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Manual on Curriculum Development (English) - Police Reform ...

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FINAL DRAFTInstructors’ <str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g>Training <str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g> <strong>on</strong>CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTDurati<strong>on</strong>: 05 days<strong>Police</strong> <strong>Reform</strong> Programme


Course outline for<strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & DeliveryGoal:Enhance knowledge, attitude and skills of Master Trainers <strong>on</strong> curriculum developmentDurati<strong>on</strong>: 05 daysParticipants: Master Trainers of the <strong>Police</strong> AcademyC<strong>on</strong>tents:• Introducti<strong>on</strong>• Our Experiences <strong>on</strong> <strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & Training• Understanding the Terminologies related to <strong>Curriculum</strong>• <strong>Curriculum</strong> and its Elements• Training Needs Assessment/Validati<strong>on</strong>• Objectives Formulati<strong>on</strong> & C<strong>on</strong>tent Selecti<strong>on</strong>• C<strong>on</strong>tent Selecti<strong>on</strong> with Practice sessi<strong>on</strong>• Overview of Methods & Techniques• <strong>Development</strong> & Use of Tools & Materials• Less<strong>on</strong> Plans: C<strong>on</strong>cept, importance and steps• Group Formati<strong>on</strong> and C<strong>on</strong>tents Selecti<strong>on</strong>• <strong>Development</strong> of Less<strong>on</strong> Plans including Handouts• Presentati<strong>on</strong> of the Less<strong>on</strong> Plans• Develop a General Secti<strong>on</strong> for a <strong>Curriculum</strong>• Finalizati<strong>on</strong> of a <strong>Curriculum</strong> with Presentati<strong>on</strong> and feedback• Open Sessi<strong>on</strong>2


A. Guideline for Usage of ModulePlanning Meeting before the beginning of the CourseA Planning Meeting need to be organized before the course and the following issues required to bediscussed and decided:• Goals and objectives of the Course• Planning <strong>on</strong> the Course• Roles and Resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities of trainers and• Arrangements during the sessi<strong>on</strong>s.A Check-list also needs to be framed. An idea of the check list is given below:CHECK-LISTAscertain the characteristics of the participantsPreparati<strong>on</strong> for the opening and c<strong>on</strong>cluding sessi<strong>on</strong>sC<strong>on</strong>firm the attendance of the participantsArrange for necessary funds, if requiredCollecti<strong>on</strong> of all materials and prepare them according to the requirements of the course, ifnecessaryPrepare the Name TagsCopy the schedule and Handouts for distributi<strong>on</strong>Arrange a proper venue for the coursePrepare the banner, if necessaryArrange for Chairs and Tables for the course, according to necessityHire sound systems, if necessaryOrganize the transportati<strong>on</strong> and food for the participants and trainers/facilitators, andDistributi<strong>on</strong> of resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities according to the requirement.4


Opening and C<strong>on</strong>cluding Sessi<strong>on</strong>sThe Course should be commenced and closed with a simple & brief functi<strong>on</strong>. But, if you think thatthis is not necessary then you may start the course straight from the Introductory Sessi<strong>on</strong>.Venue for the Training Course• The training room should be spacious with ample lights & air.• It is better to locate the venue/training room a little away of the main road, so that thecourse activity will not be disturbed due to the sound of transports/vehicles• The size of the room need to be wide enough so that the participants could sit in a U-shape formati<strong>on</strong>. But, sitting arrangements could also be changed according to the reality& necessity.• There should be proper space to accommodate VIPP (Visualizati<strong>on</strong> In ParticipatoryProgram) board/ White board/ Black board, according to the necessity of the course.• There should be enough space <strong>on</strong> the wall for visualizati<strong>on</strong> if there are no such boards.• Proper space is required for the group work by the participants, and• It has to be ascertained that there are drinking water and toilet/wash room facilities in andaround the training room.Two formati<strong>on</strong>s of sitting arrangements for the participants are given below:Registrati<strong>on</strong> of the Participants’The Participants need to be registered right <strong>on</strong> the first day of the training. A registrati<strong>on</strong> formshould be prepared before hand for this purpose. Participants could be given name tags after theregistrati<strong>on</strong>, if possible and if required.5


Required quality and skills of the Trainer/FacilitatorMust have clear c<strong>on</strong>cepti<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> the subject, but s/he should not show the attitude that s/heknows everything.Ability to create easy & friendly envir<strong>on</strong>ment.Ability to attend the questi<strong>on</strong>s, comments and opini<strong>on</strong>s of the participants’.Need to have the skill to ask proper questi<strong>on</strong>s and explain the issues.Patience.Ability to show respect/h<strong>on</strong>or to the participants’.Must have human qualities.Able to ensure participati<strong>on</strong> of all.Ability to apply all the methods and processes of the training course, andAble to think that I am also a trainee.Methods of C<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> the Sessi<strong>on</strong>sThe training sessi<strong>on</strong>s need to be c<strong>on</strong>ducted in a way that all the trainees can participate in all thediscussi<strong>on</strong>s through mutual communicati<strong>on</strong> am<strong>on</strong>gst themselves. The training would be c<strong>on</strong>ductedin participatory method so that the participants’ may apply their experience in order to make thecourse effective, successful & fruitful.Strategy of dividing the Participants’ in to GroupsThere are many methods to divide the participants in to small groups. Some examples are givenbelow, but they are not limited to and the trainers/facilitators’ may use other methods as well byusing their creative thinking:• Participants’ could be asked to call their numbers like 1-4, if you want to divide them in fourgroups. All 1’s would be in <strong>on</strong>e group and like-wise the other numbers will also be dividedin to separate groups according to the numbers they have called.• Another method could be: write the names of the rivers, flowers, fruits and birds <strong>on</strong> cardsaccording to the number of participants’ and distribute the cards through a lottery and <strong>on</strong>random basis. Then you will get 4 groups of people according to names written <strong>on</strong> thecard e.g. group of birds, rivers, flowers & fruits.6


Materials to be used during the TrainingThe module plan c<strong>on</strong>sists of name of the materials to be used sessi<strong>on</strong> by sessi<strong>on</strong> e.g. Markers,Boards and Cards. Other or substitute materials could also be used if the above menti<strong>on</strong>edmaterials are not available. For example: walls could be used in place of a board, coloredpaper/poster/papers could be used in place of VIPP Cards and Sign Pen could be used in place ofmarkers.Trainer/Facilitator may also wish to prepare the materials according to their needs and realities.Some suggesti<strong>on</strong>s to c<strong>on</strong>duct the Sessi<strong>on</strong>sWelcome the participants’ and exchange greetings with them.Present the topics in an easy, nice manner and with sp<strong>on</strong>taneity.C<strong>on</strong>duct the sessi<strong>on</strong>s with self-c<strong>on</strong>fidence.Assist the participants’ to get out of their shyness.Ensure participati<strong>on</strong> of all in the activities of the Course.Provide assistance in group works.Relate the previous sessi<strong>on</strong> with the current sessi<strong>on</strong>.Extend importance <strong>on</strong> the experience and values of the participants’ <strong>on</strong> the topic, andSummarize every sessi<strong>on</strong> at the end.7


B. Detailed Sessi<strong>on</strong> Plan with Handouts8


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-01Title: Introducti<strong>on</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able to• Introduce each other• Describe the objectives, process, schedule, house/ground rules of thecourse• Assess their basic knowledge <strong>on</strong> curriculum developmentDurati<strong>on</strong>: 90 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Metods Materials Time01. Opening Remarks Lecture Multi mediaprojector &15 minutesscreen01. Participants introducti<strong>on</strong> Group image Flipsheet,marker, board35 minutes02. Course introducti<strong>on</strong> Visualised Flipsheet , card,presentati<strong>on</strong> marker, board20 minutes03. Base assessment Pre-test Questi<strong>on</strong>naires 20 minutesThe Process:Step-01: Inaugurati<strong>on</strong>• Welcome the participants with some relevant and inspiring words and also deliver thebackground informati<strong>on</strong> of the course.• Invite the guest(s) for their valuable speech• C<strong>on</strong>clude the opening sessi<strong>on</strong> by inviting all for tea9


Step-02: Participants introducti<strong>on</strong>• Ask the participants to draw an image <strong>on</strong> the following issuesHow would you like to expose/distinguish yourself as aTrainer/<strong>Curriculum</strong> Developer?• Allocate 07 minutes for individual thinking and drawing an image• After the allocated time, invite the participants’ to find out friends who have drawn thesame or similar picture/image.• Then divide the participants into several groups based <strong>on</strong> the same/similar images and tellthem to share the reas<strong>on</strong>s to draw a comm<strong>on</strong> image of the group.• Some of the images may not match with any<strong>on</strong>e. They can also form a group and candiscuss to draw a comm<strong>on</strong> image.• Allow the participants’ a 15 minutes time in order to develop the group images. After thatinvite the groups to present their image with explanati<strong>on</strong> and introduce themselves (byName, positi<strong>on</strong> & working area)• After the presentati<strong>on</strong> of each group the facilitators also introduce themselves.Step- 03 : Course introducti<strong>on</strong>• After the introducti<strong>on</strong>, give a clear picture regarding the course e.g. objectives, process,schedule and house/ground rules of the course through visualized presentati<strong>on</strong>. (Annex1.1)• Ask the participants’ whether they have any questi<strong>on</strong>? Answer the questi<strong>on</strong>s if they haveany.Step- 04 : Base assessment• After course introducti<strong>on</strong> distribute the pre-test questi<strong>on</strong>naire (Annex-1.2) am<strong>on</strong>g theparticipants and allow them 20 minutes to fulfill the sheets• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by thanking all.Annex-1.110


