Asset Management Plan - Newcastle City Council

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Asset Management Plan - Newcastle City Council

Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management PlanTable 13.3.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Footways & Cycleways)........6313.3.5 Improvement Actions...........................................................................64Table 13.3.2 Details of Data Collection. (Footways & Cycleways) ....................6513.3.6 Access to Information..........................................................................6613.4 Highway Green Spaces..............................................................................6613.4.1 Coverage.............................................................................................6713.4.2 Records Format ..................................................................................6713.4.3 Last Survey .........................................................................................6713.4.4 Updating Frequency............................................................................6713.4.5 Current information uses.....................................................................67Table 13.4.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Highway Green Spaces).......6813.4.6 Improvement Actions...........................................................................70Table 13.4.2 Details of Data Collection. (Highway Green Spaces) ...................7013.4.7 Access to information..........................................................................7113.5 Bridges & Other Highway Structures.........................................................7213.5.1 Coverage.............................................................................................7313.5.2 Records Format ..................................................................................7413.5.3 Last survey..........................................................................................7413.5.4 Updating Frequency............................................................................7413.5.5 Current information uses.....................................................................74Table 13.5.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Bridges & Other HighwayStructures).........................................................................................................7413.5.6 Improvement Actions...........................................................................77Table 13.5.2 Details of Data Collection. (Bridges & Other Highway Structures)7813.5.7 Access to Information..........................................................................7813.6 Traffic Signals.............................................................................................7913.6.1 Coverage................................................................................................7913.6.2 Records Format......................................................................................7913.6.3 Last Survey.............................................................................................7913.6.5 Current Information Uses........................................................................80Table 13.6.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Traffic Signals)......................8013.6.6 Improvement Actions..............................................................................81Table 13.6.2 Details of Data Collection. (Traffic Signals) .................................8213.6.7 Access to Information..........................................................................8213.7 Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture...............................................................8313.7.1 Coverage................................................................................................8513.7.2 Records Format......................................................................................8513.7.3 Last Survey.............................................................................................8513.7.4 Updating Frequency ...............................................................................8513.7.5 Current Information Uses........................................................................85Table 13.7.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Signs, Barriers & StreetFurniture)...........................................................................................................8613.7.6 Improvement Actions...........................................................................87Table 13.7.2 Details of Data Collection. (Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture) ....8913.7.7 Access to Information..........................................................................9013.8 Street Lighting ............................................................................................913


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management Plan14.0 Carriageways Life Cycle Plan........................................................................9214.1 Goals and Objectives .................................................................................9214.2 Inventory.....................................................................................................94Table 14.2.1 Summary of Network Road Lengths (m) by Hierarchy and Ward 9514.3 Condition ....................................................................................................96Table 14.3.1 Condition Monitors Used to Establish Condition Rating................96Table 14.3.2 UKPMS Condition Index Threshold Values ..................................97Table 14.3.3 Frequency of Condition Inspections/Assessments ......................97Table 14.3.4 Frequency of Routine Inspections ................................................98Table 14.3.5 Frequency of Safety Inspections ..................................................98Table 14.3.6 BVPI Condition Ratings ................................................................99Table 14.3.7 BVPI Condition Ratings 2005/06 by Scanner & CVI.....................99Figure 14.3.1 – Condition Backlog for Principal Roads ...................................100Figure 14.3.2 – Condition Backlog for Non-Principal Classified Roads ...........100Figure 14.3.3 Condition Backlog for Unclassified Roads.................................10114.4 Demands..................................................................................................10114.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................102Table 14.5.1 Performance Gaps (Carriageways) ............................................10214.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................10414.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................104Table 14.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................10414.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................104Table 14.6.2 Planned Carriageway Maintenance Activities............................10514.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................105Table 14.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & Upgrading..............................................105Table 14.6.4 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Programme...............................10614.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................106Table 14.6.5 Carriageway Disposal Activities..................................................10614.7 Optimisation & Budget Considerations.....................................................10614.7.1 Reactive (Adhoc) Maintenance .........................................................106Table 14.7.1 Carriageway Reactive Maintenance Spend (£) ..........................107Table 14.7.2 Drainage Reactive Maintenance Spend (£)................................10714.7.2 Planned Highway Maintenance schemes..........................................107Table 14.7.3 Carriageway Planned Maintenance Revenue Spend (£)............108Table 14.7.4 Carriageway Capital Maintenance Spend (£) .............................10814.7.3 Backlog .............................................................................................108Table 14.7.5 Carriageway Condition Backlog Estimates.................................10914.7.4 Service Options.................................................................................111Table 14.7.6 Carriageway Service Options .....................................................11114.7.5 Levels of Service...............................................................................11214.8 Risk Management– Carriageways............................................................11214.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................11414.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................11414.11 Performance Management ...................................................................115Table 14.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Carriageway Asset........................................................................................................................11514.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................1174


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management Plan15.0 Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan ...................................................11815.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................11815.2 Inventory...................................................................................................12015.3 Condition ..................................................................................................121Table 15.3.1 Condition Monitors Used to Establish Condition Rating..............122Table 15.3.2 Frequency of Condition Inspections/Assessments ....................123Table 15.3.3 Frequency of Routine Inspections ..............................................123Table 15.3.4 Frequency of Safety Inspections ................................................123Table 15.3.5 BVPI Condition Ratings ..............................................................124Figure 15.3.1 Condition Backlog Footways .....................................................12515.4 Demands..................................................................................................12515.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................125Table 15.5.1 Performance Gaps associated with the Footway Asset.............12615.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................12715.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................127Table 15.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................12715.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................128Table 15.6.2 Steady State Maintenance Activities..........................................12815.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................128Table 15.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & Upgrading.............................................129Table 15.6.4 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Programme...............................12915.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................129Table 15.6.5 Footway Disposal Activities ........................................................12915.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................13015.7.1 Reactive (Adhoc) Maintenance .........................................................130Table 15.7.1 Footway Reactive Maintenance Spend (£).................................13015.7.2 Planned Footway Maintenance schemes..........................................13015.7.3 Backlog .............................................................................................13115.7.4 Service Options.................................................................................131Table 15.7.2 Footway & Cycleway Service Options ........................................13215.7.5 Levels of service...................................................................................13215.8 Risk Management– Footways and Cycleways .........................................13315.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................13415.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................13515.11 Performance Management ...................................................................135Table 15.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Footway & CyclewayAsset ...............................................................................................................13515.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................13616.0 Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan...................................................13816.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................13816.2 Inventory...................................................................................................139Table 16.2.1 Highway Green Spaces Total Inventory Data.............................14016.3 Condition ..................................................................................................14016.4 Demands..................................................................................................14116.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................141Table 16.5.1 Performance Gaps......................................................................14216.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................14216.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................142Table 16.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................1435


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management Plan16.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................144Table 16.6.2 Planned Maintenance Activities.................................................14416.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................144Table 16.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & Upgrading..............................................14416.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................144Table 16.6.4 Highway Green Spaces Disposal Activities ................................14516.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................14516.7.1 Backlog .............................................................................................14516.7.2 Service Options.................................................................................145Table 16.7.1 Highway Green Spaces – Service Options.................................14616.7.3 Levels of service ...............................................................................14616.8 Risk Management – Highway Green Spaces...........................................14816.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................14916.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................15016.11 Performance Management ...................................................................150Table 16.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Highway GreenSpaces Asset...................................................................................................15116.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................15117.0 Bridges and Other Highway Structures Life Cycle Plan.........................15217.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................15217.2 Inventory...................................................................................................153Table 17.2.1 Major Structures Assets by Type and Ward ..............................154Table 17.2.2 Major Structure Assets by Type and Route Hierarchy...............155Table 17.2.3 Other Structure Assets by Type and Route Hierarchy................155Table 17.2.4 River Tyne Frontage Structures by Type....................................15517.3 Condition ..................................................................................................156Table 17.3.1 Bridge Inspection Details .........................................................156Table 17.3.2 Interpretation of Average and Critical Stock values ...................15717.3.1 Current Condition ..............................................................................158Table 17.3.3 Current Bridge Stock Condition Ratings .....................................15817.4 Demands..................................................................................................159Table 17.4.1 Demands - Highway Structure .................................................16017.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................16117.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................16117.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................161Table 17.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................16217.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................163Table 17.6.2 Steady State Maintenance Activities...........................................16317.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................163Table 17.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & Upgrading activities ...............................16417.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................164Table 17.6.4 Disposal Activities......................................................................16417.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................165Table 17.7.0 Bridges & Other Highway Structures Maintenance spend 2001 –2006 ................................................................................................................16617.7.1 Service Options ....................................................................................166Table 17.7.1 Bridges & Other Highway Structures Service Options................16717.7.2 Levels of Service...............................................................................16717.7.3 Backlog.................................................................................................1676


