Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1984 - - Higgins Counterterrorism ...

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Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1984 - - Higgins Counterterrorism ...

United States Department of State/Patterns of GlobalTerrorism: 1984 - -November 1985


There are a wide variety of definitionsused by experts to describe the phenomenonof terrorism, but no single one hasgained universal acceptance. For purposesof recording and coding data onterrorist incidents, we have adhered todefinitions that represent a middleground within the broad range of expertopinion, both foreign and domestic.Terrorism is premeditated, politicallymotivated violence perpetrated againstnoncombatant targets by subnationalgroups or clandestine state agents, usuallyintended to influence an audience.International terrorism is terrorism involvingcitizens or territory of more thanone country.


ContentsIntroduction 1The Year in Review 1Statistical Review of 1984 2The State Support Issue 4Taraet USA 6Consequences and Key Offenders 6Reaional Patterns 9The Middle East 9Western Europe 12-- Latin America 17Sub-Saharan Africa 19Asia 20PageAppendixesA. Chronology of Significant Terrorist Events 23in 1984B. International Terrorist Incidents, 1984 29


International TerroristIncidents, 1980-84Number of incidents600Geographic Distribution ofInternational TerroristIncidents, 1984PercentWestern Euro~e-38.9


Patterns of GlobalTerrorism: 1984IntroductionThe Year in ReviewThe pace of international terrorist activity around the worldcontinued unabated during 1984.' We recorded nearly600 international terrorist attacks involving personal injuryor property damage, representing an increase over eachof the previous four years. Deaths in 1984 exceeded 300.These numbers, when viewed in the context of the past 15years, suggest that the overall threat may again beincreasing.US citizens and interests remained a prime target offoreign terrorists around the world, followed by those ofFrance and Israel. More than 20 percent of internationalterrorist incidents in 1984 involved US targets. This notwithstanding,in 1984 the United States was the victim offewer attacks than in each of the four preceding years andsuffered substantially fewer casualties than in 1983. Theyear 1983 was anomalous, however, because of theextraordinarily high death toll of 241 in the bombing of theMarine barracks in Lebanon in October.The major trend apparent in 1984 was the growingdominance of the Middle East as the crucible of terrorism.In 1984, nearly half of all international terrorist attackseither occurred in the Middle East or were committedelsewhere by Middle Easterners. Indeed, of the eight' Our tallies of terrorist incidents are not comprehensive and, insome ways, represent only the tip of the iceberg with regard toterrorist violence of all types in all countries. While the statisticscited cover only international terrorist incidents (as defined onthe inside front cover), the text and chronology include referencesto indigenous terrorism and other types of political violence.For illustrative purposes, consider the following: if amember of the French terrorist group Action Directe attacks aFrenchman in France, the incident is classified as an instance ofindigenous terrorism. Should that same terrorist attack a US orother foreign national in France-or an individual or facilitybelonging to any nationality located outside France-the event isrecorded as international in nature. Thus, the annual statistics wecite would include the latter, but not the former, incident. Ourinformation base on indigenous terrorism, while sizable, is notcomprehensive enough to permit us to provide statistical datawith the same degree of confidence as we do on internationalterrorism. As a result, only international terrorist incidents areincluded in the statistical sections.incidents that resulted in US fatalities last year, fouroccurred in the Middle East, and a fifth had a MiddleEastern connection. Among the major incidents were thetruck bombing of the US Embassy Annex in East Beirut,which killed two US citizens in September, and thehijacking of a Kuwaiti Airlines flight from Kuwait to Tehranin December. Two US AID employees were murdered bythe radical Lebanese Shia hijackers before the latterincident ended.Many of the attacks of Middle Eastern origin in 1984 werethe work of groups or agents who frequently work at thebehest of one of three radical states: Iran, Syria, or Libya.Indeed, sponsorship or support of terrorism by these threecountries became the most salient characteristic of internationalterrorism in 1984-one that has been largelyresponsible for the increased violence of attacks and theproliferation of Middle Eastern terrorist operations in WesternEurope. Resurgent Palestinian terrorism also drove upthe level of attacks of Middle Eastern origin.Western Europe experienced an outbreak of what becameknown as Euroterrorism-a campaign of seemingly coordinatedattacks against NATO and defense-related targetsprimarily in West Germany, France, and Belgium. TheBelgian participants belonged to a new terrorist group, theCommunist Combatant Cells (CCC) , which carried out itsfirst attack in October 1984. In Latin America, as in pastyears, indigenous terrorist violence associated with theCommunist-backed insurgencies in El Salvador and Colombiafar exceeded the number of international terroristattacks. In Asia the most spectacular terrorist incidenttheassassination of Indian Prime Minister lndira Gandhi bySikh members of her security force-was in fact aninstance of indigenous, rather than international, terrorism.Prospects for a slowdown in international terrorist activityare dim. We expect terrorism of indigenous origin inWestern Europe to continue at the current level and mostLatin American violence to continue to vary according tothe success of local governments in dealing with insurgent


problems. Moreover, terrorism emanating from the MiddleEast is unlikely to slacken its pace: Iran, Syria, and Libyahave thus far enjoyed relative success in pursuing theirindividual foreign policy objectives through the use ofterrorism.Statistical Review of 1984In 1984 we counted 597 international terrorist incidents2Roughly one-third of them resulted in casualties. Altogether,more than 300 persons were killed in these incidents,and some 1,000 were wounded. The number of incidentsrecorded in 1984 was higher than in any of the precedingfour years and represented a 20-percent increase over theaverage of the preceding four years.Casualties Resulting FromInternational Terrorism, 1984Number of casualties250WoundedIn 1984, as in recent years, more international terroristincidents-over 230-were recorded in Western Europethan in any other part of the world. As a venue ofinternational terrorism, the Middle East ran a close second,with more than 200 incidents. Considering, however,that more than 60 attacks in Western Europe last yearwere conducted by Middle Eastern terrorists, the MiddleEast generated the most international terrorism in 1984. Inaddition, whereas most attacks by West European terroristswere designed to avoid casualties, most of those byMiddle Eastern terrorists were intended to causecasualties.In 1984 citizens of at least 76 countries were victims ofinternational terrorist attacks. International terrorist incidentstook place in at least 72 countries last year,compared to 78 in 1983. In 1984 most victims wereprivate parties, such as tourists or passers-by. Last year,attacks against business persons increased over the previousyear, while attacks against diplomats and militaryIn 1984, the international terrorist incident data base was refinedto make it more complete, accurate, and reliable. For example.political demonstrations: nonpolitical violence; conspiracies neveractivated; and nonviolent, unpremeditated, or defensive attacksare no longer coded as terrorism. Also, in contrast to previousyears, we now code terrorist acts by Palestinians against civilianIsraeli targets in Israel and the occupied territories. Moreover,terrorist acts by rural insurgent groups in Africa. Asia, and LatinAmerica are coded with greater thoroughness. The apparentincrease in the number of international terrorist incidents in 1984is at least partially the result of these refinements. However, acomparison of the 1984 data with that of previous years inregions such as Western Europe and the Middle East-for whichrecordkeeping has been more complete-reveals an actual increasein the level of international terrorist activity in thoselocales.50II0 J F M A M J J A S O N DKilledpersonnel declined. We recorded marked increases incertain categories of attacks: armed attacks increasedfrom 75 in 1983 to 139 in 1984; bombings increased from255 to 302; skyjackings increased from five to 10; and thenumber of kidnapings increased from 40 to 46. Whileattacks against US citizens dropped to 52 in 1984 fromthe previous year's total of 79, the number of attacksagainst Israelis, Palestinians, Libyans (primarily dissidents),Spaniards, and citizens of the United Kingdomincreased by eight incidents or more.A comparison of the data for 1984 with those of theprevious year reveals increased levels of internationalterrorism in some places and substantial declines elsewhere.Last year saw:A substantial increase in terrorism of Middle Easternorigin in Western Europe. In 1984 we recorded62 acts of terrorism by Middle Eastern terrorists (excludingArmenians) in Western Europe, compared with


International Terrorist IncidentsInternational Terrorist Incidentsby Type of TargetIVictim, 1984 by Type of TargetIVictim, 1980-84PercentPercent31 the previous year. Palestinian terrorists and LibyanGovernment agents (attacking emigres) were the mostactive.An increase in international terrorism in Israeland the occupied territories. We recorded 75 suchinternational incidents in 1984-47 of which werebombings or attempted bombings-compared with onlyfive the previous year. While the increase is partiallyattributable to revisions in coding criteria, other factorswere also at play. Part of the increase was due to theactivity of Jewish extremists against West Bank Palestiniantargets. In addition, various Palestinian groups, bothinside and outside the Palestine Liberation Organization(PLO), also increased their terrorist pressure on Israel-partlyin competition with each other and partly todemonstrate that they still constitute a force to befeared, despite having been uprooted from their bases inLebanon.An increase in terrorism connected with the "DirtyWar" in Spain and France. The Spanish BasqueFatherland and Liberty (ETA) responded to a FrenchGovernment crackdown on ETA activities in France witha terrorist campaign against French interests that resultedin considerable material damage, particularly toFrench commercial properties. We recorded 36 suchattacks in 1984, compared with none the previous year.In addition, in 1984 we recorded 11 attacks againstaccused ETA operatives in France by the AntiterroristLiberation Group (GAL), which surfaced in late 1983.A malor decrease in international terrorism inLatin America. We recorded only 81 incidents there in1984-the lowest annual total of the 1980s-downmore than a third from the 125 incidents of 1983,although there was an active amount of political violencerelated to internal insurgencies.


