2012 Activity and sustainable development report - RTE

rte.france.com

2012 Activity and sustainable development report - RTE

ACTIVITY ANDSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REPORT2012IN LINEWITH THE FUTUREwww.rte-france.com


CONTENTSMoving towards energy transition 04What do they think? 06Moving towards energy transition (cont.) 08What do they think? (cont.) 10Interview with Dominique Maillard 14A new-look organisation 20A new style of customer relations 26A constant need for innovation 32Succeeding with our teams 54Involving stakeholders 60Networks, customers, fl ows 74Production and consumptionof electricity in France 75Cross-border exchanges 76Commercial contracts 77Quality of electricity supply 78Customer satisfaction andcode of good conduct 79Financial indicators 80Consolidated income statements 81Consolidated balance sheets 82Consolidated cash fl ow statements 83Environmental data 84Social data 86Community data 87Infrastructures commissioned in 2012 88Technical characteristics of the network 89Glossary 90


PROFILERTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French andEuropean) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors orindustrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system.Guaranteeing a high level public serviceRTE performs a range of important public service roles in the areasof management of the public transmission network and the reliabilityof the power system. These roles are placed under control of the Frenchenergy regulator, CRE.Managing network infrastructuresRTE is required to maintain, strengthen and develop the networkat the fairest cost to the public to meet demand, whilst striving to reduceits impact on the environment. It must guarantee the continuity and qualityof the supply of electricity.Managing electricity flows on the networkRTE is required to balance electricity fl ows on the network at all times,by balancing supply and demand.Contributing to the smooth running of the electricity marketRTE is at the heart of the European system. It guarantees all usersof the power grid fair and transparent treatment, and seeks to promotefl uid exchanges.Supporting the energy transitionRTE undertakes to combine economic growth with respect for theenvironment, by properly integrating the network into the landscape,using resources economically, promoting the use of new energy sourcesand preserving the natural environment.The Activity Report and SustainabilityReport 2012 can be consulted onlineat the following address:www.rte-france.com/lienrapide/RA2012RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE01


RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE03


MOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITIONThe need to think differently about energy production and consumptionis now clear to everyone. Industrial players expect an electricity offer thatwill enable them to make energy savings.WHAT DO THEY THINK?“Whether it’s peakcapacity or loadshedding, let’s paythe real price.”OLIVIER BAUD,CEO and Founder, Energy Poolthe point of building gasturbines for them to be usedWhat’sonly for 1,000 hours per year?There is a great interestin evening out peak consumption byencouraging intensive users to load shed.The peaks are explained by householdconsumption. Heavy consumers are notpeak consumers. They are all willingto contribute to the developmentof smart grids through their capacityfor load shedding if appropriate incitationmechanisms are introduced. Oncondition that the manufacturing processallows for it, an industrial player or aheavy consumer will adjust his machinesminute by minute if the remunerationgained from load shedding enableshim to increase his competitiveness.However, there must be a genuine marketwith a determined price for a givenvolume and in a given timeframe. Youcannot change industrial organisationwithout a forecast of profitability. Industrydoesn’t operate at the same pace as thetrading rooms. You have to think in termsof overall cost and compare the cost ofproducing additional electricity at peaksand the remuneration of load shedding.Not forgetting that load shedding doesnot require heavy investment andcontributes to reducing CO 2emissions.But another problem is emerging inEurope: the absorption of growingovercapacities of renewables. The sameconsumers can delay their consumptionto improve the profitability of renewableenergies. This is why we call our activity“a grouping of large consumers for willingto modulate their consumption.”“We need realenergy transition.”scenario shows that this transition is only possible through twodevelopments occurring by 2050: reducing energy consumption by 50%,Ourand abandoning fossil-fuel and nuclear generation, and replacing themwith renewable energies. The transmission network will have to takeaccount of a structural reduction in consumption peaks of 30%, thanks to a fallin electric heating. It will also have to balance renewable production on a Europeanscale and regional demand through interconnections. And finally, it will haveto incorporate manageable means of generation of renewable electricity(biomass, geothermal, hydro-electric, etc.) and means of storage (pumpedstorage, synthetic gas, etc.). The investment needed for the networkshould be decided on the basis of these three objectives.JEAN-FRANÇOIS JULLIARD,Executive Director,Greenpeace France06


THE WORLD IS CHANGING, SO IS RTEMOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITION“We must learn to bring ordinary people intothe decision-making process.”achieve the energy transitionneeded for the fight againstclimate change and to meetTo the targets for energy security,we have to build a network in Europethat is capable of incorporatingrenewable energies produced on alarge scale in a decentralised manner.Several scenarios for 2050 show thatthe complete decarbonisation of theEuropean energy sector is economicallyand technically possible, includingwith electricity 100% from renewablesources. But this assumes an urgentand significant increase in transmissioncapacity. The enormous challengeof energy transmission can only bemet if many players from differentsectors combine their forces, agreeon a common vision of the future,prove themselves capable ofexplaining it and carrying with thema large majority of citizens. On theinitiative of the RGI, a coalition of the29 biggest environmental NGOs andEuropean network operators haveundertaken to cooperate to ensurethat the objectives of modernisingthe networks and protecting theenvironment are met at the sametime. Most of our networks wereconstructed several decades ago.Many things have changed since.The methods of the past are no longereither suitable or sufficient. We haveto learn to involve citizens and allparties concerned in the decisionmakingprocess.ANTONELLABATTAGLINI,Executive Director,Renewables GridInitiative (RGI)“Working togetherto optimise balanceon the network.”PHILIPPE GAY,Energy Purchasing Manager,Constellium Groupdevelops andmanufactures innovativeConstelliumaluminium products principallyfor the aeronautic, automotive,packaging and industrial markets.Our plants are like miniature electricitynetworks in their own right, with verycomplex transmission challengesrelated to the intermittent natureof our usage. In our rolling mills,the peaks can reach tens of megawattsover a very short time, roughlya second. We are working alongsideRTE on new methods of managingour installations that would enable usto control this load demand. We couldmake the know-how we develop tomanage our intermittent use availableto the network tomorrow, because wewill have adapted our organisationsto enable us to collaborate on achievingoptimal balance on the network.Plants like ours really are decentralisedresources for balancing the nationalnetwork. If we are suitably rewardedfor our contribution, we can ensurethat everyone can benefit.RTE | EN IN LINE LIGNE WITH AVEC THE L’AVENIR FUTURE07


MOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITIONMOVING TOWARDSENERGY TRANSITIONMANAGING PEAKS AND ALLOWING MORE FLEXIBLE CONSUMPTIONPower is an essential parameter in the scaling of an electricity system because electrical energy cannot be stored.Over the last ten years in France, power required at peaks has increased twice as fast as electricity consumption.It appears inevitable that load management measures have to be introduced. The Internet, information technologiesand smart meters will make it possible to improve the organisation and implementation of demand side managementprogrammes and load management measures thanks to load shedding in peak periods. They will also help the runningof energy efficiency programmes.Growth of electricity consumption peaks in France+ 2,300 MW for -1° C at 7 p.m. in winter – in MW102,100100,00080,00060,00040,00020,000079,59079,73083,54086,02086,28017/12/200110/12/200209/01/200328/02/200527/01/200617/12/2007Source: RTE Feedback report on the 2012 cold spell.88,96092,40096,71007/01/200915/12/201008/02/2012Peak load forecasts in France“one-in-ten chance” in GW119.2110.4120105.7100.7 100.2 98.8 97.5 97.7100806040200HighMedian New mix Low growthconsumption20142030Source: RTE Forward Estimate 2012.201420302014203020142030WHY DEVELOP INTERCONNECTIONS?They will be necessary, whatever scenario is envisaged, to improvethe security of supply, ensure solidarity between regions, countriesand territories and to integrate all the renewable energies produced.By 2025-2030, interconnection capacities are expected to have risenfrom 14 GW to 21 GW or 28 GW, depending on the scenario.Contractual exchanges on February 9, 2012 at 9 a.m.SUPERGRIDS TOMORROW?To take advantage of the installed capacity for wind production, powerlines are needed capable of transmitting high quantities of energyrapidly over long distances, with minimal losses, according to demand.The new European grid will have to ensure both energy security andsolidarity between regions.Development of renewable energies in Europe2,000 MW1,700 MW3,000 MWOnshore windSolar844 MW485 MWHydro-electric(including pumpedstorage)1,000 MWBioenergySource: RTE Feedback report on the 2012 cold spell.Source: Directorate-General for Energy.08


THE WORLD IS CHANGING, SO IS RTEMOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITIONHOW MUCH WILL IT COST?3/4of Frenchpeople1/2of Frenchpeople2/3of Frenchpeople3/4 of French people say they areconcerned about climate change.1/2 of French people think that the costof energy is the first element to be takeninto account in energy policy.2/3 of French people say that the energytransition should only occur if it does notcause an increase in energy prices.Source: Harris Interactive, Montaigne Institute, Genshagen Foundation, Nov. 2012.More thanSource: National Energy Mediator's report 2012.millionshouseholds spend over 10% of their budget4on energy.What are the components of the public service charge for electricity?For private consumers as at 1 January 2013What is the share of transmission in the cost of electricity?For private consumers as at 1 January 2013€1,432m2.3% 14.6%8.2%€3,547mRenewable energiesTariff adjustmentSocial tariffs€5.1 bn2013€4.3 bn2012€145mTransmissionDistributionSupplyCSPE 1TCFE 2CTA 3VAT6.2%9%Transmission36.3%23.4%1. Contribution to the public utility of electricity: tariff adjustment, purchase of electricitygenerated by new forms of energy, first necessity tariff and mechanisms to help theunderprivileged. 2. Tax on the final consumption of electricity: paid to municipalities,departments, and the government. 3. Routing contribution tariff: paid to the electricityand gas industries’ pension fund.Source: Energy Regulatory Commission newsletter, November 2012. Source: RTE press kit on the financial results, 19/02/2013.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE09


MOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITIONWHAT DO THEY THINK?“Around the electricity transmission network,there needs to be an independent messagefrom all players saying that no one can dothe impossible.”RTE must be frank about the situation as it is, as it will be and asit could be if we don’t take the decision to invest in and improvethe network. Because energy transition is going to speed up. Therealso needs to be, around the electricity transmission network,an element of stability, comfort and security, an independent messagefrom all the other players, including the parliament, saying that no onecan do the impossible.FRANÇOIS BROTTES,Deputy, Chair of the FrenchNational Assembly’sEconomic Affairs Committee“The challengesof energy transitionare alsotechnological.”GRÉGOIRE POUX-GUILLAUME,President of Alstom Gridchallenges of energytransition are also technological,and require a considerableTheinvestment in research anddevelopment. To transmit renewableelectricity over long distances withminimal loss wherever it is needed,we need very high voltage directcurrent meshed grids. Severalelements that are essential for theirsecurity are still under development.This is the case for circuit-breakers,which are indispensable for avoidingfailures by cutting the current in themalfunctioning element as fast aspossible, isolating the fault from therest of the grid. A circuit breaker’sreaction time will have to be ten totwenty times faster for direct currentthan for alternating current.To develop these new technologies,26 partners in the energy sector of tenEuropean Union member countriesare pooling their competences in theframework of the European Twentiesproject. The aim is to optimise theincorporation of onshore and offshoreenergy in the European grid by 2020.RTE is running one of this project’s sixfield trials. In this framework, AlstomGrid recently set a new world recordfor a high voltage direct current circuitbreaker, interrupting a currentexceeding 3,000 amperes in less than2.5milliseconds. This advance raisesone of the major technical obstaclesto the feasibility of super-networks,but we must still go further.10


THE WORLD IS CHANGING, SO IS RTEMOVING TOWARDS ENERGY TRANSITION“Working together to guaranteethe higher loads of tomorrow.”runs the Versailles regionalcontrol agency, one of 30 ERDFERDFagencies that manage 95%of the electricity distributionnetwork in Metropolitan France.The Versailles regional control agencymanages the medium-voltagenetwork for Île-de-France West,which includes the Hauts-de-Seine,Val-d’Oise and Yvelines departments,from approximately fifty sourcesubstations supplied by RTE. In thenext five years, the energy needsin the western outskirts of Paris areestimated at 600 MW, with a high levelof requirement because it includesthe La Défense business districtin particular. To satisfy growthin demand, the networks havedeveloped in a short timeframe.A new data centre needs 15, 20, even40 MW. If it can’t be connected uprapidly, it will go away and set upelsewhere. This has already happened.So we have signed an agreementwith RTE to establish a five-yearinvestment plan to guarantee thehigher loads of tomorrow, reliabilityunder degraded operating conditionsand the quality of supply. The firstchallenge that has to be met by RTEand ERDF is being capable of workingtogether to guarantee the higher loadsof tomorrow, and the next is knowingthe pressures on the high-voltage gridthat feeds all our source substationsto ensure reliable supply to ournetworks.ALAIN BONHOMME,Manager, ERDF Versaillesregional control agency“Connection isa major challenge.”CLAUDE MIDI,Executive Vice President,GDF Suez Futures Énergiesdevelopment of theenergy mix and the emphasisin France today on theThedevelopment of renewableenergies open up wonderfulopportunities. But before welaunch any new projects, we needa stable regulatory framework,clear industrial perspectives andeconomic and financial visibility.The question of connecting ourwind farms to the grid is a majorchallenge for us, a fundamentalpart of our planning. We needto know the technical solutionsavailable, the costs and the leadtimes at a very early stage.For small projects, the cost ofconnecting to the grid is decisive.For large projects, the questionof the lead time is crucial: theconnection must be operationalwhen the turbines are delivered sothat we can perform tests plannedwith suppliers, and commissionthe equipment under good conditions.RTE’s role is therefore centralfor us: in its capacity for rapidresponse and implementationof technical solutions in a spiritof co-construction, and in itscommitments on costs andlead times.RTE | EN IN LINE LIGNE WITH AVEC THE L’AVENIR FUTURE11


UNE RTE ORGANISATION CHANGING REPENSÉEFrance has launched a national debate on the energy transition. Whichever optionsare chosen, the transmission network will adapt to enable them to be realised.In order to cope with the energy transition chosen by the French, it is necessaryto guarantee that the rate of development of the electricity transmission networkkeeps pace with that of the production facilities, particularly for renewable energies.CREATING A NEW IMPETUS01 02 03 04The world is changing.And if RTE is changing toadapt to these developments,one thing that will neverchange for the company,and that has always drivenit, is that it has always placedthe customer at the heartof its actions, particularlywhen it comes to optimisingthe electricity transmissionnetwork. RTE has undertakenactions to make the electricitysystem more adaptableand smarter, for instance,to allow greater flexibilityof consumption by wayof load shedding.Whichever options arechosen following theenergy transition debate,the development of theenergy mix will entailsignifi cant change to thegeographical breakdownof production facilitiesthroughout the countryand the need to incorporatenew sources of renewableenergy.The transmission networkwill adapt to link up the newproduction facilities to zonesof consumption, maintainsecurity of supply forthe country and solidaritybetween regions, andcontinue improving thequality of electricitysupplied to customers.Geographically atthe crossroads of theEuropean networks, Franceis impacted by the changesthat its neighbours areundergoing. Combinedwith that of the nationalenergy mix, they requirenew interconnectioncapacities in order toabsorb the strong and rapidfluctuations in transmissionrelated to growth in windand solar energies, whichare intermittent by nature.12


THE WORLD IS CHANGINGRTE IS CHANGING05 06 07 08In order to cope with theenergy transition, it isessential to guarantee thatthe rate of developmentof power generationinstallations is matchedby that of the electricitytransmission networkin the context of adaptingprocedures to guaranteeindispensable informationand dialogue.FOR MORE INFORMATION:To consult RTE’s 10-yearDevelopment Plan visitwww.rte-france.com/lienrapide/schema-decennalThe ten-year developmentforecast of the Frenchtransmission networkunderlines the scale of thechallenges to be met. RTEplans to invest approximately€4.5 billion in the next threeyears, €15 billion by 2020and between €35 and €50billion by 2030, dependingon the development ofthe energy mix.Within three years,approximately 70 new linkswill have to be commissioned,a high proportion of themunderground. Within tenyears, more than 2,000 kmof very high voltage lines– deep-sea, undergroundand overhead – will haveto be constructed andexchange capacitiesstrengthened with Spain,Great Britain, Beneluxand Germany.These changes andchallenges are at the heartof the RTE industrialproject, which institutesa new dynamic supportedby a new organisation,renewed customer relationsand an unprecedentedinnovation budget toensure a service of qualityat the lowest cost andto prepare for the future.It relies on committed teams,on a desire to progressalongside stakeholdersand on the values ofsolidarity epitomisedby the RTE Foundation. •RTE | EN IN LINE LIGNE WITH AVEC THE L’AVENIR FUTURE13


INTERVIEW WITH DOMINIQUE MAILLARDDominique Maillard has been Chairman of the RTE Executive Board since May 2007.He was reappointed for a fi ve-year term in August 2010. In 2012, he chairedthe GO15, an association of the world’s sixteen largest power grid operators.CHANGE FORTHE BETTERWHAT WERE THE HIGHLIGHTSOF 2012?Among the most memorable events,I particularly recall the exceptionallycold spell that we experienced in February2012, which resulted in a rise inelectricity consumption of more than 2%.At the same time, the context of the economiccrisis led to a fall in consumption byindustry. On several occasions, consumptionwent beyond the symbolic threshold of100 GW. Thanks to the committed effortsof all the players and the electricity transmissionnetwork grid, we were able to getthrough this unprecedented situation.2012 was also a record year for our investments,which totalled €1.36 billion, or 30%of our sales. The effectiveness of our investmentswas reflected by a solid economicperformance and by a consolidation of thegood results of the past two years withregard to the quality of electricity supply.We are working with great determinationon the programme to protect the securityof the network against harsh weather conditions.We regularly observe that this isproving to be the right decision, and to beeffective. Among the major projects onwhich we are engaged, the IFA 2000 interconnectionwith the United Kingdom hasbeen restored to service at full capacity;construction of the underground directcurrent line between France and Spain waslaunched; and the new very high voltageCotentin-Maine line was almost completed.We are continuing with the renewal ofregional networks, and we have launchedprogrammes, defined in conjunction withlocal authorities, to secure supply to thetwo electricity peninsulas, Brittany and theProvence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. Workson the new underground direct current linkbetween France and Italy will begin in 2013and the consultation process has begunfor the reconstruction of the high-voltageline between Lille and Arras.In the meantime, RTE has been undergoingchange. A new, more transparent centralorganisation based on business lines hasbeen in place since January 2012. It seeksto achieve greater efficiency and speed ofresponse, for the benefit of all our customers.This reorganisation will be extended to ourregional structure. We have signed a newprofit-sharing agreement which encouragesperformance and responsibility. Inaccordance with the provisions of the thirdclimate and energy package, the reinforcementof our capacity, our code of goodconduct and amendments made to ourArticles of Association enabled the EnergyRegulatory Commission (CRE) to certifyRTE as an independent transmissionoperator (ITO) on January 26, 2012. On aEuropean level, our very active involvementin the definition of the new marketarchitecture can be seen by our substantialcontribution to the drafting of the codesfor European networks, which will helpdetermine their future structure.RTE also remains committed to its initiativesto promote sustainable development.Two examples will illustrate this: therenewal of our ISO14001 certification andthe recognition of our commitment tothe National Biodiversity Strategy in 2012.And finally, RTE has continued to fulfil itssocial commitments. We have met ourtarget for increasing the number of womenin the company a year in advance: thereare now 21% of women among our workforce.Our three-year agreement for therecruitment of people with disabilitieswas renewed.THE ENERGY TRANSITIONDEBATE HAS BEGUN.WHAT ROLE IS RTE PLAYING?RTE is at the heart of energy transition,both as an operator and as an expert.In our role as expert, the French parliamenthas assigned us the task of publishingan annual forecast of the balance between14