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management PlanFigure 17.7.3 Condition Backlog / Investment requirement Highway Structures........................................................................................................................16817.8 Risk Management – Bridges & Other Highway Structures .......................16817.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................170Table 17.9.1 Future Maintenance Programme by Number of Bridges & OtherHighway Structures per year ...........................................................................171Table 17.9.2 Future Maintenance Programme by Expenditure per year .........17117.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................17117.11 Performance Management ...................................................................172Table 17.11.1 Local Performance Indicators for Bridges & Other HighwayStructures ........................................................................................................17217.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................17318.0 Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan..................................................................17518.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................17518.2 Inventory...................................................................................................176Table 18.2.1 Number of Traffic Signal Installations .........................................17718.3 Condition ..................................................................................................177Table 18.3.1 Signal Pole Condition Assessment Criteria ................................178Table 18.3.2 Signal Pole Condition .................................................................17818.4 Demands..................................................................................................17818.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................179Table 18.5.1 Examples of Traffic Signal Performance Gaps...........................17918.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................17918.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................179Table 18.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................17918.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................180Table 18.6.3 Steady State Reactive Maintenance Activities 2003/2006..........180Table 18.6.4 Steady State Planned Maintenance Schemes undertaken in2003/2007 .......................................................................................................18118.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................182Table 18.6.5 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Activities undertaken in 2004/2005........................................................................................................................18218.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................18518.7 Budget Information and Optimisation .......................................................185Table 18.7.0 Traffic Signal Annual Expenditure 2002 – 2007..........................18618.7.1 Service Options.................................................................................186Table 18.7.1 Traffic Signal Service Options ....................................................18718.7.2 Levels of Service ..................................................................................18718.7 Risk Management– Traffic Signals...........................................................18718.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................18918.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................18918.11 Performance Management ...................................................................190Table 18.11.1 Traffic Signal Performance Indicators.......................................19018.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................1907


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management Plan19.0 Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan .................................................................19219.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................19219.2 Inventory...................................................................................................193Table 19.2.1 Number of Street Lighting Installations by Ward.........................19519.3 Condition ..................................................................................................195Table 19.3.1 Programme of Street Lighting Inspections.................................19619.4 Demands..................................................................................................19619.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................196Table 19.5.1 Examples of Street Lighting Performance Gaps.........................19619.6 Lifecycle Option Appraisal........................................................................19719.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................197Table 19.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................19719.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................198Table 19.6.2 Asset renewal programme July 2004 to June 2007....................19819.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................19919.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................19919.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................20019.8 Risk Management – Street Lighting ........................................................20019.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................20219.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................20219.11 Performance Management ...................................................................202Table 19.11.1 Street Lighting Local Performance Measure Results 2005 and2006 ................................................................................................................20319.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................20320.0 Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan..................................20420.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................20420.2 Inventory...................................................................................................20520.3 Condition ..................................................................................................207Table 20.3.1 Local Condition Rating Criteria for Signs, Barriers & StreetFurniture ..........................................................................................................207Table 20.3.2 Estimated Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Condition..............20820.4 Demands..................................................................................................208Table 20.4.1 Aspirational levels of service for equipment replace...................20820.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................209Table 20.5.1 Examples of Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Performance Gaps........................................................................................................................20920.6 Option Appraisal.......................................................................................20920.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................20920.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................21020.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................21020.6.4 Disposal ............................................................................................21120.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................21120.7.1 Service Options.................................................................................211Table 20.7.1 Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Service Options.....................21220.7.2 Levels of Service...............................................................................21220.7.3 Backlog.................................................................................................212Table 20.7.2 Current Backlog of Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture ................21320.8 Risk Management – Signs, Barriers and Street Furniture ........................21320.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................2148


Newcastle City Council – Highway Asset Management Plan20.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................21420.11 Performance Management ...................................................................215Table 20.11.1 Local Performance Indicators ...................................................21520.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................21521.0 Winter Maintenance Life Cycle Plan.........................................................21621.1 Goals and Objectives ...............................................................................21621.2 Inventory...................................................................................................216Table 21.2.1 Types and locations of Mechanical Gritting machines................21721.3 Condition ..................................................................................................21721.4 Demands..................................................................................................217Table 21.4.1 Salt Spread Rates.......................................................................218Table 21.4.2 Reactions to Met Office Forecast ...............................................21921.5 Performance Gaps ...................................................................................219Table 21.5.1 Examples of Winter Maintenance Performance Gaps ................22021.6 Lifecycle Option Appraisal........................................................................22021.6.1 Routine Maintenance ........................................................................220Table 21.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities...................................................22021.6.2 Renewal/Replacement ......................................................................22121.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading.........................................................22121.5.4 Disposal ............................................................................................22121.7 Optimisation .............................................................................................22121.8 Risk Management– Winter Maintenance..................................................22221.9 Forward Works Programme .....................................................................22221.10 Physical Works .....................................................................................22221.11 Performance Management ...................................................................22321.12 Improvement Actions ............................................................................22322.0 Conclusions and Recommendations..........................................................225AppendicesAppendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix DAppendix ELevels of Service and Performance IndicatorsRisk RegisterImprovement Action PlanForward Work ProgrammesCPA Key Lines of Enquiry9


Executive Summary0.0 Introduction and ScopeThis document is the first Highways Asset Management Plan (HAMP) for Newcastle’shighway network. It identifies the current approach used for the management of thehighway asset, highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the current managementapproach and seeks ways to improve the current practices.The Highways Asset Management Plan is designed to propagate a series of actionswhich will enable the Council to build on existing processes and tools to form acontinuous improvement framework. This will meet the Councils strategic goals in themost effective manner within the constraints of statutory requirements, customerexpectations and funding limitations.This initial plan includes a number of programmes for future works with associated costsfor varying levels of service. It also identifies specific gaps in the information held anddefines the processes required to fill these gaps.0.1 Highway Assets CoveredThe highway network comprises a number of diverse assets and the principles of assetmanagement are to be applied to all of these components within the groupings set out inthe following table.Table 0.1 – Newcastle City Council Highway Asset GroupingsAsset GroupCarriagewaysFootways, Cycleways and Hard VergesHighway Green SpacesLightingTraffic SignalsSigns, Barriers and Street FurnitureBridges & Other Highway StructuresWinter MaintenanceAsset ElementsCarriageways, highway drainage, road markings and streetcleaningFootways, cycleways (dedicated and shared use), hardpaved verges, footway gullies and street cleaningGrass verges, trees, hedges, flower and shrub beds, andplanters located within the highwayColumns, lamps, cabling, feeder pillars, illuminated signs,subway lights, illuminated bollardsSignalised junctions, pedestrian crossings, school crossinglights, SCOOT and UTC systemsAdvance direction signs, direction signs, warning signs,information signs, sign posts, street name plates, nonilluminatedbollards, seats, council owned bus shelters,highway fences, pedestrian barriers, safety barriers, andother street furnitureBridges, subways, culverts, retaining walls, high mastlighting columns, tunnels, stairs, river walls & revetmentsSalt storage areas, gritters and grit bins10