Objective:• Foster comm<strong>on</strong> understanding <strong>on</strong> the curriculum and its development process• Enhance practical skills <strong>on</strong> curriculum development• Cultivate appropriate and resp<strong>on</strong>sive attitude for developing a standard curriculum forBangladesh <strong>Police</strong>Program:Day-0109:00 - Introducti<strong>on</strong>10:30 - Tea Break11:00 - Our Experiences <strong>on</strong><strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> &Training12:00 - Understanding theTerminologies related to<strong>Curriculum</strong>01:00 - Lunch Break02:00 - <strong>Curriculum</strong> and its Elements03:30 - Tea Break04:00 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued04:30 - End of the DayDay-0209:00 - Recap09:45 - Training Needs Assessment11:00 - Tea Break11:30 - Objectives Formulati<strong>on</strong> &C<strong>on</strong>tent Selecti<strong>on</strong>12:15 - Practice sessi<strong>on</strong>01:15 - Lunch Break02:15 - Overview of Methods &Techniques03:15 - Tea Break03:45 - <strong>Development</strong> & Use of Tools &Materials04:45 - End of the dayDay-0309:00 - Recap09:45 - Less<strong>on</strong> Plans: C<strong>on</strong>cept andsteps10:30 - Tea Break11:00 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tinued11:45 - Group Formati<strong>on</strong> and C<strong>on</strong>tentsSelecti<strong>on</strong>01:00 - Lunch Break02:00 - Preparing Less<strong>on</strong> Plans withHandouts03:30 - Tea Break04:00 –Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued04:45 – End of the dayDay-0409:00 - Recap09:45 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued (Less<strong>on</strong>Plan <strong>Development</strong> withHandouts)10:30 - Tea Break11:00 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued01:00 - Lunch Break02:00 - Presentati<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> the Less<strong>on</strong>Plan03:30 - Tea Break04:00 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued04:45 - End of the dayDay-0509:00 – Recap09:45 - Develop a General Secti<strong>on</strong> for a<strong>Curriculum</strong>10:30 - Tea Break11:00 - Sessi<strong>on</strong> C<strong>on</strong>tinued01:00 - Lunch Break02:00 - Finalizati<strong>on</strong> of a <strong>Curriculum</strong> withPresentati<strong>on</strong> and Feedback03:30 – Course Evaluati<strong>on</strong>04:00 - C<strong>on</strong>cluding RemarksOFF11


C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for Working Together - Rules Believe that we all are friends with a comm<strong>on</strong> goal Be open and respectful to other's experiences/opini<strong>on</strong>s C<strong>on</strong>sider differences as opti<strong>on</strong>s/alternatives, not problems Be present and participate in full Have trust <strong>on</strong> the process Keep our mobile ph<strong>on</strong>es in silence mode12


Annex-1.2Total Marks: 30Questi<strong>on</strong> for pre-test and post testPut ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false:10 Marks• There is no need of TNA for any course• Inadequate subject knowledge do not hamper group discussi<strong>on</strong>• There is no relati<strong>on</strong> between training and physical facilities• In participatory training the participants are the key resources• For effective communicati<strong>on</strong> the role of both parties are equally important• <strong>Curriculum</strong> is the compilati<strong>on</strong> of some modules• There is no difference between module and less<strong>on</strong> plan• Sessi<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> process may not be included in the less<strong>on</strong> plan• Training materials never influence training methods• Trainer role is more important for participatory trainingFill in the blanks05 Marks• The first part of the curriculum is called…………………..• Training tools is also a kind of……………………..• TNA is expected performance – Existing performance = ……………………..• Another name of Daily Syllabus is………………………….• Evaluati<strong>on</strong> is a part of………………………..Write five stages of curriculum development process:10 Marks1. …………………………2. …………………………3. …………………………4. …………………………5. …………………………Identify learning materials and training tools?05 MarksVIPP Board, Flip chart, Marker, Script, Image, Handouts, Card, Written poster, Module, MultimediaTraining Tools/EquipmentsLearning Materials13


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-02Title: Our Experiences <strong>on</strong> <strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & TrainingObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 60 minutes• Revisit their experiences <strong>on</strong> curriculum (Module/Material) development &training• Prioritize the issues/areas, which are important for developing theirmodule/materials/<strong>Curriculum</strong>.Sessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Experiences <strong>on</strong> trainingc<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> & curriculumdevelopmentMind Mapping Brownpaper,flipsheet,marker30 minutes02. Priotizati<strong>on</strong> Dot matrix Dots 20 minutes03. Summarizati<strong>on</strong> Lecture10 minutesdiscussi<strong>on</strong>ProcessStep- 01: Experiences <strong>on</strong> training & curriculum development• Welcome the participants• Prepare the board/wall for mind mapping. Tell the participants that in police academy wec<strong>on</strong>duct a number of training and develop lots of curriculum. So we have l<strong>on</strong>g experiencesabout that.• Based <strong>on</strong> our experiences advice the participants to write down the points <strong>on</strong> the followingissue :Our experiences <strong>on</strong> curriculum development & training• The participants reflect their points/views After 05 minutes and the facilitator would thendevelop a mind map based <strong>on</strong> the reflecti<strong>on</strong>s by the participants’.14


• The mind map would take the shape as follows :Step- 02: Prioritizati<strong>on</strong>• The participants would be given 07 dots each to put <strong>on</strong> the important points as vote aftercreati<strong>on</strong> of the mind map. The participants’ will be able to put in maximum 03 votes <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>epoint, which they would think as more important for curriculum development process andthe rest dots should be put in <strong>on</strong> each single points.Step- 03: Summarizati<strong>on</strong>• After dot matrix, votes need to be quickly counted and then summarize the priorities thatsurfaced up through voting by the participants’.• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> with a vote of thanks.15


DifferentSessi<strong>on</strong>-03Title: Understanding the Terminologies related to <strong>Curriculum</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 60 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> Plan• Define & distinguish different terminologies which are used incurriculumStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials Time01. Different terminologies Study Circle Handout 60 minutesProcessStep- 01• Welcome the participants’• Divide the participants’ into 04 groups and distribute the handouts (annex-01), which arerelated to the curriculum development process. The issues of the handouts are:- G-01: course outline, less<strong>on</strong> , less<strong>on</strong> plan, schedule, handouts- G-02: module, manual, syllabus, Communicati<strong>on</strong>, Présentati<strong>on</strong>, Facilitati<strong>on</strong>,- G-03: sessi<strong>on</strong>, course : Pre-service Course, basic course, In-service course,Refresher course• Ask each group to read out the handout thoroughly. Allow 20 minutes time for group study• Invite each group to come forward and discuss/share their points with other groupmembers• After each presentati<strong>on</strong> ask for any questi<strong>on</strong>s or clarificati<strong>on</strong>s and help to resp<strong>on</strong>d thepresenter• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.16


Annex-03.01Understanding Training TerminologiesGroup-01Course outline:Course outline is an overview of a full course <strong>on</strong> sequential arrangement of title, goals/objectives,number of participants’ and category, durati<strong>on</strong>, c<strong>on</strong>tent points, methods and materials. The courseoutline will be developed before the less<strong>on</strong> plan development.Less<strong>on</strong>:Less<strong>on</strong>s are lowest learning units c<strong>on</strong>taining a piece of informati<strong>on</strong> delivered/shared in a sessi<strong>on</strong>.Less<strong>on</strong> Plan/Sessi<strong>on</strong> Guide:Less<strong>on</strong> Plan or Sessi<strong>on</strong> Guide is the written document <strong>on</strong> sequential arrangement of less<strong>on</strong>spresented with title, durati<strong>on</strong>, objectives, c<strong>on</strong>tent points, methods, materials and assessment tools.Less<strong>on</strong> plan or sessi<strong>on</strong> guide is the basic document for Trainers to follow in c<strong>on</strong>ducting a sessi<strong>on</strong>.Schedule:Training Schedule is the day specific program of a training course comprising of sessi<strong>on</strong>s by day,time including breaks. Schedule may also include name(s) of trainer/facilitator/resource pers<strong>on</strong> ofeach sessi<strong>on</strong>.Schedules can be of two types:Generic Schedule, normally part of the curriculum, is sequentially arranged program specific today, sessi<strong>on</strong>, durati<strong>on</strong>, etc.Functi<strong>on</strong>al Schedule in the program, to be followed, normally be developed prior to c<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> ofcourses, based <strong>on</strong> the generic schedule specifying date, time, sessi<strong>on</strong>s, breaks and if possible,name(s) of the facilitator/trainer/resource pers<strong>on</strong>.17


Group-02Module:Module is a compiled document c<strong>on</strong>taining mutually supportive/related less<strong>on</strong> plans under a broadsubject topped by a cover sheet with title, sessi<strong>on</strong>s and durati<strong>on</strong> menti<strong>on</strong>ed by hours.<str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g>:<str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g> is a compilati<strong>on</strong> of sequentially arranged c<strong>on</strong>tents of a course in detail. There are two typesof manuals:Trainer’s <str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g> will incorporate Sessi<strong>on</strong> specific c<strong>on</strong>tent, descripti<strong>on</strong> of the delivery process,sample materials and further reading references.Trainee’s <str<strong>on</strong>g>Manual</str<strong>on</strong>g> will c<strong>on</strong>centrate <strong>on</strong> learning c<strong>on</strong>tents with some note <strong>on</strong> further readingreference. This may also be a compilati<strong>on</strong> of handouts distributed during a course.Syllabus:The syllabus is generally applied to the listing c<strong>on</strong>tent, which is to be taught. It c<strong>on</strong>tains the maintopic heading, sub-headings, sessi<strong>on</strong> details and other teaching informati<strong>on</strong>.Communicati<strong>on</strong>COMMUNICATION is a process of transferring informati<strong>on</strong> and or message with meaning andhaving a purpose for an intended change. Types of communicati<strong>on</strong>: Intra (within self) Inter pers<strong>on</strong>al(Individual & group) Mass communicati<strong>on</strong> (Open, broad).Preseniati<strong>on</strong>A systematic delivery of informati<strong>on</strong> before the audience with a definite objective within a specifictime-frame. Presentati<strong>on</strong> can be different typed as oral, visual (pictoral/illustrative), written, musical,theatrical (drama/dance/recitati<strong>on</strong>s), audio-visual etc.Facilitati<strong>on</strong>In a word facilitati<strong>on</strong> is to provide support. It is a c<strong>on</strong>tinuous process of supporting participants tomake them capable in developing plans or solve problems c<strong>on</strong>sidering some issues by using theirexperiences18


