Early Greeks

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Early Greeks

Early Greeks Chapter 7 Section 1

Key Terms * Peninsula * A body of land with water on three sides * Polis * A tiny independent country; a city-­‐state * Agora * Market and place where people would meet to debate issues * Colony * A settlement in a new territory

Key People and Places * Key Person * Agamemnon * Key Places * Crete * Mycenae * Peloponnesus

Using Geography Skills * Turn to Page 337 * What body of water lies directly east of the Balkan Peninsula? * The Aegean Sea lies directly east of the Balkan Peninsula. * What transportation was probably most useful to the early Greeks? * Boats were probably most useful to the early Greeks. * How did the regions geography help the Greeks settle in new areas? * The sea connected the seafaring Greeks with lands throughout the region.

Geography of Greece * Mountainous land * Surrounded by water * Aegean Sea * Sea of Crete * Ionian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Hundreds of islands * Mainland Greece is a peninsula * Mountainous land and seas divided them from one another * Greek communities developed independently * Each with their own government and culture

Geography of Greece * Ancient Greeks * Made livening from sea * Sailors * Fishers * Traders * Others were farmers: * Mountainous land was not good for farming * Farmers grew and raised * Wheat * Barley * Olives * Grapes * Goats * Sheep

Check * How did geography discourage Greek unity? * The mountains and seas kept the Greeks apart. Early Greek communities became fiercely independent. * What were many of the early jobs of the early Greeks? * Because of Greece’s watery location, many ancient Greeks made their living as traders, , and .

Minoans * Located on the island of Crete * Southeast of the Greek mainland * A.D. 1900, Arthur Evans * Uncovered the ruins of a grand palace * Center of Minoan civilization * Minoans were not 1 st Greeks * Civilization was 1 st in region

* Palace of Knossos * Revealed riches of an ancient society * Twisting passageways led to many different rooms * Private quarters for royal family * Storerooms packed with * Oil * Wine * Grain * Workshops * Jewelry * Vases * Ivory statues * Bathrooms Minoans

Minoans * Wealth from trade * Ships built of oak and cedar * Sailed to Egypt and Syria * Traded pottery and stone vases for ivory and metals * 2000s B.C. Minoans controlled eastern Mediterranean * Carried goods to foreign ports * Kept the sea secure from pirates * 1450 B.C. Minoan civilization collapsed * 2 Theories: * Underwater earthquake caused waves that destroyed Minoan cities * Cities destroyed by a group of Greeks from the mainland * Mycenaeans

Check * How did the Minoans become a trading civilization? * The Minoans used trees to build ships that carried them throughout the eastern Mediterranean region. * What did riches at the palace of Knossos reveal? * The palace of Knossos reveals the riches of the Minoan civilization.

First Greek Kingdoms * Mycenaeans came from central Asia * Invaded and conquered Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. * Mycenaean rulers became 1 st Greek kings * Warriors became nobles * Ruled the conquered people * Mycenaeans were named by Heinrich Schliemann * Discovered walled palace in Mycenae in late A.D. 1800s

Mycenaeans * Mycenaeans were ruled by kings (Monarchy) * Center of the kingdom was a palace on a hill * Protected by huge stone walls * Beyond palace were * Farms/estates * Belonged to nobles * Slaves and farmers lived on estates * Took shelter inside the palace in times of danger

Mycenaeans * Mycenaean palaces had a lot of activity * Artisans * Tanned leather * Sewed clothes * Made jars for * Wine * Olive oil * Bronze swords * Ox-­‐hide shields * Government officials * Kept track of the wealth of every person * Collected taxes: * Wheat * Livestock * honey

Power from Trade and War * After Mycenaeans set up their kingdoms, Minoan traders visited * Learned about Minoan culture * Copied Minoan work with bronze and shipbuilding * Learned how to navigate using sun and stars * Worshipped Earth Mother, Minoans’ chief goddess

Power from Trade and War * 1400 B.C., Mycenaeans replace Minoans and major power of Mediterranean * Traded widely from Egypt to southern Italy * Possibly conquered Crete and other islands * Trade made Mycenaeans wealthy * They were proud of victories in battle * Most famous victory: Trojan War * Agamemnon used trickery to win the war

Dark Age * 1200 B.C., Mycenaeans begin to decline * Earthquakes and fighting among kingdoms destroyed hilltop palaces * 1100 B.C., Mycenaean civilization collapsed * Years between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. difficult time for Greeks (Dark Age) * Overseas trade declines * Poverty takes over * Farmers grow little food * People stop teaching writing and craftwork * Greeks forgot their written language and how to make many things

Dark Age * During the Dark Age, Greeks move from the mainland to the islands of the Aegean Sea * Other Greeks move to Asia Minor * Wave of movement spread Greek culture * Dorians – Greek-­‐speaking people * Settled in the southwest on the Peloponnesus * Brought iron weapons and farming tools * Cheaper and stronger than bronze

Geography Skills * Look at the map on Page 337 * In what direction did the Greeks go when they moved to the western shores of Asia Minor? * They moved east. * In what towns did the Greeks settle in Asia Minor? * They settled in Troy and Miletus.