Executive Summary0.2 Goals and objectivesThe overarching corporate objectives of the highway network are set out inthe Tyne & Wear Local Transport Plan (LTP) supported by local objectives,the main objectives being:• Accessibility – improving access and enhancing opportunities toreach a full range of facilities and activities, especially those withoutaccess to a car and with specific emphasis on people with mobilityproblems• Economy – supporting economic growth, promoting regenerationand improving prosperity• Environment – building sustainable communities while reducingtransport related atmospheric pollution and other adverseenvironmental impacts of traffic to ensure sustainable transportpolicies• Integration – improving the links between public transport networks,closer integration of land use and transportation planning and closeliaison with the transport policies of neighbouring authorities• Safety – improving road safety and reducing the fear of crimeassociated with transport.• Ten Year Plan – removing the maintenance backlogIn respect of the management of its assets the City aims:• to ensure that their highway assets meet their service delivery needsin terms of their condition, suitability, sufficiency, cost, location, safetyand their environmental impact.• to protect the financial and environmental value of the assets usedand to seek best value by striving for lower lifetime costs.• to ensure compliance with relevant legislation and regulationsaffecting assets.• to release assets that do not meet service delivery needs andreinvest the proceeds in the maintenance and modernisation ofservices.• to maximise the benefits to Newcastle of the deployment of theCouncil’s assets through working in partnership with other agencies,to develop community focused solutions.0.3 Asset Inventory and Condition InformationAsset Inventory is the foundation stone on which asset managementprocesses are to be built. It is only when appropriate inventory andcondition data is available to all staff involved in the process that an overallview and consistent management approach can be achieved.The inventory and condition information relating to the highways asset, andthe methods and timetable for gathering missing information is containedwithin the Asset Information Strategy and the individual lifecycle plans.11


Executive SummaryThe Council now has good inventory and condition information available forthe carriageways, footways, structures, traffic signals and street lightingassets. Although a reasonable assessment of the inventory and conditionof the other assets has been made, it is recognised that additional datacollection is required in order to increase the confidence in the information.12


Executive SummaryTable 0.2 – Overall highway asset managed by Newcastle City CouncilAsset Item Quantity Asset Item QuantityCarriagewaysStreet LightingPrincipal Roads 66.5 km Lighting Columns 36066**B Roads 44.5 km Illuminated Signs & Bollards 3850**C Roads84.6 kmUnclassified Roads715.1 kmSignsBack Lanes 69.1 km Principal Roads 2478979.8 km Classified Roads 5216Highway Gullies 44,525Unclassified Roads 1107918773Footways & CyclewaysSafety FencingPrestige Area (1) Principal Roads 29.5 kmPrimary Walking Route (1a) 140 km Classified Roads 5.5 kmSecondary Walking Route (2)Unclassified Roads4.6 kmOther footways & cycleways 1742 km 39.6 kmHighway Green Spaces1882 kmPedestrian GuardrailPrincipal Roads13.3 kmMature Trees 109,537* Classified Roads 21.2 kmJuvenile Trees 181,263* Unclassified Roads 18.7 kmWhips 265,315* 53.2 kmHighway Grass Verge 999,248 m 2Highway Flower Beds 1,463 m 2 BollardsHighway Shrub Beds 66,198 m 2 Principal Roads 715Hedges 61,554 m Classified Roads 1425Planters 2,850 Unclassified Roads 8452Bridges & Other Highway StructuresRoad Bridge 60Street Name PlatesAccommodation Bridge 1 Principal Roads 126Retaining Wall 113 Classified Roads 212Footbridge 43 Unclassified Roads 2214Culvert 31 2552Subway 39Other Structures 60Traffic Signal Installations360Traffic Signalised Junction 132Pelican / Puffin Crossing 128Toucan Crossing 19Pegasus Crossing 2School Crossing Patrol Flashers 2810,682* The numbers above left are the number of treeslooked after by the authority; there has been nospecific calculation of those trees located withinhighway land. A survey of all street trees within thehighway is about to be undertaken and the informationwill be used to determine the actual budgets requiredfor their on going management.** These figures are correct for the start of the PFIcontract; changes to the asset are ongoing with therevised asset register being maintained daily by thePFI contractor.13


Executive Summary0.4 Asset Value: Gross Replacement CostA valuation of the asset to support the Whole of Governments Accountsprocess will be undertaken in the future as an improvement action to meetthe timescales set out by Central Government in accordance with theCounty Surveyors Society guidelines. This will include a calculation of thegross replacement cost of the highway asset.0.5 Investment in the AssetAt present the major funding for the management and maintenance of thehighway asset within Newcastle comes from three main sources:• Revenue funding – for day-to-day and planned highwaymaintenance (renewal), running costs, energy etc. This is allocatedannually based on defined service standards and contract costs. It isalso dependent on the government’s grant allocation based on theRelative Needs Formula (RNF) for highways maintenance identifiedfor the Council and the Council Tax settlement.• Capital funding – for planned highway maintenance (renewal). Thisis allocated annually by government through the joint Tyne andWear Local Transport Plan (LTP).• Other specific allocations may be made from time to time.Newcastle City Council has been successful in attracting investmentfrom other sources of third party funding such as the SingleRegeneration Budget (SRB), European Regional Development Fund(ERDF), Private Developer contributions and Private FinanceInitiatives (PFI).0.6 Levels of Service and Service OptionsThe introduction of measurable and quantifiable Levels of Service (LoS)demonstrate prudent long-term management of the asset and meetinguser aspirations is a key element in the adoption of an asset managementapproach.The Levels of Service describe the ’quality of the service provided by theasset for the benefit of the customer’. These are composite indicators thatrepresent the social, economic and environmental goals of the community.Levels of service are therefore the manner by which the Council, ashighway authority engages with the customer and reflect the customer’sinterests in terms that can be measured and evaluated.Initially the Levels of Service developed in this HAMP will be used for:• identifying the total costs and benefits of the services offered.• to assist with service prioritisation across the range of highwayassets.• to create service standards as a measurement for performance.14


Executive SummaryThe Levels of Service will be developed further as an improvement actionthrough stakeholder consultation and engagement during the coming monthsto:• enable customers to understand the suitability and affordability ofthe service.• inform the decision making process taking into account local needsand aspirations.• inform customers of the proposed types and levels of service beingoffered.A developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate betterdecision making by using robust technical information together with localneeds and aspirations to support the decision making process. Inpractical terms this means the identification and assessment of ServiceOptions.The following are the service option categories considered for inclusion inthe inclusion in the HAMP:• Statutory Minimum: Meeting statutory or legislative requirementsonly• Minimum: The effect of reducing funding levels to current RNF andLTP allocations• Existing: The effect of continuing at current funding levels• Requested: The amount of additional funding required based oncustomer expectations and political aspirations• Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires toidentify an economically optimal Level of Service. This option isdetermined from the life cycle planning process• Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources (e.g. budget constraints)From information gained during the development of the HAMPrequirements, it is intended that Asset Owners will be able to developspecific service options applicable for each of their individual assetgroups.15


