Implementation of Offshore WindPower & Potential of Tidal, Waveand Ocean Current EnergyforSUSTAINABLE USE OF OCEANS IN THECONTEXT OF THE GREEN ECONOMY AND THEERADICATION OF POVERTYPrincipality of Monaco, November 28, 2011Magdalena A K MuirAdvisory Board Member, Climate,Coastal and Marine Union (EUCC) &Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America
Offshore Wind Energy, Current,Tidal and Wave Energy andOffshore Electricity Grid Infrastructure
The ContextImportance of climate mitigation through development ofmarine renewable energy such as offshore wind farms,and ocean current, tidal and wave facilities.As well as generating energy, the oceans play a ne vitalrole in transmitting renewable energy through longdistance high voltage transmission lines and offshoregrid infrastructure.Marine renewable energy can play a vital role inmitigating and adapting to climate change and oceanacidification.Key example being energy and water nexus, and role thatrenewable energy can play in desalination of brackishand salt water to meet freshwater needs globally.Marine renewable energy planning and designs canenhance marine biodiversity and ecosystem , and theecosystem services benefits necessary to communities.
Marine Renewable Energy in the Context ofSustainable OceansOffshore wind farms and wave and tidal projects could havecomplimentary impacts on birds, fish, marine mammals,and marine and coastal ecosystem and support sustainableoceans industries such as fisheries and tourismFor example, appropriate implementation could enhancefisheries productivity through no-take zones and increasedfisheries breeding zones and habitat.Caution needs to be exercised with new technology. Forexample, electro-magnetic fields associated with the highvoltage transmission lines and hubs of proposed electricitygrids may have impacts on certain species (sharks, skatesand rays) and benthic organisms on the seabed.Ongoing monitoring and modification of offshore wind farms,current, tidal and wave projects, and related gridinfrastructure can positively address biodiversity andecosystem concerns through the construction,authorization, operation and maintenance, and theabandonment and reclamation of these facilities.
Outline of PresentationGlobal Trends and Investment forRenewable EnergyGlobal Offshore Wind Resources andDevelopment and Offshore Electricity GridInfrastructureOcean Energy Resources and Developmentand Offshore Electricity GridInfrastructureSustainable Cities and Regions and Role ofSustainable Seas and Renewable MarineEnergy
Global Trends and Investment forRenewable EnergyThe focus of the renewable power market is rapidlymoving away from the traditional mature markets ofEurope and the US.In absolute terms Europe will be the biggest market forrenewable power over the next five years, but followingthat China will lead.The Middle East and North African market will grow veryquickly with most of the investment from solartechnologies replacing oil-fired power plants.By far the most rapid growth will be seen in the rapidlydeveloping economies of India, the Middle East andNorth Africa, Africa and Latin America.By 2020, the markets outside of the Europe, US, Canadaand China will account for 50% of world demand.
Offshore Wind Opportunities: Average European Wind Speed
European Offshore WindEnergy Development
Germany Offshore Wind EnergyDevelopment
Netherlands Offshore WindEnergy Development
UK Offshore Wind Potential
UK Offshore Wind Farm (Round 3, 2010)
EU Grid Road Map
Proposed North Sea and Baltic Grid
Proposed Electricity Grids for South-West EuropeIncluding Links with Northern Africa
Proposed Electricity Grid, Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Offshore Wind Requirements: Distribution AreaAround a 10 GW Mainland Hub
Offshore Wind Requirements: 5 GW Hub,Multiple Strings with Multiple Wind Farms
European Grid Declaration on Electricity NetworkDevelopment and Nature Conservation in EuropeSignatories to November 11, 2011 Declaration are :Bellona, Birdlife Europe, Deutsche Umwelthilfe, Elia,European Climate Foundation, Friends of the EarthEurope, Friends of the Supergrid,50Hertz,Germanwatch,Global Nature Fund,Greenpeace, National Grid, Natuur en Milieu, RedElectrica de Espana, RSPB, RTE France, SEFEP,Statnett, Swissgrid, TenneT, Terna, WWF, ZeroThe Grid Declaration strengthens the coalition ofstakeholders supporting grid expansion to integraterenewable energy and raise public awareness.It provides for cooperation on specific pilot projects todevelop best practice and improve theimplementation of grid development consistent withnature conservation.The coalition pledges to encourage transparency andaddress public acceptance.
