ProductionProgram Leader: Dr Sharif Jahanshahi (CSIRO)Energy Efficient Liberation and ComminutionProgram Leader: Prof Malcolm Powell (University of Queensland)Bauxite ResidueProgram Leader: Dr Evan Jamieson (Alcoa)GeopolymerProgram Leader: Prof Arie van Riessen (Curtin University of Technology)Zero Waste and Minor ElementsProgram Leader: Mr Warren Bruckard (CSIRO)Image © BHP BillitonThe following sections provide details and highlights from each program. Summaries of each of theindividual projects are also provided. An evaluation of the contribution of CSRP research is provided in theCommercialisation and Utilisation section.10

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT programPROGRAM LEADER: Prof David Brereton (University of Queensland)This program incorporates research program development, sustainable development (SD) assessment tools, analysisand methodologies, regional synergies, water management, and various case studies (both within CSRP and external,including existing operations and proposed industrial developments). The program aims to deliver an approach forsustainable design of mineral processing operations that will be easily applied by practising design engineers and providea link between practices at plant level and over-arching sustainability goals. It will assist operations to link performanceimperatives to sustainability objectives by facilitating a structured, methodical process to identify and implement ways touse less water and energy, generate lower greenhouse gas emissions and minimise waste volume and toxicity.QQPROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSWorkshop and subsequent preparation of concept paper for SUSOP® (SUStainable OPerations).QQ Development of a sustainable development assessment tool based in Microsoft Excel, which was thensuccessfully applied to the ReSand® case study.QQ Progressed a diverse mix of 18 synergy opportunities (by-products, water, energy) with the Kwinana industries,with industries taking ownership of 11 of these synergies.QQ Ongoing development of a Kwinana Industrial Area Sustainability Roadmap to assist the Kwinana IndustriesCouncil and its industry members with strategic decision making on the long-term sustainability of theKwinana Industrial Area.QQ Developed a publicly available database of good industrial ecology examples (web: www.csrp.com.au/database)which includes Kwinana, Gladstone, Forth Valley, Puerto Rico, Kalundborg, Tampico and Quebec.QQ Developed and trialled the Regional Synergy Opportunity Toolkit that can identify, evaluate and screen regionalsynergy opportunities through a three-level process. Trials were conducted at Kwinana, Gladstone, Geelong,Wagga Wagga and Rustenburg (South Africa).QQ Extraction of lessons learnt from international synergy experiences that are useful for the synergy developmentprocess in the Rustenburg Industrial Area and other regions in (South) Africa.Project LeaderChris Lund(GHD)Project TeamAlbena Bossilkov, Manus Higgins,Dick van Beers(Curtin University of Technology)Industry ChampionChris Lund(GHD)BP Industrial Synergies Opportunities Investigation (3B6) (Completed)Hydrogen Energy (a joint venture of BP Alternative Energy and Rio Tinto) carried out apreliminary assessment on a proposal to establish an integrated gasification combined cyclepower generation plant in Kwinana that would be fully integrated with carbon capture andstorage. Such a plant would provide significant opportunities for establishing new supply chain,by-product, and utility synergies with existing Kwinana industries. This would result in businessand sustainability benefits for the companies involved and the Kwinana region as a whole.A scoping study has been completed to explore and evaluate the regional synergy opportunitiesemerging from the proposed hydrogen power plant. This project has confirmed the greatpotential for new synergies (over 20 by-product, utility and supply chain synergy opportunitieswere identified). As part of the study detailed assessments were conducted to explore shortlistedsynergy opportunities. The study provided the basis for Hydrogen Energy to securecritical resources (process and cooling water) and market demand for the project (green steam)and develop regional synergies with the Kwinana industries.Unfortunately, it became clear that the proposed Hydrogen Energy plant in Kwinana could notgo ahead as proposed due to the presence of gas chimneys in the geological underground sinkfor the carbon dioxide. However, Hydrogen Energy is working towards establishing hydrogenfiredpower generation facilities in other parts of the world (e.g. California, Abu Dhabi andelsewhere) and the synergies work carried out for the Kwinana proposal would provide a goodstarting basis for other proposals.Sustainable development programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -11

Capturing Regional Synergies in the Kwinana Industrial Area (3B1 Extension)Project LeaderDick van Beers/Karin Schianetz(Curtin University of Technology)Project TeamMichele John, Albena Bossilkov(Curtin University of Technology)Frank Mofflin(BHP Billiton/Nickel West)Rod Lukatelich, Jaye Brennan(BP)John Davis(Cockburn Cement)Genevieve Mannin(CSBP)Sean Parker(Rio Tinto/HIsmelt)With the support of the Kwinana Industries Council (KIC) and its members, this project wasextended by another two years until 2010. The project continues to gain momentum and providessustainability outcomes for the KIC, Kwinana industries, and the region as a whole. The projectprovides continued support to the Kwinana industries with the identification and developmentof promising synergies and building upon the completed foundation research on the reuse ofby-products, water, and energy to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the area. In addition, theproject supports the KIC with the development and implementation of the Kwinana Industrial AreaSustainability Roadmap. The latter includes the development of regional sustainability indicatorsand strategies to achieve aspirational sustainability targets of the KIC, and engagement withinternal (KIC members) and external stakeholders (e.g. government and community).The project is overseen by an Eco-Efficiency Committee established in the Kwinana IndustriesCouncil with representation of major companies in the area (CSBP, Alcoa, BP, Tiwest, NickelWest/BHP Billiton, Water Corporation, Verve Energy, and HIsmelt). Through the connectionwith “Enabling Tools and Technologies for Capturing Regional and Supply Chain Synergies”(3A1) project, the research also contributes to the development and trialling of a regional ecoefficiencyopportunity assessment methodology, the evaluation of synergy technology needsand opportunities, and the documentation of case studies.Carmen Solorzano(Tiwest)Robin Howarth(Verve Energy)Craig Blume(Water Corporation)Industry ChampionDavid Cooling(Alcoa)Chris Oughton(Kwinana Industries Council)The port at the Kwinana industrial area in Western Australia. Image © Kwinana Industries Council.Developing Local Synergies in the Gladstone Industrial Area(3C1 Extension) (Completed)Project LeaderGlen Corder(University of Queensland)Project TeamDavid Brereton, Don McKee(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionJanine Lay(Rio Tinto)StudentsDaniel Tuazon, Megan Davis(University of Queensland)This project aimed to enhance local synergies between industrial operations and associatedactivities in the Gladstone region, and to assist these operations to achieve greater efficienciesin energy, water and materials consumption, and reductions in waste and emission generation.Commencing in April 2004 and running until June 2007 (final report completed March 2008),the project assisted and facilitated operations in the identification and implementation ofregional synergy opportunities (waste and by product exchanges).The project built upon previous work undertaken by various organisations in the Gladstoneregion. It also drew upon parallel work being undertaken in the “Capturing RegionalSynergies in Kwinana Industrial Area” (3B1) project and was linked to the “Enabling Tools andTechnologies for Capturing Regional Synergies” (3A1) project.The response from Gladstone stakeholders, and comparison with Kwinana plus the generallearnings acquired during the project were the basis for developing an organising approachto assess the uptake potential of a synergy opportunity. This approach delivered a betterunderstanding of the key drivers, barriers and enablers for regional synergy initiatives across aregion like Gladstone, and builds on the foundations of synergy ‘awareness’ established duringthe project. The final report is available in the 2008 publications section of the CSRP website.12

Enabling Tools and Technologies for Capturing Regional and Supply Chain Synergies(3A1) (Completed)Project LeaderGlen Corder(University of Queensland)Project TeamAlbena Bossilkov, Dick van Beers(Curtin University of Technology)Daniel Tuazon(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionPhilip Bangerter(Hatch)Project LeaderChris Lund(GHD)Project TeamSharif Jahanshahi, Terry Norgate(CSIRO)David Brereton, Glen Corder,Janine Lay(University of Queensland)Manus Higgins(GHD)Industry ChampionPhilip Bangerter(Hatch)Project LeaderChris Lund(GHD)Project TeamAlbena Bossilkov(Curtin University of Technology)Industry ChampionDavid Cooling(Alcoa)This project aimed to encourage and facilitate the greater utilisation of regional synergyopportunities to improve the overall eco-efficiency of resource processing intensive regions. Theproject reviewed and documented current and emerging best practice, developed and trialled anovel methodology for regional eco-efficiency opportunity assessments and assessed synergytechnology needs and opportunities. The work fed into and built upon the regional projects inKwinana (3B1) and Gladstone (3C1), and sought to seed new synergy initiatives in other resourceprocessing intensive regions.The main goal was to deliver a package of tools that would provide a rigorous and systematicapproach to identify and rank synergy opportunities and associated technologies for new andexisting industries within an industrial area. To achieve this, the project developed a publiclyavailable database of good industrial ecology examples (web: www.csrp.com.au/database),which includes Kwinana, Gladstone, Forth Valley, Puerto Rico, Kalundborg, Tampico and Quebec.A Regional Synergy Opportunity Toolkit was developed to identify, evaluate and screen regionalsynergy opportunities through a three-level process – trials were conducted at Kwinana,Gladstone, Geelong, Wagga Wagga and Rustenburg (South Africa). The project also developedapproaches to assess and evaluate the viability of feasible technologies for identified water andenergy/heat regional synergy opportunities.Energy Issues Paper (1A2) (Completed)Energy is a central factor for the long-term sustainable development of the mineral processingsector in Australia. To establish the path forward for sustainable energy management inthe minerals processing industry, it is necessary to understand the issues, challenges andconstraints facing the industry today. By identifying the “state of play” of energy (andassociated greenhouse gas emissions), goals for future sustainable energy management can bedetermined and agreed upon by the industry.This project produced an “issues paper” on the theme of energy and associated greenhousegas emissions in the Australian minerals processing industry. The focus of the paper wasstrategic, rather than technical, with the emphasis being on synthesising existing knowledge,rather than presenting new data. The development of the paper relied heavily on information,data and input supplied by industry and as such, the identified research areas have directrelevance to the sustainable technology needs of the industry. The final report is available inthe 2008 publications section of the CSRP website.Kwinana Industrial Inorganic By-Product Reuse (3B3)This project aims to find practical and short-term solutions to utilise short-term high volume/low value inorganic by-products produced in Kwinana that are currently disposed and/or storedin dedicated facilities. These include bauxite residue (Alcoa) and gypsum (CSBP), and potentiallyiron making slag (HIsmelt). During 2007/08, a report on the reuse options for phosphogypsumwas completed, along with regulatory and market assessments. The market assessmentidentified a number of imminent and planned infrastructure, residential and commercialdevelopment projects within a reasonable distance from the Kwinana Industrial Area (KIA) toassure economic viability for the potential reuse of inorganic materials generated within theKIA. A literature search was undertaken to establish the extent of inorganic by-product use inother parts of Australia and overseas, and what regulatory frameworks, if any exist, to support orenable this.This project has made good progress and has achieved more than originally envisaged.Discussions are underway between industry partners, potential new sponsors, and CSRPregarding a significant and major expansion of the scope and length of the project.Sustainable development programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -13

Scoping Study on Regional Synergies in the Rustenburg Area(AMIRA P913) (3D1) (Completed)Project LeaderDick van Beers/ Karin Schianetz(Curtin University of Technology)Project TeamAlbena Bossilkov, Michele John(Curtin University of Technology)Evans Chirwa(University of Pretoria)Industry ChampionNeville Plint(Anglo Platinum)StudentsElsa Chuquela(University of Pretoria)The overall aim of this scoping study was to assess whether and how regional synergies aroundAnglo Platinum in South Africa can contribute to sustainable development in its operations.The research confirmed the great potential for new synergies for Anglo Platinum’s operationsin Rustenburg, which will result in economic, environmental, and social benefits for localcompanies and the region as a whole. This is evidenced by this project being able to identifyover 40 by-product, utility, supply chain, and service synergy opportunities involving AngloPlatinum and other industries in the region. In addition, 19 synergy opportunities have beenidentified for industries in the North West Province (other than Anglo Platinum).The identified synergy opportunities have been prioritised using the CSRP Synergy PrioritisationTool, which systematically assesses and scores potential sustainability benefits of synergyopportunities and their ease of implementation. These assessments in combination with acomprehensive evaluation of selected opportunities based on Australian experiences providethe basis for Anglo Platinum to further develop the most promising opportunities throughdetailed feasibility assessments in the future. The study illustrates that each synergy is uniquein terms of its anticipated business and sustainability case, drivers/barriers, and action plan tomove forward.Sustainable Development Program Extension (101)ProJect LeaderDavid Brereton(University of Queensland)Project TeamRoy Lovel(CSIRO)Michele John(Curtin University of Technology)Geoffrey Evans(University of Newcastle)Glen Corder, Ben McLellan(University of Queensland)This project aims to develop an integrated suite of research activities that will deliver a toolkitfor evaluating methods that lead to sustainable design. This toolkit will facilitate a structured,methodical process to identify and implement ways to use less water and energy, generatelower greenhouse gas emissions and minimise waste volume and toxicity, allowing operationsto link performance imperatives to sustainability objectives. A related but different activity isthe development of a menu-driven options approach to address important sustainability issues,such as climate change across industrial regions. Through the development and deploymentof the SUStainable OPerations (SUSOP®) concept, industry will be able to incorporatesustainable development principles into the design and operation of their industrial processingplants. A roundtable planned for early 2009, will bring together high-level industry personneland prominent sustainability experts from outside the industry to elicit possible pathways toaddress important sustainability issues – such as operating in a carbon constrained world.Damien Giurco(University of Technology Sydney)Chris Lund(GHD)Industry ChampionPhilip Bangerter(Hatch)StudentsDaniel Tuazon(University of Queensland)Rehabilitation at the Huntley mine in Western Australia. Image © CSRP.14

energy efficient liberation and comminution programPROGRAM LEADER: Prof Malcolm Powell (University of Queensland)Crushing and grinding of mineral ores is a major consumer of energy in many mineral processing plants. CSRP’s researchin this area is developing powerful models to determine the most effective way of liberating the target mineral from agiven ore body. Application of this modelling will improve existing operations and allow new machines and flowsheets tobe developed more cheaply and quickly than currently possible.This program builds on the ways identified in the foundation project “Energy Efficient Liberation and Comminution” (2B1)to reduce total comminution energy at existing sites by 20% or more. Achieving this target will typically require takingadvantage of more than one of the opportunities which have been identified. The work is being performed via a set ofcollaborations, as no single organisation has sufficient breadth to undertake the complete project. These collaborationsare between the CSIRO, University of Cape Town, and the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) at theUniversity of Queensland.As well as extending the work of the foundation project, this program includes projects in the areas of high pressuregrinding rolls (HPGR), banana screens, mill charge monitoring and coarse liberation. A high level of success has beenachieved in applying advanced computational techniques to modelling of comminution devices – the tools in use are at theforefront of the technology worldwide. Demonstration projects are taking the most promising outputs of the program intopilot or industrial scale trials that aim to test, validate and quantify the predicted benefits.A new Chair in Comminution has been established at the JKMRC to provide long-term capacity in this area for teaching,research and development of the outcomes. In addition, this work is training a further six postgraduate students in ecoefficientcomminution and liberation.PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSQQ The new JKRBT breakage characterisation device has received wide acclaim in the industry, and the first 6commercial units have rolled off the production line.QQ A testing methodology for measuring the critical energies of breakage has been developed and tested with theJKRBT, and with the delivery of the new JKRBT to the JKMRC this can now be implemented on a range of ores.QQ The Discrete Element Method modelling of SAG and stirred mills and the initial linking of slurry flowthrough smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) represent tremendous progress in development of the VirtualComminution Machine modelling capability.QQ A new methodology for logging collision energy in mills has been developed and is now being applied to theUnified Comminution Model.QQ The abrasion testing technique, that is crucial to accurate model development, has been further tested and aproper test rig is under construction for routine testing.QQ The triple-pass circuit has been implemented on three separate samples with testing on large pilot scaleHPGRs.QQ Data analysis is confirming the energy efficiency benefits of HPGR technology, but also that grinding efficiencydeclines significantly on the third pass. Various options are being tested to determine how the efficiency on thethird pass can be increased.QQ Excellent data from the HPGR shows a direct correlation of product temperature to HPGR performance – thedegree of grinding, fineness of product, and over-pressurising of the ore leading to a waste of energy.QQ The possibility of preferential liberation by size at blasting has been demonstrated.QQ Hypotheses of the correlation between fragmentation size distribution with liberation, and of texture toliberation at blast have been formulated based on this early work, and a methodology proposed to test these.QQ A non invasive continuous mill charge detector and test system built and working.QQ Two Doctorate students and one Masters student graduated.energy efficient liberation and comminution programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -15

Comminution Program Research (AMIRA P9N) (2B2) (Completed)Project LeaderEmmy Manlapig(University of Queensland)Project TeamPeter Radziszewski(McGill University)Marko Hilden, Toni Kojovic,Malcolm Powell, Frank Shi(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRichard Beck(AMIRA)StudentsTapiwanashe Chenje(McGill University)Mike Daniel, Rachel Hawkins,Stephen Larbi-Bram(University of Queensland)Percy Condori, Sonny Mwansa(University of Cape Town)The major aim of this project was to help its sponsors achieve “best practice” in the design andoperation of their mineral processing plants. This was done, principally though not exclusively,through the development of modelling and simulation techniques and measurement tools thatwill enable mining companies that sponsor the project to design better plants and operate theirplants better. The AMIRA P9N extension has undertaken a range of integrated research projectsaddressing a number of key themes which have been defined by industry. CSRP has beenactively involved in the comminution research area of the AMIRA P9N project.The research topics in comminution and classification were divided into three themes:continuous improvement of current technologies; innovation and enabling technologies; andreduction of energy for comminution.During 2007/08 the following outputs were achieved:QQ A new breakage characterisation device (JK Rotary Breakage Tester) was developedand manufactured at the JKMRC (University of Queensland) and installed at the JKMRCpilot plant for routine research work. The JK Rotary Breakage Tester allows rapidcharacterisation of particle impact breakage properties.QQ The first industrialised JK Rotary Breakage Tester was designed and manufactured byRussell Mineral Equipment and was installed and commissioned at Anglo Research inJohannesburg, South Africa.QQ Experience in commissioning and operating the first industrialised JK RotaryBreakage Tester resulted in a number of refinements to the design. These have beenincorporated into the five additional units which have since been built and delivered tosponsors around the world.QQ The effect of using High Pressure Grinding Rolls in new comminution circuit designsagainst conventional comminution devices such as SAG and ball mills, has beenevaluated in terms of energy efficiency. It was observed that on average, a measuredenergy saving of 25-40% was achieved through a hybrid HPGR/ball milling circuitwhen compared with the conventional ball mill circuit.QQ HPGR readily promotes particle micro cracks which may be suitable for heap leachingores and can reduce downstream mill energy requirements.QQ It may be possible to model low energy multiple impacts in tumbling mills (under lowload conditions) with breakage characterisation using the JK Rotary Breakage Tester.QQ Investigation found that the piston and die test produced breakage products which arecomparable to the laboratory scale HPGR unit. The piston and die test is now ready tobe developed as a standard procedure for HPGR ore characterisation studies.QQ A new test methodology and model have been developed that can predict grindingmedia wear in tumbling mills more accurately than the commonly used BondAbrasion Test.16

Project LeaderMalcolm Powell(University of Queensland)Project TeamPaul Cleary, Phil Owen,Matthew Sinnott(CSIRO)Indresan Govender, Aubrey Mainza(University of Cape Town)Nenad Djordjevic, Marko Hilden,Manoj Khanal, Rob Morrison, NirmalWeerasekara(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRod Nicholson(BHP Billiton)StudentsLawrence Bbosa(University of Cape Town)Fiesal Musa, Zeljka Pokrajcic(University of Queensland)Energy Efficient Liberation and Comminution (2B1 Extension)This project builds on the highly successful foundation project and aims to identify and testways to reduce total comminution energy at existing mine sites by 20% or more. Specificdemonstration projects are targeted, plus areas that were identified as requiring furtherdevelopment to capitalise on the outcomes of the foundation work.A brief industry directed report will draw out the outcomes of this large set of foundation work,and a researcher report will highlight the tools that are now available and the gaps that needto be addressed. Further development of the computational tools specific to the comminutionprocesses is securing CSRP’s capability in this area.Through the demonstration projects, CSRP aims to take the most promising outputs of thefoundation work and new outputs from the extension into pilot or industrial scale tests that willtest, validate, and quantify the benefits to industry. The new JK Rotary Breakage Tester (JKRBT)characterisation device has received wide acclaim in the industry and the first six commercialunits have rolled off the production line. One of these units has been installed at the JKMRCto provide the project team with an excellent, and much needed, rig for rock characterisation.This will enable the gathering of data essential to further the Unified Comminution Model.A new Chair in Comminution has been established at the JKMRC (University of Queensland)to provide long-term capacity in this area for teaching, research and development of theoutcomes. An educational comminution course was presented to twenty-five undergraduateand six postgraduate students, with an intensive series of practicals conducted at the JKMRCfacilities to improve the exposure and quality of the learning experience. Two CSRP funded PhDstudents (Daniel and Hilden) and a Masters student (Bbosa) have graduated during 2007/08,while a further two Masters (Larson and Kulya) are due to complete in 2008.energy efficient liberation and comminution programThe inside of a commercial JK Rotary Breakage Tester characterisation device. Image © JKMRC.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -17