Group-03Sessi<strong>on</strong>:Sessi<strong>on</strong> is an event where closely knitted less<strong>on</strong>s would be presented / shared in a sequentialorder with specific objectives within a limited time-frame.Course:A course is a time-bound learning-sharing interventi<strong>on</strong> comprised of required sessi<strong>on</strong>s with specificobjectives.Pre-service Course:These are qualifying courses prior to appointment and/or assignment arranged as a part ofc<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> for appointment and/or to be deemed as c<strong>on</strong>firmati<strong>on</strong> / regularizati<strong>on</strong>.Basic / Foundati<strong>on</strong> Course:Courses c<strong>on</strong>ducted following appointment to inform and educate the incumbents about theorganizati<strong>on</strong>, its visi<strong>on</strong>, missi<strong>on</strong>, goals, objectives, activities, rules / regulati<strong>on</strong>s, incumbent's roles /resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities and specific activities they are expected to perform or deliver against the positi<strong>on</strong>s/he recruited for.In-Service Training:Any course, internal or external, attended by a regular or c<strong>on</strong>firmed staff during <strong>on</strong>e's tenure ofservice for further enhancement of knowledge, attitudes and skill, known as in-service training.Orientati<strong>on</strong> Course:Learning / sharing event to familiarize participants about new / additi<strong>on</strong>al roles resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities,tasks, approaches and other developments related to the organizati<strong>on</strong> or the job is known asorientati<strong>on</strong> course.Refresher course:Course designed and c<strong>on</strong>ducted to refresh memories of the previous course or courses in line withthe experience gained during implementati<strong>on</strong>. These courses may also include certain and/or basicdevelopment with reflecti<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> the previous course.On-the-Job-TrainingTraining imparted to staff, in a planned manner, during <strong>on</strong>e's performing in a job, ideally, by her/hisimmediate supervisor or trainer. These trainings are basically practical and hands <strong>on</strong>.19


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-04Title: <strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> and its processObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong> : 120 minutes• Explain the c<strong>on</strong>cept of curriculum & its process• Describe how to develop a training curriculum step by step• Analyze a sample of a curriculumSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. C<strong>on</strong>cept of curriculum & its Brain storming, Flipsheet, 60 minutesprocessfish p<strong>on</strong>d ,PPT&presentati<strong>on</strong>marker02. Steps of a curriculum outline Brain storming, Poster paper, 20 minutesPoster writing markers03. A structure of a curriculum PlenarySample copy of 35 minutesdiscussi<strong>on</strong> the curriculum04. Learning review Questi<strong>on</strong>- answer 05 minutesProcessStep- 01• Welcome the participants. We have received a clear understanding about module, sessi<strong>on</strong>plan, schedule, etc. during the previous sessi<strong>on</strong>.• Now, in this sessi<strong>on</strong> we would try to focus <strong>on</strong> curriculum, what it is?• Then ask the participants to write in a notepad <strong>on</strong> what they understand about acurriculum. They can write anything that comes to their mind <strong>on</strong> curriculum. Allow them 05minutes time.• Now, divide the participants in to 03 groups to share the points am<strong>on</strong>g themselves andcome up with a statement written <strong>on</strong> a l<strong>on</strong>g card (5”x22” VIPP Card) about ‘what is acurriculum’. Allow them 5-7 minutes time for developing the statement/definiti<strong>on</strong>.• In the end or after the stipulated time, invite each group for presentati<strong>on</strong>.• Initiate a discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cept of curriculum & its basics by using slide presentati<strong>on</strong>(Annex-4.1) after the presentati<strong>on</strong> of all groups are completed.20


• Divide participants’ in to 04 groups and give 01 issue per each group against the questi<strong>on</strong>.• The questi<strong>on</strong> and the issues are: Which <strong>on</strong>e is the most important for curriculum development process?- Analyze- Design- Develop- Delivery- Evaluate• Each group prepare a no. of logic /points that their issue are more important than others• Allow 20 minutes time for group preparati<strong>on</strong> and ask them to select a group leader• Meantime, arrange a seating for group leader and an additi<strong>on</strong>al chair.• The sitting arrangement could be as follows:• After 20 minutes invite the leaders to come to the assigned chairs. Describe the processthat each group leader will have 3 minutes time to put forward their arguments againstothers.• After arguments from all 4 group leader any participants can take the additi<strong>on</strong>al chair andspeak for her/his group or against any other group 2 minutes while others listen and takenotes.• The group leaders will have 1 minute each to resp<strong>on</strong>d or summarize after their argumentsare c<strong>on</strong>cluded.• In the end ask the participants that-what we learnt from this debate?• Based <strong>on</strong> the answers of the participants’ draw c<strong>on</strong>cluding lines that all issues are equallyimportant for curriculum development process and this process is going to sequentially incyclic order.21


Step-02• Now discuss a structure of a curriculum• Write a poster <strong>on</strong> each step and discuss. Take necessary help from the handout(Annex-4.2)Step-03• Distribute a sample copy of the outline of curriculum and discuss thoroughly in the plenary.• Listen to any opini<strong>on</strong> /questi<strong>on</strong> from the participants.Step-04• Review the learning points by the following questi<strong>on</strong>s:- What is curriculum?- Basics of the curriculum- Structure of the curriculum• The sessi<strong>on</strong> comes to an end with vote of thanks.22


Annex-04.01What is <strong>Curriculum</strong>?• <strong>Curriculum</strong> is a body of knowledge to be transmitted• <strong>Curriculum</strong> is a document attempted to achieve certain end products (KAS-KnowledgeAttitude & Skills- leading to improved performance)• <strong>Curriculum</strong> is a compilati<strong>on</strong> of modules and/or less<strong>on</strong> plans of a course with a topsheet describing the title, goal, durati<strong>on</strong>, participants, names of modules,methodological approaches, material types, a generic schedule, assessment tools,etc. It can also include sessi<strong>on</strong> specific c<strong>on</strong>tent.<strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Process<strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Process has been given in the following diagram.AnalyzeEvaluateDesignDeliveryDevelop23


COURSE PLANNINGPLANNINGJob/Task AnalysisAnalyze Organizati<strong>on</strong>Analyze Potential TraineesIdentify Training Needs----------------------------------------------Formulate Training ObjectivesPLANNINGREFRESHER<strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong>Select C<strong>on</strong>tentsSelect MethodsDevelop MaterialsPrepare Sessi<strong>on</strong> PlanDevelop Tools forAssessmentManagementC<strong>on</strong>tact ParticipantsResource Pers<strong>on</strong>sMobilize FacilitiesProcure FundInternal /External SupportCompilati<strong>on</strong> of theModulePrepare a curriculumWith cover pageC<strong>on</strong>ducting CourseSchedulingAdministrati<strong>on</strong>Holding Sessi<strong>on</strong>sReviewsInternal Validity TestsReinforcementImmediate Evaluati<strong>on</strong>Performance AnalysisFollow-up Acti<strong>on</strong>s24


Steps of a <strong>Curriculum</strong>Annex-04.02Training Needs AssessmentObjectives Formulati<strong>on</strong>C<strong>on</strong>tent Identificati<strong>on</strong>Methods Selecti<strong>on</strong>Materials <strong>Development</strong>Sessi<strong>on</strong> Plan <strong>Development</strong>Sessi<strong>on</strong> Plan Compilati<strong>on</strong> &Module(y) <strong>Development</strong>Compilati<strong>on</strong> of ModuleFormulati<strong>on</strong> of <strong>Curriculum</strong>Structure of a curriculum outline• Cover page• Foreword• Acknowledgement• Background/Introducti<strong>on</strong>• Table of C<strong>on</strong>tents• Goal/Objective• Participants• Durati<strong>on</strong>• Guideline to use the <strong>Curriculum</strong>a. Organize & management of a courseb. C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for venue selecti<strong>on</strong>c. Applicati<strong>on</strong> of different methodsc. Tips for facilitatorsd. C<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> of Inaugural & C<strong>on</strong>cluding Sessi<strong>on</strong>• List of Module(s)a. Timetableb. Module specific Less<strong>on</strong> Plan including Hand Outs• Learning/course assessment• Abbreviati<strong>on</strong>/ Referrals25


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-05Title: Training Needs Assessment (TNA)Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 75 minutes• Explain what is training needs assessment and Its areas/steps• Identify tools and techniques of TNA• Practice to develop tools for TNASessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. TNA & its steps/areas Brain storming, Multi media, 20minutesPPT & Discussi<strong>on</strong> screen,02. Tools/Techniques Card writing (humgroup) andclustering03. Practice sessi<strong>on</strong> Group work,presentati<strong>on</strong> andfeedback04. Review learning Questi<strong>on</strong>naireanswerCards, markerA-4 paper ,handout20 minutes30 minutes05 minutesProcessStep- 01: TNA & tools / techniques• Welcome the participants• Ask the participants’ that TNA is the analyzing part of the curriculum development. Whenwe develop a curriculum first we c<strong>on</strong>duct TNA. In TNA process we go throughorganizati<strong>on</strong>al analysis, individual analysis, job analysis and tasks analysis.• Then discuss the TNA and its steps/areas through PPT (Annex-5.1)26


Step-02: Tools and techniques of TNA• Divided participants in to groups c<strong>on</strong>sisting 3 participants sitting side by side and supplythem 2 cards, each of different color ( pink and blue)• Ask the participants to write TNA techniques in blue card and TNA tool in pink card• Allow 5 minutes for group work• After the menti<strong>on</strong>ed time collect the cards, shuffle those and post <strong>on</strong> the board in clusters• After the card presentati<strong>on</strong> add some additi<strong>on</strong>al points by PPT (Annex-5.2)Step-03: Practice sessi<strong>on</strong> for tools development• Ask the participants that we discuss TNA tools and techniques now we practice to developTNA tools• Divide the participants into 03 groups after the discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> TNA and its tools andtechniques ask them to do the following tasks:- Group 01- Prepare a TNA questi<strong>on</strong>naire for management of the organizati<strong>on</strong>- Group 02- Prepare a TNA questi<strong>on</strong>naire for staff of the organizati<strong>on</strong>- Group 03- Prepare a TNA questi<strong>on</strong>naire for target audience of the organizati<strong>on</strong>• Allow them 20 minutes for group exercise• Invite representative of each group for presentati<strong>on</strong> followed by feedback sessi<strong>on</strong>• Add some questi<strong>on</strong>s/points from their presentati<strong>on</strong> (Annex-5.3)• Open the floor for few minutes for clarificati<strong>on</strong>Step-04: Review learning points• Summarize the whole sessi<strong>on</strong> and evaluate participants learning using the questi<strong>on</strong> below:- What is TNA- What are the areas/steps of TNA- It’s tools and techniques• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.27