THE WORLD IS CHANGING, SO IS RTEINTERVIEW WITH DOMINIQUE MAILLARD“Our objective is to change for the better, that isan electricity system that’s more reliable, efficient,economical, clean and restrained.”electricity supply and demand in France.It’s one of the French energy system’s keytools for forward planning. The mostrecent edition, which can be consultedon our website, examines a number ofscenarios of changes to the balance of thesystem over a fi fteen-year timeframe.We have also published a ten-year developmentplan for the network, which isconsistent on a European scale withEntso-E’s projects.These documents help inform politicaldecision-making, the energy strategies oflocal authorities, particularly the Frenchregions, and the thinking of ordinary citizens.The regions are responsible for implementingRegional Climate, Air andEnergy Programmes (SRCAE), which settargets for the development of renewableenergy production by 2020. RTE takespart in technical committees tasked withcarrying out these plans, and is alsoresponsible for establishing regionalconnection programmes for the renewableenergy network (S3REnR) on the basis ofthese targets. 2012 saw approval atRegional Prefect level for connectionprogrammes for the regions of Alsace,Burgundy, Champagne-Ardenne and Picardy.Speaking as an operator, the electricitytransmission network is also strategicfor the implementation of the energytransition. Whichever options are chosen,the electricity transmission network andthe management of the electricity systemwill adapt to continue to ensure the reliabilityand quality of electricity supply atall times throughout the country. The newgeographical breakdown of the productioninstallations to be connected is one of thechallenges we are facing. The growingshare of renewable energies in the electricityproduction mix means that we haveto manage variable production. This managementis facilitated and optimised, bothfrom an economic and an environmentalperspective, by the fact that it is backed upby development of the network to ensurethe security of power supply: developmenton a national scale to strengthen solidarityin power supply between regions, but alsothe strengthening of exchange capacitieswith our neighbours to manage flows thatare of increasing variability because of therapid growth of wind and solar energy inmany European countries.With regard to demand, we must encourageflexibility in the consumption of electricityto smooth out consumption peaks. Withresponsibility for ensuring the balanceof the electricity system, RTE can enlistadditional production capacities or requestload shedding in order to deal with a risein demand. This obviously does not havethe same impact in terms of energyconsumption and carbon emissions.But to meet the commitments of theenergy transition, the rate of developmentof the network must keep pace withthat of the new means of production. Itonly takes a few years to complete a projectto install a production site, whereas theadministrative procedures to which we aresubject can extend the construction ofa very high voltage line over a period ofmore than ten years. The commissioningof renewable electricity production sitesas soon as construction is completedrequires a simplification and rationalisationof administrative procedures with respectto the network. The infrastructures package,an ambitious European initiative for strengtheningnetworks, shows that Europe hasfully understood the challenge.WHAT ARE YOUR OBJECTIVESFOR 2013 AND BEYOND?Our objective is to change for the better,that is to have an electricity systemthat’s more reliable, efficient, economical,clean and restrained. We areworking in the framework of an incentiveregulation which encourages us toimprove our performance for the •••RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE15


INTERVIEW WITH DOMINIQUE MAILLARD“RTE is at the heart of the energytransition, both as an expert andan operator.”••• benefit of our customers and thecommunity. The next user tariff for publicelectricity networks, TURPE4, is scheduledto come into force on 1 August 2013,and it will remain active for a period ofthree years. Defined by the Energy RegulatoryCommission, it gives us even moreincentive to improve our productivity aswell as the continuity and quality of electricitysupply. It also establishes monitoringof the efforts we have taken to reduceelectricity losses during transmission.On average, these represents 2% of theenergy transmitted and 20% of the costof transmission, so there is a lot at stake.RTE investments approved by the EnergyRegulatory Commission for 2013 represent€1.44billion. Our investment programmewill adapt to the development in the energymix that will be decided on followingthe national debate on energy transition. Itwill take place in the context of growingneeds that we calculate at around €1.5billionper year until 2020 to meet economic andenvironmental challenges, facilitate energytransition and ensure the security of supply.This will need us to manage our indebtedness,taking advantage of attractive fundingoffers, such as those of the EuropeanInvestment Bank (EIB), with which RTEmaintains a productive relationship.We endeavour to favour French businesses,the local economic fabric andlocal jobs, as much as we can. For 2012alone, the economic benefit of our investmentsrepresented approximately6,000jobs out of a total of roughly 11,500indirect jobs provided by our suppliers asa result of our activities.Being able to manage peaks in consumptionthrough flexibility of production, loadshedding and consumption is vital to us.Tools for managing demand from thegeneral public, such as ÉcoWatt, and theconstitution of load-shedding portfolioswith volunteers in the manufacturingsector are promising avenues.We are pressing ahead with our innovativeexperiments, such as the one we haveimplemented in Brittany. During winter2012-13, we provided 70 MW of localproduction and load shedding capacity,the equivalent of the consumption of acity the size of Quimper, that can be calledon during peaks in consumption. To takefull advantage of installed productioncapacity in renewable energy in Europe,a further key challenge is being capableof transmitting electricity rapidly, overlong distances, according to demand andproduction.Direct current links, power electronics,forecasting models of renewable energy,the instant calculation of transmissioncapacities, and the integration of loadsheddingcapacities are all decisive avenuesof research for the network of tomorrow.The introduction of communicationstechnologies into the network will makeit possible to manage the increased volatilityand flexibility of both production anddemand. This is the very challenge of thedevelopment of smart grids, to whichwe are making an active contribution. •16


A NEW-LOOK ORGANISATION18


THE WORLD IS CHANGING, G, SO IS RTEINTERVIEW WITH DOMINIQUE MAILLARDThe four priorities of SustainablePerformance, RTE’s industrial projectAt the heart of the energy transition in France and the whole of Europe, RTE ispicking up the pace of change to encourage the development of a competitivelow-carbon economy. Since 2010, the Sustainable Performance industrialproject has focused all the company’s teams on four ambitions, which generatefifteen targets.Completelyfulfilling our01public servicemissions in a society intransition. RTE is in tune withthe expectations of todayby emphasising sustainabledevelopment and consultation.It is improving the capacities,robustness and performanceof the network to optimiseits availability, integraterenewable energies, copewith peaks in consumptionand improve both the securityof supply and the qualityof service. It is developing itsinfrastructure by improving theconsultation procedure andconstruction and connectiontimes. It is optimising itsinvestment and operationalexpenditure.Leveragingthe European02 dimension toadd value to our actions andmissions. RTE is a drivingforce in the constructionof a secure, sustainable andcompetitive European electricitynetwork, in a context that hasbeen transformed by theadoption of the 3 rd energypackage. It developsinterconnections, marketcoupling and the coordinatedsupervision of electricity flowswith shared tools such asCoreso. RTE sees itsco-operation with othertransmission networkoperators as a key factorin its performance.03Growing ourbusiness throughpeople andadapting our people’spotential. The successof RTE’s industrial projectdepends on the commitmentand the skills of its people.Both the company and itsproject must enable everyoneto achieve fulfilment. RTEfirmly believes in consultationand social dialogue to bringabout change. The companyis implementing a five-yearplan in order to acquire newskills and encourage genderequality, the employmentof older workers and work/study programmes. It is alsodeveloping a new policyfor health, safety and the qualityof life at work.Preparing thefuture of the04 power network.The energy sector isexperiencing profound andrapid change. RTE is preparingthe French and Europeangrids of tomorrow, widelyinvolving stakeholders in itsreflections. It is at the heartof the development of smartgrids in France. In this context,RTE is envisaging thedevelopment of new energyservices which are alone orin association with partners.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE17


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONRTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE19


A NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONA NEW- LOOKORGANISATIONRTE has reinvented its organisation to fostercross-functional cooperation in the companyand develop relations with all its partnersand contacts that are more open,more transparent, more interactive,more cooperative, effective and rapid.20


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONWith the twin aims of improved performance today and better preparation fortomorrow, RTE is transforming its operating methods and developing teamworkand project work to manage the increasingly numerous investment and maintenanceprogrammes, incorporate new sources of production and ensure the availabilityof electricity at all times.MORE EFFECTIVELEADERSHIPRTE’s multiple and complex missions consist in transmittingelectricity at high and very high voltage between sources ofproduction, distribution networks and industrial sites connecteddirectly to the network; being responsible for maintaining thebalance at all times between supply and demand and to ensurethe security of supply throughout the country – and on a Europeanscale – by anticipating consumption and managing electron flows;and ensuring the smooth operation of the electricity market andcontributing to the construction of a single European market.RTE operates, maintains and develops the network at the lowestcost for the community, with the least environmental impact,endeavouring to ensure the reliable supply of high-quality electricityin sufficient quantity. It is contributing to energy transitionby providing the best possible integration of electricity from renewablesources and taking action to reduce peaks in consumption,thereby limiting the use of back-up capacities, which in manycases are responsible for a high level of greenhouse gas emissions.NEW ORGANISATION OF CENTRAL FUNCTIONSSince January 2012, a new organisation has been in place.The central functions are now no longer organised in departmentsbut in five major clusters of activities, underlining the company’sdesire to operate in a cross-functional manner and to strive forthe best synergies possible between entities. Each cluster is underthe authority of a member of the Executive Committee.• The Activities cluster brings together maintenance,operations and development-engineering.• The Economy, Markets, Innovation cluster includes a newEuropean Affairs Department.• The Finance, Procurement, Information Systems clusterhas a new IS/Telecoms Department.• The Human Resources cluster now includes two entities,one for operational HR management, the other for consulting,change management and social dialogue.• The General Secretariat coordinates the support functions.Structured around the company’s principal activities, the neworganisation distinguishes teams responsible for day-to-dayperformance from those who are involved in preparing the future.It encourages more effective management, particularly withall operational activities grouped in clusters, and strengthensactivities that are strategic for the future, with the introduction ofnew departments, such as European Affairs or R&D and Innovation.IN THE REGIONSFlexibility, simplicity and cooperation between activitiesand regions are the order of the day in regional entities. In 2012,a single management contract committing all teams was •••RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE21


A NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONAt the central level, the Activities cluster concentrates all the skills neededfor the operation, maintenance and development-engineering of equipmentand infrastructure, sectors which cooperate closely to ensure the performanceof the network for the benefi t of customers.FOR MORE INFORMATION:See the 2012 annual report of the Network Prospects committee:http://clients.rte-france.com/lang/fr/visiteurs/mediatheque_client/offre_publications_unique.jsp?pub=pub32 (in French)••• put in place in each region and, to achieve greater coherence,the four sectors – operations, maintenance, developmentand engineering, customers and markets – with a key contactperson in each region. Expanding the reorganisation of the centralfunctions, more extensive work has been carried out on theorganisation of the regions on the basis of wide consultationwith the sectors, the regional units and the trade unions. Again,the challenge is to advance from coordination to cooperation,building on a shared vision of the overall purpose of RTE.A MORE DEVELOPED CONSULTATION POLICYAt the same time, RTE is stepping up its process of consultationwith all users of the network and stakeholders.Permanent consultation primarily occurs in the framework ofthe electricity transmission network users committee (Frenchacronym: CURTE) and its specialist sub-committees. In order toanticipate the energy transition with all the stakeholders, RTEhas put in place a fifth sub-committee, called Network Prospects.Participants in this body’s work include environmentalprotection associations, consumer representatives, the relevantinstitutional bodies for energy saving, forecasting, developmentof renewable energies, regional development, load-sheddingaggregators, other operators of linear infrastructure andgovernment agencies.The Network Prospects committee, which is open to allinterested civil society bodies, is a privileged forum for dialogueon issues with medium- and long-term impact on the electricitysystem. These bodies debate RTE’s hypotheses on French andEuropean prospects for the development of the network. Theyseek agreement on a number of topics, in particular specificationof studies to be conducted by RTE.The Market Access committee is a forum for consultation onthe market mechanisms implemented by RTE. It is open to allplayers on the French electricity market (balance responsibleentities, programming responsible entities, balance players,industrial customers, load-shedding operators) as well as distributionnetwork operators. It receives their opinions not only inthe upstream consultation phases prior to the design of a newmarket mechanism, but also with regard to drafts of market rulesbefore they are proposed to the Energy Regulatory Commission.RTE also benefits from the insights of the StakeholdersCommittee. In addition, RTE has appointed a ScientificCommittee, which performs a technology watch role whichis valuable in respect of the company’s ambitions in the areasof research and innovation. •22


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWclose-up on…The RTE economic modelA NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONA regulated tariff…The transmission of electricity isa regulated activity. User tariffs forpublic electricity networks (Frenchacronym: TURPE) are set by the EnergyRegulatory Commission. They arecalculated so as to fi nance the costsengaged in operating, maintaining anddeveloping the network. The EnergyRegulatory Commission verifi es thatthe costs correspond to thoseof an efficient operator. Each year,it approves RTE’s investmentprogramme.… encouraging operational performanceand action on costsThe TURPE 3 tariff, in force from 1 August2009 until 31 July 2013, incorporatesthree performance incentive mechanismsbacked up by rewards and penalties:• on controllable operating costs, anyincrease in which will be the responsibilityof RTE while any decrease will be sharedwith users of the network,• on the quality of electricity supply;RTE’s equivalent time of interruptionis compared to a target of 2 minutes24 seconds,• on the purchase of electricity tocompensate for losses on the networkowing to the Joule effect; RTE’s performanceis compared to a benchmark.TARGET /In the framework of its industrialproject, Sustainable Performance,RTE is aiming to reduce its operatingexpenditure by approximately 1%per year and encourages the wholecompany to achieve performancethrough management contractsfor each unit.SALESBreakdown of sales 2012INVESTMENTSBreakdown of investments 20121.5%2%7% 3%9%12.5%€4,529 m23%€1,357 m37%74%27%4%DistributorsIndustry (extraction)Energy producers (extraction)Other customers (including injection)Non-TURPE revenues:Revenue relatingto interconnectionsOther servicesMajor transmissions and interconnections, developmentMajor transmissions and interconnections, renewalRegional networks, developmentRegional networks, renewalInformation systems and logisticsRTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE23


A NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONOperating a public electricity transmission network is a regulated activity in Europe.RTE carries out its duties in the framework of the French Energy Code, which transposesthe “3 rd energy package”, as approved by the European Parliament and the Councilof the European Union, into French law.GOVERNANCE ANDMANAGEMENT BODIESThe Energy Code defines the general organisation of theenergy sector, and in particular of the transmission ofelectricity. It specifies common rules for the interior energymarket as well as the obligations of independence and autonomyof network operators with respect to their parent companies– EDF in the case of RTEand companies belonging to thesame group engaged in energy supply businesses. The FrenchEnergy Regulatory Commission (CRE), which is responsiblein France for the smooth operation of the electricity market,monitors the application of rules stipulated by law.RTE is a French société anonyme with an Executive Boardand a Supervisory Board governed by laws and regulationsapplicable to commercial companies except where specificprovisions apply. Its Articles of Association and governancepractices guarantee its autonomy, its management independenceand its neutrality. Within RTE, a Chief ComplianceOfficer is tasked with verifying that at all times it carries outits business in complete independence with respect to EDF,possesses the means of such independence and respects thecommitments detailed in the code of good conduct, particularlythat stating that users of the network will be subject to nodiscriminatory practices.The company’s rules of organisation and independence aresubject to certification. RTE was certified as the operator of theelectricity transmission network by the Energy RegulatoryCommission on 26 January 2012.THE ROLES OF THE FOUR BODIESThe Supervisory Board controls the management of thecompany as undertaken by the Executive Board. The SupervisoryBoard relies on the opinions and proposals of the Economicand Audit Supervisory Committee and the RemunerationsCommittee. RTE pays no compensation to members ofthe Supervisory Board in respect of these duties.The Executive Board, in the framework of its authority forimplementing operations that directly involve the operation,maintenance and development of the electricity network, isresponsible in particular for elaborating the ten-year developmentplan for the network. It draws up an annual investment programme,which it submits to the Energy Regulatory Commissionfor approval. It is also authorised to take all important decisionsin the name of RTE.The Executive Committee is the collective decision-makingbody for all topics of importance to the company.The Management Committee is responsible for the operationalcoordination of RTE’s activities and meets on a weekly basis. •24