The State Support IssueIn large measure, the range and lethality of terrorismderive from the increasingly active role played by sovereignstates-most notably Iran, Syria, and Libya. Thesethree Muslim radical states have actively supported avariety of ethnic and religious terrorist and guerrillagroups. Indeed, Iran, Syria, and Libya have set a newandalarming-style in state-supported terrorism, oneunique among the nations facilitating the spread of anti-US attacks. The unprecedented degree of backing and, insome cases, active participation by these states in terroristoperations, helped make terrorism in 1984 very much aproblem of the Middle East.Iran. Currently the world's leading supporter of terrorism,lran has been most active in Lebanon. At the same time,Tehran still intends to punish the United States for itssupport of the late Shah and France for its role in helpingIraq's war effort. Iran's fundamentalist regime, whichultimately hopes to drive US and Western influence fromthe Islamic world, has championed some of the mostviciously anti-Western groups in the region-such as theHizballah in Lebanon.Tehran's long-term goal is to spread its revolution by usingterrorism to help create like-minded fundamentalist Islamicrepublics in Middle East and Persian Gulf states with largeShia populations. To that end, lran continues to train Shiadissidents and to establish a terrorist infrastructure in theregion. Nevertheless, in 1984 we recorded no Iraniansponsoredterrorist attacks in the Persian Gulf.Syria. Damascus uses terrorism to raise the costs tostates whose policies are inimical to its interests. It hasused Lebanese groups to influence the Lebanese politicalprocess. Syria has also sought to weaken political supportfor the Jordan-PLO Middle East peace initiative. In thisregard, Syria uses the various Palestinian groups andJordanian dissidents to actively wage war against theIsraelis and against moderate Arab states, such as Jordan,that appear willing to seek accommodation with TelAviv.Libya. Tripoli uses terrorism to advance Colonel Qadhafi'svision of himself as the natural leader of the Arab world.Qadhafi's world view has prompted him to intervene in theaffairs of a number of Third World nations, particularly inAfrica, whenever he perceives a regime to be too closelyaligned with, or drifting toward, the West. Libya has usedits own personnel, as well as mercenaries, in attempts toassassinate heads of state and Libyan dissidents whoQadhafi believes threaten his ambitions and his verysurvival.South Yemen. While the Government of the People'sDemocratic Republic of Yemen has not participated directlyin international terrorist attacks, it has supportedinternational terrorism since the late 1960s by providingcamps and other facilities for a number of leftist terroristgroups. In 1984, however, the level of support was limitedto the provision of safehaven for Palestinian groups.Role of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union clearlysupports international terrorism, although-in contrast toIran, Syria, and Libya-we have no evidence of theSoviets directly planning or orchestrating terrorist acts byMiddle Eastern, West European, or Latin Americangroups. However:The Soviets have a long history of maintaining relationswith groups that participate in or are linked to terrorism.They provide political backing, funding, and, in somecases, conventional arms and military training.Moscow, at least indirectly, has given materiel supportto groups that have committed terrorist acts, particularlyin the Middle East and Latin America.The Soviets have trained personnel linked to or belongingto national liberation groups, and they openly selllarge quantities of arms to Palestinian terrorists, statesthat support terrorism (with Libya a leading customer),and gray market arms dealers. Absence of end-userrestrictions means that such weapons often make theirway into the hands of terrorists.The Soviets also support certain Palestinian groups,East European states, South Yemen, and Cuba, all ofwhom support terrorist organizations or groups thatcommit terrorist acts. Bulgaria's state trading organization-KINTEX-andCzechoslovakia's comparable organization-OMNIPOL-areamong the most prominentcompanies whose weapons eventually have appeared interrorist hands.


Tableau des lois d’intérêt public et des ministres responsables 9Gestion des finances publiques, Loi sur la — L.R. (1985), ch. F-11 (suite)GEEV, 1998, ch. 21, art. 54 abrogé avant son entrée envigueur 31.12.2011 voir 2008, ch. 20, art. 3EEV, 1998, ch. 26, art. 74 et 75 en vigueur 01.01.99 voirTR/99-2EEV, 1998, ch. 30, al. 13g) et 15g) en vigueur 19.04.99 voirTR/99-37EEV, 1998, ch. 31, art. 38 et 50 en vigueur 21.12.98 voirTR/99-4EEV, 1998, ch. 35, art. 122, en ce qui a trait à laCommission d’examen des plaintes concernant la policemilitaire, en vigueur 01.12.99 et, en ce qui a trait auComité des griefs des Forces canadiennes, en vigueur01.03.2000 voir TR/99-134EEV, 1999, ch. 3, art. 12, ann., n o 13 en vigueur à la sanction11.03.99; art. 63 en vigueur 01.04.99 voir art. 92EEV, 1999, ch. 17, art. 91, 92, 101, 160 à 162 en vigueur01.11.99 voir TR/99-111EEV, 1999, ch. 26, art. 20 à 24 en vigueur 27.08.99 voirTR/99-100EEV, 1999, ch. 31, art. 98 à 120 et 122 en vigueur à lasanction 17.06.99EEV, 2000, ch. 6, art. 44 en vigueur 07.06.2000 voirTR/2000-46; art. 43 en vigueur 31.05.2001 voirTR/2001-66EEV, 2000, ch. 23, art. 19 en vigueur 01.12.2011 voirTR/2011-106EEV, 2000, ch. 28, art. 49 en vigueur 02.01.2001 voirTR/2001-5EEV, 2000, ch. 34, art. 19 et 94 en vigueur 27.10.2000 voirTR/2000-105EEV, 2001, ch. 4, art. 160 et 161 en vigueur 01.06.2001 voirTR/2001-71EEV, 2001, ch. 9, art. 588 en vigueur 24.10.2001 voirTR/2001-102EEV, 2001, ch. 11, art. 4 et 5 en vigueur à la sanction14.06.2001; par. 6(1) réputé entré en vigueur 31.12.98voir par. 6(2)EEV, 2001, ch. 22, art. 14 et 15 en vigueur à la sanction14.06.2001EEV, 2001, ch. 28, art. 51 en vigueur 01.11.2002 voirTR/2002-146EEV, 2001, ch. 29, art. 53 et 54 en vigueur 30.06.2003 voirTR/2003-128EEV, 2001, ch. 33, art. 21 et 22 en vigueur 21.12.2001 voirTR/2002-15EEV, 2001, ch. 34, art. 16, 47 et 48 en vigueur à la sanction18.12.2001EEV, 2002, ch. 7, art. 172 en vigueur 01.04.2003 voirTR/2003-48EEV, 2002, ch. 8, art. 142 et 143 en vigueur 02.07.2003 voirTR/2003-109EEV, 2002, ch. 9, art. 3 en vigueur 01.04.2002 voirTR/2002-63EEV, 2002, ch. 17, art. 14 et 16 en vigueur 22.07.2002 voirTR/2002-105EEV, 2003, ch. 22, art. 264, 265, 267 et 278 en vigueur à lasanction 07.11.2003; art. 247 en vigueur 20.11.2003 voirTR/2003-178; art. 253 et 254 en vigueur 01.04.2004 voirTR/2004-42; art. 5 en vigueur 01.12.2004 voirTR/2004-159; art. 168 et 224 en vigueur 01.04.2005 voirTR/2005-24; art. 3, 4, 6 à 11 et 67 en vigueur 01.04.2005voir TR/2005-25; art. 239 en vigueur 31.12.2005 voirTR/2005-122EEV, 2003, ch. 23, art. 80 et 80.1 entrent en vigueur à ladate ou aux dates fixées par décret voir art. 85.(Remarque : art. 80 et 80.1 abrogés avant leur entrée envigueur par 2008, ch. 22, art. 52)EEV, 2004, ch. 2, art. 74 en vigueur 12.01.2006 voirTR/2005-42EEV, 2004, ch. 7, art. 8 en vigueur 17.05.2004 voirTR/2004-52EEV, 2004, ch. 11, art. 54 en vigueur à la sanction22.04.2004; art. 29 et 30 en vigueur 21.05.2004 voirTR/2004-58EEV, 2004, ch. 12, art. 20 en vigueur à la sanction22.04.2004EEV, 2004, ch. 16, art. 7 et 8 en vigueur à la sanction06.05.2004EEV, 2005, ch. 9, art. 149 en vigueur 01.04.2006 voirTR/2006-59EEV, 2005, ch. 10, art. 27, 28 et 34 en vigueur 04.04.2005voir TR/2005-29EEV, 2005, ch. 14, art. 8 en vigueur à la sanction 23.03.2005EEV, 2005, ch. 15, art. 4 à 6 en vigueur à la sanction21.04.2005EEV, 2005, ch. 26, art. 27 en vigueur à la sanction23.06.2005; art. 18 et 24 en vigueur 05.10.2005 voirTR/2005-101EEV, 2005, ch. 30, art. 35 à 40, 51, 93 et 132 à 135 envigueur à la sanction 29.06.2005; art. 89 en vigueur03.10.2005 voir TR/2005-92EEV, 2005, ch. 34, art. 65 à 67 en vigueur 05.10.2005 voirTR/2005-99EEV, 2005, ch. 35, art. 54 en vigueur 05.10.2005 voirTR/2005-97EEV, 2005, ch. 38, art. 144 en vigueur à la sanction03.11.2005; art. 114, 115 et 138 en vigueur 12.12.2005voir TR/2005-119EEV, 2005, ch. 46, art. 56.2 à 56.4 en vigueur 15.04.2007voir TR/2007-43 (Remarque : 2005, ch. 46, art. 56.2 à56.4 ajoutés par 2006, ch. 9, art. 222)EEV, 2006, ch. 4, art. 211 en vigueur 10.11.2006 voirTR/2006-132 voir aussi Gazette du Canada, Partie II,vol. 140, n o 24, p. 1959 — erratumEEV, 2006, ch. 5, art. 16 à 19 en vigueur 15.12.2006 voirTR/2006-145EEV, 2006, ch. 9,— art. 138, 139, 222, 257 à 260, 267, 268, 270 à 275 et 308à 313 en vigueur à la sanction 12.12.2006. Voir aussiparticularités à l’art. 312 à l’égard de l’Officed’investissement du régime de pensions du Canada voirpar. 314(2);— art. 7 en vigueur 09.07.2007 voir TR/2007-75— art. 92 à 95 en vigueur 02.07.2008 voir TR/2008-41— art. 261, par. 262(1) et (3), art. 263 à 266 et 269 envigueur 01.03.2007 voir TR/2007-15