Executive SummaryTable 0.3 describes the first assessment of the service optionsundertaken; this will be improved and revised as additional informationbecomes available and existing information is updated.Table 0.3 – Highway Asset Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutory MinimumExisting(2005/6) BudgetRequestedAdditionalFundingOptimumGeneraldescriptionof eachServiceOptionCarriagewaysFootways &CyclewaysBridges &OtherHighwayStructuresMinimum (Reactive)level of service meetingstatutory or legislativerequirements only.Approx. £0.628 m forone year onlyRapid andunsustainabledeterioration of roadnetwork, causing anincrease inmaintenance costs,backlog and a steepdecline in asset valueApprox. £1.2m for oneyear onlyRapid andunsustainabledeterioration offootway network,causing an increasein both reactivemaintenance costsand backlog and asteep decline in assetvalueApprox. £250k for oneyear onlyMin budget allocationand residual life -hence higher wholelife cycle costing andunpredictablefinancial managementThe current Level ofService typically as setout in the City’s HAMPor national COPsApprox. £3.1m paThe present budgetlevel is not sufficientto maintain thecurrent networkcondition resulting ina greater backlog ofworks each year(Includes additionalbudget of £1.0mfunded by PrudentialBorrowing)Approx. £ 3.7m paHas been sufficient todecrease the rate ofdeterioration in thecondition of the City’sfootways. Howeverthe funding is notsufficient to improvethe overall conditionof the footways(Includes additionalbudget of £1.0mfunded by PrudentialBorrowing)Approx. £1.15m paMakes no allowancefor improvementworks and barelymaintains the currentcondition of the asset.The target date of2010 for replacing allsub standardstructures is unlikelyto be metA Level of Service thatattempts to meetcustomer expectationsand political aspirationsExtra funds of £7.8mpa over a 5 yearperiod followed by anadditional £2.1m pathereafterRequired to meet thelevels of maintenancedeemed necessary toimprove the currentBVPI ratings andimprove the conditionof all roads to anacceptable standardand clear the backlog.(Excludes additionalfunding)£9.0m of additionalfunds pa over a 5year period followedby an additional£2.5m pa thereafterRequired to meet thelevels of maintenancedeemed necessary toimprove the currentBVPI ratings andimprove the conditionof all footways to anacceptable standardand clear the backlog.An additional £1.95mpa over a 5 yearperiod followed by anadditional £0.65m pathereafterTo allow for theremoval of thepresent backlog andthe ongoingmaintenance of theasset to acceptablestandardsLevel of Service basedupon engineeringprinciples & technicaljudgementEstimated at £9.9mpa for 5 years,thereafter£4.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incarriageway conditionover a 5 year period,and allow for ongoingmanagement tomaintain the asset atthe new conditionlevelsEstimated at £11.7mpa for 5 years,thereafter £5.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incondition of all theCity’s footways over a5 year period, andallow for thecontinuedmanagement of thefootways at the newcondition levelsEst. at £3.1m pa for 5years, £1.8m pathereafter to maintainthe revised conditionlevelsWill allow inspectionand maintenance atthe recommendedintervals as per theCode of Practice. Thelifecycle of eachstructure is morelikely to reach and/orexceed its design lifethereby deferringcostly reconstructionwork.16


Executive SummaryTable 0.3 – Highway Asset Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutory MinimumExisting(2005/6) BudgetRequestedAdditional FundingOptimumSigns,Barriers &StreetFurnitureStreetLightingApprox. £130k paReplace potentiallyhazardous anddamaged signs andfurniture only but thiswould be offset by arise in reactivemaintenance in futureyearsContained within PFIApprox. £130k paAt present onlyreactive maintenanceis undertakenEstimated at anadditional £1.57m pafor 5 years, plus anadditional £0.87m pathereafterThis will bring theassets up to anacceptable standardand remove thebacklog of works. Thisis based on a 20%sample of surveyedassets using bothinventory andcondition informationEstimated at £1.7mpa for 5 years,thereafter £1.0m pafor lifecyclereplacementsMore flexible “needs”based maintenanceschedule. Signs &street furnitureinspected, cleanedand painted on aregular basis in orderto maintain the assetcondition in line withthe Code of PracticeTrafficSignalsHighwayGreenSpacesStreet TreesApprox. £115k paAn increase inmaintenance backlogand a steep decline inasset value. Reactivecosts are likely to besignificantly higherwithout regularmaintenance workbeing undertaken.Not available at this timeApprox. £ 65kNominal budgetreflects removal ofdead, dying andpotentially hazardoustrees only. Currentlyrunning atapproximately 120 ayear.Approx. £429k paDoes not approximateto a steady state, butaim to deliver BestPractice as detailed inthe national COP forHighway MaintenanceManagementApprox. £ 65kActual funding is asper the statutorysafety obligations.Nominal budgetreflects removal ofdead, dying andpotentially hazardoustrees only.Not available at thistimeEstimated at anadditional £0.935m pafor 5 years plus anadditional £25k pa.A survey of all streettrees within thehighway is underwayand the informationwill be used todetermine the actualbudgets required fortheir on goingmanagement.Not available at thistimeEstimated at £1.0mpa for 5 years,thereafter £0.9k pa forlifecycle replacementin order to replace allstreet trees that areremoved each year asper the Council’spolicy.17


Executive Summary0.7 Forward Works ProgrammeA 10-year forward works programme for each asset grouping is beingprepared based on the evaluation and ranking of alternative improvementprojects and maintenance treatments, and including all cyclic routinemaintenance functions. These individual programmes will subsequently beamalgamated to form an Integrated Forward Works Programme (IWP),which will include all assets and services and input from otherorganisations who may have an interest in or an affect on themanagement of the highway network. The IWP will be subject to extensiveconsultation with stakeholders to ensure this meets local aspirations at aneighbourhood level.This long-term programme will be built on projections using currently helddata and knowledge. As such there will be some variance on the reliabilityof the projections. The reliability of projections regarding the precisenature and location of the works for the later years of the programme willbe relatively low; however an aggregation of the anticipated needs is avalid method of predicting future funding requirements.0.8 Risk ManagementEffective Risk Management is an essential requirement of CorporateGovernance. It is concerned with managing the barriers to achieving theobjectives. It enables us to become aware of potential risks, and identifywhat the consequences might be if they occur. This will enable us tounderstand potential risks and take the appropriate action where possible,to control and manage them.Risks can be classified according to type and to category. This can assistin the overall management of risk. Risks are categorised as Strategic,Operational, Cross-cutting, Statutory and Discretionary.The four main steps of Risk Management can be broken down into:• Identifying Risks• Assessing Risks• Managing and Controlling Risks• Reviewing and Reporting RisksThe Asset Management Plan deals mainly with the first two sections;identifying risks and assessing risks.It is intended that this risk assessment system will be further developedsuch that in future it can be used as an option appraisal technique whenchoosing between differing service options and levels of service.18


Executive Summary0.9 Performance GapsA number of performance gaps have been highlighted within the highwayasset management plan and they are detailed fully within the individuallifecycle plans. However, a number of these are gaps that recur across anumber of asset groupings and have been highlighted as the main orsignificant performance gaps.• Limited inventory information in some areas.• Limited condition information in some areas.• Appropriate levels of service not yet developed or agreed withstakeholders.• An integrated forward works programme not yet developed.• Existing prioritising techniques and funding levels insufficient tomaintain the asset in its current condition.• Risk management procedures relating to management decision makingnot fully developed.0.10 Future Developments / Improvement ActionsImprovement Actions necessary for an asset management approach mayhave varying impacts on current business processes and/or theorganisation’s culture. Some may take considerable time to implementand finally reap the benefits, while others could be introduced more easilywith little adverse effect on current systems or procedures, giving someearly “quick-wins”.A series of improvement actions have been identified within the individuallife cycle plans. A number of the main improvements that are recurringwithin the plan are listed below:• Complete full inventory survey.• Complete collection of condition data for all assets and maintain.• Review levels of service and undertake a consultation process withstakeholders.• Review forward works programmes in light of new information.• Review budget requirements.• Further develop risk assessment system.• Review current business processes in light of asset managementpractice to see where improvements can be made to the serviceprovided.• Valuation of the asset to support Whole of Government Accounts.19


Executive Summary0.11 Conclusions and RecommendationsA large amount of improvement actions have been undertaken throughoutthe development of the HAMP, particularly in relation to data collection,storage and maintenance together with a change in processes necessaryto implement a cohesive highway asset management strategy.The improvement actions that have been identified within this plan are keyto the ongoing implementation of asset management and as such areseen as a priority within the service.Newcastle City Council is committed to improving the management andmaintenance of the highway and is keen to engage all parties in progresstowards providing a safe, accessible, economically viable, environmentallyfriendly and well maintained asset.20