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW-LOOK ORGANISATIONMembers ofthe 4 bodiesTHE SUPERVISORY BOARD /The Supervisory Board consists of12 members who serve five-yearterms: four representativesof EDF, the shareholder, fourState representatives and fouremployee representatives.Representatives of EDFAndré MerlinChairmanThomas PiquemalVice Chairman Memberof the Economic and AuditSupervisory CommitteeMarc EspalieuChair of the Economic andAudit Supervisory CommitteeNicole Verdier-NavesChair of the RemunerationsCommitteeState RepresentativesPierre FontaineMember of the Economic andAudit Supervisory CommitteeClaire CheremetinskiMember of the RemunerationsCommittee and of the Economicand Audit Supervisory CommitteeGilles BellecCécile PendariesEmployee RepresentativesPatrick LarradetDominique LoretMember of the Economic andAudit Supervisory CommitteePatrice SébilleChristophe AimeSecretaryof the Supervisory BoardAlain FiquetTHE EXECUTIVE BOARD /The Executive Board consistof four members appointedfor five-year terms:Dominique MaillardChairman of the ExecutiveBoardPierre BornardVice ChairmanPhilippe DupuisHervé LaffayeTHE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE /The Executive Committeeconsists of DominiqueMaillard, Chairman of theExecutive Board, along withthe heads of the five clustersof activities:Dominique MaillardChairman of the ExecutiveBoardPierre BornardVice Chairmanof the Executive Board,Executive Vice President,Economy, Marketsand InnovationPhilippe DupuisMember of the ExecutiveBoard, Executive VicePresident, Finances,Procurement, InformationSystems and TelecomsHervé LaffayeMember of the ExecutiveBoard, Executive VicePresident, OperationsPierre-Yves MadignierCompany Secretary withresponsibility for Legal Affairs,Communications, PublicAffairs, SustainableDevelopment, the GeneralInspectorate, Audit and Risks,Real Estate and Logistics,Technical Controlof InstallationsPascal MagnienExecutive Vice President,Human ResourcesJérôme Rieu, followed byNicolas Beaulaton(as of 1 April 2013)Senior Advisor to theChairman, with responsibilityfor the secretariat of theExecutive Committee andManagement Committee.THE MANAGEMENTCOMMITTEE /The Management Committeeconsists of the membersof the Executive Committeealong with the heads of thecentral functions.Michel DubreuilDeputy Director of Operations,responsible for Developmentand EngineeringAlain FiquetDeputy Company Secretaryand Director of Legal AffairsOlivier LavoineDirector of FinanceMichel Derdevet, followed byLaurence Mugniery(as of 25 April 2013)Director of Communicationsand Public AffairsBrigitte PeyronDeputy Director of Operations,responsible for NetworkManagementBertrand SignéDeputy Director of HumanResources, responsiblefor Transformationand DevelopmentJean VerseilleDirector of European AffairsChief Compliance OfficerLuc Desmoulins, followed by Jean-Pierre Desbrosses(as of 12 February 2013)RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE25


A NEED NEW STYLE FOR INNOVATIONOF CUSTOMER RELATIONSA NEW STYLE OFCUSTOMER RELATIONSRTE is creating a new impetus based onconsultation, proximity, simplicity and rapidreaction as it seeks to better satisfy theexpectations of its customers (distributorsand industrial players), electricity producers,suppliers and market operators.26


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW STYLE OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSRTE guarantees its customers access to the electricity transmission network withperfect neutrality, transparency and fairness. It facilitates their access to Europeanelectricity markets. It respects the confi dentiality of all commercially sensitiveinformation it is given.WORKING TOGETHERFOR OUR CUSTOMERSRTE has developed customer assistance and servicesadapted to the needs of a highly varied clientele: distributionnetwork operators, industrial consumers, electricity producers,energy suppliers and market operators.At the national level, the Commercial Department is responsiblefor relations with the senior management andpurchasing departments of customer groups. Local relationswith customers operating on a regional level are maintainedby account managers.SIMPLER, MORE ACCESSIBLEUpdated in 2012, the customer portal is now more ergonomicand offers a search engine for easier browsingof all RTE’s websites. A secure interactive form can be usedto subscribe to services in a few clicks. As of 2012, thosecustomers who wish to do so can manage their contractsonline, monitoring their consumption, modifying their subscribedpower, giving notice of exceptional consumptionand consulting their invoices. All transactions are guaranteedconfi dentiality and traceability.MORE INFORMATION FOR CUSTOMERSRTE has undertaken a major project of communicationand simplification, seeking to make its services easier tograsp and understand. Its new catalogue, Cataliz, presentsits ranges of services clearly and concretely, with four maincategories: “Become A Customer”, “Strengthen Your Supply”,“Optimise Your Budget” and “Let Us Help”. Cataliz contains63 factsheets covering RTE services, each containing adescription of the service, along with its price, who to contactand eligibility conditions. An iPad app will be availablein 2013.Meanwhile, two new newsletters have been published:“en apaRTE” is intended for customers connected to thenetwork (the title is a French pun on “as an aside”), and “Wattelse?” is for market players. The results of a customersatisfaction survey that was carried out in March 2013 willsuggest future lines of progress.RTE held its first show for customers on November 13, 2012in Paris. 300 customers took the opportunity to focus on keyissues for the electricity market in France and the rest of Europeand discover RTE’s activities and service offerings througha programme of talks and presentations hosted on themedstands by industry specialists and members of the sales team. •RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE27


A NEW STYLE OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSclose-up on…What we do for our customersEnergy producers and industrial consumersOPTIMISING SETTINGS FORGREATER PRODUCTIVITY /The highly electricity-intensive furnaceof this steel works caused disruptionsaffecting other customers of RTE, whichwas therefore obliged to limit the powersupplied. Filters that could have avoidedthe disruptions being too expensive, thesteelmaker worked with RTE on optimisingsettings. Several series of tests were carriedout to find the solution. The power suppliedby RTE could be increased by 15% withoutcreating disruptions, and the steel plantnow derives full benefit from itsinstallations in terms of productivityand competitiveness.CONCERTED DECISIONSREGARDING CONNECTION /For customers interested in connectingtheir installations to the transmissionnetwork, RTE provides an estimate oftechnical feasibility, cost and lead timefor carrying out the operation. The serviceis offered free of charge and withoutobligation within six weeks.RTE undertakes to make a concerteddecision with the producer regarding themost suitable method of connection.28


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW STYLE OF CUSTOMER RELATIONS300customers took part in thefirst trade show organisedfor them by RTE and 87%of them said they weresatisfied.2’17”The equivalent timeof interruption in 2012confirms the excellentresults achieved in termsof the quality of electricitysupply since 2010.€26/kWhThe economic cost of anoutage of more than 3minutesrepresents roughly 200 timesthe cost of supply. This hasrisen by approximately 10%in 10years.SEE THE RTE REPORT:> What is the value of electricity?www.rte-france.com/lienrapide/valeur-elecQUALITY OF ELECTRICITY: PERSONALISEDSERVICES / For paper manufacturers, a brownout lasting a fewthousandths of a second can result in a production shutdownlasting several hours. To prevent such problems, RTE carries outan inspection before carrying out maintenance or repairs orisolating equipment, and takes the necessary precautionarymeasures for the equipment that is still operational. The site is alsoput on alert when any maintenance or repairs are to be performedon electricity installations in its sector. More broadly, RTE’s Qualité +offer allows customers to benefit from its a service of surveillanceand analysis of disruptions. RTE is committed to achieving shorterbrownouts and to offering better compensation in the event ofexceeding its target. On condition that they take steps to maketheir installations less sensitive, customers can opt for an additionalservice, Sup Quali +, which further improves these commitments.SYNCHRONISED MAINTENANCE: IT ONLY TAKESA PHONE CALL / By informing the account manager at RTEthat the plant would be at a standstill for five days, a cementmanufacturer enabled RTE to bring forward the maintenanceof the circuit-breaker equipping the cement plant. A three-dayproduction stoppage was avoided for the customer. RTE isendeavouring to limit drops and stoppages of productionrelating to works carried out on its own network and tosynchronise them, whenever possible, with its customers’ ownmaintenance schedules. More broadly, RTE is developing a newpolicy of live maintenance works for strategic installationson the network, which helps to reduce lost days, to whichelectricity producers are particularly vulnerable.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE29


A NEW STYLE OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSclose-up on…What we do for our customersSuppliers, market operatorsINFORMING THE OPERATORS / On its website,RTE publishes updated data on the operation of the Frenchelectricity market, and in 2012 it added data published inconjunction with the UFE on outages and restarts. A newversion of the éCO 2mix information service was alsolaunched. Available as a smartphone app, it provides newdata relating to photovoltaic production, hydraulic pumpingand cross-border exchanges, as well as a record of electricitynational consumption in France.FOR MORE INFORMATION:www.rte-france.com/lienrapide/eco2mixTHE FRANCE-SWITZERLAND INTERCONNEC-TION COMES CLOSER TO INTEGRATION / In 2012,RTE and Swissgrid launched an auction-driven attributionmechanism for exchange capacities between France andSwitzerland: 400 MW of the annual and monthly capacitiesfrom France to Switzerland, and 210 MW reserved for dailyauctions in both directions, supplemented by a continuousinfra-day service. The auctions are run by CASC 1 , whichalready manages interconnections in the CWE 2 and CSE 3zones. This initiative forms part of the harmonisation of theauction rules for the twelve southern and western bordersof the Central Europe zones.1. Capacity Allocation Service Company.2. Central West Europe consists of France, Belgium, Germany,the Netherlands and Luxembourg.3. Central South Europe consists of France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany,Austria, Slovenia, Greece.30


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEW STYLE OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSIn 2014the CACM 1 code will comeinto force, harmonisingmanagement practicesfor interconnections ona European scale.1. Capacity Allocation and CongestionManagement.72 GWof load: the gaps between highpoints and low points havenever been so great, justifyingthe development of incentivesfor load-shedding andmoderating consumption.ACCESS TO THE MARKET MECHANISMS / The Nome lawmakes provisions for the introduction of a capacity obligationin order to secure electricity supply at times of peak consumption.In this context, RTE verifi es the capacity of each supplier, certifi escapacities of production and load-shedding and controls theiravailability. RTE can include load-shedding capacities in contractswith customers directly connected to the transmission network orconnected to the distribution network. It also offers a new trainingprogramme to customers and market players who are envisagingentering the electricity market. It will be based on a speciallydeveloped tool simulating exchanges, balancing mechanismsand energy markets that has proved itself in training RTE teams.TWO NEW PLATFORMS FORTRANSPARENCY / A new platform, operationalsince December 2012, provides real-time dataon the use of interconnections betweenFrench, Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccanelectricity transmission networks. A secondplatform, dedicated to the FUI region (France -UK - Ireland), came into service in March 2013.It furnishes market players with all dataconcerning the management of congestionon FUI region interconnections and datafor the Anglo-French link (IFA), the renovationof which was completed in 2012.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE31


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONACONSTANT NEEDFOR INNOVATIONRTE encourages and promotes innovationin all of its activities to adapt the networkto changes in the electricity system, to performbetter today and to prepare the vast electricitynetwork of tomorrow in France and Europe.32


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONRTE is adopting new means and trying out new methods and new equipmentto expand the network, optimise its operation, reduce its footprint, introduce renewableenergies, guarantee the security of the electricity system and construct the Europeanelectricity community.A COMPANY FOCUSEDON INNOVATIONTechnological progress in many areas is opening upnew perspectives for transmission network operators.Innovations in materials and installations, advanced IT,telecommunications and power electronics are helpingthe electricity network advance day after day towardsbetter performance.Working closely with operational departments, the engineersand research teams in the R&D-InnovationDepartment envisage the technical solutions that will makeit possible to meet new challenges for electricity transmission.They develop new partnerships with universities, industriesand network operators, particularly in Europe throughEntso-E. They design and develop tools and run fi eld trialsthat help to speed up the industrial application of ideas.INSPIRED BY BEST PRACTICEAll the company’s areas of activity propose innovations,from operations to maintenance, for engineeringsolutions to the development of decision-making tools,from market tools to network simulations, from methodsof consultation to the environmental integration of infrastructures.RTE encourages exchanges and openness toenable its teams to advance by taking inspiration from thebest practice of its partners and industrial customers.The performance of the network fi rst of all depends onoptimisation of the use, maintenance and lifespan of existinginstallations, managing which is a major economic andindustrial challenge. RTE innovates in operating methodsfor supervising, maintaining and constructing the transmissionnetwork.The company’s approach to innovation is fully compatiblewith the principles of sustainable development, meetingthe challenges of energy transition and climate changeand contributing to the preservation of biodiversity. Itsupports energy restraint, through the introduction offlexibility mechanisms and by implementing load-sheddingon a large scale.RTE contributes to the development of innovative solutionsthat make it possible to optimise the technical and economicperformance of the French and Europeanelectricity systems while guaranteeing the security of theiroperation, and is investing signifi cantly in smart grids,which open new perspectives for electricity systems. •RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE33


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONThe costs of investment, maintenance and operation influence trends in user tariffsfor the transmission network. RTE endeavours to exercise cost control for the benefi tof competitiveness in France and of all consumers.INNOVATING TO…KEEP CONTROL OF COSTSDeveloping, strengthening and maintaining the networkrelies on shared digital tools which improve knowledgeand monitoring of infrastructures, comparisons of theperformance of maintenance equipment and techniques,as well as the choice of the best options.ADVANCED INFORMATIONAND COMMUNICATION TOOLSAll the company’s databases and applications are interconnectedin an information system that is constantly beingenriched and updated. The geographic information systemprovides a dynamic image of the network in its environment.This information will make it easier to route new infrastructuresand to plan mechanical security and maintenanceoperations.Inforef, a technical database shared by all business line applications,catalogues all current and future construction projects.The Sidoni information centre provides all the statisticsthat can be of use in analysis or decision-making, such ascomparisons of the behaviour of equipment, reviews ofmaintenance policies region by region, the cost-efficiencyratio of a project, etc. Equipment control personnel areprovided with mobile offi ces, allowing them to performreal-time updating of databases and increase productivity.RTE operates a powerful telecoms system to ensure thatthe network is more secure and smarter. 16,000 km of opticalfi bres have been installed on the network. 300 strategic sitesare served. With this high-speed broadband system, remoteobservation, surveillance and maintenance will be performedmore rapidly, more reliably and more economically.PURCHASING AS A VECTOR OF COMPETITIVENESSThe consolidation of needs, a commitment from suppliersa long way upstream on purchasing schedules and volumesand the joint management of supplies are factors in productivityand the smooth progress of security, maintenance anddevelopment programmes. Purchases of electricity intendedto compensate for losses in transmission owing to the Jouleeffect are very signifi cant, representing approximately11TWh and €750 million per year. RTE endeavours to makethese purchases at the lowest cost under the supervisionof the Energy Regulatory Commission, organising tendersand, in addition, transactions on so-called ‘futures markets’to benefi t from contributing market lows. •34


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONFocus€3 mover 5 years devoted toresearch on the use of UAVsand robots with a laboratoryat the Pierre and MarieCurie University in Paris.€1,643 mwas spent by RTE on purchasesexcluding electricity in 2012,or 38% of its sales.UAVs TO CONTROL THE STATE OF TOWERS /Since early 2012, radio-controlled UAVs (unmannedaerial vehicles) have been inspecting towers forcorrosion. Equipped with digital cameras andwireless video cameras, it takes them barely10minutes to produce 80pictures of each of thefour sides of a 40-metre tall pylon, in all 320photographsof excellent quality. 2,200km of HV andVHV lines were inspected in this way in 2012.The long-term aim is to extend the use of UAVsto facilitate access to towers on steep slopes,to speed up repairs and limit network outagesat the lowest cost.LINESCOUT, A ROBOTFOR ALL SEASONS /Remote-controlled from theground, this robot can moveautonomously along a power line,with a range of 8 to 9 hours.Equipped with four high-resolutionvideo cameras, an infrared camera,measuring instruments andmaintenance tools, it can observethe condition of live power lines.It can withstand rain and wind andoperates in a temperature rangefrom -40° C to +90° C. Developed inCanada, Linescout has been trialledwith great interest on the Frenchelectricity transmission network.A NEW LOGISTICS ORGANISATION / In July 2012, RTE openeda logistics platform at Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, in south-eastern France.This 12,000 m 2facility is intended for storing equipment before it isdispatched to development and maintenance sites. Inventoriespreviously stored at the premises of roughly forty suppliers are nowheld in-house. The aim is to improve both the quality of service towork sites and inventory management while reducing greenhouse gasemissions thanks to optimised transportation.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE35


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONThe gap in consumption between the highest point in the winter and the lowest pointin the summer continues to widen: 30,000 MW at the lowest and more than 100,000 MWat the peak in 2012. The demand generated for every drop in winter temperature of 1° Chas risen by 35% in ten years, putting the transmission network under great pressure.FOR A DETAILED RECAP OF THE COLD SPELL IN FEBRUARY 2012(IN FRENCH), SEE THE RTE ANALYSIS: > www.rtefrance.com/lienrapide/retour-hiver2012INNOVATING TO…REDUCE PEAKSIn February 2012, France experienced an exceptional coldspell in terms of its length and its intensity. Regularlyexceeding 100,000 MW over the entire period, daily peaksreached levels never before seen.GREATER TRANSMISSION CAPACITYThe rise in electricity consumption at peak times requiresstronger transmission capacity at certain points of thenetwork in order to ensure security of supply, particularly inregions that are fragile because of their low level of localproduction, Brittany and PACA chief among them. Thanks toa technology watch, innovative equipment has been identified,such low-expansion cables. These offer greater transmissioncapacity than traditional cables. Although they are more expensive,they represent a viable option for increasing thecapacity of a line using the same infrastructure, or even reducingthe number of towers, an advantage when space is limited.REDUCING DEMAND AT PEAK TIMESIn parallel, RTE encourages industrial players, localauthorities and private individuals to reduce or defer theirconsumption of electricity at peak times. The company has setup a partnership with the Association of French Mayors in orderto encourage all municipal authorities to limit their consumptionbetween 5 pm and 8 pm in severe cold weather. Consumers inthe most vulnerable regions are alerted by services such asÉcoWatt by email and SMS and through the social networks.In the industrial sector, the contracted load-sheddingcapacity in 2012 stood at 400 MW, and distributed load sheddingon small sites exceeded 70 MW in February. However, thesemechanisms remain on a small scale by comparison with thegrowth of peak consumption, which was 5,390 MW higher thanthe previous peak on 15 December 2010. The capacity obligationmechanism due to come into force in winter 2016-2017 willencourage their development. •Peak demand is satisfied by thermal power plants. In orderto make the least use possible of them, and thereby avoid thecorresponding carbon emissions, RTE has installed the meansfor reactive compensation which stabilise voltage in coldperiods and under certain situations of cross-border flows.36