HPGR Comminution Classification Circuits (AMIRA P929) (2B5) (Completed)Project LeaderMalcolm Powell(University of Queensland)Project TeamPeter Holtham, Marko Hilden,technical staff(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionBruce Fraser(AMIRA)The objective of this project was to develop a set of laboratory test procedures to characterisethe strength and other relevant physical characteristics of the High Pressure Grinding Roll (HPGR)product – particularly agglomerated flakes. Initially the tests were performed on flake from asmall scale HPGR and then on flake from larger machines to determine how flake strength scalesup. A range of ores were tested, including ores from existing HPGR installations for comparison.Laboratory test procedures for characterising HPGR product were critically reviewed and newtest procedures were developed for assessing the properties of dustiness, flake competenceand cohesion of damp fines. Samples supplied by the project Participants were subjected tothe suite of tests and the results have provided a better understanding of material behaviour inHPGRs. The tests indicated that a small quantity of moisture may be beneficial to the operation ofHPGRs (reduce operating pressure, increase energy utilisation, reduce dust levels), however thesebenefits can be lost if the feed is very damp and HPGR throughput may be reduced. Overall theproject has helped minimise risk and improved confidence in the design of closed HPGR circuits.Demonstration of Banana Screen Modelling Capabilities (2B11)Project LeaderMarko Hilden(University of Queensland)Project TeamPaul Cleary(CSIRO)Rob Morrison, technical staff(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionTed Bearman (Rio Tinto)Large banana (multi-slope) screens are widely used in the iron ore industry to perform separationof ore from fines because of their high capacity over the older-style flat-deck screens. However,relative to the older screen designs, banana screen efficiency is poorly understood and it isdifficult to optimise screen performance because of the large number of factors that affect itsperformance. There is a need for modelling capabilities that can be used to predict screenperformance with a view to optimising separation efficiency, capacity and wear.This project is demonstrating to industry Participants the Discrete Element Method/VirtualComminution Machine and scale modelling capabilities of an industrial banana screen application.A scoping study identified potential sites for test work and a wear recording program wasestablished. Measurements were made and samples collected from the screens tested atthe site. Discrete Element Method modelling of the data is underway. This demonstration willdetermine how accurately the modelling methodologies can predict screen performance.Development of a Non Invasive Continuous Mill Charge Monitoring System (2B6)Project LeaderNenad Djordjevic(University of Queensland)Project TeamRob Morrison, Graham Sheridan,John Tucker(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRod Nicholson(BHP Billiton)Within AG/SAG tumbling mills, the motion of the charge created from both the rock and steelballs has a critical influence on the mode and intensity of rock breakage, as well as on thewear of the mill liner and steel balls. This project aims to develop a non-invasive continuousmill charge monitoring system to establish the relationship between the electrical resistivity ofsections of the mill shell and the inside of these sections of the shell. This inferred informationon position and shape of charge can then be used to optimise the operation of the mill – andimprove the overall energy efficiency of rock grinding/comminution.Minute amounts of electrical current leak from the mill shell into the charge, resulting indifferences in the effective electrical resistivity of different parts of the mill shell. Initialmeasurements in the JKMRC test mill have shown that these leaks can be measured withmodern portable voltage instruments connected to electrodes mounted on the outside of themill shell. During 2007/08, the project team designed and built a portable battery operatedwireless measuring system. The software and instrumentation are undergoing further testingand calibration at a pilot scale demonstration.18

Project LeaderMarko Hilden(University of Queensland)Project TeamJonathan Campbell,Steve Suthers(CSIRO)Mike Daniel, Emmy Manlapig,Malcolm Powell, technical staff(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRod Nicholson(BHP Billiton)HPGR Triple Pass Circuit Concept (2B10)The main aim of this project is to dry process the ore to near ball mill product size and toaccurately determine the energy to achieve this. A three-pass High Pressure Grinding Roll(HPGR) flowsheet is potentially more energy efficient than current AG/SAG/ball mill circuitsand is being tested at pilot scale on several ore types. The flowsheets are being compared ondirect and embodied energy consumption and on an economic basis (capital, consumables,maintenance) against current circuits. A small ball mill might be required to de-agglomerateHPGR products at the end of the triple pass circuit.The triple-pass circuit has been implemented on three separate samples with testing on largepilot scale HPGRs. A number of alternative HPGR circuit configurations have also been usedto compare against the triple-pass HPGR circuit, including a comparison with a closed circuitHPGR circuit. Data analysis is confirming the energy efficiency benefits of HPGR technology,but also that grinding efficiency declines significantly on the third pass. Various options arebeing tested to determine how the efficiency on the third pass can be increased. A new drypreparation comminution circuit could potentially reduce processing water requirements. Thisdemonstration project uses sufficiently large equipment, feed size and throughputs to allow thetriple-pass flowsheet concept to be properly evaluated for various mining sources.energy efficient liberation and comminution programProject LeaderNenad Djordjevic(University of Queensland)Project TeamRob Morrison, Graham Sheridan,John Tucker(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRod Nicholson(BHP Billiton)Wayne Harding (AMMTEC Labs), Tony Rickards (CSRP) and Marko Hilden (JKMRC) beside the pilotscale HPGR unit situated in Perth WA. Image © CSRP.Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Rock Comminution through Reduction ofThermal Losses (2B7)This aim of this project is to investigate the accumulation of thermal energy in rock and steelballs, using an advanced thermal imaging camera, to quantify how much energy is lost intoincreased thermal energy of rock and steel balls. The project will explore potential relationshipsbetween this heat accumulation, the physical and/or mineralogical characteristics of therock, the produced fragment size distribution and operational parameters of the comminutionprocess. Ultimately it is hoped that better understanding of heat losses will generate optionsfor modification of operational and equipment parameters of mills.HPGRs offer a more direct ability to measure thermal losses associated with rock crushing.Results of infrared imaging of crushed rock show that a large fraction of net energy suppliedto the rock is transformed into heat, raising the temperature of the rock – which indicatesthat more energy is delivered to the rock that what is required to crush the rock. What can bedone with existing equipment to reduce such thermal losses? This project has been focussingon improving the efficiency of crushing through modification of the feed size distribution.Preliminary results show that a narrower size distribution (without fines in the feed) but with thesame mean size, appears to be conducive to more efficient crushing.A more detailed examination of the infrared images showed that flakes coming from theHPGR are not uniformly heated during compression. This indicates a direct correlation ofproduct temperature to HPGR performance – degree of grinding, fineness of product, and overpressurisingof the ore leading to a waste of energy.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -19

Characterisation of Rock Mass for Liberation at Coarse Sizes (2B8)Project LeaderNenad Djordjevic(University of Queensland)Project TeamJon Worth, Mineral LiberationAnalysis group, technical staff(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionRob Dunne(Newmont)The grain size distribution of a mineral within an ore body determines to a large extent theease with which the mineral can be liberated – large grains are liberated at comparativelylarge particle sizes. Prior experimental results and literature reviews have demonstrated thatcoarse particle liberation is a function of the geological and structural properties of the rock,as well as the methods of blasting and rock crushing. Coarse liberation prevents having to putall rock through fine grinding and flotation separation, which has multiple environmental andeconomic benefits – in particular lower energy, water and reagent requirements and avoidingunnecessary exposure of unwanted components (for example sulfur bearing material that couldoxidise and create liabilities from acid rock drainage).This project aims to evaluate and quantify coarse particle liberation for ores from the mines ofthe participating companies, and to determine blasting and separation/screening parameterswhich are likely to maximise coarse particle liberation of the valuable minerals. During2007/08, several types of ore were tested. They were blasted under the same conditionsand fragments were assayed for minerals (copper, gold and sulfur) as a function of fragmentsize. Results show that one of the preconditions for coarse particle liberation is the existenceof a sufficiently high grade ore. Efficiency of early liberation of economic minerals increaseswith an increase of grade. Further work will include analysis of fragment size distribution andmodelling of texture parameters using Finite Element Modelling and mineralogically classifiedimages of the rock surface.Reduced Erosion Multiphase Flow Equipment (AMIRA P931) (2B9)Project LeaderJie Wu(CSIRO)Project TeamNazmul Alam, Lachlan Graham,Daniel Lester(CSIRO)Industry ChampionBruce Fraser(AMIRA)A major part of the operating and maintenance cost of modern hydrometallurgy and mineralprocessing plant is attributed to erosion of equipment from slurry and gas particulate flows.Examples of such erosion occur on mill screens, pumps, pipe elbows/tees/manifolds, valves/fittings, orifice plates, tank walls, tank agitators, High Pressure Acid Leach autoclaves, feedpumps, filter internals, heat exchanger ducts/internals and other multiphase flow equipment.This project will provide specific guidelines and generic research information through progressreports on material selection, materials testing, laboratory erosion modelling and fluid flowmodelling (both physical and computational fluid dynamics) to reduce equipment erosion and toachieve large maintenance cost savings.A new concept has been developed to improve the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modellingof erosion. Current models are not material specific, where as the new model incorporates theerosion for specific materials. An electronic “flow erosion library” is being developed as a repositoryof erosion information, including generic case studies – an example of which is shown below. Inaddition, four confidential one-on-one case studies have been conducted for projected sponsors.The left hand figure shows the erosion CFD ofa standard 1.5 D NB 50 mm elbow from 1000micron sand in water at 4 ms-1 (source: CSIRO).In the right hand figure, the reduction in predictederosion when the elbow size is increased to NB80 mm plus standard reducers (source: CSIRO).20

Support for Chair in Comminution (67)Project LeaderMalcolm Powell(University of Queensland)Industry ChampionNeville Plint(Anglo Platinum)Brian Smith(BHP Billiton)Ray Shaw(Rio Tinto)For a significant research effort on one of the industry’s most important processes, topclass leadership is required to realise the full potential of the Energy Efficient Liberation andComminution Program (probably the largest effort on this topic worldwide). CSRP’s GoverningBoard encouraged the appointment of a professorial research fellow to lead the ComminutionProgram and provide oversight and ensure the maximum benefits to the sponsors and theindustry as a whole. This culminated with the appointment of Professor Malcolm Powell as theinaugural Chair in Sustainable Comminution based at the University of Queensland.During 2007/08, a great deal of effort went into developing coherent comminution researchprograms, as opposed to individual projects. Upon reviewing CSRP outcomes and other relatedresearch projects, a number of areas have been identified that require additional supportingresearch – which has lead to the development of a number of CSRP projects in comminution.Contacts have been forged with the Sustainable Minerals Institute and the Earth SystemSciences Computational Centre (both at University of Queensland). This is leading to directcollaboration on Discrete Element Method modelling of breakage, integrating blast modellingwith comminution circuit design, and joint work on bringing sustainable development measuresinto concentrator operation and control.The role of the Chair has also included running practical courses in mineral processing with theUniversity of Cape Town in South Africa.The growing mineral processing class at the University of Queensland has been trained inthe latest concepts and technology of comminution and liberation. The course was rewrittento make it topical, with the latest equipment such as HPGR and fine grinding stirred millsincluded. Sustainable development assessment was introduced for the first time, and made anassessable part of the course. The topic of comminution was promoted through running a newand interactive practical course that utilised a wide range of equipment, and with input from arange of expert JKMRC personnel, at the JKMRC pilot facilities. Vacation students were broughtin from other disciplines to broaden our base of expertise and bring mineral processing andcomminution to the attention of students in other science and engineering disciplines.A renewed program of understanding the fundamentals of the breakage process is beingdeveloped, with aspects already in place. This includes the design of a new abrasion weartesting device, and fundamental work on energy usage in rock fracture.Anglo Platinum Young Graduate training program – site training through an extensive plant survey.Image © Malcolm Powell.energy efficient liberation and comminution programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -21

CO 2Breakthrough in Metal Production ProgramProgram LEADER: Dr Sharif Jahanshahi (CSIRO)The metallurgical industry faces increasing pressure to reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases from theproduction of metals. This program aims to develop breakthrough technologies, which enables step change (morethan 10%) reductions in net greenhouse gas emission in metal production. It will identify and develop specificopportunities for successful use of biomass in the metal production industry, in which the biomass is a technicallysound and economically viable alternative to the use of fossil carbon; and is sourced in ways that are ecologicallysound and acceptable to the community. The program will also develop viable technology options for recovery of highgrade thermal energy (heat) from molten metallurgical slags, conversion of by-product slag into a valuable material forproduction of “green cement”, and utilisation of the recovered energy.As iron making is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, CSRP’s research has a major focus on iron andsteel, however other minerals and metals are also being studied.■■■■■■■■■■■■PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSA new pilot scale facility has been built and used to successfully demonstrate the concept of integrated drygranulation and heat recovery process.An independent assessment of the potential economic impact of dry granulation has confirmed the net presentvalue of the technology to be very large for the Australian steel and cement industries.Collection, analysis and pyrolysis of biomass samples at a kilogram scale rig at Clayton.Successful completion of a pyrolysis trial at the Corrimal coke ovens of the Illawarra Coke Company.Completion of laboratory scale work on recarburisation of liquid steel using biomass derived charcoal.Formulation of a techno-economic model on the utilisation of biomass wastes in Tasmanian metallurgicalindustries.Slag Waste Heat Recovery and Utilisation (4D1) (Completed)Project LeaderDongsheng Xie(CSIRO)Project TeamSharif Jahanshahi, Terry Norgate(CSIRO)Ian Bean(BlueScope Steel)Phil Bangerter, Mike Russell(Hatch)Industry ChampionJohn Mathieson(BlueScope Steel)Phil Ridgeway(OneSteel)Considerable quantities of high grade heat (energy) are lost through water granulation and/or aircooling of molten slags produced in iron and steelmaking processes. Recovery of this energy andits utilisation in the industry will reduce operating cost as well as greenhouse gas emission. Theoverall aim of this project was to determine the potentially viable opportunities in integrated andelectric arc furnace steelmaking where the waste heat from cooling molten slag could be utilised.A literature review was conducted to screen down available technologies and options for slagheat recovery. The review established that dry slag granulation is a preferred approach. Sitevisits were made by the project team to OneSteel Whyalla Steelworks and BlueScope SteelPort Kembla to identify and rank possible uses of waste heat at plants. Steam generation andfeedback into the existing steam system at the plant is the most favourable option due to thesignificant economic benefit, easy integration with the existing steam system, and flexiblemanagement and matching of heat usage to demand.The project research centred on identifying practical and economically viable opportunitiesfor capture and use of waste heat from molten slag cooling in iron and steelmaking. Theinformation gained from this project will possibly be relevant to other metallurgical industrieshandling slags, such as lead/zinc smelters.22

Project LeaderDongsheng Xie(CSIRO)Project TeamJusten Bremmell, Jason Donnelly,Bob Flann, Sharif Jahanshahi,Bernie Muldowney, Terry Norgate,Yuhua Pan, Steve Sanetsis, BernieWashington(CSIRO)Industry ChampionJohn Mathieson(BlueScope Steel)Phil Ridgeway(OneSteel)Heat Recovery from Molten Slags through Dry Granulation (4D2)Historically iron making slag is either air cooled in large pits or water granulated. Water granulationhas the advantage of producing a slag suitable as low greenhouse gas cement clinker substitute,albeit with significant environmental disadvantages – in particular the high water consumption,formation of acid mist, and need to dry the granulated slag. Previous CSIRO research hasdemonstrated at laboratory and pilot scale that dry granulation produces a slag suitable as cementsubstitute; and that the heat released from the slag can be contained in a small air volume – makingthe process suitable for heat recovery. This project aims to further develop the dry granulationtechnology, with particular emphasis on using it as a means to capture the waste heat released fromslag cooling.A major focus for 2007/08 was to design, build and commission a new pilot plant todemonstrate the integrated process for dry granulation and heat recovery from slags. Processmodelling provided parameters for designing the new facility and a series of modificationsand tests were carried out to improve the efficiency of air delivery and flow. The knowledgegained from this process will significantly enhance the process design for subsequent scale upreactors leading to a more efficient and robust process.Both Australian steel producing companies (OneSteel and BlueScope Steel) joined the project assponsors in 2007 and have shown strong level of engagement. OneSteel and BlueScope Steelhave also offered strong ongoing support towards planned future work and scale up through planttrials. Through their participation in a high profile program, they have promoted dry granulation/heat recovery work to a wider audience and potential users and received positive feedback.An independent assessment of the potential economic impact of the technology has confirmedthe net present value of the technology to be very large for the Australian steel and cementindustries. Given that Australia produces about 1% of the world’s steel, the full potential of thetechnology could be very significant in terms of economics and reductions in the environmentalimpacts of the world steel industry.CO 2breakthrough in metal production programThe new integrated dry granulation and heat recovery pilot plant atCSIRO with some of the team. Image © Mark Fergus.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -23

Biomass in the Iron and Steel Industry (4C4)Project LeaderDavid Langberg / MichaelSomerville(CSIRO)Project TeamNawshad Haque, Sharif Jahanshahi,Terry Norgate, Bernie Washington(CSIRO)John Mathieson, Len Woods(BlueScope Steel)Phil Ridgeway, Francois Verdoorn(OneSteel)Industry ChampionJohn Mathieson(BlueScope Steel)Phil Ridgeway(OneSteel)This project aims to identify, evaluate and demonstrate specific opportunities for the useof biomass in integrated steel making and electric arc furnaces (mini mills) and assist withtheir possible implementation in the operations of OneSteel and BlueScope. This workforms a contribution of the Australian steel industry to the CO 2Breakthrough Program of theInternational Iron and Steel Institute. By consolidating the information on biomass use iniron and steel making from the open literature with information from the companies’ internalreports and on site plant reviews, the project will identify and prioritise specific opportunities forOneSteel and BlueScope. Parallel experimental investigations aim to demonstrate the technicalfeasibility of using biomass in high priority specific applications. Many of the non-companyspecific results will be published in the open literature to demonstrate Australia’s activecontribution to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry.Great progress has been made on biomass resource determination. A number of site visits weremade and data on biomass generation and usage was collected and documented. Progresswas also made in the development and commissioning of a TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)apparatus to investigate the kinetics of pyrolysis reactions. An external consultant was engaged toinvestigate pyrolysis technology and provide recommendations to overcome productivity problemsand deficiencies in charcoal quality. A pyrolysis trial was conducted at the Corrimal site of theIllawarra Coke Company to determine the time required to obtain low volatile charcoal. BlueScopeSteel’s Value-In-Use model was used to estimate the economic value of various chars, whensubstituted for pulverized coal as fuel for blast furnace. This work identified some opportunitiesand lead to development of the “designer char” concept.Large scale pyrolysis of a selected biomass and full scale plant trials on recarburisation of liquid steelare scheduled to be completed at OneSteel by the end of 2008. Planned work for 2008/09 covers asurvey of sustainable supply of biomass sources for the steel industry, pyrolysis fundamentals, reviewof alternative technologies for pyrolysis of biomass, and pilot scale combustion tests on pulverizedbio-char (charcoal derived from biomass).Biomass 1A: Mallee Leaf/Twig Charcoal as Metallurgical Reductant(WA) (4C2) (Completed)Project LeaderDavid Langberg(CSIRO)Project TeamJustin Bremmell, Terence Hall,Sharif Jahanshahi, Terry Norgate,Michael Somerville, BernieWashington (CSIRO)John Bartle(Future Farm Industries CRC)Industry ChampionJoe Herbertson(The Crucible)The substitution of fossil carbon by “renewable” carbon from biomass (such as charcoal) hasthe potential to radically reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes.This project built on the work of foundation project “Biomass as Fuel and Reductant for ModernSmelting Processes” (4C1) which demonstrated that charcoals produced from oil mallee treesare suitable reductants for use in rotary kilns (Becher process), and for bath smelting processes(HIsmelt process).Australia faces a growing problem of increasing soil salinity due to the rising water table inareas where deep rooted perennial vegetation has been replaced by shallow rooted crops, suchas the wheat belt of Western Australia. A program of replanting native mallee trees, whichcan be harvested on a short rotation cycle, has been initiated in Western Australia. This willproduce large quantities of woody biomass, which could potentially supply charcoal to themetallurgical industry and at the same time improve returns for farmers.During this project, samples of two species of mallee leaf/twig biomass from four locationswere charred. Part of the material from each location had previously been subjected to asteam stripping procedure to remove the oils. The ash compositions of the raw materials andresulting charcoals and the carbon dioxide reactivities of the charcoals were determined. Twoof the charcoals were used as reductants for ilmenite reduction in a rotary drum test developedat CSIRO Minerals. The economics of using biomass as a fuel and reductant depends uponthe cost of the mallee charcoal, which is in turn strongly dependent on the cost of the malleebiomass. This project has shown that the lowest cost material – the leaf/twig fraction –produced charcoal with quite attractive properties for metallurgical applications (very highreactivity, high lime content in ash, high phosphorous and alkalis).24

Biomass 2: The Utilisation of Carbonaceous Waste in Metallurgical Processes (4C3)Project LeaderMichael Somerville(CSIRO)Project TeamJusten Bremmell, SharifJahanshahi, David Langberg,Terry Norgate,Rene van Berkel(CSIRO)Industry ChampionJoe Herbertson(The Crucible)Project LeaderMichael Somerville(CSIRO)Project TeamSharif Jahanshahi, NawshadHaque, Terry Norgate,Rene van Berkel(CSIRO)Industry ChampionJoe Herbertson(The Crucible)Large amounts of waste biomass are generated each year in rural and regional Australia, in theagricultural, forestry, sewage and waste treatment industries. By utilising these materials inmetallurgical processes as a substitute for fossil fuels (such as coal and metallurgical coke), theenergy and carbon content and value of the waste materials are recovered. The overall aim of theproject is to develop a regional example of the use of carbonaceous waste materials in metallurgicalprocesses, and demonstrate its techno-economic feasibility and environmental benefits.The mid north region of South Australia was selected for this pilot study due to its proximity totimber and wood milling industries, a long established and diversifying agricultural industry, a largeregional town, and Port Pirie smelters. A visit was made to waste biomass producers in regionalSouth Australia and samples of biomass were collected. These samples were treated in a kilogramscale pyrolysis rig at the CSIRO Clayton laboratories. Basic chemical analysis was performed onproducts and a mass and energy balance over the pyrolysis process was determined.The success of this project will require increased awareness on the part of biomass wasteproducers (farmers, grain handlers, forestry industries, sewerage and waste managementindustries) and potential customers (metallurgical plant operators) of the benefits of thisapproach to biomass waste utilisation.Utilisation of Carbonaceous Waste in Tasmanian Metallurgical Industries (4C5)This project aims to substitute fossil-based fuels and reductants (such as coal and coke) withrenewable charcoal in the Tasmanian metallurgical industry. Of particular interest is substitutionin submerged electric arc furnaces at Bell Bay (TEMCO/BHP Billiton) and in induration (hardening)of iron ore pellets at Port Latta (Australian Bulk Minerals). The charcoal has been derived fromwaste biomass produced in Tasmanian forestry and agricultural industries.Progress in this project has been made in developing relationships with the Tasmanian government,forestry and agricultural industries and forestry academics. Much information was obtained onbiomass residues, collection, transport, and processing costs. A techno-economic model wasformulated which compared the net cost of substituting charcoal derived from waste biomasswhile considering income from carbon content, carbon tax benefits and electricity generation. Acomparison was also made between utilising forest residues to produce electricity via gasificationand utilising forest residue to produce charcoal which can be used in metallurgical industries.Through the relationships developed in this project, the waste products from one industry(forestry and agriculture) could become feedstocks for a second industry (metallurgy). Thissynergistic approach is being pursued elsewhere in Australia (Western Australia and SouthAustralia) and has gained support from government and industry.View of hot Carrimal coke oven showing the preperation of low volatile bio-char fromseasoned wood logs. Image © CSIRO.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 - CO 2breakthrough in metal production program25

auxite residue programProgram LEADER: Dr Evan Jamieson (Alcoa)The production of alumina from bauxite ore results in the production of bauxite residue requiring final storage. Thesestorage facilities occupy a significant area of land and require final closure, rehabilitation and ongoing management.To reduce the volumes of residue, researchers are developing beneficial uses for bauxite residue in construction andagriculture, with potentially very significant stakeholder advantages. This program investigates the cost effectiverecovery of the valuable components in residue using a variety of processes.Airborne “hyperspectral analysis” is being evaluated for its potential to assist with measuring broad acreage application ofbauxite residues. Work continued on assessing a fundamental leachate testing procedure and scenario assessment protocolto allow for evaluation of new products which is endorsed by regulatory bodies. Trials of promising products are underwaywith significant field demonstrations being proposed. Broad-based sustainability assessments of each product application isalso being proposed. Commercialisation frameworks and market assessments are also being developed for these products.QQQQQQP R O G R A MHIGHLIGHTSReSand® pilot plant constructioncomplete, commissioned andoperating. Stockpiles of ReSand®are being prepared for further trials.Potted plant trials of soilconditioning agents from bauxiteresidue have been conducted andare awaiting results. Further trialsare expected in the coming year.Laboratory spectral studies indicatethat Alkaloam® is spectrallyseparable from soils and thatmeasurement of mixtures downto 10% Alkaloam®-soil weightmixtures is likely.The ReSand® pilot plant located at Wagerup WA. Image © Alcoa.26Project LeaderEvan Jamieson(Alcoa)Project TeamMark Rivers(Dept of Agriculture and Food WA)Industry ChampionDavid Cooling(Alcoa)Alternative Lime Source Trials (4A4)Since being cleared for agricultural use, many of the Western Australian soils have acidified.Surface applications of lime and other neutralising amendments are the most common way tocorrect acidity. The aim of these trials is to investigate the effectiveness of two new agriculturallime materials in high rainfall pasture and medium rainfall cropping farming systems. Thekey performance indicators will be: soil pH at surface and through the soil profile; soilexchangeable cation and sodium and aluminium levels; soil nutrient levels and PhosphateRetention Index; plant productivity; and plant tissue analyses.The proposed lime sources will be compared with a standard lime source at three locations inWestern Australia – one located on a property near Busselton (used for beef grazing of clover/ryegrass pastures), and two in medium rainfall inland areas on the Merredin and NewdegateResearch Stations (in a barley cropping system). Each site was assessed for a range of soilparameters before the application of the lime treatments. Lime treatments were appliedbefore the onset of consistent winter rainfall. Drought has severely impacted upon results,hence potted plant trials were added to the project scope. Results continue to show that thealternative lime sources act at least as well as traditional liming agents. Alternative limesources have also shown the ability to impact beneficially upon sub-soil acidity.