Introduction1.0 Introduction1.1 DefinitionThe definition of Asset Management, which has been adopted by Newcastle CityCouncil is that contained within the County Surveyors Society Framework forHighway Asset Management, which states:“Asset management is a strategic approach that identifies the optimalallocation of resources for the management, operation, preservation andenhancement of the highway infrastructure to meet the needs of current andfuture customers.”1.2 PurposeThis document is the initial Highways Asset Management Plan (HAMP) forNewcastle’s Highway network. It is intended to determine the current approach usedfor the management of the Highway asset, to highlight the strengths andweaknesses of the current management approach and to seek ways to improve thecurrent practices.The Highways Asset Management Plan is designed to propagate a series of actions,which will enable the organisation to build on existing processes and tools to form acontinuous improvement framework, in order to meet the Councils strategic goals, inthe most effective manner, within the constraints of statutory requirements, customerexpectations and funding limitations.This initial plan will include a number of programmes for future works with associatedcosts for varying levels of service, it will also identify specific gaps in the informationheld and define the process required to fill these gaps. Valuation of the asset is likelyto be a future requirement, which will be addressed as an improvement action usingthe County Surveyors Society guidelines.1.3 Assets CoveredThe Highway network comprises of anumber of diverse assets and theprinciples of asset management areto be applied to all of thesecomponents within the groupings setout in the following table.21


IntroductionTable 1.3 Newcastle City Council Asset GroupingsAsset GroupCarriagewaysFootways, Cyclewaysand Hard VergesHighway GreenSpacesLightingTraffic SignalsSigns, Barriers &Street FurnitureBridges & OtherHighway StructuresWinter MaintenanceAsset ElementsCarriageways, highway drainage, road markings andstreet cleaningFootways, cycleways (dedicated and shared use), hardpaved verges, footway gullies and street cleaningGrass verges, trees, hedges, flower & shrub beds &planters located within the highwayColumns, lamps, cabling, feeder pillars, illuminated signs,subway lights, illuminated bollardsSignalised junctions, pedestrian crossings, school crossinglights, SCOOT and UTC systems.Advance direction signs, direction signs, warning signs,information signs, sign posts, street name plates, nonilluminatedbollards, seats, council owned bus shelters,highway fences, pedestrian barriers, safety barriers, andother street furniture.Bridges, subways, culverts, retaining walls, high mastlighting columns, tunnels, stairs, river walls & revetments.Salt storage areas, gritters & grit bins.1.4 Key StakeholdersThis HAMP is intended as a tool to create and improve the asset managementapproaches within Newcastle City Council. Its initial use will be to provide informationto Members and Senior Management of the resources and practices required toefficiently manage the highway asset, so that a confidence level can be reached inthe service provided and to demonstrate the effective use of the budgets available, itwill also help to demonstrate any failings in the system or the funding limitations.A secondary use will be that of operational managers and staff being able to seehow the high level strategies and objectives affect the operational and improvementplans used to deliver the highway services.A major benefit of this plan will be to help inform and engage the people ofNewcastle with regard to the planning and works that go into the effectivemaintenance of the highway, and to help provide the appropriate informationrequired by auditors and government bodies.1.5 Asset Management Organisational StructureThis HAMP has been developed using the knowledge and expertise of a number ofofficers within the Council supported by advice and assistance from OPUSInternational, a consultant experienced in asset management. It has drawn togetherknowledge from a number of teams and departments and from specialists within theorganisation.22


IntroductionTo ensure that the HAMP is monitored and delivered effectively a highway assetmanagement working group has been put in place to oversee its creation andimplementation. This working group will also be charged with integrating the planrequirements into the authority’s present activities and for the continual monitoringand improvement of the highway asset management processes and the plan itself.Although overseeing and driving forward the asset management approach within theauthority the working group will only be one part of the organisational structurerequired to effectively implement this change in strategy. Its role of collecting andcollating information from all sources undertaking or affected by the highwaymanagement function will enable input from Members, senior management,operational managers, staff, contractors, customers and other interested bodies.23


Framework2.0 FrameworkGENERIC HIGHWAY ASSET MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKGoals,Objectives &PoliciesInventory3. Starting PointImprovement Actions8 Reporting & MonitoringConditionAssessmentPerformanceGaps4. Levels of ServiceDemandAspirationsLifecyclePlanning5 Option IdentificationPerformance MeasurementOptimisation &BudgetConsideration6. Decision MakingRiskAssessmentForward WorkProgrammePhysical Works& ServiceDelivery7. ImplementationThis framework has been used to develop the lifecycle plans for each asset group,which are contained elsewhere in this document. (See pages 88 to 220)24


Goals, Objectives & Policies3.0 Goals, Objectives & Policies3.1 Objectives of Asset OwnershipThe Council as the Highway Authority has a duty to maintain the highway network ina condition to enable the safe passage of the travelling public. Much of the HighwayNetwork ownership has been handed down to the Council through historic routesand networks, although over time this has been augmented by acquisition throughnew developments or the introduction of new routes to facilitate the growth in traffic.While the basic duty of a Highway Authority relates to safe passage, Newcastle Cityhas upgraded the highway network over time such that it now provides a strongcontribution to the quality of life in the local neighbourhood and is vital for economicprosperity.3.2 National GoalsThe overarching national goals, set out in the government’s ten year Plan in 2000are:National Ten Year Plan TargetsTo halt the deterioration in the condition of local roads by 2004, and toeliminate the road maintenance backlog by the end of the 10-year Planperiod.• To reduce the number of people killed or seriously injured in Great Britainin road accidents.• To reduce road congestion on the inter-urban network and in large urbanareas in England below current levels by 2010.• To increase bus use whilst improving levels of punctuality and reliability.• To triple the number of cycling trips compared with the 2000 base3.3 Local ObjectivesThe overarching corporate objectives put on the highway network are set out in theTyne & Wear Local Transport Plan (LTP), the main objectives being:• Accessibility – improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially those without access to a car andwith specific emphasis on people with mobility problems;• Economy – supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;25


Goals, Objectives & Policies• Environment – reducing transport related atmospheric pollution and otheradverse environmental impacts of traffic to ensure sustainable transportpolicies;• Integration- improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land use and transportation planning and close liaison with thetransport policies of neighbouring authorities, and• Safety- improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.In respect of the management of its assets the City aims:• To ensure that their highway assets meet their service delivery needs in termsof their condition, suitability, sufficiency, cost, location, safety and theirenvironmental impact.• To protect the financial and environmental value of the assets used and toseek best value by striving for lower lifetime costs.• To ensure compliance with relevant legislation and regulations affectingassets.• To release assets that do not meet service delivery needs and reinvest theproceeds in the maintenance and modernisation of services.• To maximise the benefits to Newcastle of the deployment of the Council’sassets through working in partnership with other agencies, to developcommunity focussed solutions.3.4 Other Documents Setting Goals and Objectives• “Delivering Best Practice in Highway Maintenance – a Code of Practice forMaintenance Management” – national guidelines for highway maintenancestandards.• “Delivering Best Value Highway Maintenance Services” – an internal reportproduced to set a clear strategy for the provision of highway maintenanceservices within Newcastle, and demonstrate how this strategy links withNational and Local agendas.• Newcastle City Unitary Development Plan• Winter Maintenance PlanManagement of Highway Structures – A Code of Practice - national guidelinesfor structures maintenance standards.• Well Lit Highways – Code of Practice for Highway Lighting ManagementA number of goals and objectives set for particular asset groupings are detailed inthe relevant lifecycle plans.26