Target USAOf the nearly 600 international terrorist incidents last year,131 involved US victims or property-fewer than in anyother year since the beginning of the de~ade.~Consequences and Key OffendersCasualties. Nineteen of the 131 incidents resulted in UScasualties, eight in fatalities. Altogether. 11 US citizenswere killed, and 31 others were wounded. Three of the USdead and five of the US wounded appear to have beenincidental casualties-unlucky bystanders at incidents inwhich persons or facilities of other nationalities were thetargets. In 1983 we recorded an unusually high number ofUS fatalities at the hands of international terroristsbecauseof such mass-casualty-producing incidents as theApril bombing of the US Embassy and the Octoberbombing of the Marine barracks in Lebanon. Consequently,the 1984 total of 11 dead represents a substantialdecline-a return, in fact, to the levels of the several yearspreceding 1983.The following eight incidents resulted in US fatalities in1984:Lebanon, 8 January. Three men believed to be radicalLebanese Shia directed rocket-propelled grenade andsmall-arms fire at a US Marine Corps helicopter bringinga working party to the US Embassy near East Beirut.One Marine was killed.Lebanon, 18 January. Dr. Malcolm Kerr, President of theAmerican University of Beirut, was shot to death outsidehis office by a lone assailant using a pistol equipped witha silencer. Radical Shia claimed credit in the name ofIslamic Jihad.Italy, 15 February. Leamon Hunt, Director General of theMultinational Force and Observers in the Sinai, was shotto death with an assault rifle outside his home in Rome.Both the Italian Red Brigades and the Lebanese ArmedRevolutionary Faction (LARF) claimed responsibility.Namibia, 15 April. Two officials from the US LiaisonOffice were killed (along with a Namibian) when a timeBody of assassinated US diplomat LeamonHunt being removed from hospital,15 February 1984.bomb exploded at a gas station at which they hadstopped. The bomb is believed to have been planted byelements of the South-West Africa People'sOrganization (SWAPO) who probably had no idea anyUS officials would be around when it exploded.Costa Rica, 31 May. A US correspondent was amongthe eight persons killed in a bomb explosion at a newsconference held by Nicaraguan antigovernment guerrillaleader Eden Pastora. Neither the perpetrators nor theirsponsor have been identified. The death of the UScitizen probably was not intended.Lebanon, 20 September. Two US citizens were amongthe 23 persons killed when a car bomb driven by aradical Lebanese Shia exploded in front of the USEmbassy Annex in East Beirut. The Islamic Jihadclaimed credit; the Hizballah is believed responsible.United States, 5 October. Chinese-American writerHenry Liu was shot to death in front of his home outsideSan Francisco. Senior officials of the intelligence serviceof the Government of Taiwan were subsequently triedand convicted of having ordered the assassinationbecause Liu had published material critical of thegovernment.While there does appear to have been an actual decline in suchincidents over previous years, we believe that the overall figure, inpart, reflects our growing capability to keep track of terroristincidents not involving US victims or property.


International Terrorist Attacks AgainstUS Citizens and Property, 1984Number of incidents Total incidents: 131By Type of Targeta0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70BusinessOtherDiplomaticMilitaryOther governmentBy Type of Event0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70BombingArmed attackKidnapingOtherArsonSkyjackingBarricadeBy Region- --0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70Western EuropeLatin AmericaMiddle EastSub-Saharan AfricaAsia- PacificNorth Americaa These numbers are higher than the total number of incidents because ofthe capability of recording multiple vfctlms and/or ~nstallations attacked.


Table 1International Terrorist lncidents AgainstUS Citizens and Property, 1980-84 aNumber of incidents1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 TotalTotal 163 159 208 199 131 860Armed attack 33 27 17 25 19 121Armed occupation and barricade 4 2 6 12Arson 23 25 58 34 9 149Assault. intimidation, extortion 3 3Bombing 62 7 1 109 93 70 405Hostagetaking and barricade 4 1 1 2 3 11Kidnaping-10 10 8 9 14 51-Skyjacking 1 9 1 1 6 18 ---Other 26 16 12 29 7 90a Incidents involving US targets or victims. In some of theseincidents, US involvement was unintentional.Table 2International Terrorist lncidents AgainstUS Citizens and Property, 1984 aNumber of incidentsNorth Latin Western USSR1 Middle Sub- Asia/ TotalAmerica America Euro~e Eastern East Saharan PacificEuropeAfricaTotal 2 45 48 23 8 5 131Armed attack 1 8 5 4 1 19Armed occupation andbarricadeArson 2 7 9Bombing 1 29 28 11 1 70Hostagetaking and 2 1 3barricadeKidnaping 1 6 4 3 14Skyiackinn 1 1 2 1 1 6Other 2 7 1 10a Incidents involving US targets or victims. In some of theseincidents, US involvement was unintentional.


Iran, 5-6 December. Radical Lebanese Shia who hadhijacked a Kuwaiti Airlines flight from Kuwait to Tehransingled out and murdered two US AID employees whowere passengers on the plane.Hostages. In 23 incidents, 37 US citizens were kidnaped,hijacked, or otherwise taken hostage. By year's end, fiveUS citizens were still being held hostage-four in Lebanon,and one in the Philippines.The Worst Offenders. In 1984 the most serious internationalterrorist incidents involving US citizens occurred inLebanon or at the hands of Lebanese terrorists, particularlyradical Shia supported by the Iranian Government.Nearly 20 non-casualty-producing incidents against USinterests in West Germany were conducted by the WestGerman Red Army Faction (RAF) , its supporters, orsimilar indigenous leftwing extremists. Another 20 or sowere conducted by other West European leftist groups ina half-dozen countries. About 30 attacks were carried outagainst US targets by leftwing groups in various LatinAmerican countries, primarily Chile, Peru, and Colombia.Regional PatternsThe Middle EastIn some respects, Middle Eastern terrorism became moreof a problem in 1984 than it was in 1983. The number ofinternational terrorist incidents in the region increaseddramatically, as did the proportion of incidents causingcasualties or intended to cause casualties. Moreover,Middle Eastern terrorists became more active outside theregion-especially in Western Europe where their activityaccelerated strikingly. About half of all international terroristattacks either occurred in the Middle East or wereMiddle Eastern in origin. Furthermore, the proportion ofincidents in which the hand of a state sponsor-Iran,Syria, or Libya-was evident reached an alltime high.Lebanon and Iran. Lebanon remains at the center ofMiddle Eastern terrorism, having been the venue for 82international terrorist attacks in 1984. For the third year ina row, more international terrorist attacks occurred therethan in any other country. The suicide car bombing of theUS Embassy Annex in East Beirut in September was themost spectacular of the international terrorist attacks inLebanon in 1984. Two US Government personnel werekilled and 20 were wounded in this incident, along with 12Lebanese killed and over 50 wounded. Throughout 1984,The US Embassy Annex after suicidal carbombing on 20 September 1984.officials or private citizens of US, French, Saudi Arabian,or Kuwaiti nationality were the targets of numerous armedattacks and kidnapings. By the end of 1984, four of the sixUS citizens who had been kidnaped in Lebanon during thecourse of the year-including a US diplomat-were stillbeing held.Many of the incidents that occurred in Lebanon, and anumber of other armed attacks and smaller bombings thatoccurred elsewhere, were claimed by anonymous phonecallers in the name of Islamic Jihad (Islamic Holy War).Not a formal organization, Islamic Jihad is merely acovername used by pro-Iranian radical Lebanese Shiawhose objective is to rid Lebanon of all US-andeventually all Western-influence and to create an IranianstyleIslamic republic there.