North and Baltic Sea Offshore Grid ProposalsDirect and Split Design (November 2011)
Desertec Industrical Initiative Supergrid to TransmitRenewable Energy from North Africa to Europe
Middle East and North Africa (MENA): Morocco’s Proposal forWind and Solar Energy & First Stage of Desertec ProjectDesertec Industrial Initiative (Dii) is designed to facilitate thelong-term transition to renewable energy by buildingrelationships between European energy market investors,renewable energy technology innovators and policymakersfrom the MENA region.Morocco is the starting location for 400 billion euro Diiproject. By 2050, Dii project is intended to satisfy 100percent of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region’senergy needs, as well as 15 percent of the EU.With 3,500 km of coastline and average wind speeds between6 and 11 m/s, and existing grid connection to Spain.Morocco’s wind resources promising.Agreements have been reached between Dii and the MoroccanAgency for Solar Energy for construction of a 500MW solarfarm in 2012. Potential for a 2000MW farm by 2020, whichwould make Morocco first implementation of Dii project.Next implementation of Dii project may be Egypt, which hasexcellent wind and solar resources and an existing gridconnection to Europe.
Egypt offshore wind resource map from Egypt WindAtlas indicating scope of offshore wind resources(meanwind speed at 50 m a.g.l., ., mesoscale modelling)
Americas: Canada Offshore WindLocated on Canada’s northwest coast,where the wind resource is one ofthe strongest and most consistentin the world, NaiKun Wind’s 396MWoffshore wind project is at anadvanced stage of development withenvironmental certification from theBritish Columbia government,and agreements in place with keysuppliers and First Nations.Given its development status, construction can beginwithin two years of the award of an electricity purchaseagreement from BC Hydro, the provincial utility.
Canada and US: Great Lakes WindResources and Proposed DevelopmentSignificant windresources for all lakes.LEEDCo will beginbuilding 20MW windproject off ClevelandOhio in 2012
Offshore Wind Resources for the US
Proposed US Offshore Wind Projects27
Case Study: Cape Wind, MACape CodMartha’s VineyardNantucketPermittingprocess took 10years130 turbinesApproximately468 MWEstimated costof $2.62 billion
North America : ProposedAtlantic Wind ConnectionProposed tofacilitate theefficient andcost effectivedevelopmentof offshorewind energy,and eventuallyocean energyprojects.
Brazil’s Offshore Wind ResourcesSignificantly investingin all renewableresources.Estimates of 3,500 GWof wind energypotential offshore inBrazil if its fullExclusive EconomicZone were used.If the areas werelimited to those withwater depth of lessthe 100 m, thepotential forgeneration would beof 636 GW.
Asia: ChinaOffshore wind potential estimated at more than 750 GW byChina Meteorological Administration.These offshore wind resources are in close proximity tocoastal settlements and developments.China has within a very short time become a major playerin the manufacturing of wind turbines, and in thedevelopment of wind energy on land.China is encouraging the manufacture of larger turbinesand offshore wind turbines, and indicated its intent to bea leader in the development of offshore wind power.Offshore electricity grid infrastructure needed.China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050 is recentsummary of government plans and policy.
China: Preliminary project planning for offshorewind resources in all provinces before 2020
Asia: IndiaIn 2011, India announced that it may taketwo years to study and gather data on thepotential for offshore wind.Preliminary studies indicate that coastalareas off Tamil Nadu and Gujarat statesmay have potentialThe results from the studies need to bevalidated by setting up offshore masts tomeasure one to two years of wind speeddata and to analyze the seabed to see if itcan provide an adequate foundation.
Asia: JapanSignificant offshore wind resources .Limited wind resources in shallow areasnear the coasts which likely to bedeveloped first.Most wind resources in deeper areas,necessitating floating wind farms attachedto land forms or floating independentlyIn 2011, Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Tradeand Industry announced it will spend 20billion up to yen ($257 million) on a pilotproject of six 2-megawatt floating windfarms off the Fukushima coast.
