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A Global Scientific Workshop on Spatio-Temporal Management of ...

A Global Scientific Workshop on Spatio-Temporal Management of ...

iiPARTICIPANTSTundi

iiPARTICIPANTSTundi Agardy Ph.D.Executive DirectorSound Seas6620 Broad StBethesda MD 20816USAwww.soundseas.org tundiagardy@earthlink.netNatacha Aguilar Soto Ph.D.Researcher, Group BIOECOMARDepartment of Animal BiologyLa Laguna UniversityTenerife, Canary IslandsSPAINnaguilar@ull.esnatacha@whoi.eduAna Cañadas Ph.D.AlnitakNalón 1628240 Hoyo de ManzanaresMadridSPAINalnitak.ana@cetaceos.comMarcia Engel MScExecutive DirectorInstituto Baleia JubarteRua Barão do Rio Branco, 2645900-000Caravelas, Bahia,BRAZILmarcia.engel@baleiajubarte.com.brAlexandros Frantzis Ph.D.ong>Scientificong> DirectorPELAGOS Cetacean Research InstituteTerpsichoris 2116671 VouliagmeniGREECEafrantzis@otenet.grLeila Hatch Ph.D. (ong>Workshopong> Chair)Ocean Noise SpecialistStellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary175 Edward Foster RoadScituate, MA 02066USALeila.hatch@noaa.govErich HoytSenior Research FellowWDCS, the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society29A Dirleton AvenueNorth Berwick, Scotland EH39 4BEUNITED KINGDOMerich.hoyt@mac.comKristin Kaschner Ph.D. (via remote link)Centre for Research into Ecologicaland Environmental Modeling (CREEM)The ObservatoryBuchanan GardensUniversity of St AndrewsSt Andrews, KY16 9LZSCOTLANDk.kaschner@fisheries.ubc.caErin LaBrecqueAssociate in ResearchMarine Geospatial Ecology LabA328 LSRC, Box 90328Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth SciencesDuke UniversityDurham, NC 27708-0328USAerin.labrecque@duke.eduVidal Martin Ph.D.DirectorMuseo de Cetáceos de CanariasEdif. Antiguo Varadero1a planta. Local 8BUrb. Puerto Calero35571 YaizaLanzarote, Canary IslandsSPAINdireccion@museodecetaceos.orgGiuseppe Notarbartolo-di-Sciara Ph.D.Honorary PresidentTethys Research InstituteVia Benedetto Marcello 43 - 20124MilanoITALYgiuseppe@disciara.netGianni Pavan (work presented by Notabartolo di Sciaraand Frantzis)Università degli Studi di PaviaCentro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e RicercheAmbientaliVia Taramelli, 24 - 27100 PAVIAITALYgianni.pavan@unipv.itAntonella ServidioMuseo de Cetáceos de CanariasEdif. Antiguo Varadero1a planta. Local 8BUrb. Puerto Calero35571 YaizaLanzarote, Canary IslandsSPAINantonella@cetaceos.orgBrian Smith Ph.D.Associate Conservation ZoologistWildlife Conservation SocietyAsia Coordinator,IUCN SSC Cetacean Specialist Group26/16 Soi Naya Moo 1Rawai, Phuket 83130THAILANDorcaella@phuket.ksc.co.thJohn Y. Wang, Ph.D.IUCN SSC Cetacean Specialist GroupFormosaCetus Research and Conservation Group310-7250 Yonge StreetThornhill, OntarioCANADA L4J-7X1and(Adjunct Researcher)National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium2 Houwan RoadChecheng, Pingtung County, 944, TAIWANpcrassidens@rogers.comLindy Weilgart Ph.D.Research AssociateDepartment of BiologyDalhousie UniversityHalifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1CANADAlweilgar@dal.caBrendan Wintle Ph.D.Research FellowThe School of BotanyThe University of MelbourneVictoria, 3010AUSTRALIAbrendanw@unimelb.edu.auAndrew J. Wright (ong>Workshopong> Facilitator)Leviathan Sciences3414 17th St N, No. 3ArlingtonVA 22207USAmarinebrit@gmail.comEXECUTIVE SUMMARYMarine fauna, especially cetaceans, rely on sound for a range of biological functions and aresusceptible to the effects of marine noise pollution (e.g. Richardson et al., 1995). Howevernoise, despite its implicit classification as a pollutant by the United Nations Convention on theLaw of the Sea (UNCLOS), is not subject to the same level of regulation as other pollutants.Spatio-temporal restrictions (STRs), including marine protected areas (MPAs), offer one of themost effective means to protect cetaceans and their habitats from the cumulative and