Comparison of Worldwide and MiddleEast Terrorist Incidents, 1984Number of incidentsWorldwideMiddle EastLebanonO Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecComparison of Worldwide and Middle EastCasualties Resulting From Terrorist Incidents, 1984Number of casualties350O Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Hizballah, or the Party of God, is the generic name usedby the Iranians and their supporters to distinguish theirmovement from other Muslim groups in Lebanon. Smallgroups of terrorists within the Hizballah movement-somelittle more than street gangs in West Beirut-were responsiblefor many of the numerous attacks last year. Many ofthese Hizballah elements continue to receive politicalindoctrination, training, and financial and materiel supportfrom lranian Revolutionary Guardsmen based in theSyrian-controlled al Biqa (Bekaa) Valley of easternLebanon. While this lranian assistance has been instrumentalin the continuing success of Hizballah terrorists,the radical Shia forces have become strong enough tooperate independently in many cases. In fact, increasinglythey have developed into a highly structured, cooperativenetwork.Tehran last year continued to indoctrinate and train disaffectedShia from Kuwait, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia atcamps inside Iran. Some of these trainees almost certainlyhave reinfiltrated their countries and remain available forfuture operations. Nevertheless, we recorded no Iraniansponsoredterrorist attacks in the Persian Gulf regionduring 1984.Libya. Libya returned to the international terrorism sceneafter a year of relative inactivity in 1983. Esrly in 1984,Qadhafi clearly felt jeopardized by increasingly vocalopponents to his regime and so, in February, orderedLibyan Revolutionary Committees to threaten exiles withdeath if they did not return home. This action constitutesthe third time in four years that he has made such threats.In 1984, nearly 30 terrorist attacks-mostly against Libyanexiles in Europe and the Middle East-were linkeddirectly to Libyan agents or surrogates.Libya's adversaries in Chad and opponents of Qadhafi'spolicies there-France and a number of African countries-werea second focus for Qadhafi's terrorism. On 10March, a major tragedy was narrowly averted when abomb in the baggage compartment of a French airlinerexploded shortly after the plane landed in Bangui, CentralAfrican Republic.Another target of Libya's wave of terrorism has beenmoderate Arab governments in the Middle East andAfrica. Qadhafi has accused these governments of betrayingthe Palestinian cause and serving as "lackeys" of theUnited States. Persistent rumors of assassination plotsagainst such Arab leaders as President Mubarak of Egyptand former President Nimeiri of Sudan gained credencewhen Egypt arrested four Libyan-hired mercenaries inNovember for plotting to kill a prominent Libyan exile. Thearrestees stated that Libya's target list for assassinationsincluded President Mubarak as well as prominent Libyanexiles in Egypt. In July 1984, Egypt almost certainly wasthe target of mines laid in the Red Sea near the entranceto the Suez Canal. A Libyan ship most likely planted thedevices, which damaged 18 vessels registered to manynations.Syria. Syrian support for Middle Eastern terrorism increasedlast year. As in 1983, Syria's tolerance of IranianRevolutionary Guards and radical Shia bases in the BekaaValley contributed to the rampant terrorism in Lebanon.Similarly, Syria's more direct support for the numerousradical Palestinian groups-most notably the Abu NidalGroup, which is headquartered in Damascus-helpedthose groups stage an increased number of attacks oncivilian targets inside Israel and the West Bank. Mostalarming, however, was the rash of attacks inside Jordanand against Jordanian interests in Europe. These attacksoccurred as Jordan began its effort to spark movement inthe moribund Middle Eastern peace talks, a developmentstrongly opposed by the Syrian Government and itsradical Palestinian allies such as Abu Nidal.Five of the 14 attacks in Jordan in 1984 were directedagainst American targets. The most dangerous one occurredon 24 March, when a bomb exploded in theparking lot of the Intercontinental Hotel across the streetfrom the US Embassy in Amman. A US AID employee andhis daughter were injured by the blast, and more casualtieswere narrowly averted when a second bomb in thesame location was defused. The Syrian-backed Abu NidalGroup claimed credit for this attack, as well as for twoother bombs found and defused the same day near Britishfacilities. In August 1984, a bomb damaged a US Embassywarehouse in Amman, and later in the year bombs weredefused near the homes of US officials and at buildingscontaining nonofficial US facilities. In 1984, the Abu NidalGroup was believed responsible for attacks against PLOofficials, including the assassination in December in Ammanof a member of the PLO Executive Committee.The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Terrorism involvingIsraelis and Palestinians increased significantly in 1984.More than 50 attacks on unarmed or civilian Israeli targets


Terrorist Incidents ofMiddle Eastern Origin inWestern Europe, 1980-84A terrorist descends from an Air France 737-hijacked on 31 July 1984-10 ask for food andwater for passengers and to demand thatnewsmen stay clear.occuyed inside Israel or the occupied territories. Nearlyevery Palestinian group claimed credit for at least oneattack, as they competed for visibility and influence in thefragmented Palestinian movement.Significantly, the decade-old declared PLO ban onterrorism outside Israel and the occupied terrorities beganto break down in 1984. Non-PLO groups, like Abu Nidaland the 15 May Organization, have always rejected suchrestraint, but anti-Arafat groups still part of the PLOalmost certainly were responsible for some of the increasein Middle Eastern terrorism outside Israel. Beyond theattacks on Jordanian interests in Europe, Israeli targetsthere were hit six times in 1984. In October, for example,Fatah rebels led by Abu Musa claimed credit for a carbomb that damaged the Israeli Embassy in Cyprus.Terrorism by Jewish extremists against Palestiniancivilians in the West Bank, which began in late 1983,continued in 1984. One of the most serious incidentsoccurred on 27 January, when two men attempted toplace explosives at the Dome of the Rock Mosque inJerusalem, one of Islam's holiest sites. Alert Arab guardsspotted the terrorists before they could complete the job.Several small groups of Jewish extremists, including onecalling itself Terror Against Terror, were broken up byIsraeli authorities, but violent attacks against Arab targetscontinued to occur throughout the year in the West Bank,although at a reduced level.Western EuropeWest European states continue to rank high on the list ofthose afflicted by terrorism. Overall, 232 internationalterrorist incidents took place in Western Europe last year,more than in any other region of the world. Occasionalterrorist acts take place in Communist Bloc countries, butthe strong and repressive security establishments and thelimited observance of civil rights in those countries tend todeter would-be terrorists.