Asia: Korea’s Offshore Wind DevelopmentIn November 2011, the South Koreangovernment announced that it will invest 10.2trillion won (US$9 billion) in building in threestages a 2.5 GW offshore wind farm mainly offsouthwest coast of Jeollabukdo andJeollanamdo provinces: 100 megawattdemonstration phase for 2014, a 400 MWphase for 2016; and 2 GW phase for 2019.National government will provide policy andadministrative support, and local governmentswill approve sea uses.The project leverages Korea’s extensiveshipbuilding and marine engineering expertise.
Korea: Hankyung Wind Farm in coast of JejuProvince, 21MW (1.5MWx4 + 3MWx5)
Small Island Developing States andLeast Developed EconomiesUnique and dual role of wind and ocean energy indeveloping small island states and the coasts of lessdeveloped countries to achieve sustainabledevelopment and poverty alleviation.Ongoing issues of capacity, technology development &transfer that need to be addressed.For example, offshore and on land wind farms (as wellas ocean energy), combined with hydrogenstorage/dams and hydraulic storage, can substitutefor imported diesel fuel electricity generation.Wind, ocean and other renewable energy can becombined with desalination facilities to alleviate thewater shortages caused by higher temperature andchanging precipitation patterns, thus assisting SIDSand developing countries to adapt to climate change.
Off Grid SustainableEnergy Solutions:Ramea Island,Newfoundland,CanadaThe electrical grid of Ramea Island relies on diesel andwind power and will incorporate a hydrogen storageand generator system. In this isolated remote powersystem, hydrogen will be produced from waterelectrolysis when the wind power output exceedsdemand. The hydrogen gas is placed in storagetanks. When the power output from the windturbines is not sufficient to meet the communityload, the stored hydrogen powers a generator whichprovides electricity for the community.
Global Future of Wind EnergyEurope is biggest growth market for offshore windfor next five years, but after that China will lead.Along with China, Brazil and India become active.The Middle East and North African market willgrow very quickly over with most of theinvestment from solar technologies replacing oil-fired power plants.Most growth in developing economies of India, theMiddle East and North Africa, Africa and LatinAmerica.By 2020, the markets outside of the Europe, US,Canada and China will be 50% of world demand.
Future Offshore Wind Technology for DeeperSeas : Floating Offshore Wind Farms
Future: New technologies/design for marine infrastructureFor example, innovative building components likeOcean Brick System and Reef Balls and innovativemarine design which enhances offshore wind andocean energy development, marine biodiversity andecosystems, and fisheries and tourism opportunities.
Ocean EnergyThe oceans represent a vast and largely untappedsource of energy in the form of surface waves, fluidflow, salinity gradients, and thermal.Marine current power is the energy obtained fromocean currents.Osmotic power is the energy from salinity gradients.Ocean thermal energy is the power from temperaturedifferences at varying depths.Tidal power is the energy from moving masses ofwater.Tidal power generation: tidal stream power, tidalbarrage power, and dynamic tidal power.Wave power is the power from surface wavesMarine biomass is another form of ocean energy that isnot discussed here.
UK Round 1Wave and Tidal LeasesIn March 2010 in Round 1 ofWave and Tidal Leases, theCrown Estate announced thenames of the successfulbidders for the world’s firstcommercial wave and tidalleasing round, for ten sites inPentland Firth and Orkneywaters.The 1.2 GW of installedcapacity proposed by thewave and tidal energydevelopers for 2020, 600 MWeach from wave and tidal.
Pentland Firth & Orkney Waters: Wave and Tidal EnergyAnd Role of Marine Spatial Planning
Marine TidalCurrent EnergySeaGen turbine actslike underwaterwindmill.1.2MW tidal currentturbine has acapacity factor of66% and delivered800MWh into thenational grid.
Round 1 Wave and TidalLeasing, 2010: Tidal farm,Pentland Firth & OrkneyMarine Current TurbinesLtd received a lease fromThe Crown Estate to deployits SeaGen tidal currentdevice off Brough Ness,southern tip of the OrkneyIslands (South Ronaldsay)and north east of JohnO’Groats. First phase ofSeaGen turbines in 2017,whole project by 2020.
