Erik C. Wormslev - NIRAS - Bioenergi

Erik C. Wormslev - NIRAS - Bioenergi

Technologies forsustainable aviation fuelNow and for the futureErik C. WormslevNIRAS11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 1

The speaker: Erik C. Wormslev - NIRAS• Director – Innovation, Climate Change & Energy• Consultant to industry for almost 40 years:• Environmental issues• Health and safety• Process development• Energy efficiency• Sustainability• 10 years with focus renewable energy and specialfocus on biomass11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 3

Sustainability– Ecological, economical and social– The whole value chain– Land is the limited factor– No competition with food ?– No sensitive areas– Water is also a scarce resource– Competition with other use of biomass– Competition with other kinds of transport– Political framework11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 4

Specifications for aviation fuels– Today: Kerosene – 42,8 MJ/kg – -47 C freezing point– Ethanol: 22-24 MJ/kg– Butanol: 29 MJ/kg– New developments ?? MJ/kg– We need fuels with a high concentration of energy tosave weight and produce power at the same time11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 5

Price is a key issue– At present kerosene is at a price of about 1000 US$/ton– Alternative fuels such as HEFA – Hydrogenated biooil- is about 2000 US $/ton or more and– Other alternatives are even more expensive11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 6

What do we do at present– We make jet fuel from bio-oils by hydrogenation– We take syngas and make chemical synteses (FischerTropsch)– In Brazil they use ethanol for small planes– The resources:– Palm oil, rapeseed oil, coconut oil, used cooking oil,jatropha oil etc.– Syngas from wood, straw and waste11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 7

Bio oil as a resource– All kinds of bio-oil can be used:• Palm• Rape seed• Coconut• Jatropha• Camelina• Halophytus• Used cooking oil– The process is Hydroproceset Esters and Fatty Acids(HEFA)– Sugars into lipids (oil) that again can be processed– The need of water – a scarce resource11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 8

Lignocellulosic material as ressource– Lignocellulose:– Wood– Straw– Emty fruit bunches from palm oil industry– Etc.– At present the first full scale ethanol plants (sugarproduction) are under construction– Sugar can be changed to lipids by microbes and then intojetfuel– Lignocellulosic material can be gasified and turned intojetfuel11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 9

Waste as a resource – in competition– Waste is and has been dumped– Organic waste can be used for microbes and utilized for jetfuel– Waste can be gasified and the syngas turned into jet fuel– Competition for the waste – CHP, biogas, fertilizer and evenfeed stuff together with molecules for bio chemicals11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 10

Algae as resource‣ World Wide a lot of effort is put into the development ofalgae based on waste water and CO‣ Algae in closed systems‣ Algae in open ponds‣ Algae can produce lipids (oil) or starch (sugars)‣ Still some way to go11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 11

Examples of ongoing developments‣ Solena and British Airways – Waste to gas to jet fuel, London‣ UOP – Honeywell – HEFA – technology‣ Gevo – Lignocellulose to butanol to jetfuel‣ Topsøe process to hydrogenate bio oil‣ DONG – gasification of straw – possible syngas for FTprocessing‣ Solazymes – algae to diesel and jet fuel11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 12

ConclusionsYES WE CAN1. In the future - but jet fuel – 2-3 % of the WW energydemand is in competition with other sectors2. A fossil free world need biomass for many purposes3. The key factors will be availability of land and water4. The challenges is the cost of bio based jet fuel– New and better processes or– Much higher prices of fossil fuel– But still in competition for land and with food and feed5. We need much more money for the R&D and demonstration11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 13

Thank Youecw@niras.dk11-10-2012/ Sustainable Aviation Day Conference 14

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