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATION102,100 MWThe all-time record for electricity consumptionin France, achieved on 8 February 2012, inthe middle of the cold spell.+ 2,300 MWfor every degree Celsius less at 7 pmin the winter, i.e. twice as much as theconsumption of a city the size of Marseille.FocusTHREE CABLES FOR GREATER CAPACITY /• ACSS, a steel/aluminium cable, operates at up to 200° Cwith increased capacity of 30% to 40 %. It has been in useon an industrial scale since 2008 for a number of renovationsof the 400 kV network.• ACCR, a metal-matrix composite, operates at up to 240° Cwith increased capacity of 90%, but its use is limitedby cost. It will be employed in 2013 on several sectionsof 40 kV lines in the Rhone Valley.• ACCC, an organic composite, operates at up to 180° Cwith increased capacity of 50% to 70%, which correspondsto the needs of the 90 kV network. The fi rst fi eld trial isscheduled for 2013.AN EXPERIMENT IN BRITTANY /To help reduce congestion on the regionalnetwork during the winter, RTE has contractedwith five operators – Actility, Dalkia, EDF, EnergyPool and Novawatt – for the availability of 70 MWof load-shedding or production capacity betweenNovember 2012 and March 2013. They can bedeployed for 20 working days at the timesof the two daily peaks.GIVE YOUR ELECTRICITY A BREAK /This has been the idea that the ÉcoWattprogramme has been proposing toconsumers in Brittany since 2008, andto those in Var and the Alps since 2010.Volunteers receive alerts by SMS and onsocial networks of peaks forecast for thatday and are asked to reduce theirconsumption of electricity. More than57,000 people have already adopted the“ÉcoWatt’itude”, encouraged since 2012by a campaign featuring two comiccharacters, Machine and Spot.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE37


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONInvestments on expanding the transmission network totalled €868 million in 2012.Of this amount, €363 million was devoted to the regional networks and more than€500 million to major transmission lines and to interconnections. The constructionof the Cotentin-Maine line is a telling example.INNOVATING TO…EXPAND THE TRANSMISSION NETWORKclose-up on THE COTENTIN-MAINE LINEFollowing preparations lasting more than five years and4,000 meetings for consultation and information,including 1,300 public meetings upstream of the project,construction of the Cotentin-Maine line was launched atthe end of 2011. This new 4,200 MW line, scheduled to comeinto service in 2013, will make it possible to integrateelectricity produced by the third unit at the Flamanvillenuclear plant into the network, increase the potential forintegrating electricity produced by future offshore windfarms and secure supply. An average of between five hundredand six hundred people worked throughout the year on thissite, which is divided into seven sections and which hascalled on thirteen companies for the erection of the420pylons required as well as five civil engineering contractors.This is an exceptional project, which has had to be situatedwith great precaution and which will need particularlyinnovative methods throughout the construction process.INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION METHODSConstruction of the 163-kilometre overhead double400kV line calls on industrialised methods that areinnovative and rapid and that need the fewest possibleaccess tracks in order to reduce the environmental impactof the construction site. The transportation of preassembledtowers and the hoisting and unrolling 800 km of cables arecarried out by two Super Puma EC 225 helicopters, acquiredfor this purpose by Airtelis, a subsidiary set up in 2011. Thesetwo heavy-lift aircraft, delivered in October 2011 andMay2012, are capable of lifting and carrying loads of up to4.5 tonnes, compared to a maximum of 1 tonne forhelicopters owned by RTE. The Super Pumas are equippedwith special piloting aids to ensure that these operationsare carried out in complete safety. This original andcompetitive solution could prove to be of interest to othernetwork operators.In keeping with this concern for reducing theenvironmental impact of its achievements, RTE hasestablished a specifi c agricultural agreement for this projectguaranteeing consideration of specific facets of thedepartments concerned. Complementing nationalprotocols, this agreement resulted in RTE making exceptionalcommitments and has required monitoring committeesto be set up in each department to assess and mitigatethe impact of the line on the agricultural land crossed.This exceptional provision is an integral part of this highlyinnovative project. •38


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONFocus163 kmof 400 kV lines,plus 420 towers268 kmof 225 kV and 90 kV linesunderground€439 mof investments (total amountfor the project includingaccompanying measures).(www.cotentin-maine.com website)WORLD-CLASS EXPERTISE IN HELICOPTER OPERATIONS /The use of helicopters in the construction of power lines is usually reservedfor high-voltage projects in zones that are difficult to access. On theCotentin-Maine line, the erection of 25-tonne towers is for the first beingperformed by helicopter on a large scale. Roughly a quarter of the towers areassembled on assembly platforms and then transported to the site and putinto place by helicopter, which makes it possible to maintain a rapid paceof construction. RTE has pilots specially trained to survey, maintain andconstruct the high voltage and very high voltage transmission network andits own fleet of helicopters. The subsidiary Airtelis has the mission of derivingvalue from RTE’s world renowned expertise in helicopters and marketing theflying hours available in RTE’s fleet of helicopters plus the two Super Pumasacquired to construct the Cotentin-Maine.A SPECIALLY DESIGNED ORGANISATION /A decentralised team of fi fteen people directoperations from a base that has been set upin Avranches, midway along the line, whichwill connect the Taute substations, north ofSaint-Lô, near the Channel coast in Normandy,to Oudon, near Laval, in Brittany. Three peopleresponsible for consultation and relationswith local residents are on hand for the entireduration of the project.€100 M FOR ACCOMPANYINGMEASURES / Beyond the accompanyingplan for the project, RTE has put in placea number of compensation schemes to coverall forms of prejudice: proposals to purchase124 homes located within 100 metresof the line, compensation for visual impactand all types of fi nancial prejudice, specifi cagreements with farmers accompanied byan electromagnetic diagnosis, full restorationof the 133 farms situated close to theinfrastructure and a veterinary audit of alllivestock.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE39


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONInvestments in 2012 for the renewal of the transmission network totalled€363 million, of which €186 million covered improved security. Regional networksaccounted for 85% of this budget, but the most complex project was the renovationof the IFA 2000 link between France and England. Completed in 2012, it calledon all of RTE’s knowledge of engineering.INNOVATING TO…RENOVATEclose-up onTHE IFA 2000 LINKOn 23 July 2012, the IFA 2000 direct current link betweenFrance and the United Kingdom was returned to serviceat full capacity after two years of work… just days before theopening of the London Olympics. The challenge was metthanks to all the efforts of teams from RTE and its Britishcounterpart, National Grid, and to the close coordination thathad developed over fi ve years. First commissioned in 1986,this 70 km link, which includes a 45-kilometre deep-seasection between Sangatte, on the French coast, andFolkestone in England, is essential to the security and fluidityof the European network. Providing power of 2,000 MWin direct current, IFA 2000 can satisfy the needs in electricityof approximately 2 million people.RENOVATION OF THE VALVE ROOM /At the heart of the French conversion stationat the Les Mandarins site near Calais,the thyristor converters transform 400 kValternating current into 270 kV direct currentfor transmission on the 70-kilometre IFA2000 link. They have been replaced by a newgeneration of valves that perform better andare more robust. The refrigeration systemand the control and command equipmenthave also been renewed.AN UNUSUAL PROJECTUnusually, the project to renovate the French andBritish power conversion stations occurred in two phasesto ensure that one of the two 1,000 MW units could remainin service throughout the renovation period and operate atfull capacity in the winter to limit disruption for users: bothfactors put pressure on the organisation of the work and werea fi rst for RTE. Another fi rst: the conversion stations wererenovated in exactly the same way, synchronised under asingle contract between the two transmission networkoperators and Alstom. The first terminal was restoredto service in autumn 2011 and the second in July 2012. Thishas been a major undertaking because of the replacementof thyristor converters but also the renovation of control andcommand and the refrigeration system (which now ensuresthat the valve rooms are maintained at constant temperatureand hygrometry). It will improve the reliability and availabilityof the IFA 2000 interconnection for many years and for thebenefi t of millions of users. •40


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONInterconnections help to secure electricity supply and make it possibleto pool the electricity resources of different European countries. Francehas 46 interconnections with its neighbours. RTE has launched two majorprojects to strengthen its exchange capacities with Spain and with Italy,each of them innovative.INNOVATING TO…INTERCONNECTclose-up on2 MAJOR PROJECTSTUNNELLING BETWEEN FRANCE AND SPAIN /An 8.5 km tunnel, 3.5 m in diameter, has been boredin the Albera Massif in the Pyrenees. Two tunnelboring machines specially designed and built for thisproject have been in operation since March 2012 onthe Spanish side and since October on the French side.FRANCE-SPAIN: A EUROPEAN AND WORLD FIRSTThe first direct current underground trans-European link,this 65 kilometre-long 320 kV interconnection will also be aworld first at this level of power (twice 1,000 MW) and becauseof its conversion technology. It will double the exchangecapacities between the two countries, which will rise to2,800MW, and will improve the integration of electricity fromrenewable sources. The total investment of €700 million iseight times higher than an overhead solution, but it has madepossible a project that is indispensable and has beenanticipated for thirty years, which takes account of theexpectations of the population and the environmentalconcerns specific to this region. An EU subsidy of €225 millionand a €350 million loan from the European Investment Bankhave contributed to the fi nancing of the link. Constructed byInelfe, a joint subsidiary of RTE and its Spanish counterpart,REE, it will be commissioned in 2014.TAKING THE MOTORWAY FROM FRANCE TO ITALYThe Savoie-Piedmont project is underway in partnershipwith the Italian TSO, Terna. The new 320kV direct currentunderground link will increase the transmission capacitybetween France and Italy to 4,250MW. Capacity has beensaturated for many years. The link will run for 95km in Franceand a similar distance in Italy and will rely entirely on existinginfrastructure. In particular, it will make use of the publicmotorway network, which will be a first in France. Theinterconnection, which represents a total cost for the twoTSOs of approximately €1,000 million 1 , is scheduled to becommissioned in 2018. •1. Estimated cost for RTE: €491 million.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE41


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONRTE employs a meticulous approach and is trialling new options to reduceits environmental footprint and, in particular, to help in the battle againstclimate change.INNOVATING TO…REDUCE OURENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTRTE has been certified for the ISO 14001 environmentalmanagement standard for all of its activities. The certificationwas renewed in 2012 until December 2013. RTE’s EnvironmentalManagement System (EMS) is steered by anEnvironmental Committee consisting of representatives of allthe departments of RTE. In 2012, training programmes devotedto environmental management totalled approximately7,300hours and RTE spent €68.9million on improving itsenvironmental management.SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PREVENTIONRTE is permanently acting to improve the safety of itsinstallations. Its efforts focus in particular on preventing oilleaks in transformers and underground links and on preventingfi res in substations and close to power lines. Simulation exercisesare carried out on a regular basis with the aim ofbringing accidents under control rapidly. Installationscontaining oil polluted with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)in excess of 500 ppm have all been treated, along with 70%of installations presenting lower levels. This programme isdue to be completed by 2015.RTE is improving its policy of traceability and salvaging of sitewaste: since 2012, all contracts for site work include a clausestipulating a minimum of 75% of recovery of non-hazardous waste.A FOURTH CARBON BALANCE ®For the fourth year running, RTE has performed an inventoryof the annual greenhouse gas emissions associated with itsactivities. The Carbon Balance ® carried out in 2012 assessed theemissions relating to RTE’s activities as 468,000 tonnes of CO 2equivalent in 2010, compared to 503,000 in 2010. Emissionshave fallen by 7% because of a signifi cant reduction in SF6discharge (down 19.7% in comparison to 2010).RTE is taking action to reduce its own emissions, andin particular of SF6 1 discharge. The company is committedto a 20% reduction in its SF6 discharge by 2014 compared to2008 levels. The first effects of this new policy were seen in 2011:SF6 discharge decreased very significantly and was substantiallybelow RTE’s target, i.e. approximately 21% lower than in 2008.RTE is improving the energy efficiency of its property assets.A development plan has defined priorities over a five-year period.Whether purchased or rented, all new office accommodationwill now involve BBC 2 or HQE 3 buildings. A diagnosis operationon commuting for employees of the company’s twenty largestsites has been completed. The first local action plans were putin place in the third quarter of 2012. •FOR MORE INFORMATION >Management report1. Sulfur hexafluoride: 1 tonne = 23,900 tonnes of CO 2equivalent. 2. Bâtiment de basseconsommation [low-energy consumption building]. 3. High environmental quality.42


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONFocus- 20%reduction in SF6discharge targetedby RTE between 2008and 2014.230,000 m 2The energy mapping of 50 office siteshas been performed. The operation willfinish in spring 2013, with 170 sitesmapped.THE HEAD OFFICE IN NANCY DIVIDES ITSENERGY CONSUMPTION BY THREE / €12 millionhas been invested on improved insulation, tripleglazing, geothermal systems, etc. for the headquartersof RTE East, which now consumes only 131 kWh/m 2 /year. During 2012, RTE also took delivery of 9,000 m 2of new office space built to the BBC standard atGennevilliers and 6,500 m 2 of offices certified BBC andHQE Construction/Operation near Lyon. 14,000 m²of office space has been rented in the Cœur Défensebuilding, with HQE Operation certification.PHÉNIX TRAPS SF6 LEAKS /In 2012, RTE tried out a newtechnique for sealing SF6 leaksin metal-clad substations. Phénixtraps the gas in an airtight spacecontaining compressed nitrogen,with no effect on operating andmaintaining the substation. Infraredcameras have been successfullytested to detect leaks and RTE hasbrought into service three fi eld trialsof vacuum circuit breakers, i.e.without SF6.A LOCAL PLANT TO AVOID TRUCK JOURNEYSAND CARBON EMISSIONS / A 65-kilometre 225 kVunderground link is under construction betweenBoutre and Trans, in the South of France. It will be theworld’s longest alternating current line at this levelof power. A plant has been set up on-site to producethe 120 km of tubes that will shield the electriccables. Only two trucks were required to transportthe components for the manufacturing equipmentplus all the raw materials needed. The operation hasremoved the need for 150 truck journeys averaging650 km and has therefore saved 80 tonnes of CO 2.SILENCE… EXPERIMENTS IN PROGRESS / RTE continuesto perform research on reducing the noise made by conductorson overhead lines. Approval of a noise-reduction duct is in the processof being finalised. The results of experiments with sand-treated surfacesfor conductors to reduce the crown effect, which generates crackling,are now being evaluated. The use of water-repellent coatings to reducenoise in wet weather is under experiment.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE43


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONThe preservation of natural habitats and biodiversity is a major priority in RTE’senvironmental policy. The company signed up to France’s National Strategy forBiodiversity (SNB) 2011-2020 as soon as it was launched, and it was awardedthe SNB label in December 2012 for its proactive commitment.INNOVATING TO…PRESERVE NATURAL HABITATSAND BIODIVERSITYRTE respects local life. It makes every effort to increase thecapacity of the existing transmission network by improvingmanagement and equipping it with cables capable ofconveying more energy. It has undertaken not to increasethe total length of overhead lines and to bury undergroundat least 50% of new high voltage lines and new 225 kV linesin urban zones when they are unable to follow existingcorridors.81% of new 90 kV and 63 kV lines in the period 2010-2012were buried underground, as against 29% ten years earlier.When new lines are needed, RTE designs landscapes thatallow the infrastructure to blend into its environment, andit strives to protect biodiversity.COMMITTED TO BIODIVERSITYLine corridors are favourable habitats for biodiversityand ecological continuity. RTE has made the preservationof biodiversity one of its priorities. “Biodiversity and landscaping”is the principal post for spending on the environment(approximately 30% in 2012).In the framework of the SNB, RTE has made severalcommitments: increase knowledge of the impact of itsactivities on biodiversity and communicate on this to stakeholdersand employees; develop methods of managing land that arefavourable to biodiversity; reduce the risk of collision for birds.PARTNERSHIPS WITH EXPERTSRTE relies upon partnerships with experts and naturaliststo improve the management of the land it occupies, conductexperiments and carry out inventories. These include: theNational Museum of Natural History, the National ResearchInstitute of Science and Technology for Environment andAgriculture (IRSTEA, formerly CEMAGREF 1 ), the National ForestryOffi ce, the National Federation of Conservatories ofNatural Areas (FCEN), the French Research Institute for Exploitationof the Sea (IFREMER), the Bird Protection League,France Nature Environment, the National Federation of RegionalNational Parks, the Pyrenees National Park, the NationalHunting Federation and numerous local organisationscommitted to biodiversity. RTE is also a founder member ofthe Linear Infrastructures and Biodiversity Club, which consistsof seven major operators who are eager to coordinate theirinitiatives and share their good practices to promote biodiversity,and the green and blue infrastructure in particular. •1. An applied research institute in the environment and agriculture.44


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATION“Improving bird protection in a spiritof mutual respect.”ViewpointA hundred-yearwar in defenceof birdsALLAINBOUGRAIN-DUBOURGChairman of the BirdProtection Leaguein 1912 with the aimof halting the massacreof puffins in Brittany, theFoundedFrench Bird Protection Leagueis one of France’s leading natureconservation movements with46,000members, 5,000 active volunteers,450 employees and local branches in76departments. Allain Bougrain-Dubourg,Chairman of the organisation, gives ushis insight into relations betweenthe League and RTE.Many agreements have beenconcluded between the BirdProtection League and RTEto implement actions targetingthreatened species or equippingpower lines with systems to protectbirds. How do you assess thiscollaboration?Since the creation of the National BirdlifeCommittee, of which RTE is a member,in 2004, a new style of collaboration hasbeen established. In the context of theCommittee, we meet regularly and manyregional agreements have been signedto protect birdlife. To give a few examples,these have included fixing marker buoysto the lines, installing nesting boxes ontowers, avoiding flying helicopters overnesting sites and delaying maintenanceoperations until the end of breedingseasons. In fact, we have createda permanent position of mediatorto facilitate consultations with RTE andthe implementation of solutions.A representative of the Bird ProtectionLeague sits on the RTE StakeholdersCommittee, and in the context of theelectricity transmission network userscommittee, another of our representativesis taking part in one of the workingparties of the Network Prospectssub-committee. So there are plentyof good practices that are enabling usto improve bird protection in a spiritof mutual respect.RTE teams have undertaken to takegreater account of the recommendationsof environmental pressuregroups in carrying out their projects.In the case of the Bird ProtectionLeague, has this desire beentranslated into reality?At the very start, our relations were ratherstrained, not to say hostile. But thingshave really changed today. When impactstudies are conducted, the issue of birdpopulations is taken into account.Contacts are made with local branchesof the Bird Protection League and otherorganisations to install marker buoys onpotentially sensitive sections. To date,280sensitive points have been equipped,which represents more than 1,500 kmof lines. In addition, agreements havebeen reached to protect a number oflarge species, such as the Bonelli’s eagle,the stork in the west, the peregrine falconin the east and the capercaillie in the Vosges.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE45