Annex-5.1TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA)TNA is c<strong>on</strong>ducted to determine the needs of the target audience for training by using a variety oftools and techniques, <strong>on</strong> the required knowledge, attitude and skill against <strong>on</strong>e’s role, task andperformance.Expected Performance - Existing Performance = Gaps → Needs.Areas of TNA• Organizati<strong>on</strong>al Analysis• Performance Analysis• Job/Task Analysis• Group AnalysisOrganizati<strong>on</strong>al Analysis• Achievement of the organizati<strong>on</strong>al goals, resources, visi<strong>on</strong>, missi<strong>on</strong>, activities• Analysis of staffing inventory• Analysis of the skill inventory• Analyses of efficiency indices namely productivity, costs quality, wastes, late delivery andso <strong>on</strong>• Analysis of organizati<strong>on</strong>al climate (turn over, absenteeism rate etc.)• Feasibility study of the organizati<strong>on</strong> regarding accommodati<strong>on</strong>, logistics, etc. for thetrainees• Infrastructure Analysis: For the field training we must look for a ground, obstacles, firingrange etc.Performance analysis/Individual analysis• How well a specific employee is carrying out the tasks• What skills must be developed, if the staff members are to improve their job performance• What new skills, knowledge, and attitudes are required if an individual is to perform a newor different job• Trainers/Staffs accommodati<strong>on</strong>Job analysis: checklist• What are the key tasks the jobholder carries out? What results are expected for each ofthese tasks?• What knowledge and skills are required to do the job?• How much authority does the jobholder be measured?• Does the job present any special difficulties or problems to the jobholders?Group analysis• This approach includes exploratory interacti<strong>on</strong> with a group of well-informedemployees/supervisors including communities <strong>on</strong> different aspects of theorganizati<strong>on</strong>/service.• The employee, the employers or the service recipients are taken together/separately foridentifying gapes and needs28


Annex-5.2Methods + Techniques for TNA• Study of organizati<strong>on</strong>al documents• Analysis of records + reports• Performance tests/knowledge tests• Formal interview• Informal discussi<strong>on</strong>• Focus group discussi<strong>on</strong> (FGD)• Workshop /c<strong>on</strong>sultati<strong>on</strong>• Program/Performance Audit• Observati<strong>on</strong>• Skill testTools for TNA• Check-list• Questi<strong>on</strong>/Questi<strong>on</strong>naires• Work sample• Discussi<strong>on</strong> guidelines/issues• Records/reports, literatures29


Annex-5.3TNA Questi<strong>on</strong>naireFor the management• How l<strong>on</strong>g you are working in this positi<strong>on</strong>/organizati<strong>on</strong>?• What are your main roles in the organizati<strong>on</strong>?• Whom do you supervise?• What are their key resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities?• How far they are competent/skilled in doing their activities?• What are the capacity building activities for your staff?• Which are the weak points/limitati<strong>on</strong>s of your staff according to you?• What are the reas<strong>on</strong>s behind their limitati<strong>on</strong>?• What is your suggesti<strong>on</strong>/recommendati<strong>on</strong> to overcome their limitati<strong>on</strong>?• What sort of training is required for them according to you? Why?• Do you feel anything especially to be menti<strong>on</strong>ed here?For the staff• How l<strong>on</strong>g you are working in this organizati<strong>on</strong>?• What are your major resp<strong>on</strong>sibilities?• What other activities you need to do to complete your task?• Which activities do you like to perform?• Which activities you do not like?• What kinds of problem you face to perform your task?• Have you got any sort of training to perform the task?• What are the learning points from that training?• Which area you will prefer if you get a chance to receive training?• What are your expectati<strong>on</strong>s from this organizati<strong>on</strong>?For the audience• Have you ever taken any support from the organizati<strong>on</strong>/police stati<strong>on</strong>?• Have you ever visited a police stati<strong>on</strong>? Why and how many times?• Which activities they usually perform for the sake of the audience?• What sort of behavior they expose dealing with an audience?• Do you think that they are well equipped to provide better services for the audience? Ifyes/not, why?• Which competencies they must possess for performing their task?• What are their limitati<strong>on</strong>s according to you?• Which potential they have to do their job?• What sort of training is necessary for their betterment?• What is your expectati<strong>on</strong> from them?30


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-06Title: Objectives Formulati<strong>on</strong> and C<strong>on</strong>tent Selecti<strong>on</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 105 minutes• Formulate course and sessi<strong>on</strong> objectives• Write SMART objectives• Identify the c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for c<strong>on</strong>tents selecti<strong>on</strong>Sessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Formulate course and PPT presentati<strong>on</strong> Multimedia 20 minutessessi<strong>on</strong> objectives02. Write SMART objectives Brain storming &PPT presentati<strong>on</strong>Multimedia15 minutes03. C<strong>on</strong>tent Identificati<strong>on</strong> Flip sheetpresentati<strong>on</strong>Flipsheet,markers20 minutes04. Daily schedule/syllabus PPT presentati<strong>on</strong> Multimedia 10 minutes05. Learning review Questi<strong>on</strong>- answer 05 minutes31


ProcessStep- 01: Objectives formulati<strong>on</strong>• Welcome the participants• Ask the participants that the objectives of a course help the trainers to develop andc<strong>on</strong>duct training that provides the trainees with knowledge and skills.• Discuss about the objectives in different forms through PPT(Annex-6.1)Step- 02: SMART objectives• Ask the participants how to write SMART objectives?• Based <strong>on</strong> the answers discuss SMART objectives through an example. (Annex-6.2)Step-03: C<strong>on</strong>tent Identificati<strong>on</strong>• After the discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> objectives explain how to identify c<strong>on</strong>tents and c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s forselecti<strong>on</strong>.(Annex- 6.3)Step-04: Daily schedule• Now discuss how to develop a schedule in different types (Annex 6.3) Provide somesample copy of schedule (Annex 6.4)Step-05: Learning review• Review the summary of the whole sessi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> using the questi<strong>on</strong> below:- How to write goal and specific learning objectives?- What are the c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for c<strong>on</strong>tent identificati<strong>on</strong>?• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.32


Annex-6.1Formulati<strong>on</strong> of Course ObjectivesCourseGoalObjectives(KAS based)Specific Objectives(Sessi<strong>on</strong> wise)Sessi<strong>on</strong> Objectives must be S M A R TS - SpecificM - MeasurableA - Achievable/AttainableR - RealisticT - Time bound33


Goal:Statements that describe overall attainments of a course in general terms.Objective:Descripti<strong>on</strong> of segmented outputs of in terms of knowledge, attitude, skill against sessi<strong>on</strong>s.Specific Objectives:Expressi<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> learning achievements prefixed with behavioral/ observable acti<strong>on</strong> verbs.Vague VerbsKnowRealizeUnderstand FosterAppreciateHaveComprehendBe AwareFeelBelieveDoTellWriteDescribeListNarrateRunExplainActi<strong>on</strong>s VerbsDem<strong>on</strong>strateShowAnswerChooseOrganizeC<strong>on</strong>ductDrawDesign34


Annex-6.2SpecificSpecific means that the objective should state exactly what visible activity can the trainee performas a result of training. This suggests the use of acti<strong>on</strong> verbs in the statement of objective such as:to list, to draw, to assemble, to explain, to write, to select, to measure, and the like.MeasurableThe result of training must be measurable in terms of what the trainees could perform oraccomplish as a result of training. It can be measured using numbers, such as how many correctresp<strong>on</strong>ses were received when they were tested. This is <strong>on</strong>e of the trickiest parts, because thereare certain behaviors that are difficult to come up with standards. Criteri<strong>on</strong> or the minimum level ofcorrect resp<strong>on</strong>ses to a test may be specified in the statement.AttainableThe tasks or activities that sum up the desired behavior after training should be those that thetrainees can actually perform because they are within human capability and field of experience oftarget trainees.RealisticRealistic means that the statement of objective takes into c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> the realities existing in theorganizati<strong>on</strong>. It takes in c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> the present level of learning of the participants and the levelby which learning can be increased given their own c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> and the amount of training resourcesavailable (or can be made available) for the program.Time-boundThe statement must set how much time is available in learning a particular objective, or how so<strong>on</strong>can we satisfactorily observe and measure the behavior learned.35


Annex-6.3C<strong>on</strong>tent Identificati<strong>on</strong>/Organizati<strong>on</strong>NICE TOLEARNUSEFUL TOLEARNESSENTIAL TOLEARNIn selecting/organizing c<strong>on</strong>tents, following needs/c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s must be c<strong>on</strong>sidered:a. 'Essential to Learn' comprise of core knowledge and skills with corresp<strong>on</strong>ding attitudesb. 'Useful to Learn' c<strong>on</strong>tain supportive knowledge and skills with corresp<strong>on</strong>ding attitudesc. 'Nice to Learn' covers additi<strong>on</strong>al informati<strong>on</strong> indirectly useful to knowC<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for C<strong>on</strong>tent Selecti<strong>on</strong>• Goal and Objectives of the course• Types and number of the participants• Participants level• Durati<strong>on</strong> of the sessi<strong>on</strong>• Skill of trainers36


Annex-6.4Daily schedule/syllabusDaily syllabus/schedule is a list of sequential activitiesWhy it is necessary• It gives an overview of the course to the facilitator, participants and the management• it is a guide to the facilitators regarding time, chr<strong>on</strong>ology etcIt includes- What will be discussed?- When will be discussed?- How much time will be allocated?- Who will be facilitating?37