Assessing the Potential for Hyperspectral Technology to Verify the Distribution ofRed Mud Used as a Soil Amendment in Agriculture (4A9)Project LeaderCindy Ong(CSIRO)Project TeamAndrew Hacket, Rob Hewson,Ian Lau(CSIRO)Industry ChampionDavid Cooling(Alcoa)This project seeks to investigate the feasibility of providing a spatially comprehensive monitoringtechnique using airborne hyperspectral technology that can identify and quantify the distributionof bauxite residuals and its effectiveness as a soil amendment. During the pilot phase, fieldsamples were collected from sites with varying levels of Alkaloam® as well as background soilmaterial. The data was analysed and it was determined that Alkaloam® is spectrally separablefrom background soil materials typical of the farmed lands in the Perth Basin.Spectral sensing theoretically can determine the physiological conditions of vegetation throughthe ability to measure such conditions as the photosynthetic activity, leaf structure, the levelsof leaf water and biochemicals such as chlorophyll, lignin and cellulose. These conditions maybe caused by a multitude of issues ranging from natural climatic variations to the Alkaloam®and a comprehensive study is being undertaken to further this knowledge. This project isnow focussed on the acquisition of airborne data over the selected areas where Alkaloam® isknown to have been applied. This will demonstrate the capabilities of hyperspectral scanningto produce spatial maps of Alkaloam® distributions.Project LeaderEvan Jamieson(Alcoa)Project TeamMark Rivers, Rob Summers(Dept of Agriculture and Food WA)Industry ChampionDavid Cooling(Alcoa)StudentShelly Attiwell(Curtin University of Technology)Project LeaderLaurence Guilfoyle(Alcoa)Project TeamChanelle Carter, David Cooling,Shelly Attiwell(Alcoa)Industry ChampionEvan Jamieson(Alcoa)Long Term Monitoring of the Impacts of (Alkaloam®) Bauxite Residue Application tothe Peel Harvey Coastal Plain Catchment (4A3) (Completed)The aim of this project was to implement a catchment wide research and monitoring programto investigate the effects of using Alkaloam® on the Peel-Harvey Coastal Plain, and theextent and duration of phosphorus retention achieved through its use. The Western AustraliaDepartment of Agriculture and Food has undertaken the widespread distribution of Alkaloam®(bauxite residue) for the purposes of soil amendment. The approved project includedarrangements for distribution, loading and transport of the material from the refinery and theapplication of the material on individual landowners’ properties. This approval is documentedin EPA Bulletin 982 issued in June 2000.Catchment monitoring has continued through 2007/08 and has shown Alkaloam® to be a safeand effective soil ameliorant to improve nutrient retention and reduce subsequent nutrient lossinto regional waterways. Due to the success of this first phase, the project is being extendedto allow for continued monitoring, sustainability and risk management, and development of aformal Code of Practice framework.ReSand® Production to Specification (3B4)The extraction of alumina from bauxite ore results in the production of bauxite residues that aretypically alkaline in nature, making subsequent use difficult. In Western Australia, Alcoa has threeoperating alumina refineries (Pinjarra, Wagerup and Kwinana) producing large volumes of residuemud and sand that are stored in secure impoundments. Alcoa is implementing a process tocarbonate the residue in order to remove alkalinity and turn the residue into a useful by-product.Recent research has identified methods of separation of ReSand® neutralisation throughcarbonation and the ability to be washed low in salt. During 2007/08, a pilot plant wasconstructed, commissioned and is in operation to demonstrate separation, washing andcarbonation processes. The 10 tonne per hour pilot plant is providing sufficient quantities of cleanneutralised ReSand® suitable for major product demonstrations. The locality of Alcoa’s refinerieshas been a contributing factor in identifying large volume local markets for clean sand.This project followed on from the earlier CSRP projects on the “Use of Beneficiated ResidueSands” (4A2 and 4A7) which are complete and identified the potential for various beneficialuses of bauxite residue fractions.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 - Bauxite Residue program27

geopolymer programProgram LEADER: Prof Arie van Riessen (Curtin University of Technology)Geopolymers are a class of inorganic polymers formed by the reaction between an alkali and an aluminosilicate source.Variations in the ratio of aluminium to silicon, and alkali to silicon, produce geopolymers with different physical andmechanical properties. These materials have an amorphous three-dimensional structure that gives geopolymersproperties, such as fire and acid resistance, which make them an ideal substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)in a whole range of applications. Many by-products produced by industry can be used as feedstocks for geopolymer,including fly ash, mine tailings and bauxite residues. This program is investigating the microstructure of geopolymers anddeveloping demonstration products for large scale applications of geopolymer concrete. Using geopolymers to replaceOPC in concrete structures has the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; use large volumes ofindustrial (waste) by-products; and increase resource efficiency by producing concrete products with longer service lives.QQQQQQQQQQQQPROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSThe first Geopolymer path in Australia has been laid at Curtin University of Technology with the efforts of CSRP,Curtin, Rocla, CSIRO, Golden Bay Cement and Boral.The formation of the Geopolymer Alliance brings together research institutes, the engineering fraternity,government authorities, industrial by-product generators, cement manufacturers, chemicals suppliers, concreteaggregate suppliers, concrete manufacturers, infrastructure owners and industry regulators to cooperativelydevelop mutually beneficial applications for geopolymer technology.Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement by geopolymer-based mine backfill systems have been successfullydemonstrated on a laboratory scale and implementation at a mine could result in overall reductions in bothenergy usage and greenhouse gas emissions of the order of up to 25% and 25-60% respectively.Geopolymers with impressive physical properties have been successfully manufactured from Bayer residue. Thisnew material opens up opportunities for utilisation of significant amounts of industry by-product.Lead, chromium III, barium and silver have been encapsulated in geopolymers to pass the US EnvironmentalAgency recommended toxicity characterisation leaching procedure (TCLP) test for landfills.Caesium, strontium and uranium have been immobilised in geopolymers to pass regulatory tests for radioactivenuclear waste.Geopolymers in Mine Fill at Mt Isa Mines (4B2) (Completed)Project LeaderDaniel Southam(Curtin University of Technology)Project TeamGlen Corder, Ben McLellan(University of Queensland)Chris Carr, Florencio Felipe(Xstrata Mt Isa Mines)Industry ChampionGeoff Brent(Orica)The project investigated the potential for geopolymer-based backfill products to substituteOrdinary Portland Cement (OPC) in underground mine backfill at Mount Isa Mines. Thesuitability of using mine tailings and smelter slag as feedstock for geopolymers wasinvestigated and geopolymer-based back fill products subsequently developed and tested, todemonstrate technical feasibility, economic viability and sustainability/greenhouse gas benefits.A suite of potential binder feedstocks for use in tailings-based fills at Mount Isa Mines wereobtained and characterised. Each of the wastes was tested in a neat binder and then targetbinders in a tailings-based fill, with each meeting the specified mechanical properties. Thisdevelopment illustrated the technical feasibility of waste-based binders to mine backfilling.An assessment of an example fill indicated that the replacement of OPC by geopolymer-basedmine backfill systems could result in overall reductions in both energy usage and greenhousegas emissions of the order of up to 25% and 25–60% respectively. For example, adoption ofthis technology at a 3Mt per annum backfill operation would equate to an annual reduction ofthe order of 100kt carbon dioxide.The technical aspects of this study have concluded and the findings from it have formedthe basis of a review of the commercial prospects for geopolymers in mine waste backfill,commissioned by CSRP.28

Geopolymer Concrete from Regional Waste Streams (4B1 Extension)Project LeaderArie van Riessen(Curtin University of Technology)Project TeamDaniel Brew, Dan Perera, LouVance, Phil Walls(ANSTO)Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsil(CSIRO)Craig Buckley, JadambaaTemuujin, Felicia Lee, HamidNikraz, Brian O’Connor, MichaelRutledge, Prabir Sarker, DanielSoutham, Kate Wright(Curtin University of Technology)Evan Jamieson(Alcoa)Industry ChampionGreg Johnson(Rocla)StudentsClinton Maitland, William Rickard,Kaveh Soltaninaveh,Nigel Chen-Tan, Ross Williams(Curtin University of Technology)This project aims to develop the necessary chemical and structural understanding of geopolymersmade from waste products for them to be used to capture a significant share of the ready mixedand precast concrete market for a given industrial region. Research has been undertaken toassess the suitability of soluble or dissolvable silica bearing waste streams generated in anyone geographical region, and to determine the role that secondary metal ion constituents in thegeopolymer process play on the kinetics of formation and resulting microstructure of geopolymers.The main focus of 2007/08 has been to design, manufacture and test commercially viable readymixedgeopolymer concrete made from the suite of regionally generated wastes. This project isbeing extended to encompass further demonstrations of geopolymer concrete products.During 2007/08 the following outputs were achieved:QQ The first geopolymer concrete path in Australia was laid at Curtin University of Technologywith the efforts of CSRP, Curtin, Rocla, CSIRO, Golden Bay Cement and Boral. The pathwill be monitored over time to investigate the long-term durability of such concretes.QQ A Geopolymer Alliance was formed with the aim to bring together research institutes,the engineering fraternity, government authorities, industrial by-product generators,cement manufacturers, chemicals suppliers, concrete aggregate suppliers, concretemanufacturers, infrastructure owners and industry regulators to cooperatively developmutually beneficial applications for geopolymer technology.QQ Geopolymers with impressive physical properties have been successfully manufacturedfrom Bayer residue. This new material opens up opportunities for utilisation of significantamounts of industry by-product.QQ Lead, chromium III, barium and silver have been encapsulated in geopolymers to passthe United States Environmental Agency recommended toxicity characterisation leachingprocedure (TCLP) test for landfills.QQ Radioactive elements caesium, strontium and uranium have been immobilised ingeopolymers to pass regulatory tests for radioactive nuclear waste.QQ Differences in stiffness of various flyash-based geopolymers (Gladstone, Tarong andHuntley) have been monitored in real-time during curing. Processing windows for avariety of flyash geopolymers have been defined using viscometry, ultrasound propagationand impedance spectroscopy.QQ Rocla geopolymer concrete pipes have passed the necessary specifications and theresults indicate they perform better than the equivalent Ordinary Portland Cement pipes inhydrostatic load tests.Australia’s first geopolymer concrete path being laid at Curtin University in Perth WA.Image © CSRP.geopolymer programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -29

zero waste anD minor elements programProgram LEADER: Mr Warren Bruckard (CSIRO)This program extends on the work conducted under the foundation project “Toward Zero Waste” (4A1), where a suite ofAustralian metallurgical waste products was obtained, characterised and processing/treatment opportunities identified.The three most prospective opportunities were associated with the treatment of bauxite residues, sulfide tailings andwith discard zinc slags. The aim of this program is to produce high quality product with minimal waste. The ultimateoutcome would be “zero waste” flowsheets for minerals processing. Often a barrier to the beneficial use of waste streamsis the minor elements embedded in materials which can pose a threat to our environment. Therefore, safe extractionand containment of these minor elements is a vital outcome of this program. In addition, early removal of these minorelements (which can contaminate the final product) will result in a higher quality product.QQPROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSQQ Work on potential of geopolymers as a base forstabilising arsenic was completed by ANSTO staff.The most suitable base for stabilisation now appears tohave been identified.QQ Techno-economic analysis comparison of the early removalflowsheet against the conventional flowsheet was positive.QQ Completion of experimental work on four different tailingssamples identifying potential strategies for recoveringvaluable from waste sulfide tailings streams and renderingtailings streams or portions of them benign.QQ Development of an industry engagement strategy viadevelopment and circulation of two AMIRA proposals(P967 and P970) on this topic.Warren Bruckard (back) at a Korean alumina refinery.Image © CSRP.Toward Zero Waste (4A1 Extension) (Completed)Project LeaderSharif Jahanshahi(CSIRO)Project TeamJustin Bremmell, WarrenBruckard, Carmen Calle, KevinDavey, Jason Donnelly, FrankJorgensen, David McCallum, TerryNorgate, Mark Pownceby, MichaelSomerville, Steve Wright(CSIRO)Industry ChampionBruce Fraser(AMIRA)This project is concerned with extending the work conducted under foundation project “TowardZero Waste” (4A1), where a suite of Australian metallurgical waste products was obtained,characterised and processing/treatment opportunities identified where appropriate. The twomost prospective opportunities were associated with the treatment of sulfide tailings and withdiscard zinc slags, and this project is concerned with conducting reviews and bench scale testwork on both of these priority waste types to define and validate proposed processing optionsto the point where larger industry funded AMIRA proposals can be developed to take the workforward to the next level.Characterisation studies have also shown many of the tailings contain other valuablecomponents, which could potentially be recovered into marketable by-products. Using simplemineral processing techniques, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, froth flotationand screening, the tailings samples will be tested to determine what by-products can be made,what quality they are, and what the potential markets are for such.Work in 2007/08 involved completing outstanding experimental work on sulfide tailings. Theplanned work on recovery of germanium and indium from spent zinc fuming slag was alsocompleted and reported, along with several reports on the investigations into the developmentof conceptual flowsheets for value recovery from sulfide tailings. Two conference paperswere produced and presented, to market the concepts being developed in the project. Theresults of the research have been thoroughly documented. The experimental work on thisproject effectively finished in February 2008 and most of the effort in recent months has beentowards development of strategies to gain industry engagement. An AMIRA P967 proposal wasdeveloped and circulated to industry, and will commence late 2008.30

Control of Minor Elements (2D1) (Completed)Project LeaderSharif Jahanshahi(CSIRO)Project TeamJosick Comarmond, MareeEmett, Merrill Ford, Rob Lowson(ANSTO)Justin Bremmell, Chunlin Chen,Mandy Matheson, Terry Norgate,Steven Wright, Ling Zhang(CSIRO)Phil Guerney(University of Queensland)Frank Lincoln(University of WA)Industry ChampionJoe Herbertson(The Crucible)StudentsMurray Johnston(University of WA)Project LeaderWarren Bruckard(CSIRO)Project TeamDan Brew, Lou Vance(ANSTO)Kevin Davey, Frank Jorgensen,Terry Norgate, Steve Sanetsis,Steve Wright(CSIRO)Emmy Manlapig(University of Queensland)John Peacey(Hatch)Industry ChampionBruce Fraser(AMIRA)The behaviour of minor elements plays a key role in the overall economic and environmentalperformances of processes used for the extraction and refining of minerals to metal products.The current knowledge and understanding of the deportment of minor elements betweenphases during mineral processing and downstream processing of concentrates are limited andinsufficient to allow development of practices for optimum recovery of valuable componentsand safe disposal of toxic elements. This project brought together world-class expertise inmineral processing, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy to address the growing interest by theindustry in better control and management of dispersion of toxic and hazardous elements.This project aimed to quantify the deportment of various minor elements across mineralprocessing and metal production value chains, so as to develop optimum flowsheets andpractices for treating mined minerals to final metal products. The other key activity wasdevelopment of predictive models for assessing the leaching behaviour of mineral phases/waste products under natural environment, so that the stability of toxic and hazardouselements in tailings and slags could be assessed.During 2007/8 documentation of the findings from the high temperature experimental studyon thermodynamics of selenium and tellurium in metallurgical slags was completed and a PhDthesis was produced. Technical papers were also drafted and two were published. The publisheddata on the behaviour of a number of minor elements in pyrometallurgical systems was used forvalidation and refinement of the Multi-Phase Equilibrium model developed by CSIRO.The initial focus of this project was on processing of copper or nickel sulfide ores, which arebeing processed in Australia. Extension of this work to encompass the processing of lead/zincores could be carried out as part of the second phase of this project.Early Removal and Safe Disposal of Arsenic and Other Minor Elements during BaseMetal Processing (AMIRA P970) (2D8)This project is aimed at developing and demonstrating novel flowsheets to remove, and storein an environmentally acceptable way, minor and toxic elements from the processing of sulfidebase metal ores. The minor and toxic elements are currently deported to various streams (e.g.flotation concentrates, tailings, mattes, metals, fumes, dusts, etc.) across the unit operationsin the flowsheet and are thus widely dispersed into the biosphere. Growing demand for basemetals, declining availability of high grade/low minor element ores and stricter environmentalrequirements, all provide a strong business and sustainability imperative to investigatealternative ways to handle the minor and toxic elements.In this project a new flowsheet will be developed and tested for dealing with minor and toxicelements in the processing of base metal sulfides. The flowsheet is based on early removal ofthe minor and toxic elements in the flotation stage. This produces a base metal concentratethat can go to smelting, as per current flowsheets. The potential impact of this breakthroughtechnology not only addresses minor element issues in regard to current base metal sulfideprocessing operations but will allow the development of presently unattractive/economicdeposits to proceed.Experimental and reporting work from Year 1 concluded in February 2008. Good progress wasmade in each of the areas of flotation, roasting, stabilisation and techno-economic analysis– the comparison of the early removal flowsheet against the conventional flowsheet waspositive. An AMIRA P970 proposal was developed and circulated to industry, with significantinterest received to date – likely commencement in late 2008.zero waste and minor elements programCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -31

incubator programProgram Leader: Dr Jim Avraamides (Department of Industry and Resources WA)The Incubator Program comprises a small group of senior CSRP researchers and industry partner representatives andlooks after the assessment of all new proposals submitted to the CEO for possible funding. There is a core membership ofaround 10 members with others called in for specialist advice where required. The program operates largely by monthlyteleconference and email. Where possible, the Program Leader has had face- to- face meetings with researchers todiscuss issues and provide advice on proposals.The program members now use a standard proforma sheet to assess all new “1 page” summary proposals submittedby researchers for their suitability (or not) to proceed on to being developed into a full project proposal. Advice is thenpassed on to the CEO for final approval and development of the proposal into a formal Project Agreement. Once ProjectAgreements are signed and executed, they are transferred to the appropriate CSRP research program and become theresponsibility of the leader of that program.The Incubator Program manages the development of new project proposals and also identifies new opportunity areasfor CSRP. It also provides additional support to proponents of new proposals through independent technical advice andfacilitates links to potential industry champions and external funding sources.QQQQQQQQPROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSThe Incubator Program has been central to developing new projects from new partners (e.g. MurdochUniversity, University of Newcastle and University of Ballarat).A revised set of guidelines was developed for assessing the relevance of proposals from the perspective of agood fit with CSRP’s core activities.The conversion of initial summary proposals into full proposals and finally to Project Agreements approved bythe Board has improved over the last 12 months.The role of the Incubator Program has been more widely publicised via presentations at technical meetings andthe CSRP website/Centric, resulting in proposals from a wider range of CSRP researchers.Research ProgressAt 30 June 2008, there were twenty-two proposals in the Incubator Program at various stagesof development – an increase of five from the same month in 2007. The number of proposalsgoing forward to full project development has also increased during the past twelve months,from one in the previous year to seven this year. Encouragement and advice was providedto potential new research Participants who have put forward a number of proposals coveringsome new areas of research as well as supporting existing programs within CSRP. Requestsnow exceed the available funds. The high rejection rate reflects the quality/relevancy targetsset by the Incubator Program.Interaction with the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), a SouthKorean government research agency, has offered potential collaborations in the area ofrecycling of wastes including bauxite residues, electronic scrap and dry cell batteries. CSRPresearchers visited a Korean alumina refinery in August 2007 to develop links and agree onlikely project activities. A proposal for a bauxite red mud treatment project was prepared andsubmitted to the Korean client. In addition, a KIGAM scientist is being funded through theIncubator Program to travel to CSIRO Clayton (Victoria) to collaborate on an electronic scraprecycling project.Jim Avraamides developing linkswith KIGAM at an alumina refinery inKorea. Image © CSRP.The draft extension proposal for AMIRA P420D “Gold Processing Technology” project, based atMurdoch University, is being prepared for distribution to potential industry sponsors. There isan opportunity for CSRP to contribute to the sustainability work within this new proposal andthereby expand its participant base within the gold industry. Discussions are continuing withpotential sponsors.32

esearch outputs and milestonesSustainable Development ProgramOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons WhyNot Achieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesOutput 1.1A framework of fundamental principles, practical guidelines,indicators, metrics and decision making tools that providethe foundations of sustainable minerals processing andmetal production.InProgressThe launch of the SUSOP® concept has attracted agood deal of attention. Formal case studies and formaldocumentation of the concept will be complete by theend of CSRP’s term.Output 1.2Topical papers, presentations and books on issuespertinent to industry, research, technology, government andcommunity strategists and practitioners.YesOutput 1.3Output 1.4Output 1.5Output 2.1Output 2.2Output 3.1Output 3.2Output 3.3Output 3.4Design criteria and guidelines that align with thesustainability framework and are relevant to major projects,including greenfield and brownfield projects and newtechnology development.An innovation model that draws on the sustainabilityframework and its implicit stretch targets, multi-disciplinaryapproach and total system / value chain perspectives.Tools for technology design and selection based on life cyclethinking and multi-criteria decision analysis.A practical sustainability framework of principles, guidelines,templates, glossary and metrics for application to mineralprocessing and metal production.An eco-efficiency auditing and improvement methodologybased on the sustainability framework.Customised methodologies and tools for evaluatingmaterial and energy flows in regions and supply chainsto identify, evaluate and develop synergies and innovationopportunities.A methodology for estimating and reporting the net ecoefficiencybenefits of proposed or implemented projectsacross multiple operations (including new revenue streamsand net savings in costs, wastes, energy, water, emissions).Technical solutions for beneficiating specific waste andemission streams to provide suitable feed inputs for otherprocesses or value adding products.A compendium of industrial ecology opportunities that havebeen technically proven and have wide applicability in themineral processing sector.InProgressInProgressInProgressYesNoYesYes(ResearchconductedoutsideCSRP)Yes(Ongoing)YesAn eco-efficiencyassessment wasperformed for oneindustry Participant.However, project wasdiscontinued as, ingeneral, industry claimsthat this is alreadydone at the site level.Refer to Output 1.1Refer to Output 1.1Refer to Output 1.1. Inparticular, existing toolswithin engineeringconsultancies continue tobe assessed and developed.This Output is covered bya parallel research projecton triple-bottom-lineaccounting of regionalsynergy benefits, fundedby the Australian ResearchCouncil.A number of assessmentsand trials are underway.research outputs and milestonesCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -33

OutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons WhyNot Achieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesOutput 3.5Innovative flowsheets for streamlining selected mineral/metal processing chains.NoThe original CSRPagreement includedstreamlining ofstainless steelproduction. A reviewof industry needs andresearch objectivesconcluded that this wasnot a high priority forAustralia and would beremoved from the CSRPresearch portfolio.Request to modify thisOutput to reflect the currentsituation.MilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone1.1Industry ‘think tank’ in place to mentorand contribute actively to Programme 1 inan extended workshop based process.Year 1YesMilestone1.2Appropriate historical and living casestudies (operations, projects, value chains)agreed for framework development,project design study and innovation modeldevelopment.Years 1, 2YesMilestone1.3Critical review of existing sustainabilityframeworks and status of mineralsindustry initiatives from the perspective ofsustainable resource processing.Year 1YesMilestone1.4Strategy Workshop to integrate and buildon the analytical frameworks, indicatorsand innovative concepts arising fromproject work in all Programmes 1-4.Years 2, 4, 6YesMilestone1.5Strong CRC involvement in theorganisation and content of ‘GreenProcessing’, the International Conferenceon the Sustainable Processing of Minerals.Years 2, 4, 6YesMilestone1.6Conference for all CRC Participants toreview research outputs, share insightsand shape future programme and projectdevelopment.AnnuallyYesMilestone1.7Identification of long term opportunitiesfor significant ‘Factor X’ improvementsin eco-efficiency of overall mineralsprocessing and metals production valuechains.From Year 3Yes(Ongoing)Milestone1.8Publication of user-friendly handbookson the sustainability framework, designguidelines and innovation model.Years 2, 3, 4PartlyThis was substantiallyaddressed in CSRP’ssignificant contributionsto the MaterialsStewardship Bookletin the Leading PracticeSustainable DevelopmentProgram of theDepartment of Industry,Tourism & Resources.More outputs are expectedfrom the reconfiguredSustainable DevelopmentProgram, in particular theSUSOP® publication.34

MilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone1.9An updated strategic R&D plan to informthe Centre’s business planning andbudgeting processes.From Year 2YesCSRP’s ResearchAction Plan is reviewedregularly by theTechnical AdvisoryPanel. The most recentupdate was publishedin April 2008.Milestone1.10A qualitative and quantitative review ofaggregated Centre achievements.AnnuallyYesMilestone2.2Milestone2.3Milestone2.4Milestone2.5Milestone2.11Milestone2.12Milestone2.13Milestone3.1Milestone3.2Milestone3.3Agreement with a group of specificoperations to co-develop the auditingapproach and the generic eco-efficiencymethodology.A review of eco-efficiency methodologiesand best practices in the sponsoringorganisations.Major workshops on energy and waterthat synthesise the outputs of the manyinitiatives in this area.Multidisciplinary team audits andimprovement exercises completed atparticular operations.Publication of user-friendly handbookson eco-efficiency, tailored to operations,with a focus on energy, water, materialsaccounting, waste and toxic dispersion.Contributions to the Minerals Council ofAustralia (MCA) Sustainable DevelopmentConference, and similar industry meetingsat state level and globally.Assessments by sponsoring organisationsof the CRC’s contribution to improvedperformance in existing operations.Appropriate CRC collaboration modeland priorities agreed with Kwinana andGladstone and project resources allocated.Critical evaluation of input-output balancefor the Kwinana region, for identification,screening and development of potentialsynergies, using site based tools such asPINCH.CRC technical and facilitation supportto the Gladstone Regional Synergiesinitiative.Year 1Year 1Years 2, 4, 6From Year 1Years 2, 3, 4AnnualYears 2, 4, 6Year 1Year 2From Year 1PartlyYesYesPartlyPartlyYesYesYesYesYesRefer to Output2.2. Note that oneconfidential audit wascarried out by CSRP in2006.Development ofSUSOP® concepthas been necessaryto promote theseimprovement exercises.Development ofSUSOP® has nowattracted industryattention and outputsfrom the forthcomingcase studies will leadto customised manuals.Industry-based SUSOP®case studies are plannedfor 2008/09 and beyond.Outputs from SUSOP® casestudies will contribute tothis Milestone.An independent evaluationof CSRP outputs wasconducted in 2008 withinput from industry.research outputs and milestonesCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -35

MilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone3.4Critical assessments of existing andemerging energy and water technologies fortheir applicability to regional synergies.Year 4YesMilestone3.5Thermodynamic modelling, bench andpilot test work on unit processes, andintegration for economic and life cycleanalysis of alternative routes to Ni &stainless steel.Year 2NoThe original CSRPagreement includedstreamlining ofstainless steelproduction. A reviewof industry needs andresearch objectivesconcluded that this wasnot a high priority forAustralia and would beremoved from the CSRPresearch portfolio.Request to modify thisMilestone to reflect thecurrent situation.Milestone3.6Three additional resource processingintense regions to become activelyinvolved in regional synergy projects.Years 2, 4, 6YesA regional synergies projectin Rustenberg (SouthAfrica) completed in 2008.Other areas (e.g. Geelong,Spencer Gulf) are underdiscussion.Milestone3.8A methodology for ‘greening the supplychain’ tested in practice for the firstcandidate mineral/metal commodity.Year 3NoThe original CSRPagreement includedstreamlining ofstainless steelproduction. A reviewof industry needs andresearch objectivesconcluded that this wasnot a high priority forAustralia and would beremoved from the CSRPresearch portfolio.Request to modify thisMilestone to reflect thecurrent situation.Milestone3.9Identification of at least one big step,realisable improvement opportunity ineco-efficient regional development atboth Kwinana and Gladstone (regionalshowcase projects).By Year 3YesOpportunities have beenidentified for Kwinana,Gladstone and Rustenberg(South Africa).Milestone3.10Regional Sustainability Workshopsto share new best practices, genericopportunities and methodologies andto provide an assessment of CRCcontributions/ achievements.Years 1, 3, 5 Repeat of Milestone 3.7Milestone4.13A thorough review of significant newtechnology developments arising from theCRC, their potential value and the progresstoward commercialisation.Years 3, 5, 7YesAn independent evaluationof CSRP outputs wasconducted in 2008 withinput from industry.36

Energy Efficient Liberation And Comminution ProgramOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesOutput2.5Specific energy and water saving technologies whichtogether contribute to significant cost effective reductionsin Greenhouse emissions and water impacts in mine siteprocessing, in particular energy efficient liberation.YesMilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone2.1Milestone2.6Milestone2.10Effective integration of existing AMIRAprojects with a focus on energy efficiencyand minor element control.Critical evaluation of new comminutiontechnologies and approaches to liberation,and mine to mill optimisations of feedpreparations, size distributions and wasteremoval strategies.Identification of least two novel technologyapproaches for big step eco-efficiencyimprovements in operations that can beapplied in the industry without major capital.Bauxite Residue ProgramYear 1From Year 2By Year 3YesYesYesresearch outputs and milestonesOutputOutput 4.4MilestoneMilestone4.2Milestone4.9DescriptionSpecific technologies to enable the widespread use of bauxiteresidues as economic co-products of the Bayer process.DescriptionAssessment and development of cost effectivesolutions for dewatering/drying, compactingand transporting of residues.Techno-economic, ‘triple bottom line’evaluation of existing, emerging and embryonictechnology options for neutralising bauxiteresidues.ContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)YesAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesSand (ReSand®) isbeing produced frombauxite residue at our10tph pilot plant. Trialsand demonstrationprojects are continuing.Geopolymer concretetrials and agricultural useof residue trials are alsounderway.Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesYear 3 Partly As per Output 4.4Year 1YesAchieved in Year 3 As per Output 4.4CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -37

CO 2Breakthrough in Metal Production ProgramOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesOutput4.5Viable technology options for the use of biomass, organicwaste and renewable sources of energy and reductant inmetallurgical processes.Yes(Ongoing)Work has been carriedout to identify suitablesources from variousregions including NSW,Tasmania, SA and WA.MilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone4.8The specific processing and productproperty issues resolved for drygranulation of slags for cements.Year 2 Yes Achieved in Year 4Ongoing pilot andplant trials and strongindustry and equipmentsupplier engagementwill continue to deliveron this milestone.Milestone4.10Technical feasibility demonstratedfor viable use of biomass and othercarbonaceous waste materials as effectivereductants and fuel in bath smeltingprocesses, including for production of bulkclean fuels of future.Year 5PartlyDelay in getting thefirst and subsequentprojects started.Ongoing work willsubstantially achievethis Milestone.Milestone4.11A critical review of the potential to usebiomass, organic waste and renewables inmetallurgical processing and an analysis ofthe key R&D issues to address.Year 2YesFurther workis underway todemonstrate thepotential use ofbiomass etc, to reducethe greenhousegas intensity ofmetallurgical processes.Milestone4.12A foundation of fundamental work onbiomass pyrolysis, carbon morphologies,and behaviour in metallurgical reactions.Year 5PartlyRefer to Milestone4.10.Refer to Milestone 4.10.Fundamental study onpyrolysis of biomasshas now commenced.Milestone4.13A thorough review of significant newtechnology developments arising from theCRC, their potential value and the progresstoward commercialisation.Years 3, 5, 7Yes38

Geopolymer ProgramOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to Achieve UnmetMilestonesOutput 4.2A robust technology platform (processing and finalproperties) for the production of geopolymer productscontaining significant volumes of mineral wastes,as a low GHG alternative to Portland cement basedconcretes.YesProcessing conditions and product properties for theOutput 4.3enhanced conversion of slags and wastes into value addingcement products.YesMilestoneMilestone4.5Milestone4.6Milestone4.7DescriptionExperimental work on thecandidate geopolymer feedmaterials has identified the mostpromising combinations.Clarification of the chemistry andkinetics of geopolymer production,based on the specific features offeedstocks, and the link to finalproduct properties.Large scale production andmarketing trial for geopolymermaterial with significantmetallurgical waste content.ContractedAchievementDateYear 2Year 4Year 5Achieved(Yes/No)YesYesPartlyReasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to Achieve UnmetMilestonesTrials continue in precast geopolymer products (pipes,railway sleepers) and premix pathways.research outputs and milestonesCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -39

Zero Waste and Minor Elements ProgramOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to Achieve UnmetMilestonesOutput 2.3A comprehensive and critical analysis of minorelement deportment in mineral processing and metalproduction chain case studies, with technical solutionsto maximise overall value recovery and minimise toxicdispersion.PartlyComplete data setsare difficult to obtainat many sites.Refer to Milestone 2.9Output 2.4Mass, energy, elemental, energy, consumable, waterand reagent balances in selected mine to metal/refined mineral processing chains.PartlyComplete data setsare difficult to obtainat many sites.Balances will now be carried outonly at sites if required for our R&Deffort.Output 4.1Viable integrated process designs for convertingprevalent metallurgical residues and wastes into avaluable combination of metals, chemicals, cleanenergy, steel and building and construction materials.Yes(Ongoing)Work in this area continues ona number of fronts (e.g. bauxiteresidue, sulphide tailings, slags).MilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies to Achieve UnmetMilestonesMilestone2.7A comprehensive analysisof NORMs and heavy metaldeportment in specific mine toproduct processing chains.From Year 2PartlyThis project requiresengagement withoperating sites tofinalise the work.Refer to Milestone 2.9Milestone2.8An analysis of minor elementbehaviour in base metal smeltingidentifying opportunities foroptimisation.Year 2YesMilestone2.9A thorough exploration of newapproaches to pre-concentration,concentrate pre-treatments,selective leaching and processre-design for early removal andcapture of toxic substances.Year 4Yes(Ongoing)Two new projects in arsenicand sulfur have commenced in2008 with several operating sitesparticipating.Milestone4.1Identification and physical/chemicalcharacterisation of the mostprevalent metallurgical wastes inAustralia with parallel hypothesisgeneration for promising treatmentoptions.Year 1YesMilestone4.3Comprehensive and rigorousprocess modelling of preferredzero waste flowsheet, supportedby laboratory scale test work andlife cycle evaluation of costs andbenefits.Year 2YesMilestone4.4Zero waste smelting conceptdemonstrated at pilot scale withreal mineral industry waste feedsand saleable outputs.Year 5NoTo date, theAustralian red mudproducers have beenunwilling to sponsorthis work.Revised proposal resubmitted tothe Alumina Technical Panel forreview.40

esearch portfolioCurrent ProjectsProject Name (Project Nos.)Project Leader (Affiliation)Industry Champion(Affiliation)SUSTAINBLE DEVELOPMENT: Program Leader - Prof David Brereton (University of Queensland)Capturing Regional Synergies in Kwinana Industrial Area (3B1Extension)Dick van Beers/Karin Schianetz(Curtin)David Cooling (Alcoa)Chris Oughton (KIC)Kwinana Industrial Inorganic By-Product Reuse (3B3) Chris Lund (GHD) David Cooling (Alcoa)Sustainable Development Program Extension (101) David Brereton (UQ) Phil Bangerter (Hatch)ENERGY EFFICIENT LIBERATION AND COMMINUTION: Program Leader - Prof Malcolm Powell (University of Queensland)Characterisation of Rock Mass for Liberation at Coarse Sizes (66) (2B8) Nenad Djordjevic (UQ) Rob Dunne (Newmont)Demonstration of Banana Screen Modelling Capabilities (82) (2B11) Marko Hilden (UQ) Ted Bearman (Rio Tinto)Development of a Non Invasive Continuous Mill Charge MonitoringSystem (62) (2B6)Nenad Djordjevic (UQ)Rod Nicholson (BHP Billiton)Energy Efficient Liberation and Comminution (96) (2B1 Extension) Malcolm Powell (UQ) Rod Nicholson (BHP Billiton)HPGR Triple Pass Circuit Concept (85) (2B10) Marko Hilden (UQ) Rod Nicholson (BHP Billiton)Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Rock Comminution throughReduction of Thermal Losses (65) (2B7)Nenad Djordjevic (UQ)Rod Nicholson (BHP Billiton)Reduced Erosion Multiphase Flow Equipment (AMIRA P931) (40) (2B9) Jie Wu (CSIRO) Bruce Fraser (AMIRA)Support for Chair in Comminution (67)Malcolm Powell (UQ)CO 2BREAKTHROUGH IN METAL PRODUCTION: Program Leader - Dr Sharif Jahanshahi (CSIRO)Neville Plint (Anglo Platinum)Brian Smith (BHP Billiton)Ray Shaw (Rio Tinto)research portfolioBiomass 2: The Utilisation of Carbonaceous Waste in MetallurgicalProcesses (29) (4C3)Biomass in the Iron and Steel Industry (50) (4C4)Utilisation of Carbonaceous Waste in Tasmanian MetallurgicalIndustries (4C5)Heat Recovery from Molten Slags through Dry Granulation (53)(4D2)BAUXITE RESIDUE: Program Leader - Dr Evan Jamieson (Alcoa)Michael Somerville (CSIRO)David Langberg/MichaelSomerville (CSIRO)Michael Somerville (CSIRO)Dongsheng Xie (CSIRO)Joe Herbertson (The Crucible)John Mathieson (BlueScope)Phil Ridgeway (OneSteel)Joe Herbertson(The Crucible)John Mathieson (BlueScope)Phil Ridgeway (OneSteel)Alternative Lime Source Trials (4A4) Evan Jamieson (Alcoa) David Cooling (Alcoa)Assessing the Potential for Hyperspectral Technology to Verify theDistribution of Red Mud used as a Soil Amendment in Agriculture (74)(4A9)Cindy Ong (CSIRO)David Cooling (Alcoa)ReSand® Production to Specification (78) (3B4) Laurence Guilfoyle (Alcoa) Evan Jamieson (Alcoa)GEOPOLYMER: Program Leader - Prof Arie van Riessen (Curtin University of Technology)Geopolymer Concrete from Regional Waste Streams (97) (4B1 Extension) Arie van Riessen (Curtin) Greg Johnson (Rocla)ZERO WASTE AND MINOR ELEMENTS: Program Leader - Mr Warren Bruckard (CSIRO)Early Removal and Safe Disposal of Arsenic and Other MinorElements during Base Metal Processing (2D8)EDUCATION AND TRAINING: Program Leader - Dr Dan Churach (CSRP)Motivational Factors Driving Career Choices in the Minerals Sector (5B2)Warren Bruckard (CSIRO)Dan Churach (CSRP)Bruce Fraser (AMIRA)CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -41

All Completed ProjectsProject Name (Project Nos.)SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTBP Industrial Synergies Opportunities Investigation (91) (3B6)Capturing Potential Sustainability Improvements of CSRP Research Project Outcomes (1A3)*Developing Local Synergies in the Gladstone Industrial Area (3C1 Extension)Enabling Tools and Technologies for Capturing Regional and Supply Chain Synergies (3A1)Energy Issues Paper (1A2)Regional Synergies in the Rustenberg Area (AMIRA P913) (45) (3D1)Review of Cost Effective Systems to Minimise Water Losses by Evaporation from Mine Site Process Water Storages (AMIRA P881) (2C1)*SRP Frameworks and Metrics (1B1)*Sustainability and Eco-Efficiency Assessments at Operating Plants (2A2)*Water Issues Paper (1A1)*ENERGY EFFICIENT LIBERATION AND COMMINUTIONComminution Program Research (AMIRA P9N) (2B2)HPGR Comminution Classification Circuits (AMIRA P929) (39) (2B5)Rotary Kiln Technology (AMIRA P5831A) (2B3)*SAG Mill Monitoring Using Surface Vibrations (AMIRA P667A) (2B4)*CO 2BREAKTHROUGH IN METAL PRODUCTIONBiomass 1A: Mallee Leaf/Twig Charcoal as Metallurgical Reductant (WA) (4C2)Biomass as a Reductant in Modern Smelting Processes (4C1)*Dry Processing of Minerals (AMIRA P902) (2C2)*Slag Waste Heat Recovery and Utilisation (4D1)BAUXITE RESIDUEBauxite Residue Sustainability Measure of Improvement (1B2)*Characterisation of Radioactivity in Bauxite Residues (2D2)*Long Term Monitoring of the Impacts of (Alkaloam) Bauxite Residue Application to the Peel Harvey Coastal Plain Catchment (2D4) (4A3)Magnetic Separation of Alcoa Sands (3B2)*Minerals Separation from Bauxite Residues (4A2)*Use of Beneficiated Residue Sands (4A2) (4A7)GEOPOLYMERGeopolymer Concrete from Regional Waste Streams (4B1)*Geopolymers in Mine Fill at Mt Isa Mines (58) (4B2)*ZERO WASTE AND MINOR ELEMENTSControl of Minor Elements (2D1)Minor Elements in Smelting (AMIRA P671) (2D6)*Toward Zero Waste (4A1 Extension)EDUCATION AND TRAININGDeveloping Sustainable Attitudes: Teacher Personal Development (5B1)*Gladstone Area Mathematics, Science and Engineering Teachers (GAMSET) Enhancement Program (5B3)*Sustainability Training Pilot (5A1)*42* Project completed prior to the 2007/08 reporting period.