Inventory & Condition Assessment4.0 Inventory & Condition AssessmentAsset Inventory is the foundation stone on which asset management processes areto be built. It is only when appropriate inventory and condition data is available to allstaff involved in the process that an overall view and consistent managementapproach can be achieved.Asset data, both inventory and condition is required to enable the followingprocesses:• Effectively monitoring and reporting on the condition of the highway network,and its individual assets, at any stage throughout its life.• Helping to assess the current levels of service and develop future levels ofservice along with their associated performance indicators.• Identifying future investment strategies, modelling future maintenance options,and developing long term forward programmes, which enable the assessmentof future budget needs.• Conducting valuation assessments for each of the various assets and forpredicting their depreciation over time, bearing in mind any restorative worksundertaken on them.• All of the above meaning that the Council will make well informed, costeffective asset management decisions.A review of the currentinventory available toNewcastle City Council, itslocation, level of detail,currency, and validation isreported within the AssetInformation Strategy (AIS)elsewhere in this document.(See Page 55)The AIS also reports on thegaps in the inventory data andthe steps being taken to fillthese gaps and continuallyupdate the data held, in order toobtain a complete and accurateinventory, with a high level ofconfidence in the data held.27


Levels of Service5.0 Levels of ServiceThe levels of service describe the ’quality of the service provided by the asset for thebenefit of the customer’. These are composite indicators that represent the social,economic and environmental goals of the community. Levels of service are thereforethe manner by which the City Council, as highway authority engages with thecustomer and are about reflecting the customer’s interests in terms that can bemeasured and evaluated.The model for developing Levels of Service in Newcastle is shown in the diagrambelow:Requirements Levels of Service PerformancemeasuresLegalrequirementsSafetyBVPIsStakeholderexpectationsCity CouncilobjectivesBest practiceguidelinesServiceabilitySustainabilityLocalperformanceindicatorsCustomersatisfactionsurveysContractperformanceindicators5.1 Legislative RequirementsThe legislation which governs the statutory and discretionary powers fordelivery of the highways service are contained in: -• The Highways Act 1980• Traffic Management Act, 2004• Railways and Transport Safety Act, 2003• New Roads and Streetworks Act, 1991• The Local Government Act 2003• Local Authorities (Transport Charges) Regulations 1998 .• Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984• Traffic Signs and General Directions 1994• Road Traffic Act 1988• Road Traffic Reduction Act 199728


Levels of Service• Transport Act 2000• Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981• Environmental Protection Act 1990• Noxious Weeds Act 1959• Rights of Way Act 1990• Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000• Health and Safety at Work Act 1974• Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992• Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 1994• Disability Discrimination Act 1995• Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994• Human Rights Act 1998• Freedom of Information Act 2000• Local Government Act 20005.2 Customer ExpectationsThe customer’s view of the service being provided is very important. A report oncustomer satisfaction with all aspects relating to the Street Environment wascommissioned in 2004 and its findings are précised below.This research was designed to take a measure of public opinion relating to theSTREET ENVIRONMENT in a number of areas of Newcastle upon Tyne. Itconsiders the views and experiences of mainly residents in the City, but alsoincorporates the perceptions of those who work, shop and travel throughNewcastle, often on a regular basis.The research was undertaken using a structured questionnaire, administered byResearch Interviewers in the following areas of the City:♦ Acorn Road♦ Adelaide Terrace♦ Chillingham Road♦ Church Walk♦ City Centre♦ Gosforth High Street♦ Halewood Avenue♦ Inner West♦ Kingston Park♦ Newburn♦ Outer East♦ Two Ball Lonnen♦ Westerhope VillageAll interviews were completed in July and August 2004 with a sample of 100respondents obtained in each of the thirteen areas, with the exception of theCity Centre which utilised 300 completed interviews.29


Levels of ServiceThe research design, analysis and the production of this comprehensive,impartial and detailed report was undertaken by the Senior Research Officer,Research and Development, Neighbourhood Services Directorate. Full findingsof this survey are presented in a report using a series of charts, tables andgraphs. For the purposes of this document only the important and interestingfindings relating to the management of the Highway Asset have been included:5.2.1 Street LightingThe Amount of Street Lighting• Across the City there are positive perceptionsof the amount of street lighting. Theseperceptions peak in the areas of Kingston Park,Halewood Avenue, Chillingham Road and theCity Centre. Lowest, but still positive scores, areevident in the areas of Adelaide Terrace andWesterhope.The Brightness of Street Lighting• Again, across the City there are positiveperceptions of the brightness of street lighting.These perceptions peak in the areas of KingstonPark, Halewood Avenue, Chillingham Road andthe City Centre. The lowest, but still positivescore, is evident in the Adelaide Terrace area.The Speed of Street Lighting Repairs• Again, across the City there are positive perceptions of the speed of streetlighting repairs. These perceptions peak in the Westerhope and HalewoodAvenue areas. The lowest, but still positive score, is evident in the AdelaideTerrace area.Street Lighting Preferences• Across the City respondents express a clear preference for white, rather thanorange street lighting.Overall Perceptions of Street Lighting• Again, across the City there are consistently positive overall perceptions ofstreet lighting. These perceptions peak in the areas of Kingston Park,Halewood Avenue, Chillingham Road, the Inner West and the City Centre. Thelowest, but still positive score, is evident in the Adelaide Terrace area.30


Levels of Service5.2.2 PavementsThe Frequency of Pavement Maintenance• Many negative opinions were expressed across the City in relation to thefrequency of pavement maintenance. Such negative perceptions peak in theChurch Walk, Westerhope and Inner West areas. In contrast, the areas ofKingston Park and the City Centre produce the only positive net scoresThe Quality of Pavement Maintenance• Many negative opinions wereexpressed across the City inrelation to the quality of pavementmaintenance. Such negativeperceptions peak in the HalewoodAvenue, Westerhope and AcornRoad areas of the City. Incontrast, again, the areas ofKingston Park and the City Centreproduce positive net scores.Pavement Problems• Uneven and broken/cracked pavements are highlighted as priority pavementproblems across the City.Pavement Preferences – Residential Areas• A clear preference for tarmac, rather than flagstone paving in residentialareas, is evident in a majority of survey areas.Pavement Preferences – Public Areas• A clear preference for tarmac, rather than flagstone paving in public areas, isevident in a majority of survey areas.Overall Perceptions of Pavements• Overall perceptions of pavements are more likely to be negative than positivein many areas. A particularly negative opinion is evident in the Acorn Roadarea of the City – contrasting sharply with a very positive overall opinion ofpavements expressed in the Kingston Park area.5.2.3 Grass Verges and Street TreesThe Frequency of Maintenance of Grass Verges and Street Trees31


Levels of Service• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is evident inrelation to the frequency of maintenance of grass verges and street trees.Positive opinion peaks in the Chillingham Road and Halewood Avenue areas.The Quality of Maintenance of Grass Verges and Street Trees• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is evident inrelation to the quality of maintenance of grass verges and street trees. Positiveopinion peaks in the Chillingham Road, Halewood Avenue and Kingston Parkareas. The lowest net score exists in the Adelaide Terrace area.Problems with Grass Verges and Street Trees• Priority problems with grass trees and verges focus on poor pruning,overgrown verges, tree roots breaking paths, and vehicles parking on grassverges.Overall Perceptions of Grass Verges and Street Trees• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is evident inrelation to overall satisfaction with grass verges and street trees. Positiveopinion peaks in the Chillingham Road, Halewood Avenue and Kingston Parkareas. The lowest net score exists in the Adelaide Terrace area.5.2.4 RoadsThe Frequency of Roads Maintenance• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is evident inrelation to the frequency of roads maintenance. Positive opinion peaks in theKingston Park and Chillingham Road. The lowest net score exists in theAdelaide Terrace area.The Quality of Roads Maintenance• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is also evident inrelation to the quality of roads maintenance. Positive opinion peaks in theKingston Park and Chillingham Road. The lowest net score again exists in theAdelaide Terrace area.Problems with Roads• Road potholes and surface damage, together with patchy and mismatchingsurfaces, and blocked gullies causing flooding are perceived as the mostcommon problems with roads.Overall Perceptions of Roads32