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONclose-up on…Actions to promotebiodiversityPROJECTS WITH THE “LIFEBIODIVERSITY” LABEL /In the framework of a project presentedwith Elia, RTE’s regional projects receive50% European funding for thedevelopment of emprises thatencourage biodiversity. The overallbudget totals €2.5 million over fi veyears, in France and Belgium. Initiativesgiven support include using landbeneath towers and lines as grazingpastures for cows in one region ofeastern France or for sheep in another;and the planting of heritage speciesin the Hautes-Alpes beneath two newlines in 2016.TREASURES OF BIODIVERSITY /Such rare and protected flowers as theutricularia australis, the dianthus superbusand the tufted milkwort thrive under very highvoltage lines. Botanists from the NationalBotanic Conservatory of the Paris Basin, partof the National Natural History Museum, haveidentified more than 700plant species on landowned by RTE. This is around half of the knownplant biodiversity in the Île-de-France region.SOWING WILD FLOWERS /RTE is supporting a project initiatedby not-for-profit organisation Hommes etTerritoires, promoting biodiversity in farmingregions, particularly on cereal-growing plains.The project involves sowing wild flowersalong the borders of fields and in areasat the feet of towers. Studies began in 2012.COMBINING PRODUCTIONAND BIODIVERSITY / RTE supports thenational flowering meadows competition,an initiative of the Federation of NaturalRegional Parks and National Parks thatrecognises the meadows of farmers whocombine farming yield and flourishingbiodiversity.46


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONLAND MANAGEDBY RTEurban zonesforested zonesfarmland70%10%20%100,000 linear kmor 400,000 hectares. 7,400 hectares in natural protected zones. 3,500 hectares in Natura 2000 zonesGOOD NEWS FOR STORKS / Storks are fond of buildingnests on towers, but they are in danger of electrocutingthemselves or causing a short-circuit if their droppingsor branches from their nests fall onto the power lines.To prevent such accidents, RTE has imported a solutiondeveloped by its counterpart in Portugal: anemometersare installed above the insulators to dissuade storks fromnesting there, and secured baskets are installed nearbyto welcome the storks and their chicks. This new solutionalso provides greater safety for the linesmen who takepart in ringing young birds.WATCH THE BIRDIE! / To celebrate the centenary of theBird Protection League, France’s annual Nature Festival chosebirds as its theme for 2012. For the second year in succession,RTE was a partner of this week devoted to observing andpreserving the environment. More than 600 employees tookpart; 35 events were organised in the regions and RTE heldan internal competition as part of an operation called10,000Nest Boxes.PROTECTING BATS /When work began on reconstructingthe Chambost-Allières substation,in the Beaujolais region, nest boxeswere put in place to protect thecreatures of the night.FEEDING THE BEES /In spring 2013, beehiveswill be installed below veryhigh voltage power linesin Seine-et-Marne, whereRTE is seeding wildflowersappreciated by bees.A regular analysis of pollen,honey and the environmentwill be carried out by thelocal bee health protectiongroup in order to gaina better understandingof factors of evolution forbee populations, which areindispensable for pollination.THE BUTTERFLY EFFECT /A prize winner at theDeauville Green Awards2012, this film spotlights thepreservation of biodiversityclose to RTE power lines,with a focus on the Alconblue butterfly in the Landesregion.> Watch the film:www.rte-france.com/lienrapide/greenawardsRTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE47


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONForecasting and incorporating intermittent and decentralised wind and solarproduction is crucially important for the security of the electricity system, the qualityof supply and the optimal use of production capacities. New procedures for regionalplanning greatly occupied RTE teams throughout 2012.INNOVATING TO…INTEGRATE RENEWABLEENERGIESElectricity generated from renewable sources will haveto constitute 30% of French production by 2020 if the targetof 23% of renewable energy in the energy consumption mix is tobe achieved by this deadline. In 2012, it stood at 16.4%, consistingof 11.8% for hydro-electricity and 4.6% for wind and solar powerplus thermal power plants using renewable fuels.NEW PROCEDURES FOR CO-CONSTRUCTIONIn many zones, development prior to the transmissionnetwork conditions the capacity for the integration of newsources of renewable electricity production. The necessaryinvestments have been estimated at €1 billion for the period2007-2020, and RTE must coordinate its actions with thoseof the Government, local authorities, electricity producers,transmission network operators, etc. The company is committedto this and is taking part in regional planning of the developmentof renewable energies in the framework of the new proceduresintroduced by the French Grenelle round-table on the environment:the Regional Climate, Air and Energy Programmes andthe regional connection programmes for the renewable energynetwork, known respectively as SRCAE and S3REnR.A SRCAE adapts European and national environmentaltargets for 2020 and 2050 to regional level. It is drafted by theregional prefect and the president of the regional council inconjunction with local authorities and interested citizensthrough a consultation procedure.REGIONAL TEAMS FULLY ENGAGEDRTE teams responsible for studies at regional level take partin the technical committees responsible for drafting SRCAEs. Bythe end of 2012, twelve regions had published SRCAEs: Burgundy,Centre, Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Midi-Pyrénées, Picardie,Auvergne, Aquitaine, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Franche-Comté, Île-de-France and Lorraine. All the other regions except Pays de la Loirehad taken their projects to the consultation stage.According to the law, RTE has to devise regional connectionprogrammes for the renewable energy network (S3REnRs)in agreement with public distribution network operators and onthe basis of advice from the awarding authorities. The programmeshave to state technical solutions along with estimated costs andcapacity forecasts for ten years. The aim is to give an outlook toplayers introducing renewable production projects which will beincorporated into SRCAEs.In 2012, RTE drafted S3REnRs for the Alsace, Burgundy,Champagne-Ardenne and Picardy regions, which in each case48


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATION1.WindenergyPhotovoltaicenergyBiomass,biogas,wasteFocusInstalled power MW2011-2002Energy produced TWH 2001-2002Averagecoverage rate7,449+11%14.9+23%3,515+40%4.0+67%1,390+8.4%5.9%3.1% 0.8% 1.2%1. PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITYOF RENEWABLE ORIGIN IN 2012 /(excluding hydro-electric) 24.8 TWh• up 23% compared to 2011• 4.6% of French production2. CONNECTIONS TO THE TRANSMISSIONNETWORK / 24 wind projects and4photovoltaic projects totalling over3,900MW have joined the waiting listfor connection.2.OnshorewindOffshorewind PhotovoltaicPower installed MW 386 – 312Projects on waiting list MWnumberProjects under preparation MWnumber1,4561811022,1276–33341987received approval from the regional prefects at the end of the year.In connection with these S3REnRs, RTE will each month publishthe length of the waiting list for each category of renewableenergy, the number of requests for connection in progress andthe integration capacity of the connection programmes. Initiatorsof projects will be better able to decide upon the most strategiclocation for their production capacities.CONNECTING OFFSHORE WIND FARMSFrance expects to have 6,000 MW of installed capacity inoffshore wind turbines and marine energy by 2020. In April2012, following an initial tendering process, the French Governmentchose the consortiums that will construct the first Frenchoffshore wind farms in the English Channel and the Atlantic Ocean:• Éolien Maritime France (EDF Énergies Nouvelles, Dong Energyand Alstom) for the wind farms off Fécamp (498 MW),Courseulles-sur-Mer (450 MW) and Saint-Nazaire (480 MW);• Ailes Marines (Iberdrola, Eole Res and Areva) for the Saint-Brieucsite (500 MW).Construction of the installations will begin in 2016.RTE is responsible for designing and carrying out theconnections, which represent an amount of approximately€800 million. Each wind farm will be connected to the shore bya very high voltage deep-sea cable of up to 225 kV. Where itmeets land, an underground link will take over, connecting withthe substation of the electricity network chosen for connection.In August, RTE submitted technical and financial proposals tothe consortiums holding the contracts, which accepted them.These proposals commit RTE to costs and lead times.KEY CHALLENGEThis project is a key challenge for RTE, particularly in theperspective of the development of a meshed European offshorenetwork.With sites available in relatively shallow seas and strong windsclose to zones of consumption, Europe is world leader in offshorewind generation, with 55 wind farms and 1,662 wind turbinesin operation, totalling 4,995 MW as at the end of 2012.Nine European countries, including France, are studying thefeasibility of a high voltage network connecting offshore windfarms together and to each participant’s electricity networks.In this way, the production of each wind farm can be directedwherever it is needed. The challenge consists in developing thetechnologies that will make it possible to maximise the useof the deep-sea super-network. •RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE49


A NEED FOR INNOVATIONRTE has a leading role to play in the construction of a secure European electricitynetwork and in promoting competitiveness and the energy transition. It is activelycontributing to the construction of the integrated electricity market and it is takingpart in the major research projects, with the ambition of ranking among the leadersfor smart grids.INNOVATING TO…CONSTRUCT THE EUROPEANELECTRICITY COMMUNITYAND PREPARE FOR TOMORROWEurope has set itself three targets for 2020: reducing its CO 2emissions by 20%, improving its energy efficiency by 20%, andraising the share of renewables in its energy mix to 20%.To achieve these ambitions, changes have to be made to transmissionnetworks and national electricity markets to create anintegrated European network and market. The aim is to developa European electricity system that makes it possible to takeadvantage of the complementary nature of the energy mixesof different countries while guaranteeing the security of supply.EUROPEAN GOVERNANCETwo institutions are taking part in this transformation:• ACER (Agency for the Co-operation of Energy Regulators)converts the European Commission’s priorities into frameworkguidelines and helps national regulators coordinate theirregulatory activities.• Entso-E is an association of the transmission network operatorsof 34 European countries. It organises its activities according to fourcommittees: Network Development, Operation, Market and R&D.In particular, Entso-E has been tasked with establishing a set ofnetwork codes by 2014 that will convert the framework guidelinesdevised by ACER into rules that can be applied throughoutEurope. These rules will cover the operation of the electricitysystem, the markets and connection to the network.The Network Development Committee publishes a tenyearEuropean network development plan, updated everyother year. The most recent update, published in June 2012,stresses that 80% of developments to the network on aEuropean scale are explained by the rapid growth of renewableenergies.The R&D Committee defines joint research efforts and coordinatesthem in order to incorporate them into the variousR&D programmes and initiatives supported by the EuropeanCommission: PCRD, SET-Plan (the European Commission’sstrategic plan for energy technologies), EEGI (European ElectricityGrid Initiative) and SmartGrids European TechnologyPlatform for Electricity Networks of the Future.The Operation Committee develops common rules for TSOsmaking it possible to ensure coordinated and consistentoperation of the electricity system at a European level, elaboratesthe corresponding network codes, and promotescooperation between TSOs in order to ensure security ofoperation at a European level.The Market Committee’s role is to design a harmonisedmarket architecture on all time-scales with the aim of enablingEuropean market integration. It defi nes the mechanismsfor interconnection capacity allocation, elaborates the50


AN OFFER FOR TODAY AND TOMORROWA NEED FOR INNOVATIONcorresponding network codes, and facilitates implementationby TSOs on a regional and European scale, by taking accountof the incorporation of renewable energies in the electricitysystem. It also deal with economic and fi nancial questionsrelating to tariffs.ACTIVE CONTRIBUTIONRTE contributes to meeting these challenges todaythrough innovative technologies such as the developmentof high-capacity direct current interconnections,such as France-Spain, or the coordinated supervision of flowson the European regional grid, avec Coreso. The first technicalcoordination centre shared by several network operators,Coreso publishes security forecasts and analyses every15minutes, 365 days per year, for a zone covering 43% ofthe population of the European Union, in order to preventmajor blackouts. •SEDRE / The Sedre consistsof around forty engineers who carryout studies on target networks,looking twenty years or more intothe future, development studiesof the national transmissionnetwork and interconnections, andthe connection of large generatingunits. It coordinates the draftingof a reference tool for planning,the ten-year development planfor the transmission network,which is updated every year.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE51


SUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMS52


JOINT SUCCESSSUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMSRTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE53


SUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMSSUCCEEDING WITHOUR TEAMSRTE is making itself more attractive, moremotivated, more committed. It ensures thatthe men and women of the company are atthe heart of its sustainable performance project,encourages initiative and values innovationso that it can drive change successfully.54


JOINT SUCCESSSUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMSThrough training for young people, opportunities for women, new professions, moredynamic career paths, greater recognition of personal contribution and a healthysocial dialogue, RTE is seeking to develop its teams and earn their commitment.OUR RESPONSIBILITYTO OUR EMPLOYEESOver the next ten years, roughly half of RTE’s employeeswill retire. 235 employees retired from the company in 2012.RTE has undertaken a vigorous programme of recruitmentto replace them and to take on board the skills that are nowrequired for the changes occurring to its businesses.A SHARP INCREASE IN HIRINGRTE took on 578 people in 2012 (as against 493 in 2011):361 people were on permanent contracts (of which 26%women), and of those employed on fi xed-term contracts, 68were on professional training contracts and 146 were youngpeople on apprenticeship contracts. In addition, there werethree other standard fi xed-term contracts. The company isstrongly committed to a policy of qualifi cation for youngpeople, work-based training in every region, for every professionand at every level.The development of mentoring is a priority solution formaintaining skills and facilitating the transmission of knowledge.The 2010-2012 plan for employing older workers setsout to encourage it. It plans ahead to the second partof people’s careers, adapting the working conditions of itsolder employees in order to enable those who wish to do soto remain in employment, doing suitable work that is usefulto the company. This approach is an illustration of RTE HumanResources’ desire to adapt and anticipate.MORE WOMEN IN THE COMPANYRTE is highly proactive in its determination to expandthe proportion of women in the company, particularly intechnical professions, where they are still under-represented.In the framework of the agreement of gender equality that wasconcluded in 2011, the target is for 21% of employees to bewomen in 2013. This was almost achieved in 2012, with 20.7%of women in the total workforce. This figure has risen by almostthree points in five years. RTE acts on all available levers toachieve this: recruitment, taking on female apprentices, internaltransfers, promotion of technical professions. In 2012, aninternal survey was conducted to identify obstacles andsolutions for improving access by women to higher echelonswithin the company.EMPLOYMENT AND DISABILITYIn April 2012, RTE signed the third three-year agreementon the employment of disabled people. The companyundertakes to hire 37 people with disabilities, to take on •••RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE55


SUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMS••• 18 people with disabilities on work/study contracts andto make purchases of approximately €1 million per year fromthe sheltered sector. Partnerships have been set up with13 workshops in the sheltered sector and work therapyorganisations. Meanwhile, employees with disabilities areencouraged to have this fact acknowledged and to choose anorganisation active in the field of disability to which RTE canmake a contribution of €5,640. RTE is a founder member ofArpejeh (a French acronym for “Assisting disabled pupils andstudents to successfully complete their study projects”), anorganisation that encourages young people with disabilitiesto continue with their studies by providing them with informationabout career prospects available in companies. In thisframework, RTE provided internship opportunities for tenstudents with disabilities in 2012.IMPROVED FORWARD PLANNINGIn 2012, RTE rolled out the new classification table for jobsin the company agreed on in 2011 with three trade unions(CFE-CGC, CFDT and FO). In mid-2013, all employees will beprovided with accurate job descriptions and their prospectsfor career development that are more easily accessible andmore varied, particularly with regard to mobility. This will enableRTE to apply the agreement on the Employment and ExpertisePlan concluded in 2010. In this context, the Human ResourcesDepartment set up a specific unit in 2012 that will provideoperational departments with prospective analysis services interms of HR needs and the determination of key skills.DEVELOPING TRAINING AND SKILLSThe transmission and renewal of skills constitutes a majorchallenge for the company. There is a system called “Skills &Talents”: using a specially designed tool called Comp&Tal, allemployees are able to self-assess themselves in relation to thecompany’s classification of the key skills associated with each job.The self-assessment is validated by each individual’s linemanager. The resulting database:• serves as a skills map for each level (Initiate, Practitioner,Master, Expert) and sector;• adapt the paths to professional qualification;• forecast recruitments.RECOGNITION AND COMMITMENTRTE recognises the collective commitment of its employees.A new profit-sharing agreement for the period 2012-2014 incorporates two new criteria: skills, with an incitation •••56


JOINT SUCCESSSUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMS80%of RTE’s employeesare proud to workfor the company.(Internal survey 2012)66%of employees are motivatedby their work.(Internal survey 2012)FocusCLOSE-UP ON CATEGORIES /46.7% of RTE employees in RTEin 2012 held supervisor-level posts.45.3% worked at management level,and 7.9% were operational. Thebreakdown is relatively stable: in 2011the figures for each category wererespectively 48.8%, 46.0% and 5.2%.A CAREER, NOT JUST A JOB /RTE offers long-term career planning with supportfrom career advisers. On arrival in the company, newrecruits take part in an induction programme so theycan get to know the company, their unit and theirsector and to help them settle into their new duties.Training and geographical and functional mobilityare key vectors for adjusting skills to meet the needsof the company and an individual’s aspirationsfor professional development.MORE WOMEN IN TECHNICAL PROFESSIONS /Committed to gender equality, RTE is encouraging more women to take uptechnical professions through recruitment and hiring. In several regions,RTE is a partner of the Scientific and Technical Vocational Prize for Girls,a programme focusing on women’s rights and gender equality whichencourages female high school students to opt for higher educationin these areas.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE57


SUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMS••• for every individual to perform a self-assessment, and thefight against climate change by reducing SF6 emissions. Thequality of electricity supply, the security of the network andbudgetary discipline also constitute factors.A BETTER LIFERTE accords equal treatment to health, safety and thequality of life at work. Activities relating to these three areaswere gathered together as part of the same unit within theHuman Resources Department in 2012. The purpose is to integratehealth and safety into professional and managerialpractice and, first and foremost, to prevent accidents both foremployees of RTE and subcontractors.its 2010 level, standing at 5.1% per million hours worked.There were 167 lost-time accidents in 2012, as comparedto 125 in 2011.A national plan for the prevention of psychosocial riskshas been rolled out across all the regions. All managersreceived training in 2012, a total of 483 days of training. RTEalso organised a national day for the prevention of back injuriesand ran a number of public health campaigns. •A new safety standard for electricity, NF C 18-510, will comeinto force in 2015. In this perspective, a new training programmehas been defined. It will be followed by 4,000employees in2014, roughly half of all employees. The greatest vigilance isexercised with respect to preventing subcontractors electrocutingthemselves: several processes have been improved to ensuresafer working conditions on construction and maintenance sites.In spite of these efforts, the frequency rate for occupationalaccidents, having fallen by 1.8 points in 2011, returned to58