RESEARCH COLLABORATIONSCollaboration in CSRP is considered integral to success at a researcher-researcher and industry-researcher level. There are manyways in which CSRP involves its Participants to ensure that a collaborative environment is maintained. Strategies that have beenin place since the inception of CSRP, and that continue be an integral part of collaborations between our Participants and externalclients include:QQQQQQQQA multidisciplinary approach to all projects facilitated through a Technical Advisory Panel consisting of industry andresearch representatives.An active Technical Advisory Panel Working Group constantly reviews projects.For every project, there is an Industry Champion who is able to provide input into the project development.Working with industry groups such as AMIRA, Minerals Council of Australia, Kwinana Industry Council and Gladstone AreaIndustry Network provides opportunities to collaborate with external clients.The inclusion of both industry and academia allows potential new research and industry collaborations to be brought to the fore andensures projects are leaders in world class research while remaining relevant to industry.Collaborative efforts have continued with Participants and external clients (project affiliates). We furthered our international linkswith a collaborative regional synergies project between Curtin University of Technology and the University of Pretoria in South Africa.Through projects developed and research conducted with external clients, CSRP has had one new participant join in 2007/08. TheUniversity of Newcastle joined as a Supporting Participant on 01 July 2007.The following charts indicate CSRP’s engagement with and collaboration between our research and industry Participants.Number of projects with multiple researchers37research collaborations217One researcherTwo researchersThree researchers7Four researchers or moreNumber of projects with researcher and industry collaboration473Two organisationsThree organisationsFour organisationsFive organisations8Six organisations7Seven organisations or more3Number of projects with industry involvement811345One industry participantTwo industry participantsThree industry participantsFour industry participantsFive industry participants or moreNo industry participantsCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -43

COMMERCIALISATION AND UTILISATIONStrategies and ActivitiesThe Commercialisation and Utilisation Plan (CUP) was officially endorsed by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science andResearch during the 2005/06 year. Commercialisation and utilisation of research within CSRP is governed by the CUP, which hasbeen drafted specifically to ensure that all commercialisation mechanisms (sale, licence, joint venture, strategic alliance, spin-offetc) remain available to CSRP at the early stages in its commercial development cycle. It also provides the overall system andframework for analysis. Broadly speaking, the value from any intellectual property (IP) created by CSRP will be realised by uptake/adoption by CSRP sponsors/industry organisations, non-CSRP sponsors/industry organisations in Australia, and commercialisationof IP through a commercial venture.While this is a top down approach, CSRP also has the option to initiate CUPs at the project level. However, it is deemed more likelythat IP will be identified, protected and managed at the level of an individual IP asset, and the CUP provides for this with the stageddevelopment of an “IP asset” CUP.Geopolymer AllianceThe Geopolymer Alliance is an initiative of CSRP which aims to bring together research institutes, the engineering fraternity,Government authorities, industrial by-product generators, cement manufacturers, chemicals suppliers, concrete aggregatesuppliers, concrete manufacturers, infrastructure owners and industry regulators to cooperatively develop mutually beneficialapplications for geopolymer technology.Funding for the first three years (the final three years of CSRP) has been granted by CSRP out of the Geopolymer Program budget.Initially the Alliance will act as a referral centre and focus for enquiries and collaboration into geopolymer research and developmentin Australasia. It will attempt to foster the uptake of geopolymer technology and the use of mining, refining and power industryby-products in this and allied technologies. Within this three year period it is hoped that the Alliance members will move to form aFoundation which could extend to worldwide.A website for the Alliance was launched in 2007/08 (web: www.geopolymers.com.au) and a prospectus is being developed to forpotential members.PatentsDuring 2007/08, CSRP filed the provisional patent entitled “Alkali Activated Silicate Inorganic Polymer” with Australian ProvisionalPatent Application Number 2008902060.Valuation of OutputsA valuation of outputs from CSRP was carried out by RMDSTEM Ltd during late 2007. The results are summarised here. For theinitial phase of work, assessments were undertaken for the following:QQ ReSand®QQ Heat Recovery from SlagQQ GeopolymersQQ JK Rotary Breakage Tester (JKRBT)QQHigh Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR)Value has been assessed in two categories. These are described as follows:1. Expected Value – The value expected to flow from opportunities that have a clearly articulated path to adoption by end usersbut are still some distance from commercial adoption. Assessment of projected outcomes in this classification involves a fullassessment of the costs, risks and barriers to the realisation of potential impacts. Quantification of the value for this categoryinvolves the preparation of decision trees and the subsequent derivation of a risk adjusted value.2. Option Value – This classification will apply where there is a clearly articulated strategy by CSRP and its partners to exerciseoptions based on the outcomes realised.44

The value of the energy saving benefit has been developed from the expected reduction in the primary energy inputs based uponthe natural gas equivalent, taking into account the uncertainty around:QQ Tonnes of blast furnace slag that are available to be processed.QQ The total Australian blast furnace pig iron production.QQ Market uptake of granulated glassy blast furnace slag.QQ Heat recovery process energy recovery efficiency.QQ Slag energy content.GeopolymersGeopolymers can be made by alkali activation of aluminosilicate to form a solid amorphous paste. The aluminosilicate can beclay, fly ash, slag or other dissolvable aluminosilicate compounds. The alkali is typically sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassiumhydroxide (KOH) and frequently sodium silicate (Na 2SiO 3) is added to provide optimum silicon to aluminium ratio. The alkalidissolves the silicon and aluminium in the aluminosilicate, which then polycondenses to form an inorganic polymer, curing at lessthan 100 o C.The rigid inorganic polymer, or geopolymer, can be tailored to exhibit a range of properties. Some of the generic properties exhibitedby geopolymers include durability (sulphate and acid resistant), fire resistance, and the ability to bind toxic and radioactive waste.These properties plus the physical and mechanical properties make geopolymers a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement. Thefeedstock for the production of geopolymers can be found in waste material or by-products. Thus in the substitution of cementwith geopolymer there is a substantial saving in energy inputs and ultimately of carbon dioxide emissions. Two areas of applicationthat have been investigated where geopolymer cement could replace Ordinary Portland Cement are long life sewer pipes andunderground mine cemented fill.Geopolymers offer an alternative binder system with significant environmental advantages over Ordinary Portland Cement.Geopolymers have lower carbon dioxide emissions associated with their manufacture and offer further potential advantages such asthe use of less water and the utilisation of waste materials.JK Rotary Breakage Tester (JKRBT)The JK Rotary Breakage Tester (JKRBT) is a new testing device which provides superior characterisation of mineral ores, allowingbetter optimisation of mineral processing plants – with potentially much reduced specific energy inputs.The prototype and the new mathematic model were reported to the project sponsors in late 2006, and the positive feedbackreceived from mining company sponsors to the new technology prompted the JKMRC to further validate the device and the model.There is considerable interest from industry with six commercial units to be supplied during 2008. The JKRBT may find manyapplications as a laboratory impact breakage characterisation tester for rock samples, coal particles, drill cores, or other materialsand with appropriate modifications it could be also used as an online ore hardness characterisation device to optimise grindingplant performance.The optimisation of grinding circuits is likely to be enhanced with the availability of the JKRBT. The optimisation of the grindingplant can achieve operating cost savings and/or assist in improving the grinding performance. The value of the JKRBT benefit hasbeen developed from the expected material operating cost savings, improved energy efficiencies and throughput improvementsafter implementation.High Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR)The application of High Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR) in the mining industry is being investigated as a replacement for semiautogenous(SAG) milling process, to reduce energy consumption and costs.Applying the HPGR process as a replacement for the conventional SAG milling circuit results in significant savings in energy costsand reduced grinding media consumption. Other benefits derived from a smaller footprint, faster equipment delivery schedules,and finer product have not been evaluated. The HPGR research program outcome is likely to be tools and methodologies that assistin the selection and operation of grinding circuits utilising HPGR. These tools and methodologies will facilitate the decision makingprocess by providing greater confidence in the evaluation of non conventional grinding circuits.HPGR technology has been in existence for many years; however uptake by the minerals industry has been somewhat limited. Byquantifying the benefits of HPGR technology, CSRP will contribute to improving the uptake profile of HPGRs – with subsequentimprovements in energy and water efficiency.46

Intellectual Property ManagementThe Project Development and Assessment System was implemented during 2005/06. This system is designed to captureintellectual property (IP) generated from projects, review its commercial potential, and either feed into the project proposal pipelineor commercialise. The various sections of this process include the capture of IP from project reports and quarterly reports,generation and maintenance of the IP register and recommendations list, review and maintenance of these lists, and the projectdevelopment pipeline.Recommendations ListIP from each project and quarterly report generated is collected and added to a project’s recommendations list.Review and MaintenanceRecommendation lists are reviewed by the Commercialisation Committee on a regular basis to determine if any of therecommendations, ideas or concepts has the potential to be commercially viable. When commercial opportunities areidentified they are discussed with the Project Leader, and fed back into the project development pipeline as appropriate.Although recommendations from reports may not have any current commercial viability, this may change. For this reason therecommendation lists are reviewed and maintained on an ongoing basis.Project Development PipelineThe project development pipeline was developed to allow a step by step process for the initiation of new projects. It ensures thatproject proposals put forward will assist CSRP to meet its mission, vision and objectives; that the research is world class; that itis relevant to industry and there is industry engagement with the project; and that CSRP has the resources to meet the projectobjectives. Proposals can be developed through a number of different avenues, researchers, industry representatives, other CSRPand non-CSRP members, and through the ideas generated and captured through the IP Management System. The CSRP IncubatorProgram is designed to specifically manage project development and nurture viable ideas, via a process of peer review andassessment, to a point where they aim to enter program areas.OUTPUTS AND MILESTONES: COMMERCIALISATION AND UTILISATIONOutput/MilestoneOutput 6.1Milestone 6.1Milestone 6.2Milestone 6.3DescriptionSpecific development, IPmanagement and commercialisationplans for each technology to becommercialised.Intellectual property issuesaddressed at the project level.A coherent commercialisationstrategy for the CRC in place.Formation of the CommercialisationCommittee to advise the GoverningBoard.ContractedAchievement DateFrom Year 1By Year 2Year 1Achieved(Yes/No)Yes(Ongoing)YesYesYesReasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies toAchieve UnmetMilestonescommercialisation and utilisationCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -47

End-User Involvement and Impact on End-UsersCSRP’s seventeen industry Participants are all actively involved in one or more of our research projects, with increasing involvementin plant trials and demonstration projects. In addition, more than fifty non-Participant organisations are involved as project affiliateswith many CSRP projects. This greatly enhances CSRP’s direct contact with end-users of our technologies.The following table lists our project affiliates for 2007/08, as well as our external research collaborators:ProjectAlternative Lime Source Trials (4A4)Biomass 1A: Mallee Leaf/Twig Charcoal asMetallurgical Reductant WA (4C2)BP Industrial Synergies Opportunities Investigation(3B6)Capturing Regional Synergies in Kwinana IndustrialArea (3B1)Comminution Program Research (AMIRA P9N) (2B2)Energy Efficient Liberation and Comminution (2B1)HPGR Comminution Classification Circuits (AMIRAP929) (39) (2B5)Kwinana Industrial Inorganic By-Product Reuse (3B3)Long Term Monitoring of the Impacts of BauxiteResidue Application to the Peel-Harvey Coastal PlainCatchment (4A3)Reduced Erosion in Multiphase Flow Equipment(AMIRA P931) (2B9)Regional Synergies in the Rustenberg Area (3D1)Department of Agriculture and Food WAEnd-Users (non-CSRP Participants)Future Farm Industries Cooperative Research CentreBP Hydrogen Power Australia Pty LtdKwinana Industries Council members (BP, Cockburn Cement, HIsmelt, Tiwest,Water Corporation, Verve Energy)McGill University, University of Cape TownAnglo American plc, AngloGold Ashanti, Barrick Gold of Australia Ltd,Bateman BV, BHP Billiton Nickel West Ltd, Boliden Minerals AB, Dorr-OliverEIMCO, Downer EDI Mining-Process Engineering Pty Ltd, E+PC (formerlyGrinaker LTA), Hatch Africa, Humboldt Wedag Australia Pty Ltd, ImpalaPlatinum Ltd, Koeppern, Krebs Engineers Pty Ltd, LKAB, Lonmin Platinum,Magotteaux Pty Ltd, Metso Minerals, Minera Escondida Ltd, Newcrest MiningLtd, Ok Tedi Mining Ltd, Orica Mining Services, Outotec, OZ Minerals, PhelpsDodge Mining Company, Polysius AG, PT Freeport Indonesia, Senmin SouthAfrica (Pty) Ltd, TeckUniversity of Cape TownBateman Metals LtdCSBP, other Kwinana Industries Council members (e.g. Cockburn Cement,HIsmelt, Department of Agriculture and Food WA, Fly Ash Australia, BGCCement)Department of Agriculture and Food WABHP Billiton/Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd, Tyco Flow Control Pacific Pty LtdUniversity of Pretoria48

education and trainingPROGRAM LEADER: Dr Dan ChurachThe chief goal of the Education Program is to develop a new breed of postgraduate and undergraduate students who notonly achieve world-class status in their scientific output, but have also developed a deep-seated belief that economicgrowth and environmental sustainability are quite compatible within the mineral resource sector. CSRP continues torecognise that the key to any sustainable enterprise is people – and that the nurturing of the next generation of scientists,engineers and site personnel can only be accomplished with an input of school students interested in applying scientificprinciples to help solve the sustainability problems facing industry.The Education Program boasts several achievements during 2007/08 including the Third Student-Industry-CRCSymposium, an expanded Teacher Program and continued research into the sustainability of human resources withinthe minerals and energy sector. Postgraduate student numbers remain close to projected targets in spite of the ongoingemployment boom in the mineral resource sector. The employee-hungry resources boom acts as a drain on the pool ofqualified young people from which to recruit postgraduates to pursue higher degrees by research. The year also marksthe maturation of the Education Program as reflected in the nine postgraduate and dozens of Honours and undergraduatestudent alumni.PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTSQQ The outstanding achievement for the Education Program this year was the Award for Excellence in Innovationin Education and Training for our Teacher Program.QQ The third Student-Industry-CRC Symposium was held in Queenscliff, Victoria from 16-20 November 2007.QQ The first Teacher Professional Development Program activities carried out in Victoria through the collaborativeefforts of the University of Ballarat, the Local Learning and Employment Network, and Australian EngineeringSolutions.QQ The maturation of the Education Program as reflected in the nine postgraduate and dozens of Honours andundergraduate student alumni.education and trainingAward for Excellence in Education 2008 – School Teacher Professional Development ProgramThere is a great deal of evidence that supports the notion that school teachers have a strong influence on their students in courseselection and career choice. With this in mind, the Teacher Program is based on the idea that educating teachers in real-world,industry-based technologies, is the most cost effective way of reaching students. In collaboration with Murdoch UniversityExtractive Metallurgy, the Teacher Program has developed and implemented a variety of teacher professional development (PD)activities to school teachers.The Teacher Program was presented with the 2008 CRC Association “Award for Excellence in Innovation in Education andTraining” at the CRC Association conference on 22 May 2008 in Sydney. The award was sponsored by the Department ofInnovation, Industry, Science and Research and was presented by Minister Kim Carr. This award recognises the innovativeSchool Teacher Professional Development program as an effective tool in addressing the decline in the number of youngpeople studying the physical sciences.Professor Léonie Rennie from Curtin University of Technology and co-author of seminal Commonwealth report “The status andquality of teaching and learning of science in Australian schools: A research report” commented on the Teacher Program:“One of the crucial issues facing teachers in our schools is the necessity of keeping their science content knowledge up-todate,and knowing how to incorporate that knowledge into curricula that are often slow to change. Opportunities for professionaldevelopment, such as those offered by CSRP’s Teacher Program, where teachers are able to work side-by-side with scientistswho can demonstrate aspects of their everyday activities, or be able to make on-site visits to experience and discuss science withscientists in contemporary contexts, provide valuable avenues for teachers’ professional learning. The resulting enhancement oftheir classroom practices will, in turn, benefit their students and promote their interest in and understanding of science.”CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -49

During 2007/08, the following teacher professional development (PD) activities were run across Australia with several hundredschool teachers from locations such as Cairns, Townsville, Toowoomba, Geelong, Geralton and Perth.:Q Q “The Chemistry and Physics of Extractive Metallurgy” [Full day PD]QQ “Application of Chemical Theory to Practice: Copper Recovery from Oxide Ores by Leaching, Cementation andElectrowinning” [90 minute laboratory]Q Q “Copper Recovery from Oxide Ores by Leaching, Cementation and Electrowinning” [2 hour after school PD]Q Q “Alumina Production from Bauxite by the Bayer Process” [2 hour after school PD]Q Q “Copper Production by Cementation and Electrowinning” [60 minute PD]Q Q “Alumina by the Bayer process” − Fauxite [60 minute PD]Q Q “SCIps Project: What School, Community and Industry Partnerships Are All About” [60 minutes to secondary schoollaboratory technicians]Postgraduate StudentsAs of 30 June 2008, the total postgraduate population (active and completed) is forty-one PhD and Masters – which is just short ofthe forty-five postgraduates projected at this point in the life of CSRP. Of this total, twenty-seven students were pursuing PhDs andfour had completed their doctorates. This total exceeds the target of twenty-six total PhDs throughout the life of CSRP. The numberof Master degree students enrolled or completed remained at ten, against the fifth year target level of twenty. Support for Honoursand undergraduate students continued during the year, with a variety of research projects supporting CSRP studies and objectives.Progress against targets for the recruitment of PhD and Masters students is shown in the graph below:353025201510PhD TargetPhD ActualMSc TargetMSc Actual50Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Ms Bernie Hobbs (ABC), The Hon. Tony Staley (CRC Association), Dr Nicholas Welham (University of Ballarat), Mr Michael Hartmann (CRCAssociation), Dr Dan Churach (CSRP), Mr Ken Seymour (Murdoch University), Mr Stevan Green (CSRP), The Hon. Kim Carr (Minister) and DrGeoff Garrett (CSIRO) at the award presentation. Image © Kirkland Photography.50

Undergraduate StudentsUndergraduate projects are funded to support ongoing research and to offer insight and encouragement to students to considercareers in research. Depending upon host university requirements, some of these undergraduate projects may result in theawarding of an Honours degree. During 2007/08, these projects were carried out at both Curtin University of Technology and at theUniversity of Queensland.Minerals Tertiary Education Council ProgramCurtin University of Technology (Western Australia School of Mines), Murdoch University and the University of Queensland arethe three main Australian universities that teach metallurgical/minerals engineering degree programs. These universities haveagreed to form the Metallurgical Education Partnership as a vehicle for collaboration under an initiative of the Minerals TertiaryEducation Council and funded by the Minerals Council of Australia. The initial goal of this collaboration is the development andjoint delivery of a capstone course in metallurgical process design for final year students in all three universities, with a significantinput from industry experts. The importance of addressing sustainable processing issues in early stages of a design project hasbeen recognised and incorporated into the course. Dr Nimal Subasinghe (Murdoch University) and Phillip Bangerter (Hatch) arecontributors to the design and implementation of this program. The initial course will be offered during Semester 2, 2008 and willbenefit the entire Australian mineral processing industry.Personal Professional DevelopmentCSRP continues to collaborate with participating industries, research providers and other interested organisations to provide a wide rangeof professional development activities for our students, researchers and industry staff. The purpose of these professional developmentevents is to develop and enhance methods and skills of researchers in an effort to maximise abilities to meet real-world challenges.The following professional development activities are some of the programs that CSRP students participated in during 2007/08:Q Q Understanding, Describing and Classifying Soil” : This was a two day workshop in class, laboratory and field work offeredby the Centre for Land Rehabilitation on 29-30 October 2007 at the University of Western Australia (Perth, WA).Q Q “Conflict Sensitive Business Practice in the Resources Sector” : A one day workshop presented by University of Queenslandon 28 November 2007Q Q “Financial Management and Project Evaluation in the Minerals Industry” : A four day course co-sponsored along withMurdoch University. The course was run on 9-12 June 2008 by Dr Pietro Guj, Associate Professor in Mineral Economics,Western Australia School of Mines, Curtin University of Technology.Q Q “Applied Multiple Regression Analysis” : A one week course run by the Australian Consortium for Social and PoliticalResearch Incorporated (ACSPRI) at the University of Queensland in June 2008.Q Q “Introduction to Nvivo: Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis” : A one week course run by the Australian Consortiumfor Social and Political Research Incorporated (ACSPRI) at the University of Queensland in June 2008.School Student LecturesIn order to develop an ongoing network of science and mathematics teachers throughout Australia, CSRP and Murdoch Universitystaff have presented a series of lectures to high school students, underlining the importance of mineral resources to the nation’seconomic well being. The following lectures were presented during 2007/08:QQQ QQ Q“ Aluminium through the Looking Glass – History, Production, Properties and Uses”: presented by Dr Nicholas Welham andDr Dan Churach“Roman Glass to Rocket Nozzles – The Story of Nickel and Cobalt” : presented by Dr Nicholas Welham and Dr Dan Churach“Extractive Metallurgy – An Overview of the Industry” : Dr Dan Churach presented the talk to the Australia Student Mineral VentureWestern Australian school students on 11 July 2007.Student-Industry-CRC Symposium 2007The third Student-Industry-CRC Symposium was held in Queenscliff, Victoria from 16-20 November 2007. The two dozen studentsin attendance represented four CRCs (CRC for Landscape Environments and Mineral Exploration, CRC for Coal in SustainableDevelopment, CRC for Mining and CSRP) and eleven universities (Central Queensland, Curtin University, Macquarie University,Melbourne University, Murdoch University, University of Adelaide, University of NSW, University of Queensland, University of Sydney).Funding support came from CSRP industry Participants Alcoa, Hatch, Newmont and Rio Tinto.education and trainingCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -51

