Ages 7-11 years - YMCA of Greater Toronto

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Ages 7-11 years - YMCA of Greater Toronto

ContentsAges 7 to 8Language (Behaviours & Activities) 4Motor/Physical Development (Behaviours & Activities) 5Cognitive Development (Behaviours & Activities) 6 -7Social/Emotional Development (Behaviours & Activities) 8Ages 9 to 11Language Development (Behaviours & Activities) 10Motor/Physical Development (Behaviours & Activities) 11Cognitive Development (Behaviours & Activities) 12Social/Emotional Development (Behaviours & Activities) 13Bibliography 143


Cognitive DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESDeveloping a sense of moral judgement, right andwrong. Developing confidence and feelings of selfworthwith a growing awareness and acceptance ofstrengths and short comings.The child learns some degree of self control. Learnsto live and cope with frustration.Allow opportunities for child to plan and implementdaily activities.Encourage feedback about outcomes.Be aware of obsessive concern regardingappearance, particularly weight.The child is able to envision a concept of selfregarding particular physical, social and emotionalcharacteristics. Focus on health and healthy lifestyle.A positive self-concept enables a person to feelgood about themselves leading to self-respect andincreased self-confidence.Create rules that have been agreed to by the groupwith a clear understanding of consequences.Acknowledge the accomplishment or task withpositive reinforcement and encouragement. Avoidnegative labels.Independence increases as they make friends awayfrom home, become interested in external eventsand experiences, and begin to want decision-makingcapabilities in keeping with what they learn otherchildren have.The personality of the child is affected by people andhow they react to him.Praise, encouragement and positive reinforcement.7


Behaviours & Activities for Children7–8 YEARSSocial/Emotional DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESPeers take on greater importance and are typicallysame-sex “best friends”. The peer group begins toinfluence the child’s behaviour and growth.Sex roles will begin to influence playCuriosity arises about the differences betweenthe sexes.Conflicts are generally settled verbally.Beginning to be self-critical and likes to dothings well.Likes to assume some responsibility.Very talkative, using language to direct, report,reason, and speculate.Children will play fairly well with others but willspend some time in solitary activity.Gets along well with his parents but better withhis friends.Allow opportunities for group work, problem-solving,sharing ideas, and roles (leading, following,listening). Provide activities for children to participatetogether, choosing their own groups.Provide variety in dramatic activities; includepuppetry, mime, roleplaying, improvisation, havingthe children direct the activity.Questions should be answered truthfully but not ingreat detail.When conflict arises, allow children time to listen toone another’s point of view and reach a mutuallyagreeable solution.Activities should place emphasis on participation,skill development and fair play ensuring all childrenfeel good about their accomplishments.Provide opportunities for children to demonstrateresponsibility. Mentoring programs, singing in/out,setting up/taking down activities, a variety of choresat home, are some ideas.Allow opportunities for the children to express themselvesand share their thoughts. Encourage the childrenby providing feedback and facilitating group discussions.Balance group and solitary play activities byproviding opportunities and choice.8Parents and adults are still considered the authority.Rules and guidelines should be developed with thechildren’s participation demonstrating respect for thechild’s opinion while maintaining safety and values.


Behaviours & Activities for Children9–11 YEARSLanguage DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESCan listen critically (detects flaws in reasoning ofothers, questions validity of conclusions, evaluates).Can appreciate the values and feelings expressedthrough prose, poetry and music.Ability to argue increases with ability to take anotherpoint of view.Sentences become more complex – uses when, if,because, and since, more frequently – canconsciously appraise and improve own speechhabits.Much more aware of choosing words toshare feeling.Rate of silent reading increases and surpasses rateof speech – oral reading may become difficultbecause of this.Provide time for discussion and “debriefing”experiences.Provide opportunities to express reactions to artforms. Stories that take place in different timeperiods are helpful for creative outlets.Provide creative opportunities to examine other sidesof an issue – helpful during group conflict.Provide opportunity for self-evaluation and “causeand effect” discussions – useful when dealing withresults of individual or group actions (on feelingsfor example).Talk about the “weight” of such things ascompliments (or putdowns).Be patient and explain the natural process that isoccurring. Be sensitive to situations which might bevery uncomfortable.10