Course <strong>on</strong><strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> DeliveryDate: ............................................................................Venue: .......................................................................................Day 09-00 09-30 10-30 10-45 12-00 01-00 01-45 03-00 03-15 04-151st2nd3rd4thBREABREABREAKKKCourse <strong>on</strong><strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> DeliveryDate: .....................................Venue: ...................................................Day-01Time Less<strong>on</strong> number Sessi<strong>on</strong> title C<strong>on</strong>tent points09:00-09:4509:45-10:3010:45-11:3011:30-12:1512:15-13:0014:00-14:4514:45-15:3015:45-16:3010:30-10:45 Tea Break13:00-14:00 Lunch Break15:30-15:45 Tea Break


Course <strong>on</strong><strong>Curriculum</strong> <strong>Development</strong> DeliveryDate: .....................................Venue: ...................................................Day-0109:00 -09:15 -10:45 -11:00 -11:30 -12:15 -01:15 -02:00 -02:45 -03:45 -04:00 -04:45 -Day-0209:00 -09:15 -10:45 -11:00 -11:30 -12:15 -01:15 -02:00 -02:45 -03:45 -04:00 -04:45 -1


DifferentSessi<strong>on</strong>-07Title: Overview of Methods and TechniquesObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 60 minutes• Explain what is methods, its importance and differences betweenparticipatory and n<strong>on</strong>-participatory method• Describe c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for methods selecti<strong>on</strong>• Identify different types of methods and its applicati<strong>on</strong>Sessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. what is method and it’s Card presentati<strong>on</strong> card, marker 15 minutesimportance& discussi<strong>on</strong>02. C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for methods Poster Poster, markers, 15 minutesselecti<strong>on</strong>presentati<strong>on</strong> &discussi<strong>on</strong>board03. Different types of methods Card presentati<strong>on</strong> Cards , markers, 25 minutes& discussi<strong>on</strong> board04. Review learning points Questi<strong>on</strong>-answer 05 minutes2


ProcessStep- 01: C<strong>on</strong>cept of methods, its importance• Welcome the participants• Tell the participants that there are a number of methods we can use in our less<strong>on</strong> plan. Ifwe want to use them we have to know what are the methods and its importance fortraining c<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> and differences between participatory and n<strong>on</strong>-participatory methods(Annex-7.1)Step-02: C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for method selecti<strong>on</strong>• After the discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> differences between methods and techniques, share what are thec<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for methods selecti<strong>on</strong> ( Annex-7.2)Step- 03: Different types of methods• After the discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>cept of methods give an overview of different types of methodsand its applicati<strong>on</strong> by cards presentati<strong>on</strong> (Annex-7.3)• Ask the participants if they have any questi<strong>on</strong>s and answers thoseStep-04: Learning review• Review the summary of the whole sessi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> using the questi<strong>on</strong> below:- What is method and techniques?- Differences between participatory and n<strong>on</strong>-participatory methods?- Different types of methods• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.3


Annex-7.1Training MethodTraining method is the way or media through a training purpose can be achieved and the c<strong>on</strong>tentsof the training can easily and expectedly be presentedTraining TechniqueTraining techniques are those through which some special steps are followed to effectivelyimplement the training methodImportance of Training Methods• To ensure learning based <strong>on</strong> participants level of knowledge• To make training more participatory• To make the topic more interesting• To avoid repleti<strong>on</strong> of same techniques• To assist participants learn and assimilate the less<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>tentsDifferences between Participatory and N<strong>on</strong>-Participatory MethodParticipatoryN<strong>on</strong>-directiveParticipants play the key roleTwo way processLearning by doingTrainers act as process builder for creati<strong>on</strong> oflearning envir<strong>on</strong>mentKnowledge is c<strong>on</strong>structed collectivelyN<strong>on</strong>-ParticipatoryDirectiveTrainer play the key roleOne way processLearning through hearingTrainer provide informati<strong>on</strong> for learningKnowledge is a given commodity4


Annex-7.2C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for method selecti<strong>on</strong>• C<strong>on</strong>tents of the sessi<strong>on</strong>• Nature of the Objectives• Types and number of the participants and their level• Sitting arrangement• Venue• Durati<strong>on</strong> of the sessi<strong>on</strong>• Skill of trainersAnnex-7.2An overview of methods• Brain storming• Buzz group• Hum group• Small group• Card collecti<strong>on</strong> and clustering• Questi<strong>on</strong>- answer• Lecture• Dem<strong>on</strong>strati<strong>on</strong>• Role- play• Case study• Study circle• Mind mapping and dot matrix• Fish p<strong>on</strong>d• Value clarificati<strong>on</strong>• Informati<strong>on</strong> market• Field visit5


Detailed HandoutMethods to be applied during the CourseBrain StormingOpen method of bringing out the thoughts of the participants’ is the objective of this method, whenthe participants’ speaks up about their views/opini<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> a specific issue or topic for 5-15 minutes.The facilitator or the trainer would note down their opini<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> a flip sheet or a board. Finally s/hemay summarize the opini<strong>on</strong>s of the participants’.Card collecti<strong>on</strong> & ClusteringParticipants’ are asked to write their ideas <strong>on</strong> a specific issue or topic <strong>on</strong> VIPP Cards and the cardsare read by the trainer/facilitator and s/he clusters them <strong>on</strong> a VIPP Board or a Board. The clusterscould also be given some title with separate meanings and identity.Small Group Discussi<strong>on</strong>Participants’ are divided in number of small groups and they discuss <strong>on</strong> certain topics and thatdiscussi<strong>on</strong> is named as Small Group Discussi<strong>on</strong>. In this sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants’ writes theirviews/opini<strong>on</strong>s <strong>on</strong> flip sheets/papers in group and present them before the sessi<strong>on</strong>.Role PlayRole Play is method where then participants’ play a role <strong>on</strong> a topic or an event and they learn <strong>on</strong>the topic after analyzing their performance/logics during the role play. In this case the participants’play their role <strong>on</strong> the issue formally. A questi<strong>on</strong>-answer sessi<strong>on</strong> is held after the role play, whichanalyzes the validity/logic of their issues or topic.Questi<strong>on</strong>-AnswerThe trainer/facilitator asks questi<strong>on</strong>s to the participants’ <strong>on</strong> a specific subject/topic/issue andcollects the answers. Some time the participants’ in groups also asks questi<strong>on</strong>s to the othergroups and in this case the trainer/facilitator’s role would be to note/record the answers and toobserve whether the questi<strong>on</strong>s and answers are c<strong>on</strong>structive, exerts learning, and also related tothe subject/topic.Case StudyA Case Study is an oral or written account of a realistic situati<strong>on</strong>, including sufficient detail to makeit possible for the participants to analyze the problems involved and to determine possiblesoluti<strong>on</strong>s. Case Studies should, as much as possible, replicate the real word, both in the nature ofthe c<strong>on</strong>tent and in the method in which they are presented and completed. While work <strong>on</strong> thecases may be d<strong>on</strong>e either individually or in groups, this method should always c<strong>on</strong>clude with adiscussi<strong>on</strong> of the outcomes.6


LectureA prepared, oral presentati<strong>on</strong> delivered by a resource pers<strong>on</strong> to a group of participants is called aLecture. Since it is a <strong>on</strong>e-way presentati<strong>on</strong> in which the participants are essentially passive, itshould be enhanced with visual aids and be coupled with a more active strategy (e.g., discussi<strong>on</strong>or exercise). A lecture can be delivered to any size group and can be of any durati<strong>on</strong>; however,briefer lectures (15-30 minutes) are the most effective. Senior managers and participants with wideexperience usually do not like lectures.Buzz GroupGroup size 3 participants (Participants will be in their own seats). Discuss am<strong>on</strong>g themselves andwrite a card(s) trainers will take feedback from each buzz group and write them <strong>on</strong> white/chalkBoard. Them summarize.Hum GroupEach group c<strong>on</strong>sists of 2 participants seated in their own seats. They discuss in pairs to write <strong>on</strong>efactor, which influences job performance. Facilitator will take feedback from each hum group andwrite them <strong>on</strong> white/chalk board. Then summarize by showing the relati<strong>on</strong>ship of training andeducati<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> learning.Dem<strong>on</strong>strati<strong>on</strong>A technique that shows how something works or gets d<strong>on</strong>e is called a dem<strong>on</strong>strati<strong>on</strong>. It is intendedto illustrate or clarify an idea, process, or relati<strong>on</strong>ship. The participant’s role is <strong>on</strong>e of observing,rather than directly participating. Often, this strategy is coupled with participant practicing andreceiving feedback <strong>on</strong> performance. This is effective for technical training.Simulati<strong>on</strong>s and GamesThe purpose of simulati<strong>on</strong> is to animate participants; to motivate them for the next sessi<strong>on</strong>; toreach a higher level of c<strong>on</strong>centrati<strong>on</strong> for the next activity or for changing an exercise from a purelyintellectual activity to <strong>on</strong>e where more senses become involved. Mutual presentati<strong>on</strong>s of fellowparticipants can also have a simulati<strong>on</strong> characteristic.Simulati<strong>on</strong> must be well prepared, instructi<strong>on</strong>s given clearly and quickly executive. A lot of adultgames can be adopted as icebreakers. Their use depends entirely <strong>on</strong> the kind of group, the settingand the mood of the group.7