synergisticeffects of noise as well as from other anthropogenic stressors (Weilgart, 2006), as the variousthreats confronting cetaceans do not occur in isolation. For example, there is evidence thatanthropogenic noise could interact with cetacean by-catch or ship collisions, preventinganimals from sensing fishing gear or oncoming vessels and making them more vulnerable toinjury or death (Todd et al., 1996; Andre et al., 1997). However, despite great potential, atpresent very few MPAs are large enough to reduce ensonification (i.e. exposure) of cetaceansto noise from human activities in the ocean (Hoyt, this report). This consensus report createsa conceptual foundation for utilising marine protected areas and other STRs to help improvethis situation.EXISTING MPAS AND SANCTUARIESThe efficient transmission of sound underwater (as compared to transmission in air) increasesthe geographical scale of the potential effects of anthropogenic noise pollution, which mayinterfere with biological processes at considerable geographical scales. Therefore, somereduced ensonification may be conferred if predetermined levels of intense mid-frequencysounds are excluded from areas tens of kilometres away from critical habitats (implying anSTR on the order of 100 km 2 to 1,000 km 2 ). However, protection from intense low-frequencysounds might require larger distances of hundreds of kilometres from sound sources and areasof STR on the order of at least 10,000 km 2 to 100,000 km 2 .There have been various strategies aimed at increasing the size of MPAs and their level ofprotection. The United Nations (UN) and other initiatives and congresses have suggestedprotecting 20-30 per cent of the oceans in some way (Roberts et al., 2006) and regionaltreaties such as The Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea,Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area (ACCOBAMS) are cooperating in theimplementation of these goals. However, less than 1 per cent of the surface of the worldocean currently has any protected status, with only 0.01 per cent assigned highly protectedstatus (IUCN Category I) (Hoyt, 2005).Spatio-temporal marine management has the potential to contribute substantially to cetaceanconservation through the mitigation of various kinds of noise and associated threats.Participants considered several types of potentially useful areas (from Hoyt et al., in prep):1. A marine protected area, or MPA, is a generic term commonly used to describe amarine-based area to conserve species or habitats, backed by local, national or regionallegislation. Of the more than 350 MPAs that include some cetacean habitat, only 20MPAs with cetacean habitat are greater than 10,000 km 2 and could function to providesuperior mitigation of some noise sources.2. A spatio-temporal noise-threat buffer zone is a marine zone set up around an MPA toprovide adequate or precautionary distance between noise sources and known orsuspected cetacean habitat (e.g. the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil - Engel, this report).3. An international cetacean sanctuary is a marine area in international waters (high seas)established by an international body or group of countries typically to protect whalesand dolphins from hunting (e.g. International Whaling Commission sanctuaries for theSouthern and Indian Oceans). These areas have no management plans, with theexception of the PELAGOS Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (87,492 km 2 ).4. A national cetacean sanctuary is a marine area occupying the entirety (or most) of theexclusive economic zone (EEZ) of a country or overseas territory. Some 20 countrieshave declared their national waters as marine mammal sanctuaries, ranging from120,000 to 16,000,000 km 2 . These areas have no management plans but are subjectto the laws of a country insofar as they can apply to the EEZ.iii

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