Levels of Service• In each of the thirteen areas a positive net satisfaction score is also evident inrelation to overall satisfaction with roads. Positive opinion peaks in theKingston Park and Chillingham Road. The lowest net score again exists in theAdelaide Terrace area.5.2.5 Road SafetyRoad Safety – in Residential Streets• In all thirteen areas, respondents are more likely to feel safe than unsafe intheir street of residence. Respondents interviewed in the Kingston Park,Halewood Avenue, City Centre and Chillingham Road areas were most likely tofeel safe in the area in which they resided. In contrast, respondents interviewedin the Adelaide Terrace and Two Ball Lonnen areas were least likely to feelsafe.Road Safety – in The Area• Similarly, in all thirteen areas, respondents are more likely to feel safe thanunsafe. Respondents interviewed in the Kingston Park, Halewood Avenue andOuter East areas were most likely to feel safe in the area in which they weresurveyed. In contrast, respondents interviewed in the Acorn Road area wereleast likely to feel safe.The results from this research will be used as a guide to highlight areas of mostconcern to the resident.5.3 City Council ObjectivesIt is important that levels of service are consistent with the objectivescontained in the Council’s local policy and strategy documents and arealigned with and support these corporate strategies:• The Unitary Development Plan• The Local Transport Plan• The Highway Maintenance Strategy• Snow and Ice Plan• The Corporate Financial Strategy5.4 Best Practice Guidelines5.4.1 Well Maintained Highways – a Code of Practice for HighwayMaintenance Management.The main purpose of highway maintenance is to maintain the highwaynetwork for the safe and convenient movement of people and goods. Thecurrent standards for highway maintenance service delivery are set out in the33


Levels of ServiceCouncil’s report “Delivering Best Value Highway Maintenance Services”. Thisfollows advice contained in the national guidelines for highway maintenancestandards – “Well Maintained Highways – a Code of Practice for HighwayMaintenance Management”.The national document embodies the wider contexts of integrated transport,best value and the corporate vision of the responsible authority in three keyservice headings:Network Safety• Complying with statutory obligations.• Meeting User’s needs.Network Serviceability• Ensuring availability• Achieving integrity• Maintaining reliability• Enhancing qualityNetwork Sustainability• Minimising cost over time• Maximising value to the community• Maximising environmental contribution.5.4.2 Management of Highway Structures – a Code of Practice.It is widely recognised that a well managed transport infrastructure is vital tothe economic stability, growth, and social well being of a country. Bridges andother highway structures are fundamental to the transport infrastructurebecause they form essential links in the highway network. The authority hasset out its’ current standards for structures maintenance in the Bridges andStructures Group Service Delivery Plan which embodies the ideas set down inthe “Management of Highway Structures – a Code of Practice”.The National Code of Practice recognises that there is a statutory obligationon highway authorities to maintain the public highway [Highways Act 1980; 1].The obligation embraces the two essential functions of Safe for Use and Fitfor Purpose. The two functions are not the same:1. Safe for Use requires a highway structure to be managed in such a waythat it does not pose an unacceptable risk to public safety.2. Fit for Purpose requires a highway structure to be managed in such away that it remains available for use by traffic permitted for the route.5.4.3 Well Lit Highways – Code of Practice for Highway LightingManagementWell maintained road lighting can change our communities, make the nighttime environment a safer place to be, encourage regeneration and34


Levels of Serviceinvestment, leading to an improved local economy and at the same timecontributing to a more inclusive society.The Council’s current standards for Lighting management are set down in thePrivate Finance Initiative agreement which embodies the ideas set down inthe “Well Lit Highways - Code of Practice for Highway Lighting Management”The Code of Practice is intended to apply throughout the United Kingdom andto accommodate any key differences that exist in the devolvedadministrations. It seeks to harmonise public lighting maintenance practicewhere this is practicable and consistent with the expectations of users, whilstretaining scope for local discretion and diversity.35


Levels of Service5.4.4 Comprehensive Performance AssessmentThe Audit Commission’s publication on Comprehensive PerformanceAssessment (CPA) for local authorities sets out suggested performancestandards for various levels of service. The relevant performance indicatorsfor Transport within the overall “Environment” service are set out in thefollowing table, with a copy of the CPA key lines of enquiry relating to thetransport service attached as appendix E.Table 5.4 CPA – Transport Performance IndicatorsServiceRefE1Descriptionof PIProgress withLocalTransportPlanE11 Condition ofnon-principalunclassifiedroadsE12Reducingkilled andseriouslyinjured (KSI)roadcasualtiesSource &ReferenceDepartment forTransport (DfT)BVPI – BV 97b(now224b)Based onpolice returns –published asroad casualtiesin Great Britain2003, 04, 05 –DfT give localauthority levelTreatment notesand commentsThresholds set indiscussion with DfTusing the highestand lowestcategories for planassessment scores.Thresholds derivedfrom 25 th & 7 thpercentile points in2003/04PI calculated as theaverage of the twomost recent yearsdata so as to reflecta greater proportionof the road networkThresholds derivedfrom national targetfor KSI reduction(DfT)PI calculated as theaverage of threemost recent yearsdata so as to avoiddistortions in scoresdue to smallfluctuations.Baseline defined asthe average numberof KSI 1994 – 98.Government targetis defined as 40%reduction from thebaseline figure by2010. The target foreach year is 4%.The upper andlower thresholdsare based on thederived target for2004 which is a16% reduction fromthe baseline figure.LowerThresholdAnnualprogressreportassessed as“weak”Two yearaverage isgreater than orequal to 25%The averageof the lastthree years’data is greaterthan or equalto the 2004target figurePLUS 12% ofbaseline figureUpperThresholdAnnualprogressreportassessed as“excellent”Two yearaverage isless than orequal to 12%The averageof the lastthree years’data is lessthan or equalto the 2004target figureMINUS 12%of baselinefigure36


Levels of ServiceTable 5.4 CPA – Transport Performance IndicatorsServiceRefE40Descriptionof PIReducingslightlyinjured roadcasualtiesSource &ReferenceBased onpolice returns –published asroad casualtiesin Great Britain2003, 04, 05 –DfT give localauthority levelTreatment notesand commentsThresholds agreedwith DfT to reflectthe national targetsfor reducing by2010 the rate ofslightly injuredcasualties.PI calculated as theaverage of threemost recent yearsdata so as to avoiddistortions in scoresdue to smallfluctuations.Baseline defined asthe average numberof slightly injuredcasualties 1994–98.LowerThresholdAverage oflast threeyears data isgreater than orequal to 10%abovebaselineUpperThresholdAverage oflast threeyears data isless than orequal tobaselineE16 Percentage ofpedestriancrossingswith facilitiesfor disabledpeopleE18 Condition offootwaysC1Percentage oftotal length offootpaths andother rights ofway easy touse bymembers ofthe publicExtract from “CPA – Environment” scorecardBVPI – BV 165 Thresholds basedon 25 th and 75 thpercentile points in2003/04BVPI – BV 187 Thresholds basedon 25 th and 75 thpercentile points in2003/04PI calculated as theaverage of the twomost recent yearsdata so as to reflecta greater proportionof the footpathnetworkBVPI – BV 178 Thresholds derivedfrom standards setby Department forCulture Media andSport75% ofcrossings withfacilitiesTwo yearaveragegreater than orequal to 38%50% 90%98% ofcrossings withfacilitiesTwo yearaverage lessthan or equalto 18%37


Levels of Service5.5 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate betterdecision making by providing enhanced information to support the decisionmaking process. In practical terms this means the identification andassessment of Service Options.Once the requirements driving the asset group’s service level have beenidentified it is necessary to develop service options around these and evaluatethem. This process should clearly identify the service options applicable to theparticular asset group and state the basis on which the preferred option(s) isselected.5.5.1 Service Option IdentificationThe following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP Statutory Minimum Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only Minimum The effect of reducing funding levels to current RNF and LTPallocations (Applicable to Carriageways, Footways & Bridges & OtherHighway Structures only) Existing Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels Requested: is the additional work and budget required to meet theperceived optimum level of service Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identifyan economically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined fromthe life cycle planning process. Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints). Note that this serviceoption had not yet been determined when the initial HAMP wascompleted in August 2006.From information gained during the preceding sections on requirements, AssetOwners were able to develop specific service options applicable for each oftheir individual asset groups.5.5.2 Service Option EvaluationOnce the service options for each of the asset groups had been identified theywere evaluated against an agreed common set of criteria. These criteria includethe following:• The Benefit (or adverse affect) of the service option• The Risk implications on adopting the service option38