Terrorist Spillover From the Middle EastTerrorist attacks outside the Middle East conducted byMiddle Eastern groups continued to rise in 1984, nearlydoubling the level of the previous year. Most of theincrease occurred in Western Europe against MiddleEastern targets-including diplomatic personnel andfacilities of the relatively moderate states such as Jordan,officials of various Palestinian groups, and emigreopponents of certain Middle Eastern regimes.Iran. There was an alarming spread to Western Europeof operations by Iranian-supported groups. Throughout1984, plots to assassinate anti-Khomeini exiles weredetected in the United Kingdom and several other WestEuropean nations; in February, an exiled Iranian generalfrom the deposed Shah's regime and his brother werekilled in Paris. In July, an Air France flight was hijackedfrom Frankfurt to Tehran, and Iranian-backed groupswere implicated in two other hijacking attempts, includingthe December hijacking of a Kuwaiti Airlines flight inwhich two Americans were killed. In November 1984,seven Lebanese Shia were arrested near Rome in anapparent plot to attack the US Embassy. Another wasarrested in Switzerland as a conspirator.Libya. The great majority of attacks by Libyan agentsagainst Libyan exiles have occurred in Western Europe-inthe United Kingdom, Italy, Cyprus, Greece,Austria, and West Germany. In early March 1984 in theUnited Kingdom, 30 persons-mostly non-Libyanswereinjured by four bombs detonated near homes ofLibyan exiles or businesses frequented by them. Ninesuspected Libyan agents were arrested. Despite Britishwarnings against further violence, on 17 April gunmen inthe Libyan People's Bureau in London opened fire on apeaceful anti-Qadhafi demonstration outside their building.A British policewoman was killed and 11 demonstratorswere wounded. Three days later, a bomb believedto be Libyan planted injured 25 passers-by atLondon's Heathrow Airport. After Britain lay siege to thePeople's Bureau in London, Qadhafi responded bydetaining a number of British nationals on trumped-upcharges. The incidents prompted London to breakrelations.Syria. The antiJordanian campaign expanded to Europelast November with the attempted shooting of aJordanian diplomat in Athens. The following month, thedeputy chief of the Jordanian mission was murdered inBucharest. A Palestinian student was arrested for theCrime, later claimed by anonymous hone callers in thename of "Black ~eptember,'; a name associated with anumber of notorious terrorist events in the early 1970s.Syrian-backed radical Palestinian groups probably haveresurrected the name, both as a cover and for thepublicity it garners.Palestinians. The intra-Palestinian dispute has alsospilled over into Europe. At least three Palestinians weregunned down in 1984, including an officer of a Palestiniansplinter group, who was killed by his own factionafter defecting to the pro-Arafat forces in Cyprus lastMay, and lsmail Darwish, a leading pro-Arafat figuregunned down in Rome in December 1984. The AbuNidal Group apparently was responsible for the Decemberattack.Although currently based in Syria and in Syrian-controlledLebanese territory, the Abu Nidal Group is believedto be a semi-independent actor in the MiddleEastern morass. As the most experienced, lethal arm ofPalestinian terrorism, it has a long record of attackingofficials of moderate Arab governments, as well asPalestinian groups, and has mounted attacks in morethan 25 countries-usually with Syrian foreknowledge, ifnot complicity.The Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction. By mid-1984 the Marxist-Leninist LARF had become one of themost lethal organizations operating in Western Europe.Between 1981 and 1984 the LARF was responsible forat least six attacks against US and Israeli diplomats inFrance, in which four persons were killed and fourwounded. The group also claimed credit for the February1984 assassination in Rome of US citizen LeamonHunt, Director General of the Multinational Force andObservers in the Sinai-an act for which the ltalian RedBrigades also claimed credit.In early August 1984, however, ltalian police set inmotion a series of significant counterterrorism successesagainst the group. They arrested a man identified asAbdallah Mohammad al-Mansuri, who was in possessionof some 8 kilograms of plastic explosives.Mansuri's arrest led to the October arrest in France ofGeorge lbrahim Abdallah, the leader of the group. Then,in December, ltalian police apprehended a third LARFmember, Josephine Abdu, as she was transiting theRome airport en route to Madrid. Following these arrests,other members of the LARF returned to theirnative Lebanon, effectively ending the activity of theLARF in Europe.13


.emen battle blaze after,plosion on NATO pipeline,December 1984.Most of the terrorists operating in Western Europe areindigenous in origin and are either leftwing extremists orseparatists. Foreigners, however, particularly from theMiddle East, foment an ever-increasing number of terroristattacks in Western Europe. More than one-fourth of theincidents in Europe in 1984 were perpetrated by citizensof the Middle East, most frequently Palestinians andLibyans.Leftwing terrorist groups in France and West Germanyrebounded from government counterterrorism successesand demonstrated violently in 1984 that predictions oftheir imminent demise had been premature. Establishedleftist groups in Spain, Portugal, and Greece continuedtheir terrorist campaigns, while a new group surfaced inBelgium, a country hitherto relatively free from terrorism.There were disturbing indications that leftwing terrorists ofseveral nationalities were beginning to cooperate andperhaps even coordinate their attacks.Spanish Basque separatists suffered severe blows at thehands of the governments with which they have beenwarring but demonstrated their staying power bycontinuing to engage in terrorist acts. Armenian and Irishterrorism also continued, although at a lower level than inprevious years.number of bombings against targets that it declared to beinvolved with NATO and the Western defense effort.Among them were the Atlantic Institute for InternationalAffairs and the European Space Agency. An attempt tobomb the Western European Union failed because of adefective detonator. Two more AD bombings againstdefense-related industrial firms followed in October.In Belgium, a new leftwing extremist group, theCommunist Combatant Cells, announced its arrival inOctober 1984, with a number of bombings in Brusselsagainst facilities of Litton Data Systems, the West Germantruck manufacturer MAN, and Honeywell-Europe. Incommuniques claiming credit for the actions, the CCClinked the targets to NATO and particularly to thedeployment of cruise missiles in Western Europe.Subsequently, the CCC also carried out two attacks onBelgian political party offices, alleged to be part of thesupport structure for NATO "imperialism." The followingmonth, the CCC bombed an antenna tower and acommunications station at Bierset Military Airfield nearLiege, where aircraft assigned to NATO are based. Finally,in December, the group conducted a half-dozen attacksagainst the pipeline bringing fuel from West Germany forNATO forces.Leftwing Terrorism: The Nascent "EuroterroristAlliance." In France, in mid-1984 the leftwing extremistgroup Action Directe (AD) deviated from its traditionaltargeting of French Government facilities by conducting a


Two rockets of a bazookawere pointed at the USEmbassy in Lisbon on27 October 1984.In West Germany, the Red Army Faction suffered atemporary setback in July 1984 when West Germanauthorities arrested six members in a Frankfurt apartmentand seized a large quantity of material that allowed policeto piece together the RAF's strategic plan. Nevertheless,on 4 December, the opening day of their trial, leading RAFmembers Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Christian Klarannounced the beginning of a hunger strike by RAFprisoners in support of demands for political prisonerstatus. Shortly thereafter, a violent phase began. On 17December, RAF supporters firebombed a SiemensCompany warehouse in Frankfurt. The next day, the RAFhard core attempted a spectacular attack: a man dressedin a US Marine Corps uniform parked a car rigged withexplosives on the grounds of the NATO officers trainingschool in Oberammergau, and then ran off. Only a faultytiming mechanism prevented a potentially devastatingexplosion. By the end of December, members of the RAFhard core, along with supporters and sympathizers, hadconducted about a dozen incidents of violence in WestGermany, including an incendiary attack against theresidence of the US Consul General in Frankfurt and thebombing of a French Embassy Annex in Bonn-BadGodesberg.The timing of the attacks in France, Belgium, and WestGermany and the similarity of the targets suggest that thethree principal groups of "Euroterrorists" werecollaborating in a campaign that has continued into thenew year. Furthermore:Examination of the RAF's Oberammergau devicerevealed that it contained explosives stolen in June 1984from a Belgian quarry. Explosive devices used inseparate bombing attempts in France and WestGermany were found to have used this material.The CCC indicated that its attack on a communicationsantenna at Bierset Airfield was in commemoration of the1981 bombing by the RAF of facilities at the US airbasein Ramstein, West Germany.Other Leftwing Terrorism. In Portugal, the PopularForces of 25 April (FP-25) was temporarily disabledfollowing an extensive police crackdown in mid-1984 thatresulted in the arrest of several dozen members, includingthe group's political leaders. Within a few months,however, FP-25 rebounded with a round of terroristattacks against landowners, business leaders, andgovernment interests. In October 1984, it began to attackforeign targets for the first time since 1981, lashing out atFrench business targets to demonstrate solidarity with theSpanish separatist group ETA. The FP-25 then conductedseveral operations against US and NATO interests inPortugal. On 27 October, for example, it attempted tolaunch two rocket grenades against the US Embassy, butboth misfired. A month later, the group fired mortarrounds at the Embassy compound. In claiming


esponsibility for this action, FP-25 condemned allegedUS involvement in suppressing the 1975 coup attemptand demanded that Portugal withdraw from NATO. On 9December, the group emphasized the seriousness of itsintentions by firing mortar shells at NATO's Iberian headquartersin Oeiras. These attacks caused only slightdamage and no injuries.In Spain, the October First Antifascist Resistance Group(GRAPO) continued to conduct sporadic attacks againstgovernment, military, and business targets, as well asagainst interests of foreign countries it considers "imperialistic."GRAPO also conducted some attacks againstFrench businesses in Spain to show support for the ETAand to protest a French crackdown on ETA operationsand personnel in southern France. In 1984, the group wasresponsible for a number of bank robberies; it alsolaunched an extortion campaign to raise funds.In Italy, the Red Brigades-torn by a serious factionalstruggle and weakened by government counterterroristsuccesses of previous years-did not participate in theanti-NATO campaign, despite their known "anti-imperialist"and anti-NATO sentiment^.^ However, in addition tothe Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction they did claimresponsibility for the murder in Rome of Leamon Hunt, UShead of the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai.In Greece, the virulently anti-US Revolutionary Organization17 November shot and wounded a US Army mastersergeant in Athens in April 1984. This group killed a USNavy captain the previous November and a US Embassyofficial in Athens nine years earlier. Following the Aprilassassination attempt, the group pledged to continue itsattacks against US military personnel in Greece, but thethreat did not materialize during the remainder of the year.In fact, most of the significant terrorist attacks thatoccurred in Greece in 1984 were Middle Eastern in origin.Separatist Terrorism. Of the Armenian groups, theleftist Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia(ASALA) -previously extremely active in Western Europe-wasrelatively inactive there in 1984, although it didconduct some attacks in the Middle East. The group'srelative quietude was probably a result of serious internaldivision over the use of indiscriminate violence. Meanwhile,' In the past, expatriate Italian terrorists in France have beenconnected with Action Directe, and it is possible that someItalians were involved in the anti-NATO campaign as ADmembers.the rightist Armenian group-the Armenian RevolutionaryArmy (ARA) -conducted several major attacks last year.In June 1984 in Vienna, for example, an ARA car bombkilled the Turkish labor attache and injured five otherpersons.In Spain, the ETA suffered a series of stiff blows in 1984.Tougher antiterrorism laws were proposed and counterterrorismforces were bolstered, permitting Spanish authoritiesto adopt more aggressive tactics within the country.Further, in response to continuing Spanish diplomaticpressure, French security forces began arresting accusedBasque terrorists, who had long enjoyed sanctuary insouthern France and who were believed to be using theregion to stage terrorist operations into Spain. Some wereforcibly resettled in northern France, others weredeported.Not the least of ETA'S problems in France was the activityof the Antiterrorist Liberation Group, which surfaced inDecember 1983 with a number of attacks on ETA membersin France.' In 1984 GAL attackers killed eight personsaccused of being members or supporters of ETA andwounded at least 23 others. Anonymous spokesmenexplicitly identified most of these attacks as retaliation forspecific ETA attacks against Spanish officials and police.In Northern Ireland, 1984 produced the fewest casualtiesof any year in the 15-year terrorist struggle. Undoubtedlythis was in part a consequence of the "supergrass"program, by which the government has offered immunityto terrorists who turn state's e~idence.~ Nevertheless, on12 October the Provisional Irish Republican Army camevery close to pulling off one of the most spectacularterrorist attacks in its history by bombing the hotelhousing Prime Minister Thatcher and her Cabinet whilethey were attending the Conservative Party conference inBrighton. Although Mrs. Thatcher and most of the membersof the Cabinet escaped injury, four persons-includinga member of Parliament-were killed, and more than30 others were wounded.Because both the GAL attacks in France and the ETA responsesin Spain cut across national boundaries, they were included inour count of international incidents. They were, in fact, a leadingcause of the recorded increase in international terrorist incidentsin Western Europe in 1984."Grass," short for "snake in the grass," is the London underworldterm for informer; thus, a supergrass is an informer whoturns in a large number of people.