JOINT SUCCESSSUCCEEDING WITH OUR TEAMS426,100 hof training in 2012, an averageof 48 hours per employee per year.20%of the training effortin 2012 was devotedto health, safety andthe quality of life at work.FocusBIG-HEARTED! /53 hours, 26 minutes,14seconds: after 750 gruellingkilometres between Paris andLes Arcs in Savoie, RTE runnerscompeting in the Course duCœur 2012 finished aheadof 12 other company teams.For four days and four nights,14 athletes from RTE ranin relays to help raise publicawareness of organ donation,a cause that has been supportedby RTE since 2006.A NEW LINE OF WORK CLOTHES HAS BEEN CHOSEN WITH THEHELP OF EMPLOYEES / RTE selected the suppliers of its new rangeof work clothes. The tenders were judged by a panel of operationalemployees on the basis of very technical criteria: they had to be safe,comfortable and practical. All the clothes were examined for their cuts,materials, ease of use and fi nish. The panel did more than just evaluatethe offers; they also made a number of suggestions for improvementsthat will be put into effect: there will be a feminine version of theoveralls, for instance, consisting of a separate jacket and trousers.TO ERR IS HUMAN / Human error isresponsible for the vast majority of accidents.A new training programme now being offered toemployees responsible for dealing with feedbackendeavours to understand these errors better andto analyse them in order to deduce recommendationsfrom them to achieve progress. This programme,which is based on concrete examples, shows howto analyse a sequence of failures and takemeasures to stop them recurring.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE59


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSINVOLVINGSTAKEHOLDERSRTE exercises the widest consultationprocesses to encourage the emergenceof shared solutions. It implements a responsiblepurchasing policy, endeavours to maximiseeconomic benefi ts resulting from its operationsand its construction sites, and helps to revitaliserural communities.60


JOINT SUCCESSINVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS“Regional development aims to encourage national economic and socialdevelopment, encouraging sources of growth and competitiveness, while helpingto ensure the cohesion of the French regions. The provision of electricity in theregions is essential for their attractiveness.”Emmanuel Berthier, Interministerial Delegate for Regional Development and Economic AttractivenessA REGIONALPLAYERAn instrument of mutual aid between regions, thetransmission network allows the sharing of sources ofelectricity generation in order to deliver to each territorythe electricity that is indispensable for its developmentand to guarantee continued supply in the event of localfailure. The grid constitutes a tool for flexibility and qualityof supply that benefi ts society at large and all the country’seconomic activity, with pricing that is identical throughoutFrance and is independent of the distance of transmission.SHARED SOLUTIONSProjects to expand, upgrade and improve the networkare subject to a broad-based consultation processin the long, medium and short term with all stakeholdersat a national level, sharing the ten-year development planfor the network within the various bodies involved in theconsultation process: the Network Prospects committeeat the CURTE (the electricity transmission network userscommittee) and the Stakeholders Committee (see p. 22);and on a more local level, possibly in the context of localdebates, for instance. RTE takes an active part in devisingregional energy policies (see p. 48), producing regionalconnection programmes for the renewable energynetwork.RTE is very attentive to local and regional authorities. It hassigned partnership agreements with the Association of FrenchMayors, the French Association of Rural Mayors and the NationalAssociation of Elected Representatives of Mountain Areasto strengthen synergies between rural towns and the electricitytransmission network.SUPPORT FOR PROJECTSFor every overhead line project, RTE finances a ProjectSupport Plan to supplement its plans to integrate structuresinto the landscape. Funds amounting to up to 10% of the costof the overhead part of the line can be allocated and they aremanaged under the authority of the Prefect of the Prefect of thedepartment in question. Local authorities can use these fundsto further reduce the visual impact of the structures, finance theburying of existing lines, carry out sustainable developmentinitiatives, promote natural and historical heritage sites orencourage their inhabitants to control their energy demand.Local authorities can also request that a given section of anexisting network be buried underground in order to carry out alocal development project or to protect a particular environmentalinterest. RTE is able to make a financial contribution. Accordingto a scale established by the Energy Regulatory Commission andin application since 1 January 2012, the older the line, •••RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE 61


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS••• the greater RTE’s contribution. This scheme made itpossible to undertake the burying of approximately 10km of63kV, 90kV and 225kV circuits in 2012.COMPLYING WITH FARMING AND FORESTRY70% of land used by RTE is located in farmland. Agreementshave been reached with two farmers’ unions, the AssembléePermanente des Chambres d’Agriculture (APCA)and the Fédération Nationale des Syndicats d’ExploitantsAgricoles (FNSEA). In 11 departments, protocols relating tothe safety of farmers close to infrastructures were signedbetween farmers’ provident associations, RTE and ERDF in2012. Meanwhile, APCA, FNSEA, RTE and ERDF have madefurther progress on electrical safety relating to livestock,to be fi nalised in 2013.20% of land used is located in forest areas. Stakeholderrelations charters have been signed with the major forestersfederations. RTE cooperates with QualiTerritoires over thecertification of companies contracted to maintain the vegetationin proximity to the lines in order to ensure not only a highquality of work, but also respect for the environment. 78 suchcompanies had been certified in December 2012, and a further11 were still undergoing certification.GENERATING BUSINESS AND JOBSRTE has carried out a study to evaluate the impact of itsactivities in terms of jobs, using a methodology devised bythe INSEE (the French national office for statistics). Its activitiesand development projects have generated 12,300 jobs,11,500 of them in France.RTE’s contribution to local communities’ tax revenues is alsovery substantial, especially for the rural towns and villagesthrough whose territory overhead lines run: the tax on towerscarrying electric lines of 225 kV and more is collecteddirectly by the towns and villages in which they are installed.In addition to paying land tax, RTE pays the territorial economiccontribution (CET) and the flat-rate tax on networkbusinesses (IFER), the combined total of which slightlyexceeds the business tax which they have replaced. In all,RTE paid €429 million in local taxes in 2012.A RESPONSIBLE PROCUREMENT POLICYRTE’s purchases in 2012 totalled €1,800 million, excludingpurchases of electricity to offset losses on the network,equivalent to 40% of sales. The company deals with9,000 suppliers, the vast majority of them French and62


JOINT SUCCESSINVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSFocusTHE TRANSMISSIONNETWORK ALLOWS REGIONSTO PROVIDE EACH OTHER WITHMUTUAL AID / Generatingfacilities are rarely located inzones which have the highestconsumption. The capacityof regions to cover all or partof their consumption by localproduction is very disparate.Regions such as Burgundy,Brittany, Franche-Comté andÎle-de-France, have consumptionthat is fi ve times greaterthan their production. Others,such as the Centre, Lorraine,Champagne-Ardenne andUpper Normandy, producetwice as much as they consume.The balance between supplyand demand, the security andthe reliability of the electricitysystem rely on pooling theresources of electricitygeneration, made possible byto the transmission network.AN OPTICAL FIBRE NETWORK BOOSTS REGIONALBROADBAND ACCESS / Of RTE’s 100,000 km ofpower lines, 20,000 km are equipped with opticalfi bres. This communications network helps optimisethe surveillance and security of the electricitytransmission network. For the past ten years, it hasalso helped to reduce the digital divide betweendifferent regions by allowing access to high-speedbroadband in poorly served regions, through itssubsidiary, Arteria, which contributed to digitalprojects in the departments of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Ardèche, Drôme and Lozère in 2012.European. The Supplier Relations Charter sets out RTE’scommitments and expectations and helps to build relationshipsof trust over time.Procurement rules assure suppliers of transparent access tocontracts and equality of treatment. Compliance is controlledsystematically for all contracts worth more than €2million,and on a random basis for smaller amounts.A code of ethics introduced in 2012 for all personnel involvedin procurement aims for compliance with these rulesthroughout the entire supply chain.RTE’s certification process makes it possible to guaranteethe quality of services and equipment and the availabilityof resources on a prolonged basis. It also factors insuppliers’ performance with regard to occupational safetyand the environment. The rate of waste recovery is one ofthe criteria taken into account to determine competitivebidding for the award of framework contracts for processingnon-hazardous waste. In 2012, lifecycle analyses werecarried out on transformers and circuit-breakers, andprocurement was carried out on the basis of full cost,particularly for transformers and vehicles. Meanwhile,RTE has made its technical specifiers more aware ofeco-design, and late in 2012 it signed a charter to promotethe development of innovative small and medium-sizecompanies taking action to foster innovation in this sector.The company has developed its collaboration with ESATs(organisations that promote employment opportunitiesfor people with disabilities) and social companies thatprovide professional and social insertion. The aim is to providesustainable support for a return to work for people withdisabilities and the long-term unemployed in the contextof local jobs. The RTE Foundation also helps RTE in itsdealings with players in the sheltered sector and workintegration social companies in the rural territories whereit focuses its action. •RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE 63


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSclose-up on…Local communitiesTHE UPPER VALLEY OF THE DURANCE: SHARING DECISIONS ON THEFUTURE / The upper valley of the Durance, between the Serre-Ponçon dam andBriançon in the French Alps, is a dynamic and very popular area. It is supplied bya 150 kV line that dates back to 1936, and network capacity will reach its limit in 2016.The solution to ensure its future has been planned with local players, consisting ofmore than 300 elected officials and representatives of businesses, associations andinstitutions. The programme that was chosen includes six complementary projectsspread out between 2013 and 2020, with the construction of 90 kilometres of 225 kVoverhead lines, the elimination of 180 kilometres of 150 kV and 63 kV overhead linesand the installation of 73 kilometres of the 63 kV network underground.64


JOINT SUCCESSINVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS€171 mis RTE’s financial contributionto the construction of the PACAsafety net.€236 mis the total investment for deployingthe programme in the upper valleyof the Durance.A RACE AGAINST TIME TO RESTORE POWERIN NORTHERN FRANCE / On the night of 4 March 2012,extremely heavy snowfall caused widespread electricity outagesin the Lille metropolis and the Maubeuge region and broughtdown the overhead wires on the high-speed Paris-Lille TGV line.Four priority intervention groups dispatched from Béthune,Valenciennes, Reims and Rouen, supported by engineering andmaintenance teams and specialists in helicopter operations,worked round the clock to restore power as quickly as possibleand enable rail traffic to resume.SETTING UP A SAFETY NET IN THE PACA REGION /The eastern part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur regionproduces only 10% of the electricity that it consumes, andit is served by a single 400 kV line. In the event of an outage,the 225 kV network is unable to ensure the continuity of supply.To strengthen the network, the construction of a hundredkilometresafety net was begun in 2012: when it is commissionedin 2015, the safety net will consolidate electricity supplyto the region and its 2 million inhabitants until 2030, whilealso facilitating the growth of renewable energies.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE65


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSclose-up on…Local residents and associationsTHE “JARDIN DES POSSIBLES”, WHERE NATURE PLAYS A SOCIAL ROLE/Created in 2012 near Loscoat, an industrial district of Brest, in Brittany, the Jardin desPossibles is the materialisation of a project instigated by RTE employees in westernFrance. Offered to the League Against Cancer and a Brest association, Vert le Jardin,this public garden – which incorporates a children’s playground – is a place wherepeople can relax and socialise with each other. This initiative won a prize in RTE’sInternal Challenge for Sustainable Development.THE NEW “WORKS ALERT”SERVICE FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS/Launched in June 2012, a new RTE serviceenables land owners and farmers to haveat least three weeks’ advance noticeby email of tree-pruning or painting workplanned for network installations on theirland. This information service supplementsnotices already displayed in town halls,information published in the press andinformation sent to owners and tenantfarmers of closed plots.FOR MORE INFORMATION:www.infotravaux.rte-france.com“TAKE CARE BELOW POWER LINESAND KEEP YOUR DISTANCE”/In 2012,RTE gathered together 150 employeesto share best practice for information andsafety measures in regions where RTEpermanently strives to make constructionindustry workers, farmers, anglers, andall those who practise outdoor sports andleisure activities, as well as fire-fighters,more aware of the dangers of power lines.Innovations introduced include a kit forraising anglers’ awareness and apparatusfor checking that towers are earthed.FOR MORE INFORMATION:www.sousleslignesprudence.fr66


JOINT SUCCESSINVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS1 st JulyLegislation preventingdamage to networkscame into effect.300,000people live close to thetransmission network. RTEreceived 1,238 complaintsand requests for informationin 2012 and replied to 98%of them within 30 days.A CONSTRUCTIVE PARTNERSHIPWITH A LOCAL CHAMBER OF AGRICUL-TURE/ To limit the impact on agriculturalland of the future underground Pertain-Hargicourt link (under construction in 2013and set to be commissioned in 2014), RTEhas worked with the Somme departmentChamber of Agriculture. A thorough studyof the soil was carried out and farmers werequestioned. A steering committeeconsisting of representatives of RTE andofficials of the Chamber of Agriculturehas made recommendations with regardto installation techniques, the restorationof irrigation networks and precautionsneeded to protect the soil.ANSWERING QUESTIONS ONELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS/To address the concerns of local residentsand elected officials on the low-frequencyelectromagnetic field emitted by highvoltage lines, RTE published a newbrochure in 2012 and its website,www.clefdeschamps.info, providesa map of magnetic field readings. Onrequest from a mayor or a local resident,RTE sends a technician, or an approvedindependent laboratory if the personmaking the request so prefers, to carryout readings.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE67


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSFor the past fi ve years, the RTE Foundation has extended the company’scommitment to promoting the development of rural communities. In 2012,it supported 47 new projects, bringing the total number of projects aidedsince its creation to 246, for a total amount of €4.7 million.5 YEARS OF ACTIONFOR THE RTEFOUNDATIONThe RTE Foundation supports community projectswhich focus primarily on combating all forms of exclusion,protecting the environment, conserving the rural heritageand creating jobs. Numerous examples include therefurbishment of buildings, a variety of social and economicinitiatives to help people in difficulty, farming and marketgardening activities, management of green spaces andwaste and the development of social inclusion activitiesintended to encourage access and return to the labourmarket.A FOUNDATION TURNED TO THE FUTUREA new team took over running the Foundation in 2012and its Executive Committee was partially renewed.Three priority projects launched in 2011 were taken further.A system for skills patronage has been designed and a fi rstexperiment will be launched in 2013. A “gateway” systemenabling structures supported by the Foundation to offertheir services to RTE has been rolled out. The RTE Foundationalso set up an agreement with France Active, the leadingfi nancer of social enterprises in France and leader forguaranteed microcredit loans, to help encourage innovativeprojects. In 2012, RTE renewed its support for a not-for-profitorganisation, Solid’action. Created in 2001, Solid’actionbelieves that the time factor is a key element in theintegration process, and has introduced a scheme whichallows reintegration contracts to benefi t from a specialdispensation to extend the two years currently consideredto be the maximum legal length of a social integrationcontract to fi ve years.The Foundation has put a dynamic new communicationsstrategy in place with a new intranet, six video interviewswith project instigators, sponsors and instructors, and theorganisation of an event featuring ten project instigatorsshortlisted for a special award. At the end of this event, theFrench writer Patrick Viveret opened the discussion, puttinginto perspective the challenges facing the rural world in thegeneral economic and societal context.The RTE Foundation was one of the four finalists in theAdmical Oscars for Corporate Philanthropy 2012, awonderful achievement for all those who have shown greatenthusiasm for the Foundation and its projects. •FOR MORE INFORMATION:www.fondation.rte-france.com68


JOINT SUCCESSINVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSPromoting mutual support in rural areas and helping to meet communityneeds and foster level development: these were the objectives that RTE setitself in 2008 when it created the first foundation of its type in France. It hasbeen a consistent way of bringing the company’s values to life.ViewpointA foundation thatpromotes a caringrural societyROBERT SAVYMEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE RTE FOUNDATION,HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE LIMOUSIN REGIONAL COUNCILAND MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF STATEHow do you look on the firstyears of the Foundation?In a very positive way. TheFoundation has succeededin defi ning its objective, whichis one to which I completely subscribe:“Contributing to the caring andbalanced development of the regions”.As someone who has represented theLimousin region in politics for manyyears, I am very concerned by thegrowth in competition betweenregions, which weakens the mostfragile ones and increases inequalities.I appreciate the fact that a networkbasedcompany like RTE, where thevalues of public service are very muchalive, is mindful of the need to preservesocial and territorial cohesion inour country. In this spirit, I am alsoimpressed by the commitment of manyRTE employees to support projectsbacked by the Foundation as “sponsors”.It’s yet another advantage for the projects,and a way for the company to appreciateconcretely the reality of its actionson the ground.How do you see the developmentof the Foundation?Remaining faithful to a few principlesthat these fi rst few years have allowedto emerge. In the fi rst place, anintegrated and sustainable conceptof development. Different regionsare different and call for very diverseprojects, but it’s always desirable toincorporate economic, social, culturaland environmental dimensions.Then, a desire to promote innovation.The Foundation doesn’t exist to supportthe same initiatives in different places,but to promote the invention ofprojects adapted to each region. I alsothink it should favour support forintangible investments. And it seems tome that, in the medium term, it willhave to evaluate the results of itsearliest actions so that, if necessary, itcan adapt its aims and its methods.47new projects.€746,730attributed in 2012.€4.7 mattributed since 2008.380jobs created, of which 291on back-to-work programmes.100%with a positive impacton the environment.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE69


INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSBeyond the fi nancial support it offers, the RTE Foundation also offers support ona local level to those responsible for projects through the involvement of RTEemployees who serve as sponsors. On a voluntary basis, they undertake to supporta project in their regions over the long term. This approach has proved successful:for the second year running, the rate of sponsoring is around 90%. After fi ve years of existence, the RTEFoundation now wants take the sponsor system further and establish still more innovative pathwaysbetween the structures it supports and the company itself.Personal accountsRTE employees atthe heart of projectsHERVÉ EGGERRTE South-West, sponsorof Dispo-ServicesSocial integration workshopsallow people in need to returnto employment and help themconstruct their own personalprojects. The reconstruction of drystone walls, for instance, requiresa great deal of patience and perseverance.But the result can be seen andrecognised by everyone, which is veryrewarding. Beyond the skills and know-howthat the participants acquire, they areaware of taking part in a lasting wayin the rehabilitation of a small pieceof history. The energy and enthusiasmyou see throughout this organisationhelp to give these people fresh impetus.Through my visits to the site and thecontacts I have had, I have been ableto appreciate the dimensions of theproject on a human level and in termsof preserving our heritage, and I haveseen the vital role that Dispo-Serviceshas played in making a success of theproject in a rural setting. By volunteeringto be a sponsor on behalf of theFoundation, I will follow the developmentof the project with interest.CHRISTINE LOMBARDRTE North-East, sponsorof Somme NatureWe met the directorof Somme Nature in thefirst half of 2011. Duringa series of discussions,we raised the subject of the RTEFoundation with him. In northeasternFrance, no project had been putforward for the Somme department,although there is so much that needsto be done in this region. With LesChemins de l’Espoir, things are startingto move. By creating these workopportunity workshops, SommeNature is also helping to protect theenvironment and is playing a partin local and social developmentby putting people at the very heartof the action.70


JOINT SUCCESSclose-up on…Three projects supportedin 2012INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERSTHERAPEUTIC DOGS PROJECT WINSFRENCH MAYORS’ PRIZE IN 2012WESTERN FRANCE /At the annual Exhibition for Mayors andLocal Authorities, a not-for-profit organisationcalled Compagnon d’Un Jour,Compagnon de Toujours, based inMarennes on the Island of Oléron, wonthe French Town Halls’ “judges’ favourite”award. Founded in 2010 by LeslieBergeron, a young woman who is herselfdisabled, the organisation carries out visitsto elderly people, children and severelydisabled adults with specially trained dogs.The therapy has proved itself extremelybeneficial, especially for people sufferingfrom Alzheimer’s disease.WOOD SALVAGING SCHEMEPROVIDES WORK OPPORTUNITIESBRITTANY /Inspired by a research project completedby a student working as an intern, thenot-for-profit organisation KOAD ÉnergieVerte developed a local initiative linkingprofessional integration and thedevelopment of the timber sector inthe Lorient region. The Lorient regionhas many suburban districts which haveremained largely rural, rich in hedgerowsand trees that homeowners have tomaintain pruned. The resulting scrapwood is normally incinerated along withhousehold waste, discharging its carbon.So why not recover it and transform itinto wood chips, logs and mulch for localauthorities and private customers? Thisidea was the start of a project to createplatforms for salvaging and transformingscrap wood from tree pruning throughoutthe Lorient region. The project hasprovided work opportunities for peoplesuffering from social exclusion, withthe creation of jobs with no threatof relocation.AN INNOVATIVE WATER MANAGE-MENT SYSTEM FOR SMALLHOLDERSSOUTH OF FRANCE /BEDE is an international not-for-profitorganisation that helps to protect andpromote smallholder farming. Thisproject consists in working with a localsmallholder cooperative in the Minervoisregion to install three model irrigationmanaging systems for training purposes,adapted to the irregular rainfall of theregion. They are economical and easyto replicate. Installed in Gimios, Mailhacand Azillanet, they will accommodatetraining workshops for around fiftysmallholders per year, in conjunctionwith partners from the world of agriculture:the chamber of agriculture, the UpperLanguedoc natural park, Bio Civam, etc.During summer droughts, it will bepossible to take advantage of any stormsthat do occur.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE71


RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE73


In a context of energy transition, RTE’s key financial indicators have remained ata satisfactory level. 2012 was marked by significant rises in net income and sales,along with the continuation of the Group’s investment policy.THE NETWORK104,684KM OF LINES• 46% of very high voltage lines(400kV, 225 kV) for transmittingelectricity over very long distancesand for interconnections withneighbouring countries• 54% of high voltage lines (150 kV,90 kV, 63 kV) for regional distribution2,657 sites operated1,201 transformers3,793 points of delivery46 cross-border linksIN 2012, RTE BROUGHTINTO SERVICE:• 24 new substations• 609km of newand renovated lines• 194km of 400 kV lines• 32km of 225 kV lines• 383km of 150 kV, 90 kVand 63 kV linesCUSTOMERS• 480 multi-fuel power plants andapprox. 450 utilising cogeneration,refuse incineration, wind power, etc.• 529 industrial sites• 515 RFF substations• 27 electricity distributors (ERDF withapprox. 2,200 points of delivery and33 regional control agencies and26 local distribution networks)• Approx. 150 traders and suppliersactive on the French marketELECTRICITYFLOWS• 497TWh 1 fed into the transmissionnetwork by production units• 103TWh in cross-border exchanges(combined contractual exchanges)• 20 days of net contractualimporting as against 4 in 2011,72 in 2010, 57 in 2009, 6 in 200881%of the new 90 kV and 63kVlines commissionedfrom 2010 to 2012are underground.SIMPLIFIED BALANCE OF ELECTRICITY FLOWSon the RTE networkTWH 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Energy produced in France 516 484 512 503 497Energy extracted in France 2 467 458 481 446 446Balance 48 26 31 57 451. Billions of kWh. 2. Including losses and energy extracted for pumping.74


2012 IN FIGURESFRENCH ELECTRICITY PRODUCTIONAND CO 2 EMISSIONSINSTALLED POWERAs at 31 December 2012PRODUCTION AND EMISSIONSINSTALLED POWERMT CO 2TWH VARIATION GW VARIATIONNuclear 0 404.9 - 3.8% 63.1 0%Fossil-fuel thermal 26.4 47.9 - 7.0% 27.8 0%• coal 17.4 18.1 + 35.1% 7.9 - 0.4%• oil 2.3 6.6 - 13.2% 9.4 - 9.3%• gas 6.7 23.2 - 23.7% 10.5 + 10.3%Hydro-electricity 0 63.8 + 26.8% 25.4 0%Wind turbines 0 14.9 + 23.1% 7.4 + 11.3%Photovoltaic 0 4.0 + 66.7% 3.5 + 40.4%Other renewable energy sources 3.1 5.9 + 5.4% 1.4 + 8.4%Net production 29.51 541.4 - 0.3% 128.7 + 1.5%French electricity production fellby 0.3% compared to 2011. The shareof electricity generated from renewableenergy sources stood at 16.4%, of which4.6% excluding hydro-electricity, whichis the highest level in the last fi ve years.CO 2emissions increased by 7.3%,because of the greater use of coal,very competitively priced, insteadof natural gas.Installed power rose by 1,865 MW,mostly owing to the developmentof photovoltaic and wind energy.GROSS FRENCH ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (IN TWh)480495487513479489.5Gross French electricity consumptionincreased by 2.1% compared to 2011because it was a colder year and a leap year.Private and professional consumption grew2.4%. It fell by 4% in large industries and by1% in small- and medium-size companiesbecause of the economic crisis. Whenclimate factors are removed, annualconsumption was stable at around 480 TWh.since 2003. The sensitivity of electricityconsumption is roughly 2,300 MW perdegree Celsius in the winter.Peak consumption hit a record levelof 102,100 MW on 8 February 2012 at 7 p.m.during a cold spell that was one of the mostsevere in the last thirty years.070809101112The gap between the highest point ofconsumption in the winter peak and thelowest point in the summer is now71,500 MW. This figure has risen by 36%400 MWof load shedding contracts weresigned with manufacturers in 2012.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE75


THE REGIONAL ENERGYBALANCECONTRACTUAL CROSS-BORDEREXCHANGESSome regions, such as Burgundy, Brittany, Franche-Comté and Île-de-France, have consumption that is fi ve timesgreater than their production. Others, such as the Centre, Lorraine,Champagne-Ardenne and Upper Normandy, produce twiceas much as they consume. The transmission network makes itpossible to even out contrasting regional energy balances byrouting electricity wherever demand dictates, which is equivalentto a pooling of production facilities.PRODUCTION RELATIVE TO CONSUMPTIONin the French regions in 2011123465Production more thandouble consumptionProduction between120% and 200%of consumptionProduction equivalentto consumptionProduction between20% and 100%of consumptionProduction lessthan 20%of consumptionChange in P/C ratiofrom 2006 to 2011RisingStableFalling1. United Kingdom8.4 - 1.92. Belgium13.9 - 1.9Exports in TWhImports in TWh3. Germany5.2 - 13.94. Switzerland24.5 - 75. Italy15.7 - 0.66. Spain5.8 - 4.0Total France73.5 - 29.3+ 44.2%France is the largestexporter in WesternEurope. It is in surplusover all its neighboursexcept Germany, but thebalance is falling.+ 63%The number of changesof direction of the flow fromhour to hour has risen from673 to 1,094 in four years.This underlines the partplayed by interconnectionsin taking full advantageof renewable energies.CONTRACTUAL CROSS-BORDER EXCHANGESchanges 2008-2012TWH 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Export 81.4 68.2 66.6 75.4 73.5Import 34.8 43.5 37.1 19.7 29.3Combined 116.2 111.7 103.7 95.1 102.8Balance + 46.6 + 24.7 + 29.5 + 55.7 + 44.276


2012 IN FIGURESCOMMERCIAL CONTRACTSMarket prices in the EuropeanCentral-West region (France, Germany,Benelux) converged 46% of the time,as compared to 66% in 2011 and 72%in 2010. The most marked divergencesoccurred during episodes of coldweather in France and peaks of windproduction in Germany. They underlinethe need to strengthen interconnectionsbetween France and Germany,which are saturated more than 35%of the time.A secondary market for interconnectioncapacity, introduced in 2007,supplements the coupling of marketsand mechanisms by assigning capacityin the form of explicit auctions. Theclients of the transmission systemoperators can therefore transfer annualor monthly capacities acrossthe German, Belgian, Italian, Spanish andSwiss borders or request the transmissionsystem operators to sell all or part ofthese capacities at daily and monthlyauctions. In 2012, 76 players benefi tedfrom sales and 15 sellers and 12 buyerstransferred capacities acquired.AS OF 31 DECEMBER 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Access to international connectionsNumber of membership contracts under the rulesfor access to the public network118 117 115 114 122Number of import transactions 534 677 713 701 767Number of export transactions 546 691 698 679 849BalanceNumber of balance responsible entities 1 145 145 160 160 166Number of block exchange notifi cations 2,115 2,263 2,322 2,360 2,424Energy amount exchanges between balance responsible entities (in TWh) 282 292 307 325 328BalanceNumber of balance players 2 38 39 37 40 45Amount of energy activated upwards by RTE (in TWh) 2.9 4.0 5.1 3.5 3.3Amount of energy activated downwards by RTE (in TWh) 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.9 4.71. A balance responsible entity commits to RTE to pay the cost of differences subsequently assessed between injections and extractions of electricity that have been carried outby one or more users of the network within its scope. 2. A balance player informs RTE of the technical and financial conditions according to which RTE can modify its programmesof production, consumption or trade, in order to ensure a balance of flows on the network at all times.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE77


QUALITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY2012 confirmed the good resultsachieved in the past two years.The equivalent time of interruption stood at2minutes 17 seconds, excluding exceptionalincidents. Higher than in 2011, which was thecompany’s best ever performance, this resultis close to the target of 2 minutes 24secondsset under the terms of the incentiveregulations for the quality of electricity.Including exceptional incidents, theequivalent time of interruption was4minutes 26 seconds, with impact of2minutes 09 seconds caused by the soleexceptional incident of the year: an episodeof wet snow accumulation that occurredon 5 March 2012 in the Nord-Pas-de-Calaisregion.The frequency of outages stood in total at0.40 excluding exceptional incidents, closeto the best ever level achieved in 2010.These results refl ect efforts to reduce thenumber of incidents and their consequencesforming part of policies and rules for networkdevelopment, maintenance and operation.0.40Frequency of all outagesexcluding exceptionalincidents 1 .EQUIVALENT TIME OF INTERRUPTION(in minutes/seconds)2015105FREQUENCY OF LONG OUTAGES(in minutes/seconds)0,120,100,080,060,040,02FREQUENCY OF SHORT OUTAGES(in minutes/seconds)0,60,50,40,30,20,10 0 008 09 10 11 12 08 09 10 11 12 08 09 10 11 12Equivalent time of interruption isequal to energy not distributed becauseof supply outages and load shedding bycustomers, as a proportion of the annualpower delivered by RTE to its customers.The frequency of outages is theaverage number of outages recorded persite of consumption served by RTE(distributors and industrial customers).A long outage is an outage equalto or greater than 3 minutes, when thecustomer does not have the possibilityof replacing the power supply by anotheravailable RTE power supply.A short outage is an outage lastingbetween 1 second and 3 minutes.Excluding exceptional incidentsIncluding exceptional incidents1. Frequency of outages: number of annual outages/number of customer sites.78


2012 IN FIGURESCODE OF GOOD CONDUCTTHE CRE’S OPINIONRTE guarantees the conditions for freeand fair competition by ensuring:• non-discriminatory treatment for accessto the transmission network for all playerson the electricity market;• transparency in data by givingthe same quality of information to allusers of the network;• confi dentiality of commercially sensitiveinformation in order to ensure faircompetition.A report drawn up by RTE’s ChiefCompliance Offi cer on the applicationof the Code of Good Conduct is submittedannually to the Energy RegulatoryCommission. The Chief ComplianceOffi cer monitors the complianceof RTE’s practices with its obligationsof independence and the applicationof the commitments stipulated in theCode of Good Conduct.On 28 June 2012, the Energy RegulatoryCommission published its seventhreport on compliance with codesof good conduct and the independenceof network operators, covering the year2011.www.cre.fr/documents/publications/rapports-thematiques/codes-de-bonneconduite-2011CERTIFIED INDEPENDENCEOn 26 January 2012, the EnergyRegulatory Commission certified RTEas an independent transmissionsystem operator. This certifi cation isa consequence of the transposition intoFrench law of the European Union’s 3 rdenergy package. It guarantees that RTErespects its obligations of independenceand autonomy in its relations with its parentcompany and EDF Group companiesengaged in producing or supplying energy.The aim is to avoid any risk of discriminationbetween users of the transmission networkand to make investment decisionsindependent of the interests of the EDFGroup. Certifi cation also guarantees thatRTE has autonomous human, technical,material and fi nancial resources for theexercise of its transmission activity.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE79


1FINANCIAL INDICATORSSALESin millions of eurosEBITDAin millions of eurosOPERATING INCOMEin millions of euros4,396 4,229 4,5291,526 1,364 1,610 885 730 96310 11 12Sales rose 7%, benefi ting from the cold spell in February,growth in transit through interconnections and tariff risesapplied in August 2011 and 2012.10 11 1210 11 12L’EBITDA rose 18% and operating income 32%, chiefl y as a result of increased sales.NET INCOMEin millions of euros368 272 407INVESTMENTS 2in millions of euros1,167 1,172 1,363NET INDEBTEDNESSin millions of euros6,331 6,578 6,87510 11 12Financial income stood at €303 million, up €1 million.Corporate income rose by €99million to €254million.Net income thus rose by €135million.10 11 12Regulated investments rose 17% to €1,357 million:€1,232 million for network installations, of which 30%renewals, €66million for information systems and€59million for logistics.10 11 12At the end of 2012, net financial debt consistedof loans totalling €7,419million and cash at €544million.FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY(ROE)7.9% 5.9% 8.5%ECONOMIC PROFITABILITY(ROCE)7.4% 6.0% 7.7%DEBT-TO-EQUITY RATIO(GEARING)1.36 1.42 1.4410 11 12ROE is calculated as a ratio of RTE’s net income toconsolidated shareholders’ equity at 31 December.10 11 12ROCE is calculated on the basis of the regulated scopeas a ratio of net income to economic assets.10 11 12At year-end 2012, fi nancial indebtedness stood at€6,875million and shareholders’ equity at €4,786 million.80


2012 IN FIGURESCONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENTSIN THOUSANDS OF EUROS 2012 2011 3Sales 4,529,254 4,229,045Energy purchases (641,977) (679,304)Other external expenses (1,020,865) (982,597)Personnel expenses (785,527) (746,362)Taxes other than income taxes (453,558) (441,341)Other operating income and expenses (16,975) (15,546)Operating profit before depreciation and amortisation 1,610,352 1,363,896Net depreciation and amortisation (647,833) (634,225)Operating profit 962,519 729,670Cost of gross fi nancial indebtedness (268,948) (280,328)Discount expense (38,194) (35,893)Other fi nancial income and expenses 4,249 11,904Financial result (302,893) (304,317)Consolidated profit before tax 659,626 425,353Income taxes (254,271) (155,167)Share in income of associates 1,293 1,334Group net income 406,649 271,521net income attributable to non-controlling interests 0 0RTE net income 406,649 271,521Earnings per share (RTE share) in euros 1.91 1.271. Figures for the RTE Group comply with IFRS, except for the return on capital employed which is calculated based on the parent company RTE’s individual financial statements underFrench GAAP. 2. Investments net disposals Group scope as at 31/12/12. 3. Data published with respect to the 2011 financial year has been restated for impact linked to the changeof accounting method of actuarial gains and losses relating to post-retirement benefit obligations.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE81


CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETSIN THOUSANDS OF EUROS 31.12.2012 31.12.2011 1AssetsIntangible assets 152,124 163,998Property, plant and equipment 13,503,490 12,806,854Investments in companies accounted for under the equity method 17,973 17,261Non-current fi nancial assets 10,806 15,340Deferred tax assets 28,083 0Non-current assets 13,712,476 13,003,453Inventories 101,985 93,142Trade and similar receivables 1,047,323 915,597Current fi nancial assets 494,988 336,228Other receivables 219,160 190,038Cash and cash equivalents 49,446 72,680Current assets 1,912,902 1,607,686TOTAL ASSETS 15,625,378 14,611,139EQUITY AND LIABILITIESShare capital 2,132,286 2,132,286RTE net income and consolidated reserves 2,654,171 2,488,034Group share of equity 4,786,457 4,620,320Minority interests 0 0Total equity 4,786,457 4,620,320Non-current provisions 864,006 635,196Non-current fi nancial liabilities 6,425,798 6,321,688Deferred tax liabilities 0 45,835Non-current liabilities 7,289,805 7,002,719Current provisions 94,846 101,333Trade and similar payables 1,027,271 975,665Current fi nancial liabilities 993,635 665,561Current tax liabilities 1,952 522Other liabilities 1,431,413 1,245,020Current liabilities 3,549,117 2,988,101TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 15,625,378 14,611,1391. Data published with respect to the 2011 financial year has been restated for impact linked to the change of accounting method of actuarial gains and losses relating to postretirementbenefit obligations.82