Dark Age * Stronger tools allowed farmers to produce a surplus of food again * Trade is revived * New way of writing is developed * Picked up from the Phoenicians * Trading partners along eastern portion of Mediterranean * Greek Alphabet had 24 letters * Each letter stood for a different sound * Greek writing was much simpler than before * Tales and stories from storytellers (oral tradition) written down

Check * Who became the major trading power in the Mediterranean around 1400 B.C.? * The Mycenaeans became the major trading power in the Mediterranean around 1400 B.C.. * Why were the Mycenaeans able to become a major power in the Mediterranean region? * The Mycenaeans traded widely and fought and conquered nearby islands * What happened to Greek writing during the Dark Age? * It was no longer used and eventually forgotten.

The Polis * The idea of citizenship develops in the Greek city-­states* End of Dark Ages, nobles owned large estates * Created city-­‐states * City or town and the surrounding countryside (farms) * Known as a Polis – tiny independent country

The Polis * Main gathering place was usually a fortified hill * Called: Acropolis * Provided safe refuge in times of attack * Served as a religious center * Temples and altars were built there to honor the gods and goddesses * Below Acropolis – Agora * An open area with 2 functions: * Market * Meeting place for debate * Beyond Agora * Farmland belonging to the city-­‐state

The Polis * City-­‐states varied in size * Location determined the size * A few square miles to hundreds of square miles * Athens was the largest * 500 B.C. – 300,000 people lived there * Most were small and very independent

Greek Citizenship * Each city-­‐state was run by its citizens * Citizens – members of a political community * Everyone is treated as equal * Everyone has equal rights and responsibilities * Citizenship requirements: * Free, native-­‐born men * Landowner * Some like Athens dropped this requirement * Greeks were 1 st to develop idea of citizenship * Viewpoint of citizens: * City-­‐state is made up of their lands, their responsibility to run it * Slaves and foreign-­‐born residents could not become citizens * Women and children might qualify for citizenship * They did not have any of the rights that came with citizenship

Greek Citizenship * Rights of Citizenship: * Gather in agora to choose officials and pass laws * Right to vote * Right to hold office * Right to own property * Right to defend themselves in court * Trial by jury * Duties of Citizenship: * Serve in government * Serve on jury * Fight as citizen soldiers

Citizens as Soldiers * In early Greece, nobles riding horses and chariots fought wars * Citizenship changed the military system * 700 B.C., city-­‐states depended on armies of ordinary citizens – hoplites * Fought on foot, heavily armed * Round shield * Short sword * 9-­‐foot spear * Fought together in rows – Phalanx * Citizen soldiers took pride in fighting for city-­‐state * Loyalties also divided the city-­‐states

Greek Phalanx

Check * How did citizenship make the Greeks different from other ancient peoples? * Other ancient peoples were the subjects of kings and had no rights. * They also had little or no say in the government. * How did the military system change as the idea of citizenship changed? * Instead of war being waged by nobles, city-­‐states began to depend on armies of ordinary citizens, hoplites.

Using Geography Skills * Turn to Page 342 * Which islands were home to Greek colonies? * Cyprus, Sicily, and Corsica were home to Greek colonies. * On which continents could Greek colonies be found? * Greek colonies could be found on Europe, Asia, and Africa. * What is the relationship between trade routes and the Greek colonies? * Colonies were established along the trade routes.

A Move to Colonize * After end of Dark Ages, population increases quickly * 700 B.C., city-­‐states could not produce enough grain * City-­‐states sent people to new territories outside of Greece – Colonies * A settlement in a new territory that stays closely linked to its homeland * As Greeks colonized, Greek culture spread * 750 B.C. to 550 B.C., Greeks spread throughout the Mediterranean: * Italy * France * Spain * North Africa * Western Asia

A Move to Colonize * Colonists traded with “Parent” city-­‐state * Grain * Metals * Fish * Timber * Slaves * Colonists received: * Pottery * Wine * Olive oil * 600 B.C., Greeks minted coins * Trade increases * Merchants exchange goods for currency

A Move to Colonize * Importing grain and other food allowed city-­‐states to support larger populations * Needed to protect colonies * Trade led to growth of industry * People in different areas specialize certain products * Pottery became popular in places with a lot of clay

Check * How did the founding of new colonies affect industry? * Colonies increased the demand for goods and specialization, which in turn led to the growth of industry. * How did early Greek civilizations use their natural surroundings to prosper and grow? * They used natural resources to make goods. * They used waterways to transport goods.

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