Sessi<strong>on</strong>- 08Title: <strong>Development</strong> and usage of MaterialsObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 60 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> Plan• Explain differences between learning materials and training tools• Describe how to use different types of materialsStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Differences betweenlearning materials andtraining toolsSlidepresentati<strong>on</strong>Multi media,screen25 minutes02. Usage of materials Informati<strong>on</strong>marketFlipsheet ,markers, board30 minutes03. Learning review Questi<strong>on</strong>-answer 05 minutesProcessStep- 01: Differences between learning materials and training tools• Welcome the participants• Tell the participants that materials are the vehicle of informati<strong>on</strong> to carry the messages insupport of the trainers and trainees in the same way. Materials can also help theprocess/methods by making the sessi<strong>on</strong>s visible, interesting & attractive and it can alsohelp every<strong>on</strong>e in referring and recalling the same.• Now we discuss what are materials, types of materials and c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s for materialsselecti<strong>on</strong> (Annex-8.1)Step- 02: C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for usage of materials• After the discussi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> materials now create an informati<strong>on</strong> market by posting number ofwritten posters <strong>on</strong> usages of materials <strong>on</strong> to the wall (Annex-8.2) and ask the participantsto go to the informati<strong>on</strong> market and collect informati<strong>on</strong>• The participants will move in the informati<strong>on</strong> market and take some notes if they feel todiscuss in the house. Allow them 15 minutes for that purpose• After 15 min. Request them to have their sits and ask them if they have any questi<strong>on</strong>s.Then answers those8


Step-03: Learning review• Review the summary of the whole sessi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> using the questi<strong>on</strong> below:- What is learning materials and training tools?- C<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> for selecting materials?- Different types of materials and its usage• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.9


Annex-8.1Training MaterialsTraining Materials and aids are those items that assist the trainer deliver the c<strong>on</strong>tent of the trainingsessi<strong>on</strong>. Some materials bear some message written or illustrated (poster <strong>on</strong> it and some otherhelp to show that.Training tools/equipments:Training tools are all materials, equipment’s, accessories which can be used in support ofcourse/sessi<strong>on</strong> c<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> or transferring of informati<strong>on</strong>. These do not carry or hold any specificlearning unit.Learning Materials:Training tools having learning units or informati<strong>on</strong> to be used to ease/strengthen trainer’spresentati<strong>on</strong>s are known as learning materials. Learning materials support the learners in theprocess of learning.Training Media and MaterialsTraining tools• Chalkboards• Flip sheet• Posters• Cloth boards• OHP• Slide Projector• TV• Radio• Audio player• Computers• CD Projector• VIPP board• Multi media• Brown paperLearning Materials• Guides• Posters• Less<strong>on</strong> Plans• Practical works• Slides• Pictures• Images• Audio/Video cassette• Graphs• Symbols• Case Studies• Photographs• Written poster• Flipchart• Written card10


C<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s for preparing materials:• No spelling mistake• The f<strong>on</strong>t size of letters should be at least 1 inch• Pens of different colors can be used• A chr<strong>on</strong>ology is needed in written statistics• Point-wise noting down• If any picture be used it needs to be pre-tested• Relevancy with the subject matter• Attractive• Portable• Appropriate• Easily available• Cost effective• Understandable• PlannedAnnex-8.2Use of Materials:White BoardMake sure that the marker you are using is not permanent <strong>on</strong>e.Close the pen as so<strong>on</strong> as you have completed your writing.Unwilling use of permanent marker can be removed with Kerosin/Tarpin(a kind ofremover).Clean the Board regularly with Kerosin/Tarpin(a kind of remover).Do not always show your back while writing <strong>on</strong> board. Make a 45 0 angle with the board sothat the participants can watch you.Cover the boar with a cloth while it remains unused.The board should be placed in a well visualized positi<strong>on</strong>.11


Power PointMake sure that the power and other electr<strong>on</strong>ic equipments are properly working. Managealternative power-supply for an uninterrupted program.Background: Prepare the slides with proper (color, design) background so that theaudience can comfortably read the text.Heading: Heading should be c<strong>on</strong>siderably in larger f<strong>on</strong>t and preferably in each slide.Text: Text color and f<strong>on</strong>t should be adjustable with the background as well as the headingAnimati<strong>on</strong>: It should not be irritating.Sound effect: Please do not use irritating and noisy sound effect like clapping orsomething like that.PosterNot more than 10 lines <strong>on</strong> a PosterLetter size should be within 1’’-1.5’’Harm<strong>on</strong>izati<strong>on</strong> am<strong>on</strong>g the lines should be maintainedThe lines <strong>on</strong> the poster should be straightDo not show the total poster at a time. Try to show a point and then the next <strong>on</strong>eMake sure that the message is very clear to the participantsPrepare the posters c<strong>on</strong>sidering the social and cultural issues of a certain regi<strong>on</strong>Try to do a field-test before using the posterChalk BoardPlace the board in such a positi<strong>on</strong> that every<strong>on</strong>e can watch itThe lettering size should be easily readable from the last seatDo not always show your back while writing <strong>on</strong> board. Make a 45 0 angle with the board sothat the participants can watch you.While using the chalk, break the tip of the chalk and then write by making an angle of 45 0with the board so that no irritating sound will be created from the chalk.While cleaning the board, move the duster slowly from upper-side to bottom, so that thedust will remain down the board.Use colorful chalks to make the writing attractiveAlways clean the board after the sessi<strong>on</strong>VIPP (Visualizati<strong>on</strong> in Participatory Program) BoardMake sure that the board is suitable for pushing the VIPP pinThe size of the board should be adjustable for attaching paper (brown, poster, flip sheet)as well as easily movable.12


VIPP Card5 . 5" x 22" • Statement• Questi<strong>on</strong>4 . 5" x 10" • Title• Instructi<strong>on</strong>4" x 8" • Instructi<strong>on</strong>• Point4 . 25" • Title• Cluster7 . 5"• Point• Design5 . 5"• Title• Design3 . 75"• Numbering• Durati<strong>on</strong>• Prioritizati<strong>on</strong>13


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-09Title: Less<strong>on</strong> PlanObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able to• Explain less<strong>on</strong> plan, it’s structure and importance• Identify different types of less<strong>on</strong> plan• Exercise <strong>on</strong> Less<strong>on</strong> Plan <strong>Development</strong>Durati<strong>on</strong>: 90 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. What is less<strong>on</strong> plan and its Brain storming, Multimedia, 15 minutes.structureslide presentati<strong>on</strong> screen02. Different types of less<strong>on</strong>plan03. Exercise <strong>on</strong> Less<strong>on</strong> Plan<strong>Development</strong>Slide presentati<strong>on</strong>& discussi<strong>on</strong>Group Work &presentati<strong>on</strong>Multimedia,screenA-4 Size paper &Ball Pen25 minutes.45 minutes.04. Learning review Questi<strong>on</strong>-answer 05 minutesProcessStep- 01: less<strong>on</strong> plan and its structure• Welcome the participants• Ask the participants that in previous sessi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> terminology we had discussed about less<strong>on</strong> plan,but do you remember that? What it is?• Based <strong>on</strong> their answers discuss about the less<strong>on</strong> plan and its steps ( Annex-9.1)Step- 02: Different types of less<strong>on</strong> plan• After the discussi<strong>on</strong> give an overview of different types of less<strong>on</strong> plan (Annex-9.2)• Ask the participants if they have any questi<strong>on</strong>s and answers those• At the end of the sessi<strong>on</strong> giving vote of thanks14


Step- 03: Exercise <strong>on</strong> Less<strong>on</strong> Plan <strong>Development</strong>• Divide the participants’ in to 3 groups and involve them in an exercise to develop a trialless<strong>on</strong> plan comprising the following and each group would work <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>e topic from thefollowing:- Planning a camping trip- Running a meeting- Writing a Letter• Ask the groups to identify the sub-topics and prepare a Less<strong>on</strong> Plan• Allow the 30 minutes of time• Invite them to present their group less<strong>on</strong> plan and after the exercise giving feedback.Step-04: Learning review• Review the summary of the whole sessi<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> using the questi<strong>on</strong> below:- What is less<strong>on</strong> plan?- Why it is important?- Structure of a less<strong>on</strong> plan• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by giving thanks to all the participants.15


Annex-9.1Less<strong>on</strong> PlanLess<strong>on</strong> plan is the instructi<strong>on</strong> sheet for the facilitatorWhy it is important• It is complete guide to the facilitator <strong>on</strong> how to discuss• It helps overcoming the risk of missing the c<strong>on</strong>tent points• It helps to maintain timeStructure of a less<strong>on</strong> plan• Title of the sessi<strong>on</strong>• Objectives of the sessi<strong>on</strong>• Durati<strong>on</strong>• Sub-topic wise time allocati<strong>on</strong>• Method• Material• Process• Handouts16


Annex-09.02Different types of less<strong>on</strong> plan: (Sample Copy)01Sessi<strong>on</strong>-Title : ................©Objective After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toa.b.Methods ......................Materials ...........................Durati<strong>on</strong> ........................Process- A.. ........................................................Step-01• .........................................17


Sessi<strong>on</strong>- 01Title: ................................................Objective: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toa. ................................b. ................................c. ....................................Durati<strong>on</strong>: ...........................Matheos: ....................................Materials: ............................................Processa. ..................................Step-01:• ....................................................• ....................................................• ....................................................Step-02:• ....................................................• ....................................................• ....................................................18


Sessi<strong>on</strong>- 01Title : ...........................................Objective: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able to1. ...................................2...........................................3................................................Durati<strong>on</strong> : .................................................Sessi<strong>on</strong> Plan:Step Subject Methods Material Time01.02.03.Process .................................................•Stepe19


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-10Title: Group formati<strong>on</strong> and module selecti<strong>on</strong> with c<strong>on</strong>tentsObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 75 minutes.• Form a group and select topic for the curriculum including modules• Identify different c<strong>on</strong>tents for each moduleSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Form a group and select an Brain storming, Poster, markers 30 minutesissues/topics for modules poster writing02. Identify c<strong>on</strong>tents for eachmoduleDo Do 45 minutesProcessStep- 01&02: Form groups and select issues/topics for modules and less<strong>on</strong> plan• Welcome the participants• Tell them, now we are going to develop a curriculum. In this process first of all we willselect a topic for curriculum.• After selecting the topic identify issues for preparing modules under the curriculum.• Each module will be c<strong>on</strong>sisted of several less<strong>on</strong> plans.• Now form 4 groups to prepare less<strong>on</strong> plans. Each group will prepare number of less<strong>on</strong>plans against 1 module.• Here the title of two curriculum including modules with their c<strong>on</strong>tents are being annexed(Annex-10.1)• If the participants select this topic for the curriculum they can prepare less<strong>on</strong> plans or theycan select another issue.20