the international terrorist activity in Latin America in 1984,yet only a small portion of the total number of incidents ofpolitical violence in the region.El Salvador. The death toll from political violence wasmuch lower in 1984 than in previous years.Most leftwing Salvadoran insurgent groups belong to anumbrella organization called the Farabundo Marti NationalLiberation Front (FMLN) . The FMLN, which fieldsthousands of armed combatants, has received ideologicaland materiel support from Cuba and Nicaragua, wheremany insurgent leaders are based. Although FMLNguerrilla groups have engaged mainly in paramilitaryconflict with the Salvadoran Army, they have alsoconducted kidnapings, sabotage, and other terroristactions, and most of them have "metropolitan"components to carry the conflict to the clties. In the springof 1984, for example, the Mardoqueo Cruz UrbanCommando Group, a part of the FMLN's CentralAmerican Revolutionary Worker's Party, . began - to conductterrorist operations in the San Salvador area-mainlyagainst transportation and commun~cation facilities.One of the most dangerous of the leftwing urban guerrillagroups was the Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front (CERF).The CERF, apparently a dissident faction of theFarabundo Marti Popular L~beration Forces, came topublic attention in mid-1983 when ~t murdered US NavyLieutenant Commander Schaufelberger. In 1984, CERFAftermath of Provisional Irish Republ~canQArmy bombing of the Grand Hotel onoperatives murdered at least two Salvadoran employees12 October 1984. of the US Embassy, and in November raked the USEmbassy with machinegun fire.Latin AmericaThe pattern and level of terrorism and other forms ofpolitical violence in Latin America in 1984 resembledthose of recent years. Terrorism continued to be anindigenous problem-usually springing from a localinsurgency. In El Salvador, the leftwing insurgencypersisted in using terrorism, as did insurgents in Peru. InColombia, there was a temporary respite from terrorismafter most of the Communist insurgent groups signedtruces with the government. Leftwing urban terroristgroups were active last year in Chile, Peru, Colombia,Ecuador, and El Salvador. Rightwing terrorist groups werealso active in a number of countries, including Chile and ElSalvador. Anti-US terrorism comprised nearly half of allRightwing terrorism was reduced in 1984, probably, atleast in part, because of Salvadoran Government effortsinresponse to warnings from Washington-to makeviolent rightists more accountable for their actions.Nevertheless, rightwing violence-carried out by a varietyof extremist elements, including political parties, ruralvigilantes, and military factions-persisted in El Salvador.Most of these rightwing terrorists appear not to beaffiliated with specific organizations but rather with ad hocgroups formed for specific missions.


Table 3International Terrorist Incidents, 1984Number of incidentsNorth Latin Western USSR1 Middle Sub- Asia1 TotalAmerica America Europe Eastern East Saharan PacificEuropeAfricaTotal 5 81 232 1 205 45 28 597Armed attack 1 18 4 1 1 62 12 4 139Armed occupation 2 2and barricadeArson 3 39 14 1 57Bombing 3 47 124 103 13 12 302Hostagetaking and 4 1 1 6barricadeKidnaping 5 ' 2 16 17 6 46Skyjacking 1 2 4 1 2 10Other 1 3 22 5 2 2 35Peru. The Sendero Luminoso (SL) or Shining Path, abrutal Maoist insurgent group composed mainly of AndeanIndians, has operated with near impunity in AyacuchoDepartment in south-central Peru since 1980. Unique in itsinsularity, the SL has continued to refuse assistance fromall foreign governments. Throughout 1984 SL guerrillaswere implicated in the slaughter of uncooperative peasantsand the murder of village officials who collaboratedwith the government. In addition, the group bombedelectoral offices and government buildings. It was alsoresponsible for periodic electrical blackouts in Lima lastyear.A lesser terrorist threat came from the RevolutionaryMovement Tupac Amaru, a group of leftwing activists inthe Lima and Cusco areas. The group surfaced in September1984, when it claimed responsibility for minor terroristattacks that had been occurring in Lima since 1983,including a bomb explosion outside the residence of theUS Marine security guard detachment in November 1983.Chile. A large proportion of the bombings that occurredin 1984 were conducted by the radical leftist ManuelRodriquez Patriotic Front and were directed at Chileantargets-mainly public utilities and police and securityfacilities. On 2 November, for example, a national policeunit near Valparaiso was hit by a bomb that killed fourcarabineros and injured 12. Mormon churches and USbusinesses were also bombed. The steady growth of leftistterrorism throughout the year contributed to the decisionby the Pinochet regime to declare a state of siege inNovember: it remained in effect for seven months.The imposition of the state of siege was a factor in thecontinuing occurrence of rightwing terrorism in Chile. Itresulted in numerous violations of internationally recognizedhuman rights practices, primarily by the securityservices, which, throughout 1984, were implicated ininstances of brutality, torture, and the mysterious deathsof suspects.Colombia. The Colombian Government signed a ceasefireagreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces ofColombia (FARC) -the largest of the four major insurgentgroups-in 1984. The FARC promised to refrain fromconducting terrorist attacks in return both for permissionto organize politically and for government pledges toinstitute political and agrarian reforms. Similar truce agreementswere subsequently concluded with the guerrillaorganization 19th of April Movement and the People'sLiberation Army. The National Liberation Army (ELN), afourth group, refused, however, to deal with thegovernment.