2012 IN FIGURESCONSOLIDATED CASH FLOW STATEMENTSIN THOUSANDS OF EUROS 2012 2011 1Operating activitiesConsolidated profit before tax 659,626 425,353Depreciation, amortisation and changes in fair value 705,539 665,419Financial income and expenses 268,500 271,776Gains and losses arising on disposal of assets 35,412 28,688Change in working capital (60,809) 179,034Net cash flow from operations 1,608,268 1,570,270Net fi nancial expenses disbursed (301,576) (281,367)Income taxes paid (180,798) (227,322)Net cash flow from operating activities 1,125,895 1,061,581Investing activitiesAcquisitions of property, plant and equipment and intangibles (1,376,487) (1,179,910)Disposals of property, plant and equipment and intangibles 8,695 11,231Changes in fi nancial assets (154,970) (34,905)Net cash flow from investing activities (1,522,762) (1,203,584)Financing activitiesIssuance of borrowings 658,049 895,915Repayment of borrowings (218,921) (650,000)Dividends paid (139,810) (187,506)Investment subsidies 71,686 55,219Net cash flow from financing activities 371,004 113,628Change in scope of consolidation 0 0Financial income on cash and cash equivalents 2,629 10,253Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents (23,234) (18,122)Cash and cash equivalents - opening balance 72,680 90,802Cash and cash equivalents - closing balance 49,446 72,6801. Data published with respect to the 2011 financial year has been restated for impact linked to the change of accounting method of actuarial gains and losses relating to postretirementbenefit obligations.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE83


ENVIRONMENTAL DATARTE has been ISO 14001 certified for all its activities since 2004. Afnor has renewed RTE’s ISO 14001 certifi cate for the periodfrom June 2012 to December 2013.2012 2011 1 2010Protected natural zones, biodiversityTotal length of network: overhead and underground transmission connections104,040 104,144 104,252in operation – voltage equal to or higher than 63 kV (in km)Total surface area occupied by the network (in hectares) 400,000 400,000 400,000Farmland (in km) 60,102 not disclosed not disclosedForest zones (in km) 17,087 not disclosed not disclosedProtected natural zones (in km) 34,574 not disclosed not disclosedNatura 2000 zones (in km) 9,051 not disclosed not disclosedDevelopment projects encouraging biodiversity (number) 57 not disclosed not disclosedCumulative area developed for biodiversity (in hectares) 353 not disclosed not disclosedGreenhouse gas emissions (in tCO 2e) - BRGES 2Scope 1 (Direct emissions within the scope) 156,586 Not availablein regulatoryformatScope 2 (Indirect emissions relating to energy, for RTE primarily consumptionrelating to losses of electricity)620,032 Not availablein regulatoryformatScope 3 (Other indirect emissions) 485,613 Not availablein regulatoryformatElectricity losses on the networkElectricity purchases to offset losses on the network (in TWh) 10.52 11.0 11.9Rate of losses: ratio between the consumption of electricity offsetting the lossesand the total energy injected into the network (%)2.08 2.13 2.23Accidental oil leaks 3Volume of unrecovered oil – Underground lines (in m 3 ) 46.7 11.3 33Volume of unrecovered oil – Transformers and substations (in m 3 ) 5.2 8.9 5.2Recovery rate (%) 51 64 501. Data published with respect to the 2011 fi nancial year has been restated for impact linked to the change of accounting method of actuarial gains and losses relating to postretirementbenefi t obligations. 2. RTE has taken a proactive approach since 2008, carrying out a greenhouse gas balance for the fourth year in succession. The inventory was carriedout according to the carbon balance method, which is compatible with the regulatory greenhouse gas balance made compulsory in 2012 for French companies with more than500employees. In accordance with regulations, the next inventory will be conducted in 2015, on the basis of operations in 2014. 3. Explanation of the difference between 2011 and2012: a 36m 3oil leak occurred on the underground Anglo-French IFA 2000 link in 2012.84


2012 IN FIGURES2012 2011 4 2010SF6SF6 mass installed (in tonnes) 513 512 493SF6 emissions (in tonnes) 6.1 6 7SF6 rate of loss (%) 1.2 1.1 1.5PCBsFor appliances with content of 100 to 500ppm, remaining numberto be removed/decontaminated or put under containment (number)25 not disclosed not disclosedIndustrial wasteTotal waste produced by RTE (in tonnes) 4,709 2,741 3,651Hazardous industrial waste (in tonnes) 2,561 1,289 2,067Hazardous waste recovery rate (%) 45 61 38Non-hazardous waste recovery rate (%) 74 71 58Site waste processed by service providers (in tonnes) 430,032 386,600 126,255Accidental events (environmental emergencies)• Fires under overhead lines (number) 13 10 13• Substation fi res (number) 53 41 7• Oil leaks from HVB equipment (number) 42 222 11• Oil leaks from underground connections (number) 8 6 4Expenditure contributing to environmental protection (in € thousands):• Operation 43,038 39,194 37,021• Investment 25,867 46,420 40,224Environmental training (in hours) 5 7,291 7,985 9,378Respect for the environment during site workSites audited (number) 1,205 1,108 1,181Rate of compliance (%) 89 90 90Electromagnetic fields 6Measurement carried out by RTE (number) 18 32 N/AMeasurement carried out by independent laboratory (number) 14 16 NA4. Data published with respect to the 2011 fi nancial year has been restated for impact linked to the change of accounting method of actuarial gains and losses relating to postretirementbenefi t obligations. 5. In 2010, a specifi c training programme was put in place to improve the handling of SF6 leaks. 6. The agreement on measuring electromagnetic fi eldshas been in force since 2011.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE85


SOCIAL DATA2012 2011 2010Total workforce 8,843 8,779 8,822Women (number) 1,831 1,625 1,753Men (number) 7,012 6,723 7,069Proportion of women (%) 20.7 18.5 19.9Women hired on permanent contracts (number) 93 69 55Proportion of women (%) 25.8 25.7 25.3Women on permanent contracts in operational functions (%) 14.5 11.5 17.7Women on permanent contracts in supervisory functions (%) 19.5 19.2 19.4Women on permanent contracts in management functions (%) 21.6 20.5 20.5Employees with disability (number) 249 250 251Hires on temporary and permanent contracts (number) 578 493 400Hires on temporary contracts (number) 217 225 183Hires on permanent contracts (number) 361 268 217Hires following a work/study contract (number) 42 56 41Departures of employees on permanent contracts (retirement, move to anotherelectricity and gas sector company, resignation, dismissal, others) (number)442 445 353• Retirement 241 232 220• Move to another electricity/gas company 164 174 106• Resignation 23 28 11• Dismissal 2 0 1• Others (death, end of internship, etc.) 12 11 15Training (in hours)Hours of training 425,528 432,023 432,114Training budget (% of payroll) 10.2 11.1 11.3Average length of training per employee (in hours) 48.2 49.2 48.6Absenteeism (% of working time) 2.46 2.52 3.46Occupational health and safetyOccupational accidents (number) 114 77 114• Lost-time occupational accidents (number) 65 38 61Lost days corresponding to occupational accidents (number) 868 716 1464• Frequency rate of accidents (per million hours worked) 5.1 3.0 4.7Average profit share per employee (in euros) 1,658 1,563 1,20086


2012 IN FIGURESCOMMUNITY DATA47projects receivedsupport from the RTEFoundation in 2012.2012 2011 2010Requests from interested parties 1• Of which claims made by farmers (number) 44 32 51• Of which claims concerning commitments not kept by RTE (number) 5 3 7Total number of claims 1,238 1,218 1,211Requests handled within 30 days (%) 98 98.2 99FoundationProjects (number) 47 64 74Projects sponsored (number and %) 43 (91.4%) 56 (87.5%) 46 (62%)Projects involving social and professional integration (number and %) 26 (55.3%) 29 (45.3%) 35 (47.2%)Amounts contributed (in euros) 802,496 1,155,341 1,491,5291.External claims and requests on environmental issues from third parties concerned by our projects are collected throughout the year. RTE has set a service quality targetfor response time.RTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE87


INFRASTRUCTURE COMMISSIONED IN 201224 NEW SUBSTATIONS WERE CONNECTEDTO THE RTE NETWORK, INCLUDING:Three 400 kV substations• Prionnet (near Cadarache, Bouchesdu-Rhône),RTE substation used fortransmission.• Taute (near Avranches, Manche),RTE substation used for transmission.• Frasne (near Pontarlier, Doubs),RTE substation used for transmission.Seven 225 kV substations• Palayre (near Toulouse, Haute-Garonne),customer substation used for extraction.• Verrerie (near Brignoles, Var), customersubstation used for injection.• Les Mées (near Digne-les-Bains,Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), customersubstation used for injection.• Bourguignon (near Montbéliard, Doubs),RTE substation used for transmission.• Brens (near Albi, Tarn), RTE substationused for transmission.• Buttavent (near Mayenne, Mayenne),RTE substation used for transmission.• Mitry-Mory (near Claye-Souilly,Seine-et-Marne), customer substationused for extraction.PRINCIPAL LINES COMMISSIONEDIN 2012At 400 kV and 225 kV, 226 km of newor renovated circuits, associated withmiscellaneous removals and modifi cations,including:At 400 kV:• Taute, near Avranches, Manche:connection of the substation to theLaunay-Taute overhead lines nos. 1 and 2,the Menuel-Taute overhead lines nos. 1, 2, 3and 4 and the Taute-Terrette overhead linesnos. 1 and 2 as part of the Cotentin-Maineproject.• Frasne, near Pontarlier, Doubs: connectionof the substation to the Mambelin-Génissiatoverhead line no. 1, in order to meet theneeds for network reinforcement in thePontarlier zone.• Creys-Grande Île overhead line no. 1, nearChambéry, Savoie: partial replacement of theconductors as part of the Savoie-Piedmontinterconnection project.• La Gaudière-Rueyres overhead lineno. 1 in Hérault: partial replacement of theconductors as part of the upgrading of theinfrastructure to take account of futuredevelopments affecting this axis, particularlythe France-Spain interconnection project.• Le Chaffard-Coulange overhead line no.1,Beaumont-Monteux–Le Chaffard overheadline no. 2 and Beaumont-Monteux–Coulange overhead line no. 2 in Isère: partialreplacement of the conductors as partof the upgrading of the infrastructureof the eastern corridor of the Rhone Valley.• Albertville–Grande-Île overhead lineno.3 in Savoie: partial replacement of theconductors and supports, as partof the project to upgrade the Transalpineelectricity network.At 225 kV:• Commissioning of La Gavotte-Septèmesunderground line no.2 (1.772 kmunderground), in Bouches-du-Rhône,following the complete renewalof the existing overhead link.• Commissioning of La Garde-Hyèresunderground line no.1 (5.9 kmunderground), in Var, to secure power supplyto the entire Var department.• Commissioning of Meyzieu-La Boisseoverhead and underground line no.1 andMeyzieu-Mions overhead and undergroundline no.1 (+ 0.55 km underground), nearLyon, following the tie-in with the Meyzieusubstation, replacing the existing connectionon the La Boisse-Mions 225 kV overheadline and to ensure 225 kV supply to thesubstation.• Commissioning of the 225 kV La Bocca-Mougins underground cable no.1 (6.488 kmunderground), near Cannes, Alpes-Maritimes,previously operated at 63 kV, as part ofthe project to provide the Var and Alpes-Maritimes departments with reliable supply.• Commissioning of Feuillane-Ponteau225kV overhead lines no. 1 (3.878 kmoverhead) and no. 2 (3.878 km overhead)and Ponteau-Réaltor 225 kV overheadlines no.1 (1.188 km overhead) and no.2(1.188km overhead), near Martigues,Bouches-du-Rhône, to satisfy demand forconnection of production units in the FosLavéra region.• Partial burying of the Flers-Launayoverhead and underground line no. 1(3.238km underground), near Avranches,Manche, as part of the Cotentin-Maineproject.• Partial burying of the 225 kV Bissy-Grande-Île overhead and underground line no. 1(0.829 km underground), near Chambéry,Savoie, as part of an urban regenerationprogramme in Chambéry.• Commissioning of the 225 kV overheadGranzay–Saint-Florent line no. 2 as a doublecircuit (10.767 km overhead), near Niort,Deux-Sèvres, to meet needs for upgradingin the Niort area.PRINCIPAL CONNECTIONSOF PRODUCTION FACILITIESTO THE NETWORKThe total capacity of production facilitiesin France rose by more than 1,865 MW in 2012.2012 saw nine new photovoltaic installationsconnected to the RTE network, for installedcapacity of 288 MW.Installed capacity in wind energy roseby 24MW, with the Allanches wind farmin Cantal connected to the 63 kV network.The increase in installed power on thedistribution networks (1,729 MW) largelyresults from the sustained developmentof wind energy (an increase of 732 MW) anda rise in photovoltaic production (growthof 724 MW).88


2012 IN FIGURESTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RTE NETWORKas at 31 December 2012RTE NETWORK 400 kV 225 kV 150 kV 90 kV 63 kV


GLOSSARY•Adjustment mechanismCreated by RTE on 1 April 2003,the adjustment mechanism gives itaccess to reserves of power that becomeavailable as soon as an imbalance occursbetween supply and demand. Involvedin the mechanism are producers whohave the capacity to modulate theirproduction and consumers able toforgo a portion of their consumption,as well as traders who import orexport electricity.• Balance responsible entityA company with which RTE concludesa contract to fi nance imbalances betweenforecast and actual consumption andproduction of a given portfolio of users.The balance responsible entity acts asan underwriter, benefi ting from the effectof upward and downward imbalances.• CRECommission de Régulation de l’Énergie(Energy Regulatory Commission), theFrench energy regulator. An independentadministrative authority instituted byLaw 2000-108 of 10 February 2000,the Commission is primarily responsiblefor ensuring the correct functioningof the electricity and gas market and theabsence of any form of discrimination,cross subsidy or restriction of freecompetition.• CURTEComité des Utilisateurs du Réseaude Transport d’Électricité (electricitytransmission network users committee).This body is the interface for dialoguebetween RTE and its customers.• Distribution networksDownstream from the transmission network,distribution networks supply the fi nalcustomer, with voltage less than or equalto 50,000 volts (households, local authorities,small and medium-size industries).• Distributors26 local distribution companies and ERDFare in charge of distribution networks.• Electricity supplierA player on the electricity market whosupplies at least one end user with energythat is either self-produced or purchasedon the market.• Electricity transmission networkThe network ensuring the transmissionof high voltage and very high-voltageelectrical energy from generation sitesto distribution networks and industrialsites that have direct access. It includesthe national network and interconnection(400,000volts and 225,000volts)and regional dispatch networks(225,000 volts, 150,000 volts,90,000 volts and 63,000 volts).• ERDFÉlectricité Réseau Distribution France,the distribution subsidiary of EDF createdon 1 January 2008 in order to dissociatedistribution activities (public servicemonopoly) from those of productionand sales in the EDF Group.• ExtractionAction of removing electricity fromthe network at a connection point.• Forward EstimateMedium- and long-term forecast of thebalance between electricity supply anddemand and evaluation of needs for newproduction capacities to ensure long-termsecurity of supply.Article 6 of Law 2000-108 of 10 February2000 requires RTE to carry out this forecastevery other year.• Gigawatt-hour (GWh)Million kWh.• HV (high-voltage) linePower line with voltage of 63,000, 90,000or 150,000 volts.• InjectionAction of feeding electricity intothe transmission network.• InterconnectionTransmission infrastructure connectingtogether the transmission networksof different countries or regions.• ISO 14001The ISO 14001 standard lays down therequirements that an organisation mustabide by in order to develop and implementa policy and targets that take account oflegal conditions and information relatingto signifi cant environmental aspects.• Kilowatt hour (kWh)The amount of electrical energy consumedin one hour by an appliance with powerof 1,000 watts (1 kWh equals 3,600 joules).• Megavolt ampere (MVA)A unit of apparent power. For a transformer,this fi gure specifi es the maximum loadintended to serve as the basis for theconstruction of the transformer, theconstructor’s guarantees and testing.• Megawatt (MW)Thousand kW. A unit of power.• Megawatt hour (MWh)Thousand kWh. A unit of energy.• Quality of electricityLevel of quality of the electricity deliveredto the network, evaluated in terms ofthe frequency and duration of long andshort outages as well as the quality ofthe voltage wave.• Terawatt hour (TWh)Billion kWh.• TraderDealer who buys and sells electricity.• TSOTransmission System Operator(RTE in France).• VHV (very high voltage) linePower line with voltage of 225,000or 400,000 volts.90


2012 IN FIGURESCONSULTTHE WEB VERSION!THE COMPLETE ANNUAL REPORT 2012The complete Annual Report is available in PDF(Activity and Sustainable Development Report,Management Report and Consolidated Accounts,Report of the Chairman of the Supervisory Board)www.rte-france.com/lienrapide/RA2012JOIN THE NETWORK ON@rte_francewww.facebook.com/rte.franceRTE | IN LINE WITH THE FUTURE91


Design and production: 26, rue du Sentier - 75002 Paris - France - Tel. (+33) 1 5534 4600 - www.angie.fr -Translation: Nouvel Angle. Photo credits: © RTE media library: Lionel Astruc, Antoine Aybes, Antoine Bachelet,Olivier Banon, Laurent Baratier, William Beaucardet, Jean-Luc Bertini, Romain Boutillier, Sophie Brandstrom, PascalCarcanade, Jérôme Cargill, Damien Charfeddine, François Chevreau, Sophie Chivet, Zoe Cohen-Solal, Jean LionelDias, Marc Didier, Philippe Grollier, Olivier Guerrin, Cédric Helsly, Stéphane Herbert, Jean-Marc Huron, SylvieLegoupi, Loïc Le Loet, Philippe Lesprit, Michel Monteaux, Franck Oddoux, Lionel Roux, Alexandre Sargos, AldoSperber, Stéphanie Tetu, Laurent Vautrin, rights reserved; Association Solid’action, Association KOAD ÉnergieVerte, Association BEDE, François Lefebvre, Gédéon Programmes, Iton Seine, Sidiese, rights reserved; CorbisImages, Fotolia, Getty Images, rights reserved. ― Printed on 100% PEFC-certified paper by Dridé.LOGOPEFCà placer parl’imprimeur


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