Immigration, Religion, and the Extreme Right Vote - Kai Arzheimer

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Immigration, Religion, and the Extreme Right Vote - Kai Arzheimer

ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (1/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryTwo weeks ago:◮ Voting for the Extreme Right driven by the same mechanisms◮ As voting for other parties (ideological proximity)◮ Next to nil support for a (pure) protest hypothesisThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (3/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryToday: Class Test◮ Purpose: Get you reading (I’m not allowed to partially baseyour mark on it)The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (4/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryToday: Class Test◮ Purpose: Get you reading (I’m not allowed to partially baseyour mark on it)◮ Success! You read (and hopefully understood) more than Ihad expectedThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (4/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryToday: Class Test◮ Purpose: Get you reading (I’m not allowed to partially baseyour mark on it)◮ Success! You read (and hopefully understood) more than Ihad expected◮ So: why waste our time when we can do Immigrants andReligion today?◮ I.e.: no class test!The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (4/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryImmigration fears◮ Immigration of Non-West-Europeans became central issue forall parties of the Extreme RightExtreme Right vote closely correlated with◮ Support for anti-immigration policies◮ Negative attitudes towards immigrants◮ But what is behind it?The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (5/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryImmigration fears◮ Immigration of Non-West-Europeans became central issue forall parties of the Extreme RightExtreme Right vote closely correlated with◮ Support for anti-immigration policies◮ Negative attitudes towards immigrants◮ But what is behind it?◮◮◮◮◮Fear?Hate?Competition?Economic considerationsA realistic view of state capacities?◮ Are all the Extreme Right parties equally xenophobic (e. g.Vlaams Blok vs. Norwegian Progress Party)?The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (5/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryFour immigration frames◮ Remember: Frames = intellectual devices forinterpreting/defining social/political problems◮ Four prominent immigration frames:1. Immigrants as a threat to national identity2. Immigration fostering crime and social unrest3. Immigration as a cause of unemployment4. Immigrants as welfare cheats◮ First two frames: ethnopluralism◮ Frames 3&4: welfare chauvinism◮ Diverging use/appeal in different countriesThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (6/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryTypes of anti-immigrant attitudes◮ Very strong link between anti-immigrant attitudes andExtreme Right vote◮ Less than 3 per cent of the voters of the Extreme Right want“many immigrants”◮ 90%+ of the Extreme Right voters want “only a few”immigrants◮ But: different type of anti-immigrant attitudes/immigrationcritics◮ Racists◮ Xenophobes◮ Immigration sceptics◮ Non-symmetric overlap between categoriesThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (7/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryTypes of anti-immigrant attitudesRacistsXenophobesImmigration ScepticsThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (7/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummarySay what?Xenophobia: “Fear of strangers or guests”◮ All people should live amongst their own kind◮ Hostility/fear towards strangers◮ But only if they come too close to own groupand threaten identityThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (8/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummarySay what?Xenophobia: “Fear of strangers or guests”◮ All people should live amongst their own kind◮ Hostility/fear towards strangers◮ But only if they come too close to own groupand threaten identityRacism: Fundamental inequality of groups◮ Traditional (biological) racism: hierarchy basedon genetic makeup◮ Modern (cultural) racism: based on culture,formal equality◮ But intermingling still dangerous/evilThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (8/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummarySay what?Xenophobia: “Fear of strangers or guests”◮ All people should live amongst their own kind◮ Hostility/fear towards strangers◮ But only if they come too close to own groupand threaten identityRacism: Fundamental inequality of groups◮ Traditional (biological) racism: hierarchy basedon genetic makeup◮ Modern (cultural) racism: based on culture,formal equality◮ But intermingling still dangerous/evilImmigration Sceptics: Simply want to stop/limit immigrationThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (8/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummary(Limited) evidence◮ Simple model of voting for the Extreme Right (table 1)◮ Immigration scepticism: allow no/few immigrants◮ Xenophobia: Immigrant as boss/wifeThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (9/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummary(Limited) evidence◮ Simple model of voting for the Extreme Right (table 1)◮ Immigration scepticism: allow no/few immigrants◮ Xenophobia: Immigrant as boss/wife◮ Boss/wife indicator has (often) no significant effect onceimmigration scepticism is controlled for◮ Xenophobia less crucial than expected?