Despite the refusal of the ELN and dissident rebelsassociated with newer groups, such as the Ricardo FrancoFront, to conclude cease-fire agreements, there was acontinuing decline in the number of armed confrontationsbetween insurgent forces and government troops in 1984.Nevertheless, a number of bombings occurred in Bogotathroughout the year-mainly against government andmilitary installations.Ecuador. A new subversive, leftist group calling itselfAlfaro Vive, Carajo! (AVC) appeared in Ecuador in 1983and became increasingly active in 1984. The AVC espousesmany of the standard antioligarchy, anti-US, and"anti-imperialist" views held by radical leftist groups inmany Latin American countries. In 1984, most AVCoperations were bloodless and geared to obtaining mediaattention rather than to causing damage per se. One suchincident occurred when a leaflet bomb was thrown into theUS Embassy compound in Quito.Role of Nicaragua. Nicaragua furthers its objectives ofpreserving its revolutionary gains and destabilizing non-Marxist regimes in the area by promoting and supportingsubversive activities throughout Central America. Membersof many current and former subversive and terroristorganizations-including Palestinian groups, the ArgentineMontoneros, the Uruguayan Tupamaros, the ItalianRed Brigades, and the Spanish Basque ETA-are residentin Nicaragua.Beyond hosting these groups, the Sandinista regime alsoprovides advice, training, and safehaven and channelsarms and ammunition to members of various Latin Americaninsurgent groups that engage in terrorist acts. TheSalvadoran FMLN insurgent forces have been the primaryrecipient of Nicaraguan aid: FMLN political leaders arebased in Nicaragua, where they maintain contact withother foreign supporters.Role of Cuba. The Castro regime maintains a large andcomplex subversion support apparatus that providesbacking for all types of leftist revolutionaries and terrorists.This support includes everything from guns and funding toasylum and training in the entire range of skills needed byterrorists. Cuba has trained a large number of insurgentsfrom El Salvador, as well as many of the guerrillasinfiltrated into Honduras in recent years.Sub-Saharan AfricaInternational terrorism was not a serious problem in mostparts of Sub-Saharan Africa in 1984. The number ofinternational terrorist incidents did increase, however, dueto the apparent decision by insurgent groups in severalcountries to target foreign missionaries, aid workers, andemployees of multinational corporations. The UnitedStates was not a priority target in these cases; the few UScasualties from terrorism in Africa in 1984 were incidentalto local conflicts. Indigenous terrorism continues to belargely the byproduct of ongoing insurgencies, which findcivilian targets easy to attack.Libyan Activity. Terrorism in Central Africa last year wasdue primarily to increased Libyan activity. Tripoli providedarms, training, and money to insurgents in a number ofAfrican nations and encouraged some of them to conductterrorist attacks:In Sudan, the pro-Western government, then headed byGaafar Nimeiri, was the primary target of Libyan-sponsoredactivity. Qadhafi also backed violence by Sudanesedissidents in their homeland because of Sudanesesupport for Libyan exiles.In Chad, President Habre was the intended victim of aLibyan-directed assassination plot aimed at facilitatingTripoli's goal of installing a pro-Qadhafi government inN'Djamena. Chadian dissidents, backed by Libya, targetedestablishments frequented by French forces elsewherein Central Africa as Qadhafi hoped to dissuadethe French from interfering with his goal.In conjunction with its campaign to replace French influencein Chad, Libya has also backed local and foreignterrorists in the Central African Republic and Zaire.South Africa. The black nationalist African NationalCongress (ANC) mounted more than three dozen terroristattacks in 1984. The ANC's primary tactic is bombing,usually of government offices, transportation lines, electricalpower transformers, and other infrastructural facilities.It designs its operations to maximize their symbolic effectand normally has tried to avoid causing indiscriminatecasualties.


The ANC has operated from exile since the mid-1960s.South Africa's military and economic prowess in theregion, however, has increasingly discouraged neighboringblack states from openly supporting the ANC's terroristcampaign. Mozambique expelled most ANC guerrillasin early 1984 after signing a nonaggression pact withPretoria. Maputo had been the planning and stagingcenter for most ANC attacks against South Africa. TheANC has subsequently built up a clandestine supportnetwork in Botswana, despite that country's vigorousefforts to circumscribe the group's activities.Unlike most African groups, the ANC has conducted someof its attacks outside the borders of its own country. InDecember 1984 in Swaziland, for example, ANC operativesassassinated a high-level police officer who theybelieved was collaborating with the South Africans.Sudan. Terrorism in Sudan arises primarily from a guerrillawar. The Libyan-supported Sudanese People's LiberationArmy (SPLA) , a powerful force in the south, concentrateson military targets, but civilians have been victims of itsoperations. In December 1984, for example, the SPLAsank a steamer in the Nile to block water traffic and cut offa Sudanese military supply line. Subsequently, the SPLAkilled some of the many civilian passengers it had takenhostage. The SPLA last year also deliberately targetedforeigners-usually Westerners-more often than inearlier years.Namibia. The South-West Africa People's Organizationconstitutes the main organized, indigenous opposition toSouth African plans to retain control over Namibia. Mostof its bombings are directed against indigenous targets,such as governmtnt offices, stores, and service stations.In contrast to previous years, when most of its bombswere set to go off in unoccupied buildings at night, in 1984SWAPO exploded a number of antipersonnel bombs incrowded stores in the middle of the day. SWAPO does notdeliberately target foreigners, but sometimes foreignersbecome incidental casualties. In April 1984, for example,two US diplomats were killed when a SWAPO bombexploded at the service station where they happened tobe buying gas.Mozambique. The insurgent group in Mozambique-RENAMO-is composed mainly of minority tribal andpolitical elements not represented in the government. Withthe signing of the Nkomati Accord in March 1984, SouthAfrica and Mozambique agreed to end support for oneanother's dissidents. RENAMO's terrorist capability remainedsurprisingly intact throughout 1984, however, despitethe cessation of South African support. Unlike otherAfrican insurgent groups, RENAMO appears to go out ofits way to cause casualties among noncombatants.Among its favored tactics are ambushes of civilian vehiclesand public transportation. Consequently, foreignersand Mozambican civilians alike are in danger of beingabducted, injured, or even killed. RENAMO is believed totarget Communist Bloc technicians specifically, however,in hopes of forcing those countries to reduce or halt theiraid programs in Mozambique.Angola. Angola is the site of a longstanding and increasinglyvirulent insurgency. Supported by the South AfricanGovernment and by sympathizers in a number of Westerncountries, the National Union for the Total Independenceof Angola (UNITA) has continued to wage war againstthe Marxist-leaning government, which is in turn supportedby the Soviet Union and its allies, especially Cuba. Inattempting to expand its control beyond the southern thirdof the country over which it has long held sway, UNITAinsurgent forces continued to mount attacks against governmentmilitary forces.Occasionally-and with increasing frequency in 1984-UNITA's tactics have verged on terrorism. After separateattacks against the mining town of Cafunfo in Februaryand December 1984, for example, UNITA took a total of98 foreigners hostage. Generally UNITA did its Westernhostages no harm. Most were marched to a rebel strongholdin another part of the country and eventually releasedto the International Red Cross or another intermediary.UNITA has deliberately attacked foreign targets-especiallyEastern Bloc technicians and advisers-in hopes ofintimidating their home governments into reducing aid tothe government.AsiaInsurgents or ethnic groups with grievances against theirown governments accounted for the major share of terroristviolence in Asia last year; outside agitators were largelyabsent. US citizens and facilities faced only a few threatsin the region as a whole.


Japan. The most serious continuing threat to Americansin Asia came in Japan at the hands of the leftist terroristgroup Chukaku-ha or Nucleus Faction, a group that hasbeen in existence since 1963. Chukaku-ha numbers perhaps150 terrorists but claims to have thousands ofsupporters. It has long opposed the construction (andnow expansion) of Narita Airport, the "militarization" ofJapan, the US-Japanese security relationship, the presenceof US bases, and visits by US nuclear-poweredships.Before 1984 the group limited its activity to minor firebombingsof empty offices and construction sites. Sincethen, however, it has used a more lethal weapon: a truckmountedflamethrower figured in a half-dozen Chukaku-haattacks last year. One of those, a September attackagainst the Tokyo headquarters of the ruling LiberalDemocratic Party, resulted in more than $2 million indamage. Chukaku-ha has yet to use the truck deviceagainst US facilities, but in June 1984 the group causedminor damage to two US military communications sitesusing conventional firebombs. US targets are likely toremain high on the group's list.Philippines. Insurgents in the Philippines continued toengage sporadically in terrorism in 1984. The New People'sArmy (NPA) of the Communist Party of the Philippinesregularly attacked military and police forces andextorted funds from businessmen. Philippine authoritieshave suspected that the NPA was responsible for severalurban terrorist attacks, but the group has not attacked UStargets since the early 1970s. The Moro National LiberationFront, a Muslim separatist group, has been holdingthree foreigners-one a US citizen-hostage in the Philippinessince late 1984.Tamils attempted to bribe a Tamil guard to take apackage, suspected of being a bomb, into the AIDoffices.India. lndia was the scene of most of the other seriousterrorist activity in Asia-the worst incident occurring on31 October when Prime Minister lndira Gandhi was assassinatedby two of her Sikh bodyguards. The subsequentkilling of some 2,000 Sikhs in retaliatory rioting appearedto dampen, at least temporarily, the willingness of Sikhextremists to continue to engage in terrorism.The threat from indigenous terrorist groups to foreigners inlndia last year was relatively low. Nevertheless, on 27November in Bombay, the deputy British high commissionerwas shot to death by two attackers as he was beingdriven to work. The Revolutionary Organization of SocialistMuslims claimed credit. There is no evidence that USpersonnel in the country were targeted last year.Role of North Korea. P'yongyang almost certainly continuesto provide training, funds, and weapons to variousforeign extremist groups, although we did not record anyNorth Korean-sponsored terrorist incidents in 1984. NorthKorea continues to seek weapons on the gray armsmarket, which are probably intended for use by NorthKorean agents, saboteurs, and infiltrators. In addition,P'yongyang sells large quantities of ordnance to Iran, acountry supporting international terrorism. There is noevidence to date, however, that these weapons are acquiredand used by those who engage in terrorism.Sri Lanka. The bloodiest campaign of terrorism in Asia in1984 was conducted by separatist Tamil insurgentsagainst the Sinhalese central government in Sri Lanka. In1984, for the first time, Sri Lankan Tamil groups attackedUS targets:In May, the Eelam People's Revolutionary LiberationFront kidnaped a US AID employee and his wife. Followingappeals from Indian Prime Minister lndira Gandhi,the couple was released unharmed five days later.In June, unidentified Tamils set off a bomb in thedowntown Colombo hotel that housed the Israeli InterestsSection of the US Embassy. Later that month, other


Appendix AChronology of Significant Terrorist Events in 19842 January9 January8 February11 February15 February7 March10 March16 MarchSpainIn Madrid, October First Antifascist Resistance Group(GRAPO) claimed responsibility for the murder of twopolicemen. The killings were in retaliation for the death ofGRAPO's leader, who had been killed by police in a gunbattle in Barcelona in December.Northern IrelandTwo Royal Ulster Constabulary officers were injured whena remote-controlled bomb exploded in Londonderry. Althoughno group claimed responsibility, police believedthe Provisional Irish Republican Army was responsible.West GermanyThe Revolutionary Cells claimed responsibility for a bombingat the Turkish Consulate in Cologne. The bombingshattered windows and caused other damage, but noinjuries.LebanonFrank Regier, a US professor at American University ofBeirut, was kidnaped at gunpoint while walking along aBeirut street.ItalyLeamon Hunt, US head of the Multinational Force andObservers in the Sinai, was shot to death in Rome. TheItalian Red Brigades and the Lebanese Armed RevolutionaryFaction have claimed responsibility.LebanonUS journalist Jeremy Levin was kidnaped in West Beirut.Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.Central African RepublicA bomb exploded aboard a French airliner in N'Djamena,Chad, injuring 28 passengers.LebanonUS Embassy Political Officer William Buckley was kidnapedin West Beirut by Islamic Jihad.