The purpose of the symposium is to foster broader networks of young researchers who are able to relate with research projectsoutside of their primary area of expertise and yet still associated to the minerals and energy sector. All student participants weregiven the task of making 15 minute presentations describing their research to the group based on a set of guidelines aimed atimproving their presentation skills.Industry tours were conducted at a high level and included plant walkthroughs and question and answer sessions with technicalpersonnel at Blue Circle Southern Cement Plant, Alcoa Anglesea Open Cut Coal Mine and Power Station, Alcoa Port Henry AluminiumSmelter, CSIRO Clayton laboratories, and the Australian Synchrotron.Outputs and Milestones: Education and TrainingOutputDescriptionAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies To AchieveUnmet MilestonesOutput 5.2Vocational training packages geared toward operatorsand technicians working in mineral processing andmetal production sites.YesOutput 5.3Teaching units that contribute to Graduate Diplomaand Masters degree courses in sustainable resourceprocessing.YesOutput 5.4Papers, booklets, books, conference presentations,business seminars and electronic communicationsthat give the CRC a high education profile.YesOutput 5.5Education units for the Minerals Tertiary EducationCouncil programme.YesMilestoneDescriptionContractedAchievementDateAchieved(Yes/No)Reasons Why NotAchieved(if applicable)Strategies To AchieveUnmet MilestonesMilestone 5.1Effective operation of the EducationCommittee and the developmentof a comprehensive programme ofeducation and training activities.Year 1YesMilestone 5.2Graduate course modules insustainability and the mineralsindustry designed, developed andpiloted, and ready for all studentsand most professionals engagedwith the CRC.Year 2YesMilestone 5.4Postgraduate student recruitmentat the rate needed to meet businessplan targets.AnnuallyYesThe mining andmineral processing“boom” has attractedmany potentialpostgraduates awayfrom study.Continued review ofscholarship fundingand policies; continuedpublic outreach;greater supportfor undergraduateand honours-levelresearch.Milestone 5.5Effective CRC intra and internetcommunication in place, with anexcellent CRC website.Year 1YesMilestone 5.6 Participants Conference of the CRC. Annually YesMilestone 5.7A successful ‘Green Processing’International Conference onSustainable Minerals Processing.Years 2,4,6Yes52Milestone 5.8Establishment of regional nodes forthe CRC in Brisbane, Sydney andMelbourne to provide a focus forseminars, courses and workshops.Year 1Yes

communication strategyThe aim of the Communications Strategy is to ensure that the minerals processing industry and the wider general community isaware of CSRP and our achievements. To ensure the aims of the Communications Strategy are met, there must also be some focuson internal communication to ensure that there is a sense of belonging amongst CSRP members and to keep them aware of all theactivities being undertaken within CSRP.Internal CommunicationsInternal communication is important to ensure that all members are aware of the activities occurring within CSRP as well asengendering a sense of belonging. Information to be disseminated ranges from general administration information through toproject information and updates. The exchange of information is a core component of a collaborative research organisation. Giventhat the locations of research groups are spread across Australia, this exchange can take many forms.The Executive and Technical Advisory Panel Working Group (TAPWG) meet fortnightly via teleconference to discuss higher leveladministrative matters and individual program issues. This form of communicating is proving to be a valuable and efficient methodof regular communication with Program Leaders.The Executive and TAPWG also meet face-to-face each quarter to probe further into any issues that have arisen and to addressstrategies and issues.Face to face meetings are also important for project teams. For multi-institutional projects, face to face meetings provide anopportunity for the research effort within the project to be more cohesive and directed. These are organised by the Project Leaderand team members as appropriate – however, on occasion, the CEO may encourage such meetings to take place more frequently.Structured internal communication is also facilitated by the monthly newsletter, which is sent to all members of CSRP. The aimof this newsletter is to keep members up-to-date with information ranging from general administration information from CSRPheadquarters, new staff appointments, up coming events, new publications and generic project information. Contributions to thisnewsletter generally come from the Executive, however other members are encouraged to supply information they wish to bedisseminated.Quarterly Project Reports provide a summary of results achieved through the proceeding quarter and allow a snapshot view of theoverall progress of the project. A summary report of all projects is collated and disseminated to the appropriate people. The CEOand Business Manager use the full report as a way of tracking the progress of all aspects of the project while the summary is usedto update industry Participants, the Governing Board, the TAPWG and other members of CSRP on each of the current projects.Annual ConferenceThe 2007 CSRP conference was held on 21-22 November 2007 and was hosted by CSIRO at their Clayton laboratories in Melbourne. Witha theme of “Cooperative Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Processing: Individual Contributions to our Common Goals”, the conferencebrought researchers from all nodes together to exchange information on their projects as well as to network with fellow CSRP members.While external guests were invited, the aim was to promote CSRP and its Participants as an organisation striving for a common goal.Delegates at the CSRP conference in 2007. Images © CSRPcommunication strategyCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -53

External CommunicationsPromoting successes will ultimately enhance the reputation of CSRP and its researchers. It also provides an avenue whereby thereis tangible evidence that the objectives of CSRP are being met. It is equally important to promote these successes to the mineralsprocessing industry and the wider community. Promotion is generally through the CSRP external newsletter and other media andpublicity mediums.The external newsletter is issued 2-3 times per year and covers issues of interest to CSRP stakeholders, such as updates on ourresearch, demonstrations projects and pilot plants; upcoming professional development courses; “meet and greet” of CSRP staff;and student projects and graduates.External conferences, workshops and presentations provide an excellent opportunity to network with other researchers andindustry personnel. Well targeted public presentations, such as plenary sessions at conferences, all contribute to raising the publicawareness of CSRP and the role it plays in the mineral processing industry and the wider community.During 2007/08, members of the CSRP community attended and presented at more than 15 international conferences:QQ Materials and Austceram 2007 International Conference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 2007QQ World Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth, Australia, 8-12 July 2007QQ 1st Korea-Australia Joint Symposium on the Technology for Sustainable Development of Mineral and Energy Resources,Daejeon, Korea, 21 August 2007QQ Cu2007: Sustainable Development, HS&E and Recycling (incorporating the 4th Waste Processing and RecyclingSymposium), Toronto, Canada, 25-30 August 2007QQ Discreet Element Methods 07, Brisbane, Australia, 27-29 August 2007QQ Materials Science and Technology Conference 2007 Conference and Exhibition (MS&T'07), Detroit, USA, 16-20September 2007QQ Chemeca 2007 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 23-26 September 2007QQ 7th Biennial Conference of the Australian Nuclear Association, Sydney, Australia, 19 October 2007QQ World Gold 2007 Conference, Cairns, Australia, 22-24 October 2007QQ International Conference on Engineering and Sustainability, Perth, Australia, 31 October - 2 November 2007QQ 2007 ATSE Symposium, Perth, Australia, 19-20 November 2007QQ VII Meeting of the Southern Hemisphere on Mineral Technology, Brazil, 20-24 November 2007QQ ACMM-20 & IUMAS-IV 2008, Perth, Australia, 10-15 February 2008QQ CRCA08: Cooperative Research – The Engine of Innovation, Sydney, Australia, 23-25 May 2008QQ Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 2008CSRP members were also invited to present to the Advanced Engineering Capability Network (Perth), Central Queensland University(Rockhampton), and Murdoch University Academic Awards (Perth).CSRP issued two media releases entitled “New resource for teachers wins award” (22 May 2008) and “WA based research centreon the right path” (24 June 2008). These were subsequently published online by Science News WA (ScienceNetwork WA) andMurdoch News (Murdoch University), and will appear in printed publications later in 2008. CSRP research is regularly cited inProcess Magazine (CSIRO Minerals) and The AusIMM Bulletin (Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy).CSRP’s website (web: www.csrp.com.au) is an important promotional and information distribution tool. Project information,publications, newsletters, conference information, staff and education information are updated as soon as possible after the receiptof the required details.PublicationsIt is important to CSRP that an up-to-date list of publications is kept. There are a variety of reasons for this – the most important isthat the number and quality of our publications forms part of our objectives and is a specific performance measure. Project statusreports also form part of our intellectual property register. A complete list of our publications can be found on our website (web:www.csrp.com.au/publications) and publications for 2007/08 appear at the end of this Annual Report.54

PERFORMANCE MEASURESCRC Programme Objective 1: To enhance the contribution of long-term scientific and technological research and innovation toAustralia’s sustainable economic and social development.CSRP Objective 1.1: To mobilise an effective, innovative and world class R&D response to the sustainability challenges facing theminerals processing industry.Performance Measures 1.1: Our R&D performance will be judged by our peers and stakeholders, in Australia and globally. This will betracked by:Publications (numbers and quality), invitations (e.g. keynote lectures),citations, awards, global research collaborations.The credibility and relevance of our scientific work within industry andgovernment circles (testimonials from industry and government leaders,inclusion of CSRP in official company and government literature).Number of companies using CSRP as the preferred research provider forsustainability-related research (proportion of maximum market potential).The growth of new research funding.CSRP continues to publish extensively with over 120publications in 2007/08 (compared with 89 the previousyear) taking us to a total of over 400 publications sinceinception. We also continue to have our performancerecognised by our peers and stakeholders:QQQQAward for Excellence in Innovation in Educationand training – awarded by the Department ofInnovation in May 2008.The number of collaborators (local andinternational) remains steady and the level offunding continues to grow.CRC Programme Objective 2: To enhance the transfer of research outputs into commercial or other outcomes of economic,environmental or social benefit to Australia.CSRP Objective 2.1: To create a realisable vision for a sustainable minerals processing and metal production industry with a fraction ofcurrent ecological impacts and to develop a framework of analysis that can guide progress toward that goal.Performance Measures 2.1: Our performance will be judged by:2006/07 2007/08The extent that industry, government andcommunity stakeholders share the strategicvision.The extent to which we and others canunderstand and apply the framework of analysis,methodologies and metrics to inspire, evaluateand implement innovative processing options.Our contribution to finding economically andsocially attractive ways to eliminate waste andemissions from the minerals processing sector asa whole.Aggregate listings of the number and potentialvalue of viable improvements arising fromthe CRC, including in-process changes thatreduce waste, capture emissions and betterutilise material, heat and water resources;benign reagent substitution for toxic inputsand precursors; inerting hazardous residues,conversion into useful products or feedstocks.Adoption of CRC outputs and analysis framework,as reflected in company annual HSEQC andsustainability reports.QQQQQQQQQQNew members joining.Increasing number of invitationsto present and to attendprestigious events.Increasing number of requests tolead multi-party projects.Increasing requests from thirdparty companies for advice andresearch.Several pilot plants, plant trialsand demonstration projectsutilising CSRP technology andknow-how.QQQQQQAs well as 23 Participantsin CSRP, we have over 50project affiliates – non-Participant organisations thathave chosen to work with uson one or more projects.CSRP continues to be invitedto speaking engagements andprestigious functions. e.g.Our CEO has been invitedto sit on an expert panel ofthe Canadian Government’sNetworks of Centres ofExcellence program.Three significant pilot plantsare attracting considerableindustry interest andsupport plus a number ofdemonstration projects aretaking our research outputs tothe field.performance measuresCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -55

CSRP Objective 2.2: To enhance the eco-efficiency of existing minerals processing and metals production operations.Performance Measures 2.2: Our performance will be judged by our ability to provide technical solutions, methodologies and education,which improve the overall performance of existing operations. Quantitative and qualitative measures will track project outcomes withrespect to the combined impacts on:2006/07 2007/08Operating costs and revenuesResource utilisation and materials efficiencyEnergy use and greenhouse gas emissionsWater use and impactsMinor element control and toxic emissionsQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQImproved product quality –lessfines in iron ore and reducedlevels of minor elements in finalproduct.Recovery of valuable minorelements.Using waste streams asreplacement constructionmaterial (e.g. sand, concrete).Energy saving measures –efficient comminution, earlyliberation, and heat recovery.Partial or full replacementof fossil carbon sourceswith biomass or otherrenewable or waste sources inpyrometallurgical processes.Use of geopolymer concretesin place of Ordinary PortlandCement-based concretes.Publication of an industryfocussedWater Issues Paper.Early removal of arsenic andother minor elements.Treatment of sulfide tailings.The value of our research toexisting and new operations hasbeen evaluated in an independentassessment commissioned by CSRP.The outcome of this evaluation isreported in the Commercialisationand Utilisation section of this 2007/08Annual Report. Five projects wereevaluated covering the reuse of wastematerials, recovery of waste heatand improved efficiency in mineralprocessing to reduce energy and waterconsumption and to reduce the volumeand toxicity of waste output and lowergreenhouse gas emissions.CSRP Objective 2.3: To enhance the overall eco-efficiency of resource processing intense regions and complex material supply chainsin which minerals processing and metals production operations are an integral and important part.Performance Measures 2.3: Our performance will be judged by:2006/07 2007/08Our ability to innovate across boundaries toprovide technical solutions, industry ecologies,methodologies and coordination initiatives thatcontribute to the sustainable development ofregions and the streamlining and optimisationof supply chains. In this case, performancemeasures will reflect our contribution toimprovements in the eco-efficiency of groups ofoperations and businesses collectively, includingnet waste reductions, process and non-process,number of linkages between industries, and netenergy and raw materials use efficiencies.QQIn 2006/07 some 143 industrialsynergies had been identifiedof which 18 were proposed forimplementation and 7 of whichhad been adopted by industry foruptake.QQQQIn 2007/08 industry hasadopted 11 (up from 7) ofthe 18 proposed synergies.These are reported on morefully in the SustainableDevelopment section of thisreport.The Rustenberg (South Africa)project was successfullycompleted, with a numberof recommendationsnow under considerationby industry there and asuccessful transfer of knowhow to University of Pretoriacollaborators.56

CSRP Objective 2.4: To develop new technologies that enable breakthroughs to be made towards zero net waste and emissions inminerals processing and metals production.Performance Measures 2.4: Our performance will be judged by the number and potential benefits of new process and productinnovations that:Are shown to be technically and economically feasible.New breakthrough technologies have been developed in anumber of areas including for example mineral processing,heat recovery from molten slags and geopolymer concreteHave a viable development and commercialisation strategy in place. demonstrations. Some examples are reported in theCommercialisation and Utilisation section of this 2007/08Annual Report.CRC Programme Objective 3: To enhance the value to Australia of graduate researchers.CSRP Objective 3.1: To generate a special breed of graduates and industry professionals who combine technical excellence with anunderstanding of sustainability and are well prepared for leadership as managers or technologists.Performance Measures 3.1: Our performance will be judged by the number and quality of graduate researchers that:2006/07 2007/08Number of students enrolled 42 41Number of completions (Honours, Masters, PhD) (cumulative) 21 30(4 PhD, 5 MSc, 21 Hons)Number of graduates obtaining employment within the minerals industry and itssupporting R&D community (cumulative)21 30Number that operate in a multidisciplinary environment (per year)(supervisors from different organisations or alternative location to supervisor)11 12Benefit from exposure to complex industrial, social and environmental issues 42 41performance measuresCRC Programme Objective 4: To enhance collaboration among researchers, between researchers and industry or other users, and toimprove efficiency in the use of intellectual and other research resources.CSRP Objective 4.1: To create a multidisciplinary research, government and industry network capable of working in effectivepartnership around common objectives.Performance Measures 4.1: We will be judged by the extent to which valued outcomes draw on the combined talents and intellectualcapital of the diverse Participants. Our ability to collaborate effectively will be tracked by:The growth in industry funding for collaborative projects (represents totalindustry funding received for collaborative projects).Project level cooperation between research organisations (projects with 2 ormore institutions collaborating).Industry involvement in program development, project activities, education, andjoint supervision.2006/07$’0002007/08$’000$1,741 $2,47717 17At least one Industry Champion perproject. Regular project and TAPmeetings. Industry secondments.Increasing industry involvement indemonstration projects and pilotplant development.26 projects withdirect industryparticipation.All projectscontinue tohave at leastone IndustryChampion.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -57

PUBLICATIONS LISTJournals1. Cleary, PW, Sinnott, MD and Morrison, RD (2007) “DEM Predictionof Particle Flows in Grinding Processes”, International Journal forNumerical Methods in Engineering, published online 7 January 2008,http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fld.17282. Mohr, SH and Evans, GM (2007) “Mathematical Model Forecasts YearConventional Oil will Peak”, Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 105, no. 17, 7May, p. 45, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Mohr&Evans_JournalOG_MathematicalModelForecasts.pdf3. Mohr, SH and Evans, GM (2007) “Model Proposed for WorldConventional, Unconventional Gas”, Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 105, no.47, 17 December, p. 46, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Mohr&Evans_JournalOG_ModelProposed.pdf4. Mohr, SH and Evans, GM (2007) “Models Provide Insights on NorthAmerican Gas Future”, Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 105, no. 25, 2 July,p. 51, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Mohr&Evans_JournalOG_ModelsProvideInsight.pdf5. Mohr, SH and Evans, GM (2008) “Peak Oil: Testing Hubbert’s Curve viaTheoretical Modelling”, Natural Resources Research Journal, vol. 17,no. 1, March 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11053-008-9059-86. Powell, MS and Morrison, RD (2007) “The Future of ComminutionModelling”, International Journal of Minerals Processing, vol. 84, pp.228-239, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2006.08.0037. Rowles, MR, Hanna, JV, Pike, KJ, Smith, ME and O’Connor, BH (2007)“Si, Al, H and Na MAS NMR Study of the Bonding Character inAluminosilicate Inorganic Polymers”, Applied Magnetic Resonance,vol. 32, pp. 663-6898. Shi, F and Kojovic, T (2007) “Validation of a Model for ImpactBreakage Incorporating Particle Size Effect”, International Journalof Mineral Processing, vol. 82, no.3, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBN-4M877N4-1/2/db4b74d52cb4390ce3ea129d6a1a70009. Southam, DC, Brent, GF, Felipe, F, Carr, C, Hart, RD, Wright, K (2007)“Towards More Sustainable Minefills - Replacement of OrdinaryPortland Cement with Geopolymer Cements”, Publications of theAustralasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 9, pp. 157-16410. van Berkel, R,(2007) “Eco-Efficiency in Primary Metals Production:Context, Perspectives and Methods”, Resources Conservation andRecycling, vol. 51, no. 3, September 2007, pp. 511-540, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.007In Press11. Latella, BA, Perera, DS, Durce, D, Mehrtens, EG and Davis, J (in press)“Mechanical Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers with MolarRatios of Si/Al ~2 and Na/Al ~ 1”, submitted to Journal of MaterialsScience12. Perera, DS, Kiyama, S, Davis, J, Yee, P and Vance, ER (in press)“Aqueous Leachability of Geopolymers Containing HazardousSpecies”, submitted to Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings,American Ceramic Society, Westerville, USA13. van Beers, D and Biswas, W (in press) “A Regional Synergy Approachto Energy Recovery: The Case of the Kwinana Industrial Area, WesternAustralia”, submitted to Energy Conversion and Management14. van Beers, D, Bossilkov, A and van Berkel, R (in press) “A RegionalSynergy Approach to Advance Sustainable Water Use - A Case StudyUsing Kwinana (Western Australia)”, submitted to Australasian Journalof Environmental Management15. van Beers, D, Bossilkov, A, and van Berkel, R (in press) “A RegionalSynergy Approach to Advanced Sustainable Water Use - The CaseStudy of Kwinana (WA)”, submitted to Australasian Journal ofEnvironmental Management16. Vance, ER, Hadley Jr, JH, Hsu, FH and Drabarek, E (in press) “PositronAnnihilation Lifetime Spectra in a Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer”,submitted to Journal of the American Ceramic SocietyConference Proceedings17. Brew, DRM and Vance, ER (2007) “Arsenic Remediation UsingGeopolymers”, proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference,Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 2007, pp. 47-4818. Bruckard, WJ and Davey, KJ (2007) “Arsenic Separation in CopperCircuits using Flotation”, proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference,Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 2008, pp. 43-4419. Churach, D and Welham, N (2007) “Teacher-Industry-UniversityPartnership in Professional Development: Hands-On Experience OffersTeachers Practical Applications of School Science”, proceedingsof World Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 169-17420. Cleary, PW, Morrison, RD and Sinnott, MD (2008) “PredictingSeparation Performance of Double Deck Banana Screens”,proceedings of Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200821. Elliott, R and Jamieson, E (2007) “Reflections of an Industry-SchoolPartnership Upon a Traditional Science Experiment”, proceedingsof World Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 237-24022. Gourley, JT and Johnson, GB (2007) “Geopolymer Sewer Pipe”,proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference, Melbourne, Australia,21-22 November 2007, pp. 59-6023. Govender, I and Powell, MS (2007) “A 3D X-ray Vision System forStudying Discrete Particulate Behaviour”, proceedings of DiscreteElement Methods 07, Brisbane, Australia, 27-29 August 200724. Govender, I, Powell, MS, Chandramohan, R, Parker, DJ, Fan, X andIngram, A (2007) “Positron Emission Particle Tracking of ChargeParticles in a Scaled Industrial Tumbling Mill”, proceedings of DiscreetElement Methods 07, Brisbane, Australia, 27-29 August 200725. Jorgensen, F, Hall, T and Sanetsis, S (2007) “Selective Removal ofArsenic from a Copper Concentrate”, proceedings of 1st CSRP AnnualConference, Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 200826. Khanal, M, Morrison, RD and Djordjevic, N (2007) “DEM Study ofScale Up of Abrasion in Small Scale Tumbling Mill Environment”,proceedings of Discreet Element Methods 07, Brisbane, Australia, 27-29 August 200727. Langberg, DE, Somerville, MA, Washington, BM, Mathieson, JG andRidgeway, P (2007) “Recarburisation of Molten Steel Using Charcoal”,proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference, Melbourne, 21-22November 2007, p. 1728. Larson, M, Morrison, RD, Shi, F and Young, M (2008) “Improving FineGrinding with the IsaMill”, proceedings of Comminution 08, Falmouth,UK, 17-20 June 200829. Mainza, AN, Powell, MS and Morrison, RD (2008) “A Review of AG/SAGMills in Close Circuits with Screens and Hydrocyclones”, proceedingsof Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200830. McBride, AT and Powell, MS (2007) “Using DEM to InformExperimental Design”, proceedings of Discreet Element Methods 07,Brisbane, Australia, 27-29 August 200731. McCallum, DA and Bruckard WJ (2007) “The Treatment of SulphideTailings to Recover Useful By-Products as a Driver TowardsSustainable Waste Management”, proceedings of 1st CSRP AnnualConference, Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 2007, pp. 41-4232. Medvecka, J and Bangerter, P (2007), “Engineering SustainableDevelopment into Industry: Unlocking Institutional Barriers”,proceedings of Cu2007 - Sustainable Development, HS&E andRecycling (incorporating the 4th Waste Processing and RecyclingSymposium), Toronto, Canada, 25-30 August 200733. Michaux, S (2008) “Sub-Populations and Patterns in Blast-InducedFines Fragmentation”, proceedings of Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK,17-20 June 200834. Morrison, RD and Cleary, PW (2007) “Towards a Virtual ComminutionMachine”, proceedings of Discreet Element Methods 07, Brisbane,Australia, 27-29 August 200735. Morrison, RD and Cleary, PW (2008) “Using DEM to Compare theEnergy Efficiency of Pilot Scale Ball and Tower Mills”, proceedings ofComminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200836. Nichols, D, Churach, D and Fisher, D (2007) “Mining and MineralProcessing Industries Professional Development Programs -Determining How Effective They Are For Science Teachers”,proceedings of World Conference on Science and TechnologyEducation, Perth, Australia, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 317-32137. Pokrajcic, Z and Morrison, RD (2008) “Evaluation by Simulation of58