Tidal Energy: lmpoundment/Turbines4 lane road topsthis 242 MW tidalpower plantLa Rance Estuary, France242 MW Operating Since 1967
La Rance Tidal Power Plant atSt. Malo, France
Potential Tidal PowerSix sites represent overhalf potential tidaldevelopmentHeadwaters of the Bayof Fundy,CanadaSevern estuary, UKGulf of St. Malo, FranceSouth-eastcoast ofChinaRussian coast borderingthe White SeaRussian coast borderingthe Sea of Okhotsk
Other Potential Tidal Dam EnergyOther potential sites include:Mersey estuary, UKBristol Channel, UKGulf of Kachch, IndiaWest coast of Korea,North-west coast ofAustralia,Cook Inlet ,AlaskaGulf of San Jose, Argentina
Pros & Cons of Tidal Dam EnergyPrimary advantages of tidal energy are:- Regular electricity production with 5% annualvariation- Simultaneous use of the dam for a road or railroad- Long-term operational lifetime of plant- Can protect coastlines from storm waves andflooding.Disadvantages:- High capital costs for initial construction- Limited sites as minimum tidal range of5 metre is often cited.- Environmental and ecosystem impacts.
Power Buoy,OPTAWSOceanEnergyOyster,AquamarinePowerPelamis Wave PowerLIMPET, WavegenWave Dragon
Ocean ThermalEnergy Conversion
Sustainable Cities and Regions &Role of Sustainable Seas andRenewable Marine EnergyWater and Energy Nexus: RenewableEnergy and DesalinationSustainable London and LondonArrayState of Hawai’iGalapagos Islands and sustainableenergy development in a fragileenvironment
Water and Energy Nexus:Renewable Energy and DesalinationDesalination by renewable wind and solar energy is currentlybeing evaluated in a variety of European and internationalforums and projects.Windenergy modeling and studies of various wind energypowered desalination plants and prototypes underway.Important technological problems such as the intermittency ofwind, and counter measures such as electricity storage andhybrid energy systems are being considered.Replacing fossil fuel by renewable energy such as sun and windto desalinate seawater could reduce costly energy imports,eliminate greenhouse gas emissions, and support adaptationto climate change for higher temperatures, less precipitation,saline infiltration of aquifers, and growing water scarcity.Large scale desalination brings environmental challenges in theextraction of sea water and the release of heated brine intocoastal and marine ecosystems, but these concerns can bepartly addressed in the design of intake and outlet systems.
Sustainable London: London Wind Farm Array withinvestment of 50% DONG Energy (Denmark), 30% E.ONUK Renewables and 20% by Masdar (Abu Dhabi)
State of Hawai’i Interisland RenewableEnergy Program (HIREP)Wind would producerenewable energythrough of wind poweron one or moreislands, and transferthe electricitygenerated to anotherisland by means of oneor more underseacables. Also potentialOTEC and waveenergy, which woulduse grid infrastructure.
Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS)The State of Hawai‘i, with the US Department ofEnergy, are preparing a HIREP PEIS.The PEIS is designed to provide the public andagencies an overview of the potential impactsand benefits in the development of HIREP's threeprimary components: an undersea cable systemincluding converter/inverter stationinfrastructure, possible wind farms on one ormore islands in Maui County, and utilityinfrastructure upgrades on O‘ahu.The PEIS does not grant any development rights orprivileges to a specific wind farm project. ThisPEIS will set a framework, identify broad areas ofconcern (both location and environment), andspecify best management practices for the HIREPcomponents.
Galapagos Islands & Sustainable EnergyDevelopment in a Fragile Environment.In the Galapagos Islands, the environment, economy andsocial welfare are closely linked. Sustainability in one ofthese areas affects the sustainability in the other areas,and promoting the use of renewable energiescontributes to a more sustainable environment.EU Galapagos Renewable Energy Project for Isabela andSanta Cruz Islands has the objective of reducingenvironmental risks from fossil fuel through renewableenergy (solar) and increasing energy efficiency.E8 San Cristobel Wind Project is UNDP-sponsoredrecognized private public partnership model fordeveloping renewable energy, which also qualifies as aCDM project .
Further informationWebsites: www.eucc.net and www.arctic.ucalgary.ca
Thank you, et je vous remercieMagdalena AK Muirmakmuir@firstname.lastname@example.org 403 305 3393