SudanA Libyan TU-22 bomber dropped bombs on Omdurman,Sudan, site of a radio transmitter used by anti-Qadhafidissidents.26 March28 March30 March3 April15 April17 AprilFranceUS Consul General Robert Homme was shot and woundedin Strasbourg by the Lebanese Armed RevolutionaryFaction.GreeceBritish diplomat Kenneth Whitty and a Greek employee ofthe British Council were both killed when an assassin firedshots into the diplomat's car. The Revolutionary Organizationof Socialist Muslims claimed credit.ChileA bus carrying 25 national policemen in Santiago wasbadly damaged by a remote-controlled shrapnel bomb.One policeman was killed, and 11 policemen and fourbystanders were injured. The Manuel Rodriguez PatrioticFront claimed responsibility for the attack. The incidentmarks the first use of such a device in bombing incidentsin Chile.GreeceUS Army M. Sgt. Robert Judd was shot and wounded bytwo men on a motorcycle. The Revolutionary Organization17 November claimed responsibility for the murderattempt.NamibiaTwo US diplomats, monitoring the disengagement ofAngolan and South African troops from Namibia, and twolocal residents were killed and four injured in a gas stationexplosion. The South-West Africa People's Organization(SWAPO) had targeted this station in the past and wasblamed for the attack. The SWAPO, however, deniedresponsibility.United KingdomA British policewoman was killed, and 11 anti-Qadhafidemonstrators wounded by gunfire from the London LibyanPeople's Bureau. After a siege, British authorities foundweapons and spent shell casings in the vacated embassy.


3 May8 May77 May22 May30 May20 JuneJuly12 July17 JulyCyprusA lone gunman shot and killed a Palestinian journalist andwounded his secretary as they drove along a city street.No one claimed credit.LebanonUS clergyman Benjamin Weir was kidnaped in Beirut.Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.Sri LankaA US AID contract employee and his wife were kidnapedby members of the Eelam People's Revolutionary Front.They were released unharmed five days later.ColombiaThe Ricardo Franco Front of the Revolutionary ArmedForces of Colombia claimed responsibility for bombings atthe US Embassy, the Ambassador's residence, a binationalcenter, two IBM installations, and the ITT offices inBogota, as well as the binational center and a Texacowardhouse in Cali. No injuries were reported.NicaraguaAnti-Sandinista leader Eden Pastora was wounded by anassassin's bomb at a Contra base camp. The blast killedfive and wounded some 30 persons. No group claimedresponsibility for the attack.AustriaA car bomb killed the Turkish labor attache and seriouslyinjured other persons. The Armenian Revolutionary Armyclaimed responsibility.Red SeaLibya mined the Red Sea, damaging more than 18merchant ships registered to various countries.FranceAction Directe began a terrorist offensive by bombing theAtlantic Institute.PeruShining Path terrorists conducted coordinated bombingattacks against high-tension towers, Peru's main hydroelectricplant, and commercial targets. The group alsobombed the Lima offices of the Soviet airline Aeroflot, theNovosti News Agency, and the Soviet-Peruvian CulturalInstitute in Arequipa.


31 July2 AugustIranThree Arab hijackers diverted an Air France flight fromFrankfurt to Tehran. The hijackers released the passengersunharmed and surrendered to Iranian authorities on2 August.IndiaA bomb exploded at the Madras airport in southern India,leaving at least 29 dead and more than 30 wounded. SriLanka separatists of the Tamil Eelam Army were probablyresponsible. The bomb was probably meant to be loadedaboard an Air Lanka flight to the capital that left Madrasabout two hours before the blast.FranceAction Directe bombed the European Space Agency.22 August24 August1 I September20 September2-8 OctoberFranceAction Directe attempted a car bomb attack outside theWestern European Union building in Paris.lnd iaSikhs hijacked an Indian airliner to Lahore. They demandedto be allowed to go on to the United States, but latergave up after protracted negotiations in Dubayy.SpainIn Madrid, two gunmen carrying Lebanese passportswounded a Libyan Embassy employee. In Beirut, ananonymous telephone caller told a foreign news agencythat the Lebanese Shia group Musa Sadr Brigade wasresponsible. Another caller in London claimed credit in thename of the little-known Libyan exile group Al Burkan(Volcano).LebanonA car bomb exploded at the main entrance of the USEmbassy Annex in East Beirut. Fourteen persons werekilled-including two US persons. As many as 70 otherpersons-including 20 US citizens, among them AmbassadorReginald Bartholomew-were injured. An anonymouscaller claimed credit in the name of Islamic Jihad.BelgiumThe Communist Combatant Cells conducted three bombingsagainst firms it claimed were associated with INFdeployment: Litton Data Systems, the West German truckmanufacturer MAN, and Honeywell-Europe.


72 October29 October31 October17 NovemberUnited KingdomIn Brighton, Prime Minister Thatcher escaped injury whena bomb planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Armyexploded at her hotel, killing at least four persons andinjuring 34.PortugalIn Lisbon, two rocket-propelled grenades mounted onimprovised launchers and aimed at the new US Embassywere discovered in a field about 65 meters away. Theyhad failed to fire because of a malfunction.IndiaPrime Minister lndira Gandhi was shot to death by twoSikh members of her security force. One of the twoattackers was killed and the other seriously wounded byother guards.EgyptPresident Mubarak announced that four assassins sent toEgypt by Libya to kill former Libyan Prime MinisterBakoush had been arrested and forced to send fakepictures to the Libyan Embassy in Malta showing Bakoushapparently dead. Official Libyan press sources thenclaimed Bakoush had been executed by suicide squadssent abroad "to liquidate enemies of the revolution."El SalvadorA Salvadoran guard of the US Embassy was fatally shotwhile walking along a city street near the Embassy. TheClara Elizabeth Ramirez Front claimed credit.20 November25 November26 NovemberPhilippinesThe Moro National Liberation Front claimed responsibilityfor the kidnaping in Jolo of John Rabinow, an Americanexpatriate.PortugalIn Lisbon the US Embassy was hit by four 60-mm mortarrounds fired by the Popular Forces of 25 April on the ninthanniversary of the abortive leftwing coup against thePortuguese democratic government installed after therevolution in 1974. There were no injuries, and damagewas slight.BelgiumAt Beirset Military Airfield near Liege, two bombs damagedan antenna tower and a communications station.The Communist Combatant Cells claimed credit.


27 November30 November4 December6 December9 December1 I December18 DecemberIndiaThe deputy British high commissioner was shot to deathas he was being driven to work. The Revolutionary Organizationof Socialist Muslims claimed credit.LebanonAmerican University of Beirut librarian Peter Kilburn, anAmerican, was kidnaped in West Beirut by Islamic Jihad.KuwaitA Kuwaiti Airlines jet bound for Karachi was hijacked toTehran. The hijackers demanded that Kuwait release theprisoners convicted for December 1983 bombings there.On 9 December the lranian news agency IRNA reportedthat Iranian security forces had "stormed" the plane. TwoUS AID employees were killed before the incident came toan end.MozambiqueSeven East Germans and one Yugoslav, along with fiveMozambicans, were killed and two East Germans werewounded in an attack in Niassa Province. RENAMO,which often targets foreign agricultural and technicaladvisers to the Mozambican Government, is believedresponsible.PortugalMembers of the Popular Forces of 25 April claimedresponsibility for a grenade attack on NATO's Iberianheadquarters in Oeiras.BelgiumSix bombs were detonated on the NATO pipeline by theCommunist Combatant Cells.West GermanyThe Red Army Faction attempted a bombing of the NATOofficers school in Oberammergau.


Appendix BInternational Terrorist Incidents, 1984


Office of the Ambassador-at-Large forCounter-Terrorism


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