Grinding Circuit Options to Improve Eco-Efficiency”, proceedings ofComminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200838. Powell, MS, Govender, I, McBride, AT and Kulya, C (2007) “ApplyingDEM Outputs to the Unified Comminution Model - the SAG Mill”,proceedings of Discreet Element Methods 07, Brisbane, Australia,27-29 August 200739. Powell, MS, van de Westhuizen, A and Mainza, AN (2008) “ApplyingGrind-Curves to Mill Operation and Optimisation”, proceedings ofComminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200840. Rickards, T (2007) “Sustainable Development in the MineralsIndustry”, in 2007 ATSE Symposium Report: Resources Boom –Opportunities and Consequences, Perth, Australia, November 200741. Rickards, T and Churach, D (2007) “Science Educators as ChangeAgents for Science Industry Sustainability: The Science CareerInventory (SCI) and Cultivating More Scientists”, proceedings ofWorld Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 374-37942. Shi, F, and Kojovic, T (2008) “Modelling of Particle Size Effect onBreakage and its Application in AG/SAG Simulations”, proceedings ofComminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200843. Shi, F, Kojovic, T, Larbi-Bram, S and Manlapig, E (2008)“Development of a New Particle Breakage Characterisation Device- the JKRBT”, proceedings of Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20June 200844. Shi, F, Morrison, RD, Burns, F, Cervellin, A and Musa, F (2008)“Comparison of Energy Efficiency Between Ball Mills and StirredMills in Coarse Grinding”, proceedings of Comminution 08,Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200845. Somerville, M and van Berkel, R (2007) “The Cost of Utilising WasteBiomass in Metallurgical Processes”, proceedings of 1st CSRPAnnual Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 200746. Southam, DC, Wright, K and Brent, GF (2007) “Geopolymers in MineBackfills”, proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference, Melbourne,Australia, 21-22 November 2007, pp.55-5747. van Eck, M, Mainza, AN and Powell, MS (2008) “Investigatingthe Different Modes of Particle Breakage Used in Comminution”,proceedings of Comminution 08, Falmouth, UK, 17-20 June 200848. van Riessen, A (2007) “Geopolymers - Current and FutureProspects”, proceedings of 1st CSRP Annual Conference, Melbourne,Australia, 21-22 November 2007, pp. 51-5349. Walls, PA, Vance, ER and Perera, DS (2007) “Development ofGeopolymer Materials at ANSTO”, proceedings of 1st CSRP AnnualConference, Melbourne, Australia, 21-22 November 2007, pp. 61-66Conference Presentations50. Aly, Z, Davis, J, Vance, E, Perera, D and Durce, D (2007) “AqueousLeachability of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers with Molar Ratiosof Si/Al = 1.5 to 4”, presented at Materials and Austceram 2007International Conference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200751. Bangerter, P (2007) “Cutting Edge Sustainability – Columns, Pipesand Pascua”, presented at World Conference on Science andTechnology Education, Perth, Australia 8-12 July 200752. Brew, D (2007) “Non-Thermal Activation of Geopolymer Precursors”,presented at Materials and Austceram 2007 InternationalConference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200753. Bruckard, W (2007) “A Methodology for Developing Zero WasteFlowsheets”, presented at 1st Korea-Australia Joint Symposium onthe Technology for Sustainable Development of Mineral and EnergyResources, Daejeon, Korea, 21 August 200754. Bruckard, W, and McCallum, D (2007) “Treatment of SulphideTailings from Base Metal and Gold Operations – A Source of SaleableBy-Products and Sustainable Waste Management” presented atWorld Gold 2007 Conference, Cairns, Australia, 22-24 October 200755. Churach, D (2008) “National Issues Concerning Schools and SchoolTeachers as Promoters of the Smart Country”, presented at CRCA08:Cooperative Research - The Engine of Innovation, Sydney, Australia,23-25 May 2008, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Churach_CRCA08_TeachersAsPromoters.pdf56. Churach, D and Welham, N (2007) “Secondary School ScienceTeachers as the Key to a Sustainable Workforce in the Miningand Mineral Processing Industry: Changing Peoples’ Attitudes”,presented at World Gold 2007, Cairns, Australia, 22-24October 2007, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Churach&Welham_WorldGold07_SustWorkforce.pdf57. Churach, D and Welham, N (2007) “Teacher-Industry-UniversityPartnership in Professional Development: Hands-On ExperienceOffers Teachers Practical Applications of School Science”, presentedat World Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 200758. Davis, J and Perera, DS (2007) “Geopolymer Porosity Measurementsby Systematic Manual Point Counting Using SEM”, presented atMaterials and Austceram 2007 International Conference, Sydney,Australia, 4-6 July 200759. Elliott, R and Jamieson, E (2007) “Reflections of an Industry-SchoolPartnership Upon a Traditional Science Experiment”, presented atWorld Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 200760. Fuchs, A, Perera, D, Smith, S and Huang, S (2007) “DesigningGeopolymers for the Encapsulation of 85Sr(II) and 134Cs(I)”,presented at Materials and Austceram 2007 InternationalConference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200761. *Jahanshahi, S, Bruckard, W, and Somerville, M (2007) “TowardsZero Waste and Sustainable Resource Processing”, presented atInternational Conference on Processing and Disposal of MineralIndustry Wastes, Falmouth, UK, 14-15 June 200762. Latella, B, Perera, D, Durce, D, Mehrtens, E and Sasaki, Y (2007)“Mechanical Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers”,presented at Materials and Austceram 2007 InternationalConference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200763. McLellan, BC, Corder, GD and Green, S (2007) “Assessing theBenefits of Sustainable Processing Research in the MineralsIndustry”, presented at Chemeca 2007 Conference, Melbourne,Australia, 23-26 September 2007, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/McLellan_etal_Chemeca07_AssessingSRPBenefits.pdf64. Musa, F and Morrison, RD (2007) “Assessing ComminutionEfficiency”, presented at VII Meeting of the Southern Hemisphere onMineral Technology, Brazil, 20-24 November 200765. Nichols, D, Churach, D and Fisher, D (2007) “Mining and MineralProcessing Industries Professional Development Programs -Determining How Effective they are for Science Teachers”, presentedat World Conference on Science and Technology Education, Perth,Australia, 8-12 July 200766. Norgate, T and Jahanshahi, S (2007) “Opportunities for ReducingEnergy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in MineralProcessing and Metal Production”, presented at Chemeca 2007Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 23-26 September 200767. Perera, D and Vance, E (2007) “Aqueous Leachability ofGeopolymers”, presented at 31st Cocoa Beach InternationalConference and Exposition on Advanced Ceramics and Composites,Daytona Beach, USA, 21-26 January 200768. Perera, D, Vance, E, Aly, Z, Fuchs, A, Kiyama, S, Davis, J and Smith,S (2007) “Feasibility of Incorporating Cations and Anions Expectedin Radioactive Waste Streams in Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers”,presented at Alternative Materials for Radioactive Waste Stabilizationand Nuclear Materials Containment, Barga, Italy, 25-29 March 200769. Perera, D, Vance, L and Kiyama, S (2007) “Emerging CementitiousMaterials for Repository Radioactive Waste Immobilization/Storage”,presented at 7th Biennial Conference of the Australian NuclearAssociation, Sydney, Australia, 19 October 200770. Rickards, T and Churach, D (2007) “Science Educators as ChangeAgents for Science Industry Sustainability: The Science CareerInventory (SCI) and Cultivating More Scientists”, presented at WorldConference on Science and Technology Education, Perth, Australia,8-12 July 200771. Tan, NC and van Riessen, A (2007) “Characteristics of Fly AshPrecursors Affecting Geopolymerisation”, presented at Materials andAustceram 2007 International Conference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6July 2007publications listCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -59

72. van Beers, D, Oughton, C, and Cooling, D (2007) “Update on RegionalSynergy Development in the Kwinana Industrial Area”, presented atInternational Conference on Engineering and Sustainability, Perth,Australia, 31 October - 2 November 200773. Vance, E, Perera, D and Aly, Z (2007) “Aqueous Leachability ofMetakaolin-Based Geopolymers with Molar Ratios of Si/Al = 1.5 to 4”,presented at Materials and Austceram 2007 International Conference,Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200774. *Vance, E, Walls, P, Hanna, J, Pike, K, Cashion, J, Zhang, Z and Perera,D (2007) “Setting Kinetics and Ionic Speciation in Geopolymers”,presented at 31st Cocoa Beach International Conference andExposition on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Daytona Beach,USA, 21-26 January 200775. Vance, E, Walls, P, Hanna, J, Pike, K, Perera, D, Aly, Z and Provis, J(2007) “Influence of Combined Cations and Anions in Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers: Immobilization and Setting Behaviour”,presented at Materials Science and Technology Conference 2007Conference and Exhibition (MS&T’07), Detroit, USA, 16-20 September200776. Vance, ER, Perera, DS, Aly, Z, Walls, PA, Zhang, Y, Cassidy, DJand Griffith CS (2007) “Immobilisation of Cations and Anions inGeopolymers”, presented at Materials Science and Technology 2007Conference and Exhibition (MS&T’07), Detroit, USA, 16-20 September200777. *Walls, P (2007) “AC Impedance Spectroscopy Study of GeopolymersDoped with Ca and Mg Cations and Cl, NO 3and SO 4Anions”,presented at 31st Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting,Wagga Wagga, Australia, 6-9 February 200778. Walls, P (2007) “Thermal Treatment of Geopolymers and Cement”,presented at Materials and Austceram 2007 International Conference,Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200779. Williams, RP (2007) “Determination of the Composition of AmorphousGeopolymer Precursors”, presented at Materials and Austceram 2007International Conference, Sydney, Australia, 4-6 July 200780. Williams, RP and van Riessen, A (2008) “MicrostructuralCharacterisation of Fly Ash Geopolymers”, presented at ACMM-20 &IUMAS-IV 2008, Perth, Australia, 10-15 February 2008Project Reports81. Bbosa, L (2008) “Measurement of Impact Breakage Properties of OreParticles Using a Series of Devices”, Masters Thesis, University ofCape Town, March 2008 (CSRP Project 2B1)82. Brew, D and Vance, L (2008) “Stabilisation of Arsenic-Binary WastesProduced in the Processing of Base Metal Ores: Preliminary StudiesConducted at ANSTO”, CSRP Project 2D8 Report (ANSTO ReportRO8m033), March 200883. Centre of Excellence in Cleaner Production (2007) “LiteratureReview of International Regional Synergy Experiences - Lessons forRustenburg Synergy Scoping Study”, CSRP Project 3D1 Report84. Chong, VJ (2007) “Evaluation of Red Lime as an Activator ofPozzolanic Stabilised Mixture for Red Sand Stabilisation”, Final YearProject Report, Curtin University of Technology, 29 October85. Corder, G (2008) “Developing Local Synergies in the GladstoneIndustrial Area: Final Project Report”, CSRP Project 3C1 Report, March2008, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Corder_3C1_FinalProjectReport_Mar08.pdf86. *Cote, C, Kunz, N, Smith, K and Moran, C (2007) “Water Issues andSustainable Resource Processing”, CSRP Project 1A1 Report, 17April, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Cote_etal_1A1_WaterIssuesPaper_Apr07.pdf87. *Daniel, M (2007) “Energy Efficient Mineral Liberation Using HPGRTechnology”, Doctoral Thesis, University of Queensland, June 200788. Gajipara, AR (2007) “Making Geopolymer Concrete Using Processedand Unprocessed Red Sand”, Final Year Project Report, CurtinUniversity of Technology, 29 October89. Haque, N (2008) “Biomass Supply Issues for Charcoal in Iron andSteel Making”, CSRP Project 4C4 Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3352),February 200890. Haque, N and Norgate, T (2008) “Techno-Economic Evaluation of EarlyArsenic Removal from Copper Ores”, CSRP Project 2D8 Report (CSIROReport DMR-3341), February 200891. *Johnston, MD (2007) “Thermodynamics of Selenium and Tellurium inMolten Metallurgical Slags and Alloys”, Doctoral Thesis, University ofWestern Australia, 11 April92. Jorgensen, FRA, Hall, TP and Sanetsis, S (2008) “Selective Removal ofArsenic from a Copper Concentrate by Roasting”, CSRP Project 2D8Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3390), March 200893. Kitanovich, R (2007) “Evaluation of Stabilised Red Sand for Use as aHighway Embankment Fill”, Final Year Project Report, Curtin Universityof Technology, 29 October94. Langberg, DE, Somerville, MA and Norgate, TE (2007) “The Use ofCharcoal in the Iron and Steel Industry”, CSRP Project 4C4 Report(Limited Circulation) (CSIRO Report DMR-3278)95. Langberg, DE and Somerville, MA (2007) “The Use of Charcoal inthe Iron and Steel Industry”, CSRP Project 4C4 Report (CSIRO ReportDMR-3278), October 200796. Langberg, DE, Somerville, MA and Washington, BM (2007)“Recarburisation of Molten Steel Using Charcoal”, CSRP Project 4C4Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3277), September 200797. Langberg, DE, Somerville, MA, Norgate, T and Bremmell, J (2007)“Mallee Leaf/Twig Charcoal as a Metallurgical Reductant”, CSRPProject 4C2 Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3307), November 200798. Lund, C, Higgins, M, Jahanshahi, S and Norgate, T (2008)“Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Issues Facingthe Minerals Processing Industry: An Issues Paper”, CSRPProject 1A2 Report (CSIRO Report DMR-2957), 30 June 2008,http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/Lund_etal_1A2_EnergyIssuesPaper_Jun08.pdf99. Mardesic, T (2007) “Geotechnical Properties of Carbonated Red SandMixed with Tire Grains and Powders”, Final Year Project Report, CurtinUniversity of Technology, 29 October100. McCallum, DA and Bruckard, WJ (2008) “Diagnostic Separation ofSulphide Tailings - Activity Testing”, CSRP Project 4A1 Report (CSIROReport DMR-3319), February 2008101. *McCallum, DA, Sparrow, G and Bruckard, WJ (2007) “A LiteratureReview of Sulphide Tailings Research”, CSRP Project 4A1 Report(CSIRO Report DMR-3234), June 2007102. McLellan, B and Corder, G (2008) “Literature Review - SustainableDesign Methodologies for the Minerals Industry”, CSRP Project 101Report103. McLellan, B and Corder, G (2008) “SUSOP® Concept Document”,CSRP Project 101 Report104. McLellan, B and Corder, G, (2007) “Sustainability Benefits of ReSand®Utilisation”, CSRP Project 101 Report105. Peric, M (2007) “Utilisation of Bauxite Residue (Red Sand) as FineAggregate for Low Strength Concrete”, Final Year Project Report,Curtin University of Technology, 29 October106. Ramsell, V (2007) “An Investigation of Lead and Copper Activationof Iron Sulphide Minerals”, Honours Thesis, Murdoch University, 28October107. Rangan, BV (2008) “Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete”, CSRPProject 4B1 Report108. Reid, C (2007) “Curing of Red Sand Geopolymer Concrete”, Final YearProject Report, Curtin University of Technology, November 2007109. Renzullo, RF (2007) “Effect of Aggregate Grading on the Strength andDurability of Marine Grade Concrete Utilising Bauxite Residue (RedSand)”, Final Year Project Report, Curtin University of Technology, 29October110. Rickard, W (2007) “Thermal Properties of Fly Ash Geopolymers”,Honours Thesis, Curtin University of Technology111. Schmidt, P and Corder, GD (2008) “An Investigation of the AllocationIssue in Life Cycle Assessments of Mineral Processing By-Products”,CSRP Project 101 Report, June 2008112. Smith, HJ (2007) “Stabilisation of Red Sand Using Hydrated Cementfor use as a Sub-Base Material on Western Australian Roads”, FinalYear Project Report, Curtin University of Technology, 29 October113. Somerville, M and van Berkel, R (2008) “A Preliminary Study into theUtilisation of Tasmanian Waste Biomass in Metallurgical Processes”,60

CSRP Project 4C5 Report (Limited Circulation) (CSIRO Report DMR-3463), June 2008114. van Beers, D (2007) “Capturing Regional Synergies in the KwinanaIndustrial Area: 2007 Status Report”, CSRP Project 3B1 Report, July2007, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/3B1StatusReportJuly2007.pdf115. van Beers, D and Robson, S (2007) “Development of SustainabilityIndicators and Roadmap for the Kwinana Industrial Area -Discussion Document for Kwinana Industries Council”, CSRPProject 3B1 Report116. Wheatley, S (2008) “Enhanced Leaching of a ChalcopyriteConcentrate in the Presence of Nanosize Silica”, Honours Thesis,Murdoch University, 2 January 2008117. *Wijaya, H (2007) “Geotechnical Properties of Unprocessed RedSand and Washed and Carbonated Red Sand”, Final Year ProjectReport, Curtin University of Technology, May 2007118. *Wright, S and Jahanshahi, S (2007) “Germanium and IndiumRecovery from Spent Zinc Fumer Slag”, CSRP Project 4A1 Report(CSIRO Report DMR-3306), October 2006119. Wright, S and Jorgensen, FRA (2008) “Thermodynamics ofSelective Removal of Arsenic from Copper Concentrate”, CSRPProject 2D8 Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3401), April 2008120. Wright, S, McCallum, DA and Bruckard, W (2008) “Germanium andIndium Recovery from Zinc Fumer Tail Slag - Literature Review”,CSRP Project 4A1 Report (CSIRO Report DMR-3235), February 2008121. Xie, D, Norgate, T, Jahanshahi, S and Russell, M (2007) “Project4D1: Slag Waste Heat Recovery and Utilisation”, CSRP Project 4D1Report (Confidential) (CSIRO Report DMR-3304), December 2007Invitations to Speak122. Churach, D (2007) “Building Australia’s Future Scientists: ReachingStudents through School Teachers”, presentation to Beyond theSkills Shortage: Building Our Engineering Capability for the FutureWorkshop, Advanced Engineering Capability Network, Perth,Australia, 25 July 2007 (invited)123. Corder, G (2007) “Can Green Chemistry Sustain the MineralsIndustry? A Case for ‘Smart’ Recycling”, presentation to CentralQueensland University, Rockhampton, Australia, 27 August 2007(invited)124. Green, S (2007) “CSRP Extractive Metallurgy”, presentation toAcademic Awards, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, 11 May2007 (invited)Invited Papers125. Williams, RP and van Riessen, A (2008) “UnderstandingGeopolymer Composition”, presented at AXAA 2008, Melbourne,Australia, 4-8 February 2008 (invited)Book Chapters126. Corder, GD and van Beers, D (2008) “Eco-Industrial Development”,in Transitions: Pathways Towards Sustainable Urban Developmentin Australia (ed. PW Newton), CSIRO Publishing, pp. 537-560, http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/5854.htm127. Perera, DS, Vance, ER, Kiyama, S, Aly, Z and Yee, P (2007)“Geopolymers as Candidates for Low/Intermediate Level HighlyAlkaline Waste”, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management(Eds. DS Dunn, C Poinssot and BD Begg), Materials ResearchSociety, Warrendale, USA, pp. 361-366Media Articles Referencing CSRP (most recent first)1. “A path that’s more than it’s cracked up to be”, Science News WA,Science Network Western Australia, published online 27 June 2008,http://www.sciencewa.net.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2190&Itemid=5872. “New approach to slag processing (dry granulation)”, Connections,Australasian Slag Association, vol. 5, no. 3, April/May 2008, p. 5,http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/ConnectionsMay08_NewApproachSlagProcessing.pdf3. Humphries, B (2008) “Sulfidic waste offers hidden mineral wealth”,Process Magazine, CSIRO Minerals, June 2008, p. 3, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/ProcessJun08_SulfidicWaste.pdf4. “Putting the sparkle back into minerals”, Murdoch University News,9 June 2008, http://www.murdoch.edu.au/News/View/?article_id=296135. van Berkel, R, Power, G and Cooling, D (2008) “Development ofa quantitative sustainability assessment tool for bauxite residuemanagement”, Light Metal Age, April 20086. Johnson, M (2008) “‘Greener’ processes help reduce greenhousegas emissions”, The AusIMM Bulletin, no. 2, March/April 20087. Holloway, D (2008) “Australia leads green revolution”, MiningTechnology, 13 March, http://www.mining-technology.com/features/feature1685/8. “Carbon: the growing business risk”, Australian Mining, vol. 100,no. 2, February 20089. Thyer, R (2007) “In-depth Insight to improve mill design”, ProcessMagazine, CSIRO Minerals, October 2007, p. 8, http://www.csrp.com.au/_media/downloads/ProcessOct07_ImproveMillDesign.pdf10. Prior, P (2007) “Building a sustainable future”, ScienceNetworkWA, 25 September, http://www.sciencewa.net.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1832&Itemid=58711. Green, S (2007) “Getting the most from minerals”, Online Opinion:Australia’s e-Journal of Social and Political Debate, 07 August,http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=618212. AusIMM Week In Review, Week 32, 06 August, cites Stevan Greenon “Getting the most from minerals” in Science Alerts, http://www.sciencealert.com.au/opinions/20070108-16149.html13. Green, S (2007) “Getting the most from minerals”, Science Alerts,01 August, http://www.sciencealert.com.au/opinions/20070108-16149.html14. Green, S (2007) “Getting the most from minerals”, Australian R&DReview, August 2007, p. 9, http://www.coretext.com.au/assets/downloads/RDR_0708.pdf15. Green, S (2007) “Getting the most from minerals”, EnvironmentalScience News, http://www.tececo.com/news.science_alert.php16. “Setting industry standards in environmental sustainability”, TheWest Australian, 31 July, p. 4* Publication was not reported in the 2006/07 annual reportpublications listCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -61

