The Global Watercrisis

The Global Watercrisis

The Global Watercrisis


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Global</strong> Water Crisis-A worldwide overview of theglobal water problemsand solutionsby Dirk Glas, PROTOS Belgium1

Problems1. Water resources ......unequal distribution2. Big demand for fresh water3. Too much / Too little water (Climate change)4. Unsafe water – Hygiene and sanitation5. Power and tensions6. Too little political attention for waterPROTOS

1: Water resourcesFreshWater on earthSalineFresh water0,26 % of global watervolume = 3,6 million km³=> cube 154 x 154 x154 kmAvailable water = 0,26 %(rivers, lakes, reservoirs)./.

Rainfall volumeSource: SASI group Univ of SheffieldPROTOS

Water UseSource: SASI group Univ of SheffieldPROTOS

… unequal distributionAmazone : 17% of the world water resourcesCongo watershed = 1/3 of the African water resourcesChina: 5% of the world resourcesNorth-Afrika + Middle East = 2%PROTOS

42.700 km³/yearHuman 1/3: 16.000 km³/yearEco-system 2/3= 2.460m³/year/pers or= 6.740 l/day/persPROTOS

Scarcity < 1500 l/day Extreme scarcity < 500 l/dayPROTOS

2: Water stress1900 1950 1990 2010Evolution of the demand for water

Source: United Nations, Human Development Report 2006PROTOS

Indirect Water:In the West: from 5.000 to 7.000 l / day(world average 3.500 liter/d/p)1 kg wool = 500 liters1 chocolate bar = 2.400 liters1 kg rice = 2.000 to 5.000 liters1 pair of jeans = 10.000 to 11.000 liters1 kg red meat = 15.000 liters1 kg wheat = 625 liters1 cotton T-shirt = 2.700 liters1 cup of coffee = 140 liters ./..What to grow in countries with water stressPROTOS

Average national water footprint per capita (m3/cap/yr) -1997- 2001Water consumption external sources Holland: 80% - Japan 65%PROTOS

3: Too much/ too little rainfallPROTOS

Effects of climate changeMore heat (more evaporation)More energy (winds – hurricanes)- Too little or too much rain-- Unpredictable rain patterns-=> impact on agriculturePROTOS


4: Unsafe water- hygiene- sanitationPROTOS

Access to drinking waterSource JMP WHO/Unicef 2010MDG DW world wide on track butSub-Sahara Africa: 119 Million people won’t have accessPROTOS

SanitationMDG SAN worldwide: +/- 1 billion won’t have acces to safesanitationPROTOS

5: Tensions• Upstream > < downstream• Between countries and region.....• Different water usersPROTOS

6: Water: no political issueCorruption and fraud increase the investments inwater / sanitation with 30 % (cf. WIN) ./..Investment in Water + sanitation in Africaby the governments < 0,5% van GNI+/- 40% of all water used in food production is lost –inefficient water usePROTOS

NO WATER=NO DEVELOPMENTNo chances=No development=No growty=No incomePOVERTYPROTOS

BALANCE= 2.6 billion: no acces to sanitation= 900 million: no acces to drinking water= 80% of all deseases waterborne= 4/5 pays too much: time, quality, income (up to 10 %)PROTOS


Φ Sustainable use° Use less° Waste less° Pollute lessPROTOS

Φ More collaboration° Partnerships (public-public but also public-private undercertain conditions : water is a public good)° Participation of users in planning, decisions,implementing , management° Pro poor strategyPROTOS

Φ More financial inputIn developing countries < 0,5 %, should be 1 %By donors : for the moment < 4 % of the funding,should become 6 %Local financing – solidarityPROTOS

Φ Invest in sanitation° Mentality change° Training° Infrastructure

Φ Attention for effects ofclimate change° Reduce emission° Adaptive measures

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