Annex-10.1Issue for less<strong>on</strong> developmentName of the curriculum: Family life educati<strong>on</strong>Module 01: Family and society- Family and family b<strong>on</strong>ding- Special members of the family: child, oldage, disables- Society and social classificati<strong>on</strong>- Social problems and its soluti<strong>on</strong>- Combined c<strong>on</strong>tributi<strong>on</strong> of householdersModule 02: Health & envir<strong>on</strong>ment- Growth and development of a children- Health and hygiene- Protecti<strong>on</strong> of envir<strong>on</strong>mentModule 03: Nutriti<strong>on</strong> & diseases- Nutriti<strong>on</strong> and balanced diet- Iodine- Safe water- Some comm<strong>on</strong> diseases and its preventi<strong>on</strong>Module 04: Law and rights- Basic human rights- Women and child rights- Early marriage and law21


Name of the curriculum: Professi<strong>on</strong>al Skills <strong>Development</strong>Module 01: Communicati<strong>on</strong>- C<strong>on</strong>cept of communicati<strong>on</strong>- C<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong> for effective Communicati<strong>on</strong>- Role of communicator- Communicati<strong>on</strong> skills- Organizati<strong>on</strong>al communicati<strong>on</strong>Module 02: Team Building- C<strong>on</strong>cept of a Team- Team Approach in Operati<strong>on</strong>- Essential of a Team work- C<strong>on</strong>flict resoluti<strong>on</strong>Module 03: Negotiati<strong>on</strong> Skills- C<strong>on</strong>cept of Negotiati<strong>on</strong>- Elements of negotiati<strong>on</strong>s- Basic Principles of Negotiati<strong>on</strong>s- Negotiati<strong>on</strong> process/steps- Comm<strong>on</strong> mistakes for Negotiati<strong>on</strong>Module 04: Supervisi<strong>on</strong> and m<strong>on</strong>itoring- Supervisi<strong>on</strong> its characteristics- Tools and Techniques for supervisi<strong>on</strong>- Qualities and skills of a Supervisor- M<strong>on</strong>itoring and its process- Tools and Techniques for M<strong>on</strong>itoring- Indicator setting for m<strong>on</strong>itoring22


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-11Title: Preparing Less<strong>on</strong> Plans with Handouts against each sessi<strong>on</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able toDurati<strong>on</strong>: 300 minutes. (5 hours)• Develop a less<strong>on</strong> plan by a group• Prepare handouts against each sessi<strong>on</strong>Sessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Develop a less<strong>on</strong> plan Group work A-4 paper/Laptop, 100 minutesSupporting readingmaterials, Format of theless<strong>on</strong> plan02. Prepare handouts Group work A-4 paper/Laptop,Supporting readingmaterials, Format of theless<strong>on</strong> plan200 minutesProcessStep- 01&02: Develop Less<strong>on</strong> plan & handouts• Welcome the participants• Ask the participants to prepare a less<strong>on</strong> plan with handouts against each module by agroup which could be formed in previous sessi<strong>on</strong>• Each group work <strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong>e module• Provide the groups supportive relevant materials for prepare less<strong>on</strong> plan with handouts• All the groups chose any <strong>on</strong>e format of less<strong>on</strong> plan which is visualized in previous sessi<strong>on</strong>• This excise will go up to 5 hours• Facilitate the groups to preparing a less<strong>on</strong> plan with handouts23


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-12Title: Presentati<strong>on</strong> of the Less<strong>on</strong> PlanObjectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants’ will be able to• Identify a number of less<strong>on</strong> plan <strong>on</strong> different issues• Describe gaps and potentials to develop a less<strong>on</strong> plan through a feedbacksessi<strong>on</strong>• Develop a module by compiling the less<strong>on</strong> planDurati<strong>on</strong>: 180 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Identify number of less<strong>on</strong> Group work Less<strong>on</strong> plan, 100 minutesplans with feedback presentati<strong>on</strong> & Multimedia Screen,02. Describe do’s d<strong>on</strong>’ts forless<strong>on</strong> plan development03. Develop a modulecompiling the less<strong>on</strong> planProcessStep- 01: Identify a number of less<strong>on</strong> planfeedbackGroup work &presentati<strong>on</strong>ProjectorFlip sheet, Marker35 minutesDo All the less<strong>on</strong> plans 45 minutes• Welcome the participants• Invite the participants to present a less<strong>on</strong> plan by a group <strong>on</strong> each module• After the presentati<strong>on</strong> of each group discuss about the potential and gaps/limitati<strong>on</strong>s of theless<strong>on</strong> plansStep- 02: Do’s & D<strong>on</strong>’ts for less<strong>on</strong> plan development• After presentati<strong>on</strong> of the all group divide the participants into 4 groups and ask to work <strong>on</strong>the following issues- Group-01 & 03: Prepare a list <strong>on</strong> do’s for less<strong>on</strong> plan development- Group-02 & 04: Prepare a list <strong>on</strong> d<strong>on</strong>’ts for less<strong>on</strong> plan development• Based <strong>on</strong> the discussi<strong>on</strong> of gaps & potential part the participants prepare a list/points• Allow them 20 minutes for group exercise• After the group work invite the group for presentati<strong>on</strong>• End of the sessi<strong>on</strong>24


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-13Title: Develop a General Secti<strong>on</strong> for a <strong>Curriculum</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able to• Identify c<strong>on</strong>tent of the general part of the curriculum• Prepare each c<strong>on</strong>tents of the general partDurati<strong>on</strong>: 120 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Identify c<strong>on</strong>tent of the PPT & Discussi<strong>on</strong> Multimedia, Screen 20 minutesgeneral part02. Prepare each c<strong>on</strong>tent ofgeneral partGroup work &presentati<strong>on</strong>Laptop, Multimedia,Screen100 minutesProcessStep- 01: Identify c<strong>on</strong>tents of the general part• Welcome the participants• Discuss with the participants <strong>on</strong> the c<strong>on</strong>tent of a general secti<strong>on</strong> of curriculum (Anex-13.1)• The participants would also develop an evaluati<strong>on</strong> tool of a training program. So, pleasediscuss the methods of developing evaluati<strong>on</strong> tools (Annex-13.2).Step- 02: Prepare each c<strong>on</strong>tent• Divide the participants into 3 groups and ask them to prepare the c<strong>on</strong>tents of the generalsecti<strong>on</strong> by a group• Allow 60 minutes for group exercise• After the menti<strong>on</strong> time invite the group presentati<strong>on</strong>• After the presentati<strong>on</strong> attach the general part <strong>on</strong> the compile modules and prepare a coverpage with c<strong>on</strong>tents• C<strong>on</strong>clude the sessi<strong>on</strong> by thanking the participants26


Annex-13.1C<strong>on</strong>tent of a General Secti<strong>on</strong>• Cover page• Foreword• Acknowledgement• Table of C<strong>on</strong>tents• Abbreviati<strong>on</strong>s• Background/Introducti<strong>on</strong>• Goal/Objective• Participants• Durati<strong>on</strong>• Guideline to use the <strong>Curriculum</strong>a. Planning, Organizing & Management of a courseb. C<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong>s for venue selecti<strong>on</strong>c. Applicati<strong>on</strong> of different methodsd. Tips for facilitatorse. C<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong> of Inaugural & C<strong>on</strong>cluding Sessi<strong>on</strong>• List of Modules including Timetable• Learning/course assessment Tools• References27


Annex-13.2Tools for evaluating a Training CourseCourse Evaluati<strong>on</strong> is a process to assess participants’ understanding from the course whether anyimprovement/change has taken place in terms of knowledge, attitude and skills (KAS).The steps of evaluati<strong>on</strong> are as follows:• Reacti<strong>on</strong> explorati<strong>on</strong> : What does the participants feel about the course• Learning assessment: Evaluati<strong>on</strong> of the participants’ KAS• Behavior analysis: How the participants are interacting with others, level of interest andseriousness and how they are practicing by utilizing the knowledge and skills acquiredduring course and in real situati<strong>on</strong>s.• Impact evaluati<strong>on</strong>: Normally d<strong>on</strong>e after a substantial period, <strong>on</strong> the basis of l<strong>on</strong>gterm/sustainable change in the KAS and Performance of the participant leading to desiredresults of the course/interventi<strong>on</strong>.Evaluati<strong>on</strong> Process01. Pre & Post testGenerally any skill based training is assessed by c<strong>on</strong>ducting pre & post test examinati<strong>on</strong>s. Thesetypes of tests help the trainer to assess trainees’ level of understanding. Tests are taken before &after the training course.The objectives of the pretest are:• To assess trainees’ base line knowledge, attitude and skills• To review course c<strong>on</strong>tents as per trainees level;The objectives of the post test are:• To measure trainees’ rate of development;• To assess the effectiveness of course c<strong>on</strong>ducti<strong>on</strong>;Steps of pre & post tests• Preparati<strong>on</strong> of questi<strong>on</strong>naire and answer sheet/tools <strong>on</strong> the basis of the objectives oftraining program• Preparati<strong>on</strong> of observati<strong>on</strong> checklist (if needed)• C<strong>on</strong>duct pre/and post tests• Examine the test’s answer sheets• Menti<strong>on</strong> the results of pre-test and post-test at the training report• Adjust curriculum/training program after pre & post if neededPre & post-test materials• Questi<strong>on</strong>naire and answer sheet28