FINANCIALSCRC for Sustainable Resource Processing (20020007) - Financial Information - Table 1 - In-Kind Contributions (dollars in $’000)Actual Projected Totals to 2007-08 Totals for 7 years2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Diff Actual/Proj Agr’mt DiffCore participantsAlcoa of Australia LtdSalaries 45 138 111 138 184 138 323 138 270 138 138 138 138 138 933 690 243 1,209 966 243Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 86 263 159 263 305 263 580 263 994 263 263 263 263 263 2,124 1,315 809 2,650 1,841 809Total 131 401 270 401 489 401 903 401 1,264 401 401 401 401 401 3,057 2,005 1,052 3,859 2,807 1,052Australian Nuclear Science and TechnologyOrganisationSalaries 35 146 174 0 150 0 128 0 149 0 0 0 0 0 636 146 490 636 146 490Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 48 204 243 0 210 0 178 0 209 0 0 0 0 0 888 204 684 888 204 684Total 83 350 417 0 360 0 306 0 358 0 0 0 0 0 1,524 350 1,174 1,524 350 1,174CSIROSalaries 405 524 375 524 513 524 1,030 524 716 524 524 524 524 524 3,039 2,620 419 4,087 3,668 419Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 19 19 0 19Other 567 1,237 525 1,237 719 1,237 1,441 1,237 1,002 1,237 1,237 1,237 2,730 1,237 4,254 6,185 -1,931 8,221 8,659 -438Total 972 1,761 900 1,761 1,232 1,761 2,490 1,761 1,718 1,761 1,761 1,761 3,254 1,761 7,312 8,805 -1,493 12,327 12,327 0Curtin University of TechnologySalaries 147 165 243 165 398 165 225 165 484 165 165 165 165 165 1,497 825 672 1,827 1,155 672Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 205 562 340 562 556 562 316 562 677 562 562 562 606 562 2,094 2,810 -716 3,262 3,934 -672Total 352 727 583 727 954 727 541 727 1,161 727 727 727 771 727 3,591 3,635 -44 5,089 5,089 0Newmont Australia LtdSalaries 10 38 7 38 12 38 8 38 8 38 38 38 183 38 45 190 -145 266 266 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 34 68 14 68 21 68 12 68 13 68 68 68 314 68 94 340 -246 476 476 0Total 44 106 21 106 33 106 20 106 21 106 106 106 497 106 139 530 -391 742 742 0Technological Resources Pty LtdSalaries 13 0 27 0 49 0 19 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 118 0 118 118 0 118Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 27 0 58 0 78 0 32 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 213 0 213 213 0 213Total 40 0 85 0 127 0 51 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 331 0 331 331 0 331The University of QueenslandSalaries 220 167 265 167 308 167 433 167 592 167 167 167 167 167 1,818 835 983 2,152 1,169 983Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 307 415 372 415 431 415 605 415 828 415 415 415 415 415 2,543 2,075 468 3,373 2,905 468Total 527 582 637 582 739 582 1,038 582 1,420 582 582 582 582 582 4,361 2,910 1,451 5,525 4,074 1,451University of SydneySalaries 112 198 85 198 45 198 0 198 0 198 0 198 0 198 242 990 -748 242 1,386 -1,144Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 157 384 119 384 64 384 0 384 0 384 0 384 0 384 340 1,920 -1,580 340 2,688 -2,348Total 269 582 204 582 109 582 0 582 0 582 0 582 0 582 582 2,910 -2,328 582 4,074 -3,492Western Mining Corporation Resources LtdSalaries 24 21 35 21 22 21 12 21 24 21 21 21 21 21 117 105 12 159 147 12Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 36 29 49 29 36 29 16 29 33 29 29 29 29 29 170 145 25 228 203 25Total 60 50 84 50 58 50 28 50 57 50 50 50 50 50 287 250 37 387 350 37Xstrata Queensland LimitedSalaries 50 56 9 56 8 56 10 56 25 56 56 56 234 56 102 280 -178 392 392 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 72 99 16 99 11 99 18 99 38 99 99 99 439 99 155 495 -340 693 693 0Total 122 155 25 155 19 155 28 155 63 155 155 155 673 155 257 775 -518 1,085 1,085 0Total in-kind from core participantsSalaries 1,061 1,453 1,331 1,307 1,689 1,307 2,188 1,307 2,278 1,307 1,109 1,307 1,432 1,307 8,547 6,681 1,866 11,088 9,295 1,793Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 19 19 0 19Other 1,539 3,261 1,895 3,057 2,431 3,057 3,198 3,057 3,812 3,057 2,673 3,057 4,796 3,057 12,875 15,489 -2,614 20,344 21,603 -1,259Total 2,600 4,714 3,226 4,364 4,120 4,364 5,405 4,364 6,090 4,364 3,782 4,364 6,228 4,364 21,441 22,170 -729 31,451 30,898 553Supporting participantsAusmeltSalaries 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 30 -30 0 42 -42Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 0 14 0 14 0 14 0 14 0 14 0 14 0 14 0 70 -70 0 98 -98Total 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 100 -100 0 140 -140Central TAFESalaries 31 18 24 18 22 18 32 18 0 18 0 18 0 18 109 90 19 109 126 -17Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 43 28 33 28 30 28 44 28 0 28 0 28 0 28 150 140 10 150 196 -46Total 74 46 57 46 52 46 76 46 0 46 0 46 0 46 259 230 29 259 322 -63Delta EMD Australia Pty LimitedSalaries 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 35 -35 0 49 -49Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 65 -65 0 91 -91Total 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 100 -100 0 140 -14062

Actual Projected Totals to 2007-08 Totals for 7 years2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Diff Actual/Proj Agr’mt DiffEnvironment AustraliaSalaries 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Gladstone Area Industry NetworkSalaries 4 8 10 8 9 8 7 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 30 40 -10 30 56 -26Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 5 13 14 13 12 13 9 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 40 65 -25 40 91 -51Total 9 21 24 21 21 21 16 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 70 105 -35 70 147 -77Hatch Associates Pty LtdSalaries 12 8 18 8 20 8 23 8 15 8 8 8 8 8 88 40 48 104 56 48Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 17 13 24 13 27 13 37 13 24 13 13 13 13 13 129 65 64 155 91 64Total 29 21 42 21 47 21 60 21 39 21 21 21 21 21 217 105 112 259 147 112Kwinana Industry CouncilSalaries 6 8 26 8 28 8 61 8 60 8 8 8 8 8 181 40 141 197 56 141Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 34 12 36 12 61 12 105 12 103 12 12 12 12 12 339 60 279 363 84 279Total 40 20 62 20 89 20 166 20 163 20 20 20 20 20 520 100 420 560 140 420Minerals Council of AustraliaSalaries 8 8 10 8 2 8 2 8 2 8 8 8 24 8 24 40 -16 56 56 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 11 13 19 13 3 13 2 13 3 13 13 13 40 13 38 65 -27 91 91 0Total 19 21 29 21 5 21 4 21 5 21 21 21 64 21 62 105 -43 147 147 0NSW Minerals Council LimitedSalaries 8 8 3 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 11 40 -29 11 56 -45Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 21 13 4 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 25 65 -40 25 91 -66Total 29 21 7 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 36 105 -69 36 147 -111Onesteel LimitedSalaries 5 26 6 26 9 26 21 26 27 26 26 26 88 26 68 130 -62 182 182 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 10 49 12 49 15 49 34 49 42 49 49 49 181 49 113 245 -132 343 343 0Total 15 75 18 75 24 75 55 75 69 75 75 75 269 75 181 375 -194 525 525 0Other industry participantsSalaries 41 508 28 508 35 508 177 508 188 508 508 508 508 508 469 2,540 -2,071 1,485 3,556 -2,071Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 67 906 47 906 52 906 263 906 305 906 906 906 906 906 734 4,530 -3,796 2,546 6,342 -3,796Total 108 1,414 75 1,414 87 1,414 440 1,414 493 1,414 1,414 1,414 1,414 1,414 1,203 7,070 -5,867 4,031 9,898 -5,867Rocla Industries Pty LimitedSalaries 7 18 0 18 12 18 22 18 39 18 18 18 28 18 80 90 -10 126 126 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 11 33 17 33 17 33 30 33 61 33 33 33 62 33 136 165 -29 231 231 0Total 18 51 17 51 29 51 52 51 100 51 51 51 90 51 216 255 -39 357 357 0Tesla Technologies Pty LtdSalaries 2 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 2 40 -38 2 56 -54Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 2 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 0 13 2 65 -63 2 91 -89Total 4 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 4 105 -101 4 147 -143URS Australia Pty LtdSalaries 10 8 4 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 8 8 15 8 33 40 -7 56 56 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 14 13 6 13 9 13 9 13 7 13 13 13 33 13 45 65 -20 91 91 0Total 24 21 10 21 16 21 16 21 12 21 21 21 48 21 78 105 -27 147 147 0WA State Industry and TechnologySalaries 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total in-kind from supporting participantsSalaries 134 639 129 639 144 639 352 639 336 639 584 639 679 639 1,095 3,195 -2,100 2,358 4,473 -2,115Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 235 1,133 212 1,133 226 1,133 533 1,133 545 1,133 1,039 1,133 1,247 1,133 1,751 5,665 -3,914 4,037 7,931 -3,894Total 369 1,772 341 1,772 370 1,772 885 1,772 881 1,772 1,623 1,772 1,926 1,772 2,846 8,860 -6,014 6,395 12,404 -6,009Other in-kind non-participantsSalaries 56 65 98 96 129 444 0 444 444 0 444Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Other 78 104 138 137 182 639 0 639 639 0 639Total 134 0 169 0 236 0 233 0 311 0 0 0 0 0 1,083 0 1,083 1,083 0 1,083Total in-kind contributionsSalaries 1,251 2,092 1,525 1,946 1,931 1,946 2,636 1,946 2,743 1,946 1,693 1,946 2,111 1,946 10,086 9,876 210 13,890 13,768 122Capital 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 19 19 0 19Other 1,852 4,394 2,211 4,190 2,795 4,190 3,868 4,190 4,539 4,190 3,712 4,190 6,043 4,190 15,265 21,154 -5,889 25,020 29,534 -4,514Grand total in-kind (T1) 3,103 6,486 3,736 6,136 4,726 6,136 6,523 6,136 7,282 6,136 5,405 6,136 8,154 6,136 25,370 31,030 -5,660 38,929 43,302 -4,373Notes for 2007-08 financial year: In FY 2007-08 CSRP achieved $7,282k in-kind against the Commonwealth Budget/Agreement amount of $6,136k, a surplus of $1,146k. Over the first five years of operation there is a shortfall of $5,660k in total in-kind contributions. The shortfall in the first year of operation was due to the delay in the Constitution of the Centre and the requirementto execute project agreements prior to the commencement of research activities. This had a knock-on effect in the second, third, fouth and fifth years of operation. The Centre has yet to achieve the growth in project in-kind contributions from Other Indurstry Participants. The variances have not been included in year 6 as their distribution cannot yet be accurately determined.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 - financials63

64CRC for Sustainable Resource Processing (20020007) - Financial Information - Table 2 - Cash Contributions (dollars in $’000)ActualProjectedTotals to 2007-08Totals for 7 years2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-082008-9 2009-10Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Diff Actual/Proj Agr’mt DiffCore participantsAlcoa of Australia Ltd 47 400 557 400 291 400 448 400 427 400 400 400 630 400 1,770 2,000 -230 2,800 2,800 0Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 250 250 0 350 350 0CSIRO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Curtin University of Technology 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 100 100 100 100 100 510 500 10 710 700 10Newmont Australia Ltd 105 105 111 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 531 525 6 741 735 6Technological Resources Pty Ltd 0 350 409 350 264 350 568 350 131 350 350 350 728 350 1,372 1,750 -378 2,450 2,450 0The University of Queensland 75 75 75 75 85 75 85 75 95 75 75 75 75 75 415 375 40 565 525 40University of Sydney 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Western Mining Corporation Resources Ltd 80 100 200 100 238 100 312 100 241 100 100 100 100 100 1,071 500 571 1,271 700 571Xstrata Queensland Limited 0 155 240 155 171 155 73 155 23 155 155 155 423 155 507 775 -268 1,085 1,085 0Total cash from core participants 457 1,335 1,742 1,335 1,304 1,335 1,741 1,335 1,182 1,335 1,335 1,335 2,211 1,335 6,426 6,675 -249 9,972 9,345 627Supporting participantsAusmelt 0 20 0 20 0 20 5 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 5 100 -95 5 140 -135Central TAFE 105 50 0 50 0 50 155 50 0 50 0 50 0 50 260 250 10 260 350 -90Delta EMD Australia Pty Limited 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 100 -100 0 140 -140Environment Australia 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 100 100 0 140 140 0Gladstone Area Industry Network 20 20 16 20 18 20 18 20 7 20 20 20 41 20 79 100 -21 140 140 0Hatch Associates Pty Ltd 20 20 20 20 30 20 30 20 65 20 20 20 20 20 165 100 65 205 140 65Kwinana Industry Council 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 20 40 20 20 20 20 20 130 100 30 170 140 30Minerals Council of Australia 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 100 100 0 140 140 0NSW Minerals Council Limited 20 20 20 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 40 100 -60 40 140 -100Onesteel Limited 5 75 49 75 0 75 107 75 161 75 75 75 128 75 322 375 -53 525 525 0Other industry participants 0 331 50 662 50 1,003 418 1,254 695 1,254 1,254 1,254 4,555 1,264 1,213 4,504 -3,291 7,022 7,022 0ROCLA INDUSTRIES PTY LIMITED 50 50 0 50 50 50 50 50 100 50 50 50 50 50 250 250 0 350 350 0Tesla Technologies Pty Ltd 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 100 -100 0 140 -140URS Australia Pty Ltd 20 20 0 20 20 20 20 20 0 20 20 20 60 20 60 100 -40 140 140 0WA State Industry and Technology 0 345 330 345 0 345 330 0 330 0 0 0 0 0 990 1,035 -45 990 1,035 -45Total cash from supporting participants 300 1,051 545 1,382 228 1,723 1,203 1,629 1,438 1,629 1,499 1,629 4,914 1,639 3,714 7,414 -3,700 10,127 10,682 -555Other cashNon-participants 1 0 777 0 651 0 479 0 365 0 2,273 0 2,273 2,273 0 2,273External grants 0 0 0 50 0 50 0 50 0 50 0 200 -200 0 200 -200Contract research 0 500 0 600 20 700 5 800 77 1,300 102 3,900 -3,798 102 3,900 -3,798Commercialisation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Education 0 50 0 50 0 75 0 100 0 100 0 375 -375 0 375 -375Interest 15 0 106 0 135 0 215 0 293 0 764 0 764 764 0 764New from existing starting cash 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total other cash 16 550 883 700 806 825 699 950 735 1,450 1,850 1,850 3,586 2,250 3,139 4,475 -1,336 8,575 8,575 0CRC grantTotal grant 1,500 1,500 2,800 2,800 3,000 3,000 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 2,500 2,500 2,000 2,000 14,300 14,300 0 18,800 18,800 0Grand totalsTotal CRC cash contribution (T2) 2,273 4,436 5,970 6,217 5,338 6,883 7,143 7,414 6,855 7,914 7,184 7,314 12,711 7,224 27,579 32,864 -5,285 47,474 47,402 721,118 2,271 2,440 3,611 4,093 4,093 3,611Cash carried over from previous year (UB for previous year)(less) Unspent balance (UB) 1,118 2,271 2,440 3,611 4,093 4,093 0 4,093Total cash expenditure (T3) 1,155 4,436 4,817 6,217 5,169 6,883 5,972 7,414 6,373 7,914 7,184 7,314 16,804 7,224 27,097 32,864 -5,285 47,474 47,402 72Allocation of cash expenditure between heads of expenditureSalaries 260 4,356 2,038 4,356 2,040 4,356 2,286 4,356 2,434 4,356 4,769 4,356 16,742 4,356 9,058 21,780 -12,722 30,569 30,492 77Capital 48 0 41 0 5 0 90 0 55 0 0 0 -239 0 239 0 239 0 0 0Other 847 2,415 2,738 2,415 3,124 2,415 3,596 2,415 3,884 2,415 2,415 2,415 301 2,415 14,189 12,075 2,114 16,905 16,905 0Total 1,155 6,771 4,817 6,771 5,169 6,771 5,972 6,771 6,373 6,771 7,184 6,771 16,804 6,771 23,486 33,855 -10,369 47,474 47,397 77Notes for 2007-08 financial year: The shortfall between actual and agreed cash contributions ($5,285) for the fi ve years to 30 June 2008 is largely as a result of the late start-up of the CRC in the fi rst year and the lack of growth in Other Industry Participants. The shortfall for the fi rst year of operations was $2,163k. It should be noted that $277k ofparticipants contributions was outstanding as at 30 June 2008. A suite of industry-focused demonstration activities are currently being implemented to address the shortfall in cash contributions. Once again the variances have not been allocated in year 6 as their distribution cannot yet be accurately determined.

CRC for Sustainable Resource Processing (20020007) - Financial Information - Table 3 - Resources (dollars in $’000)Actual Projected Totals to 2007-08 Totals for 7 years2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Projected Agr’mt Actual Agr’mt Diff Actual/Proj Agr’mt DiffSummary of resources applied to activities of centreGrand total (in-kind) from table 1 (T1) 3,103 6,486 3,736 6,136 4,726 6,136 6,523 6,136 7,282 6,136 5,405 6,136 8,154 6,136 25,370 31,030 -5,660 38,929 43,302 -4,373Grand total (cash expenditure) from table 2 (T3) 1,155 4,436 4,817 6,217 5,169 6,883 5,972 7,414 6,373 7,914 7,184 7,314 16,804 7,224 23,486 32,864 -9,378 47,474 47,402 72Total resources applied to activities of centre (T1+T3) 4,258 10,922 8,553 12,353 9,895 13,019 12,495 13,550 13,655 14,050 12,589 13,450 24,958 13,360 48,856 63,894 -15,038 86,403 90,704 -4,301Allocation of total resources applied to activities of CRC between headsof expenditureTotal salaries (cash and in-kind) 1,511 6,448 3,563 6,302 3,971 6,302 4,922 6,302 5,177 6,302 6,462 6,302 18,853 6,302 19,144 31,656 -12,512 44,459 44,260 199Total capital (cash and in-kind) 48 0 41 0 5 0 109 0 55 0 0 0 -239 0 258 0 258 19 0 19Total other (cash and in-kind) 2,699 6,809 4,949 6,605 5,919 6,605 7,464 6,605 8,423 6,605 6,127 6,605 6,344 6,605 29,454 33,229 -3,775 41,925 46,439 -4,514Total 4,258 13,257 8,553 12,907 9,895 12,907 12,495 12,907 13,655 12,907 12,589 12,907 24,958 12,907 48,856 64,885 -16,029 86,403 90,699 -4,296CRC for Sustainable Resource Processing (20020007) - Financial Information - Table 4 - Allocation of resources between categories of activity for the 2007-08 financial year (dollars in $’000)Resource usageProgram Cash ($’000) [1] In-kind ($’000) Contributed staff (FTE) [2] Cash funded staff (FTE) [2]Research 4,418 5,907 19.7 16.2Education 700 182 0.6 0.6External communications 0 0 0.0 0.0Commercialisation/Tech. transfer 341 794 0.5 0.9Administration 914 399 1.0 5.0Total 6,373 7,282 21.8 22.7(T3) (T1)[1] Cash from all sources, including CRC program[2] Full time equivalent staff, excluding studentsNotes for 2007-08 financial year: The total cash and in-kind FTE levels are in alignment with the Commonwealth budget.CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -financials65



ABBREVIATIONSAG/SAGAMIRAANSTOCFDCO 2CSIROCSRPCUPCurtinEPAGAINGAMSETGHGHIsmeltHPGRJKautogenous Grinding/Semi-Autogenous Grindingaustralian Minerals Industries Research Associationaustralian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisationcomputational Fluid Dynamicscarbon dioxidecommonwealth Science and Industry Research Organisation(Cooperative Research) Centre for Sustainable Resource Processingcommercialisation and Utilisation Plancurtin University of TechnologyEnvironmental Protection AgencyGladstone Area Industry NetworkGladstone Area Mathematics, Science and Engineering TeachersGreenhouse Gashigh Intensity Smeltinghigh Pressure Grinding RollsJulius Kruttschnitt (see also JKMRC)JKMRCJKRBtKIAKICNORMOPCPDSDSMISUSOP®TAPTAPWGUQJulius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research CentreJulius Kruttschnitt Rotary Breakage TesterKwinana Industrial AreaKwinana Industries Councilnaturally Occurring Radioactive Materialordinary Portland CementProfessional DevelopmentSustainable DevelopmentSustainable Minerals Institute (University of Queensland)SUStainable OPerationstechnical Advisory Paneltechnical Advisory Panel Working Groupuniversity of QueenslandabbreviationsCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE PROCESSING ANNUAL REPORT 07/08 -69

CONTACT DETAILSFor further information or general enquiries about the Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing:www.csrp.com.auPO Box 1130, Bentley WA 6102 Australia26 Dick Perry Avenue, Kensington WA 6151 Australiap. +61 (0) 8 6436 8702f. +61 (0) 8 6436 8557CEOMr Stevan Greenp. (08) 6436 8734e. stevan.green@csrp.com.auBusiness ManagerDr Mark Nevillep. (08) 6436 8922e. mark.neville@csrp.com.auEducation ManagerDr Dan Churachp. (08) 6436 8735e. dan.churach@csrp.com.auCommunications OfficerMs Lisa Lauriep. (08) 6436 8832e. lisa.laurie@csrp.com.auSustainable Development ProgramProf David BreretonUniversity of Queenslandp. (07) 3346 4043e. d.brereton@uq.edu.auEnergy Efficient Liberation and Comminution ProgramProf Malcolm PowellUniversity of Queenslandp. (07) 3365 5893e. malcolm.powell@uq.edu.auCO 2Breakthrough in Metal Production ProgramDr Sharif JahanshahiCSIROp. (03) 9545 8621e. sharif.jahanshahi@csiro.auBauxite Residue ProgramDr Evan JamiesonAlcoap. (08) 6436 8926e. evan.jamieson@csrp.com.auGeopolymer ProgramProf Arie van RiessenCurtin University of Technologyp. (08) 9266 7090e. a.vanriessen@curtin.edu.auZero Waste and Minor Elements ProgramMr Warren BruckardCSIROp. (03) 9545 8566e. warren.bruckard@csiro.au70Incubator ProgramDr Jim AvraamidesDepartment of Industry and Resources WAp. (08) 6436 8542e. jim.avraamides@csrp.com.au

Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing ANNUAL REPORT 07/08

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