Motor/Physical DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESTremendous energy consumed (often hungry).May give little thought to other body needs exceptwhen hurt or tired.Body growth slows down until just before pubertywhen it accelerates (ages 10-11).Girls are 12-15 months ahead in development.Right/left dominance established and manipulativeskills increase.Hand/eye coordination well-developed –now children are ready for skill-building.Late in phase boys and girls may be veryfidgety, squirmy.Generally very healthy.Be very careful to ensure that proactive healthmeasures are taken (eating, liquids, sunscreen).Ask for feedback often.Be aware that children may be unsure of whatis happening to them – offer support andexplanation that different and changing rateof growth are natural.Be sensitive to changing peer relations as physicalchanges create differences – talk about naturaldifferentiation in development.Introduce games and activities which give practice infine motor skills.Begin introducing activities and skills requiring morecomplex movements and thought patterns.Be sensitive to activity length and amount of varietyin format.11


Behaviours & Activities for Children9–11 YEARSCognitive DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESBeginning to distinguish differences between privateand public life (realizes privacy of own thoughts).Shows an understanding of reason/consequence.Ability to argue increases with ability to take anotherpoint of view.Able to sort and organize ideas as well as objects.Can conduct more complex, controlled experimentsbecause of ability to deal with an increasing numberof variables.Early in phase may have some difficultydistinguishing between own ideas (based onpersonal perception) and fact (based on reason).Makes and carries out plans.Understands change, e.g. can reason aboutadaptation to environment and interdependenceof living things.Can use models, graphs, and symbols tosolve problems.Can begin to talk about the meaning of personalvalues and conflict with peer norms.Debriefing “negative” group experiences throughexamination of cause and effect rather than focusingon the people involved.Provide opportunities to discuss ideas andexamine issues.Provide activities involving classification andhealthy debate.Revisit routine things while making observations –make finding cause and effect a game.Help group set clear ground rules during“brainstorming” to ensure that creative ideas arenot “shot down” – allow a group centred processfor eventual evaluation based on reason.Give group challenges, initiatives, or project.Begin to give opportunities for children to seechanges and learn about natural processes.Encourage making written plan using maps forexploration and diagramming ideas.12


Social/Emotional DevelopmentBEHAVIOURSACTIVITIESIs eager, enthusiastic, and anxious to win.Is developing perseverance – but interests maybe short-lived.Is interested in finding out how things work(by examining and manipulating).Is becoming more skilled at evaluating own ideas.Begins to doubt and become sensitive about self.Is learning about individuality through peers –by end of this phase physical changes maycause outbursts, fighting, and tears.Gang spirit and influence strong – wants to belike others.Looked up to by younger children.Activities organized and own rules developed –realizes need for cooperation and mutualunderstanding.Channel competitive energy into activities whichrequire the group to “win” without an individualor another group “losing”.Praise small victories and slowly build up to larger(or more complex) goals.Provide tools for creative exploration ofthe environment.Encourage “brainstorming” and creativeproblem-solving.Provide activities which illustrate the benefits ofpeople with different skills.Ensure activities provide for success regardless ofphysical stage. Games emphasizing precisecoordination can hurt self-esteem.Emphasize the responsibility that comes with thefreedom to make choices.Provide opportunities for leadership.Facilitate groups through processes which encouragepositive group decision and norm making.13


BibliographyMiller, Karen, 1995.Ages and StagesReschly, Barbara, 1994.Supporting the Changing FamilyA Guide to Parent to Parent ModelCole, Micheal and Shiela, 1990.The Development of Children, Second EditionBaker, Cowan and Bonnie, 1979.For the Love of Kids, Canadian Living14


Mission: The YMCA of Greater Toronto is a charity offering opportunities forpersonal growth, community involvement and leadership.Vision: The YMCA of Greater Toronto will focus on making connections:connecting people, connecting with youth, and connecting withthe community.Values: Caring • Health • Honesty • Inclusiveness • Respect • ResponsibilityYour YMCA’s charitable registration number is 11930 7080 RR0001

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