◮ Problems?The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (9/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummary(Limited) evidence◮ Simple model of voting for the Extreme Right (table 1)◮ Immigration scepticism: allow no/few immigrants◮ Xenophobia: Immigrant as boss/wife◮ Boss/wife indicator has (often) no significant effect onceimmigration scepticism is controlled for◮ Xenophobia less crucial than expected?◮ Problems?◮ Two indicators for xenophobia◮ High degree of overlap◮ MulticollinearityThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (9/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryWhich frames do work?◮ Immigration and crime◮ National identity◮ Less success with welfare chauvinist framesThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (10/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryWhat role for religion?◮ Muslims singled out amongst immigrants◮ Yet West European countries highly secularised◮ Many Extreme Right parties without strong links toChristianity◮ Many Extreme Right voters non-believers or very lukewarmChristians◮ Religion a pretext?The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (11/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryWhat role for religion?◮ Muslims singled out amongst immigrants◮ Yet West European countries highly secularised◮ Many Extreme Right parties without strong links toChristianity◮ Many Extreme Right voters non-believers or very lukewarmChristians◮ Religion a pretext?◮ “Religiosity” a complex phenomenon◮ Visible and private practice◮ Inner spirituality vs. (historically) conforming with norms◮ Core teachings and individual beliefsThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (11/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryPossible links between religion and the Extreme Right1. Religious people are less likely to vote for the radical rightbecause they are firmly attached to Christian Democratic orconservative parties2. Direct effects2.1 Religious people are less likely to vote for the radical rightbecause they are less likely to adopt negative attitudes towardsimmigrants2.2 Religious people are more likely to vote for the radical rightbecause they are more likely to adopt negative attitudestowards immigrants;3. All direct relationships between religion and the vote arespurious (e. g. due to socio-demographic profiles)The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (12/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryData and methods◮ Data: European Social Survey 2002/2003 (just like Rydgren)◮ Method: Simultaneous Equation Modelling◮ Various links between variables are modelled simultaneously◮ Can deal with all sorts of variables◮ Can handle latent variables and measurement modelsThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (13/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryEnter the Modelrwa 1 rwa 2 rwa 3 rwa ...Right Wing AttitudesSocio-DemographicsRadical Right VotePID (CD)Religiousnessrel 1 rel 2 rel 3 rel 41. Squares stand for observed variables, circles/ovals represent latent constructs.2. “Socio-Demographics” refers to class (a dummy for workers and petty bourgeoisie),Age (dummies for being under 30 or above 65), gender, and level of formal education.The respective effects of these four variables are estimated seperately.3. Arrows for the residuals are not shown for lack of space.The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (14/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryResults◮ Women and older citizens more religious◮ Education has a strong negative effect on right-wing attitudes◮ Religiosity has basically no effect on right-wing attitudesThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (15/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryResults◮ Women and older citizens more religious◮ Education has a strong negative effect on right-wing attitudes◮ Religiosity has basically no effect on right-wing attitudes◮ But: Religiosity has strong positive effect on CD/conservativeparty ID → probability of ER vote massively reduced◮ Socio-demographics have no effect once attitudes arecontrolled forThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (15/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummarySummary◮ Different types of anti-immigrant sentiment/frames◮ Complex role of religionThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (16/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryClass questions◮ Which of the four frames (national identity, crime,unemployment, welfare) is particularly relevant for whichcountry/party?◮ Can you summarise, in your own words, the core findings onthe effect of religion?The Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (17/18)


ReviewImmigrantsReligionSummaryThe Kentish Town (Camden) Community Centreexperience◮ Streetfights between white, Indian, Pakistaniboys◮ What can be done regarding race/religiontensions?◮ Chair: local Labour councillor◮ Groups: left-libertarian whites, Muslimimmigrants from Pakistan, Hindu immigrantsfrom India, working class whitesThe Extreme Right in Western Europe Immigrants/Religion (18/18)

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