• MCQ (Multiple choice questi<strong>on</strong>) type questi<strong>on</strong>s02. Questi<strong>on</strong>- AnswerLearning review at the end of each sessi<strong>on</strong> through questi<strong>on</strong>s-answers03. MemoWith a view to providing opportunities to the participants to express their additi<strong>on</strong>al needs thatwould supplement the quality of the training workshop or to put forward any specific suggesti<strong>on</strong>slike c<strong>on</strong>tents, process, materials, way of discussi<strong>on</strong> (methods), logistics etc. A memo board/flipsheet is hung <strong>on</strong> the wall where the participants could freely write for drawing attenti<strong>on</strong> of thefacilitators.04. Mood MeterFor assessing the participants feeling about the day’s performance, there was a ‘mood meter’ <strong>on</strong>the wall, were the participants could individually express their level of satisfacti<strong>on</strong> about the day’swork by putting votes in appropriate place. The facilitators reviewed the day’s performance bychecking the mood meter every day.Reacti<strong>on</strong>☺How do you feel today?1 st Day 2 nd Day 3 rd Day 4 th Day 5 th Day05. Course Evaluati<strong>on</strong> by dot matrixAt the end of the course, participants were taken through a participatory and transparent courseevaluati<strong>on</strong> process. A course evaluati<strong>on</strong> format was introduced with 10 rows and 4 columnsrepresenting evaluati<strong>on</strong> criteria and performance grades respectively. Participants recorded theirgrades against each criteri<strong>on</strong> individually and secretly <strong>on</strong> a card without putting their names <strong>on</strong>.The unanimous card were collected, shuffled and distributed randomly to the participants, <strong>on</strong>eeach. Then they were supplied 10 dots each and advised to put the dots <strong>on</strong> the rows and columnsfollowing the card <strong>on</strong>e has got. It was a fun and revealing while everybody has completed thedotting.1 2 3 429


a. Achievement by objectiveb. Participati<strong>on</strong>c. Relevancy of c<strong>on</strong>tentsd. Processes/Methodse. Materials/Toolsf. Facilitati<strong>on</strong>g. Practical sessi<strong>on</strong>h. Fulfillment of expectati<strong>on</strong>i. Logistics managementj. Overall feelings1= Not good, 2= So so, 3= Good, 4= Excellent06. Course evaluati<strong>on</strong> through a questi<strong>on</strong>naireHow to create a course evaluati<strong>on</strong> forma. Questi<strong>on</strong>s about what is being taught include:i. Was the c<strong>on</strong>tent of the course what you expected?ii. Was the c<strong>on</strong>tent clear?iii. What did you learn that was most valuable?iv. Was there something you expected to learn but did not?v. Did you find the c<strong>on</strong>tent relevant?b. Questi<strong>on</strong>s about methods used to train include:- Which sessi<strong>on</strong> did you find the most helpful?- Which sessi<strong>on</strong> did you find the least helpful?- Were the methods participatory?c. Questi<strong>on</strong>s about structure include:- Was the informati<strong>on</strong> presented in a sequential way?- Did you feel the pace of the course was appropriate? If not, what waswr<strong>on</strong>g?- Were you able to participate fully in the course?- Were the sessi<strong>on</strong>s well scheduled?e. Questi<strong>on</strong>s about teaching style include:- Did the trainer present the materials clearly?- Was the trainer well-prepared?- What did the trainer do to help you learn better?- Which sessi<strong>on</strong>s, or part of sessi<strong>on</strong>s, were the most interesting? The leastinteresting?30


06. Performance evaluati<strong>on</strong> checklistTRAINAR’S PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CHECKLIST(To be used by Observer Trainer)Trainer’s name:.................................................. Instituti<strong>on</strong>: ............................................Evaluated by: .................................................. Date:........................................ Period:.................Topic (s) discussed: ....................................................................................................................Type of trainee-group:....................................................................................................................SLNo.1.Put tick marks in the appropriate columnActivities to be observed during sessi<strong>on</strong>s Yes NoMaterials developmenta. Goal/objective were <strong>on</strong> the basis of KASb. Course outline was developedc. Sessi<strong>on</strong> objectives were written in acti<strong>on</strong> verbd. Prepared less<strong>on</strong> plane. Developed curriculum with a general partaccording to the c<strong>on</strong>text2.Ensure friendly physical envir<strong>on</strong>ment:a. Proper seating arrangementb. Sufficient light and Proper ventilati<strong>on</strong>c. Space for sitting arrangement in U-shaped. Facilities for drinking water, toilet etc.e. Training aids/ equipment’s are placed for easyvisualizati<strong>on</strong> for all the traineesf. Availability of necessary accessories in the sessi<strong>on</strong>like chalk, duster, board, pins, cards, marker, flipsheet, VIPP card etc.g. Neat and clean furniture3. Sessi<strong>on</strong> presentati<strong>on</strong>a. Greetings31


4.7.8.b. Rapport building with the participantsc. Presents topic with sessi<strong>on</strong> objectivesd. Relates previous sessi<strong>on</strong> (if needed)Ensure participati<strong>on</strong> for better understanding:a. Maintains sequence in the topic presentati<strong>on</strong>b. Encourages trainees to ask questi<strong>on</strong>s as pertraining normsc. Answers/clarifies explains complex issues withexamplesd. Put questi<strong>on</strong>s as per objectives of the sessi<strong>on</strong>e. Encourages for answers (wr<strong>on</strong>g or right)f. Gives practical examples/references for furtherclarificati<strong>on</strong>g. Careful about the signs of c<strong>on</strong>fusi<strong>on</strong>s (side talk,facial expressi<strong>on</strong>) and give resp<strong>on</strong>seUses participatory training methods:a. Appropriate to the topicb. Appropriate to the trainee-levelc. Maintains sequence of using methodsd. Skill of the trainer in using the methode. Time management skillUses suitable training equipment’s/materials:a. Fits with the topicsb. Fits with the traineesc. Correct used. Attractivee. Clear and c<strong>on</strong>cise32


Sessi<strong>on</strong>-14Title: Course Evaluati<strong>on</strong>Objectives: After the sessi<strong>on</strong> the participants will be able to• seek clarificati<strong>on</strong> <strong>on</strong> any issue covered in the workshop and then explain itin their own words• re-assess the learning/knowledge gathered from the course• evaluate the courseDurati<strong>on</strong>: 60 minutesSessi<strong>on</strong> PlanStep C<strong>on</strong>tents Methods Materials time01. Open sessi<strong>on</strong> Discussi<strong>on</strong> 20 minutes02. Base assessment Post-test Questi<strong>on</strong>ers 30 minutes03. Course evaluati<strong>on</strong> Peeling the sheet 10 minutesProcessStep- 01: Open sessi<strong>on</strong>• Welcome all and say, ‘we have reached almost to the end of the workshop. Now let usskim through the schedule and all the handouts provided so far and take notes of thequesti<strong>on</strong>s where we need further clarificati<strong>on</strong>s.’• Allow 15 minutes for this• After 15 minutes listen to the questi<strong>on</strong>s the participants have, encourage others who couldresp<strong>on</strong>d to the questi<strong>on</strong>s and if necessary, add to the explanati<strong>on</strong>.• In this process listen carefully to each questi<strong>on</strong>.Step- 02: Base assessment• Brief the participants that at this stage they will get the opportunity to re-assess theirlearning <strong>on</strong> the basis of the same questi<strong>on</strong>naire they had during their pre-test.• Distribute a post test questi<strong>on</strong>naire to each participant and ask them to answer. Give 10minutes time for the exercise and when completed, collect the same.33


Step- 03: Course evaluati<strong>on</strong>• Tell the participants, ‘we will now evaluate our workshop according to what you liked anddisliked about the workshop. Your overall feedback will help us to improve the nextworkshop.’ Encourage participants to take the task seriously and give their comments.• Distribute the workshop evaluati<strong>on</strong> form (annex 14.1) to all and ask them to fill it up. Give10 minutes time and collect it after completi<strong>on</strong>.Step- 04: Closing sessi<strong>on</strong>• Ask the participants, ‘We have come to the end of the workshop and would like to invite1/2 representatives from the participants to say a few words <strong>on</strong> your experiences aboutthis workshop.’• Invite the guest speakers to give their speech• At the end wish participants all the best and c<strong>on</strong>clude the workshop.34


Annex-14.1Total Marks: 30Questi<strong>on</strong>s for post-testWrite five stages of curriculum development process:1. …………………………2. …………………………3. …………………………4. …………………………5. …………………………10 MarksPut ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false:10 Marks• General part is not necessary for developing any curriculum.• Module is a compilati<strong>on</strong> of Less<strong>on</strong> Plans.• Handouts are not necessary for every less<strong>on</strong>• There is no relati<strong>on</strong> between training and physical facilities• In participatory training the participants are the key resources• For effective communicati<strong>on</strong> the role of both parties are equally important• <strong>Curriculum</strong> can be d<strong>on</strong>e without compiling the modules• There is no difference between module and less<strong>on</strong> plan• Fish P<strong>on</strong>d is not a participatory method.• In <strong>Police</strong> department <strong>on</strong>ly lecture method is used for teaching/training.• Training materials never influence training methods• Trainer role is more important for participatory trainingFill in the blanks05 Marks• The first part of the curriculum is called…………………..• Written Flip sheet is a ……………… material• TNA is expected performance – Existing performance = ……………………..• Another name of Daily Syllabus is………………………….• Mind Map is a………………………..Write the name of five participatory methods: Marks 0535


Annex- 14.2Training Evaluati<strong>on</strong> SheetSl Evaluating issues Circle you want to go with1Training objectives were relevant and c<strong>on</strong>sistent1 2 3 42Training objectives were achieved1 2 3 43C<strong>on</strong>tents were relevant with my activities1 2 3 44I will apply those to my regular activities1 2 3 45These knowledge and skills will make me more competent1 2 3 46Facilitator/Trainer had adequate knowledge and preparati<strong>on</strong>1 2 3 47Presentati<strong>on</strong> techniques of facilitator was good enough1 2 3 48Methods were very helpful for understanding1 2 3 49Materials and handouts were very relevant and helpful for the training1 2 3 410Sufficient time was allocated for each sessi<strong>on</strong> to get ideas clear1 2 3 411We felt free for asking questi<strong>on</strong>s1 2 3 412Sitting arrangement was perfect and comfortable1 2 3 413The envir<strong>on</strong>ment was excellent for working1 2 3 414Food and drinks were good1 2 3 415As a whole the management was quite good1 2 3 416Wish to attain such training in future1 2 3 4Overall comments (if any):1= Not good, 2= As usual, 3= Good, 4= ExcellentThanks for your kind c<strong>on</strong>tributi<strong>on</strong>.36

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