Levels of Service• Financial considerations, i.e. the overall Cost of adopting the serviceoptionAll asset management decisions result in a combination of cost, benefit andrisk. Historically, of these three elements, cost has been the most readilycommunicated and understood. Understanding cost is however an incompletepicture. Many authorities, including NCC, have in the past adopted a processof budget evaluation that is based largely upon historical precedence.To enable robust evaluation of these options, it was necessary to use the lifecycle planning process to quantify indicative work packages that would benecessary to deliver each of the service options. This ensured that sufficientsupporting information was produced to rank the options on cost and overallimpact on the assets life cycle criteria. (E.g. an increases or decrease in theasset’s age profile or overall condition etc).Once evaluation of service options has been completed, it is possible topresent for approval “a menu” of network wide options, which have beensummarised in the following tables.Note that caution must be observed when reviewing the preliminary costsdetermined for each of the service options (particularly Optimum) as in somecases these were based on samples of inventory data. It is envisaged that theaccuracy of cost calculations will improve further over time as inventoryreliability is enhanced and the tools for developing funding need are furtherrefined.5.5.3 Determination of Final (Attainable) Service OptionIt is anticipated that following evaluation of the selected service options aboveand their subsequent review and approval by Members and senior councilofficers, a “Final” or Attainable Service Option will be determined for eachasset group. This of course could be a mix of options that makes the mostefficient use of current funding and resources, but provides the best long-termsolution for the management of the asset.Once this has been undertaken, the lifecycle planning process will again beutilised to develop the Forward Works Programmes necessary to deliver theFinal service option and performance measures (as discussed below) put inplace to monitor actual asset performance against desired.5.5.4 Measuring Asset PerformanceFor levels of service to be measurable, realistic service standards withcorresponding performance targets need to be set and measured usingappropriate indicators. This is done with a mix of both existing national BVPIsand local key performance indicators (KPIs).Proposed new local KPIs for each asset group have been developed under thefollowing LoS groupings proposed for inclusion in the HAMP.39


Levels of Service Safety Availability Accessibility Condition Environmental Customer FinancialA list of these proposed new local indicators (alongside the existing ones) canbe found in Appendix A.Table 5.1 below details the service options and costs identified by the assetmanagers.40


Levels of ServiceTable 5.1 Service OptionsAsset Group Statutory Minimum MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested Additional FundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive) level ofservice meeting statutory orlegislative requirements only.The effect of reducingfunding levels to currentRNF and LTP allocationsThe current LoS typically as setout in the City’s MP or national.COPsA LoS that attempts to meetcustomer expectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles &technical judgementCarriagewaysFootways &CyclewaysApprox. £0.628 m for oneyear onlyRapid and unsustainabledeterioration of road network,causing an increase inmaintenance costs, backlogand a steep decline in assetvalueApprox. £1.2m for one yearonlyRapid and unsustainabledeterioration of footwaynetwork, causing an increasein both reactive maintenancecosts and backlog and asteep decline in asset value£1.85 M paThe minimum budget levelwould not be sufficient tomaintain the currentnetwork conditionresulting in a greaterbacklog than would be thecase for current fundinglevels.Approx £2.4 M paThe minimum budgetwould be sufficient tomaintain the network in itspresent condition over thenext ten years, but wouldsteadily deteriorate afterthat resulting in a greaterbacklog than would be thecase for current fundinglevels.Approx. £3.1m paThe present budget level is notsufficient to maintain the currentnetwork condition resulting in agreater backlog of works eachyear(Includes additional budget of£1.0m funded by PrudentialBorrowing)Approx. £ 3.7m paHas been sufficient to decreasethe rate of deterioration in thecondition of the City’s footways.However the funding is notsufficient to improve the overallcondition of the footways(Includes additional budget of£1.0m funded by PrudentialBorrowing)Extra funds of £7.8m pa over a 5year period followed by anadditional £2.1m pa thereafterRequired to meet the levels ofmaintenance deemed necessaryto improve the current BVPIratings and improve the conditionof all roads to an acceptablestandard and clear the backlog.(Excludes additional funding)£9.0m of additional funds paover a 5 year period followed byan additional £2.5m pa thereafterRequired to meet the levels ofmaintenance deemed necessaryto improve the current BVPIratings and improve the conditionof all footways to an acceptablestandard and clear the backlog.Estimated at £9.9m pafor 5 years, thereafter£4.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incarriageway conditionover a 5 year period,and allow for ongoingmanagement tomaintain the asset atthe new condition levelsEstimated at £11.7m pafor 5 years, thereafter£5.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incondition of all the City’sfootways over a 5 yearperiod, and allow for thecontinued managementof the footways at thenew condition levels41


Levels of ServiceTable 5.1 Service OptionsAsset Group Statutory Minimum MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested Additional FundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive) level ofservice meeting statutory orlegislative requirements only.The effect of reducingfunding levels to currentRNF and LTP allocationsThe current LoS typically as setout in the City’s MP or national.COPsA LoS that attempts to meetcustomer expectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles &technical judgementBridges &OtherHighwayStructuresSigns,Barriers &StreetFurnitureApprox. £250k for one yearonlyMin budget allocation andresidual life - hence higherwhole life cycle costing andunpredictable financialmanagementApprox. £130k paReplace potentially hazardousand damaged signs andfurniture only but this wouldbe offset by a rise in reactivemaintenance in future years£1.06 M paThe minimum budget levelwould not be sufficient tomaintain the current stockcondition resulting in agreater backlog thanwould be the case forcurrent funding levels.N/AApprox. £1.145 M paMakes no allowance forimprovement works and barelymaintains the current condition ofthe asset. The target date of2010 for replacing all substandard structures is unlikely tobe metApprox. £130k paAt present only reactivemaintenance is undertakenAn additional £1.95m pa over a 5year period followed by anadditional £0.65m pa thereafterTo allow for the removal of thepresent backlog and the ongoingmaintenance of the asset toacceptable standardsEstimated at an additional£1.57m pa for 5 years, plus anadditional £0.87m pa thereafterThis will bring the assets up to anacceptable standard and removethe backlog of works. This isbased on a 20% sample ofsurveyed assets using bothinventory and conditioninformationEst. at £3.1m pa for 5years, £1.8m pathereafter to maintainthe revised conditionlevelsWill allow inspectionand maintenance at therecommended intervalsas per the Code ofPractice. The lifecycleof each structure ismore likely to reachand/or exceed itsdesign life therebydeferring costlyreconstruction work.Estimated at £1.7m pafor 5 years, thereafter£1.0m pa for lifecyclereplacementsMore flexible “needs”based maintenanceschedule. Signs & streetfurniture inspected,cleaned and painted ona regular basis in orderto maintain the assetcondition in line with theCode of Practice42


Levels of ServiceTable 5.1 Service OptionsAsset Group Statutory Minimum MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested Additional FundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive) level ofservice meeting statutory orlegislative requirements only.The effect of reducingfunding levels to currentRNF and LTP allocationsThe current LoS typically as setout in the City’s MP or national.COPsA LoS that attempts to meetcustomer expectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles &technical judgementStreet lightingContained within PFITrafficSignalsApprox. £115k paAn increase in maintenancebacklog and a steep declinein asset value. Reactive costsare likely to be significantlyhigher without regularmaintenance work beingundertaken.N/AApprox. £429k paDoes not approximate to asteady state, but aim to deliverBest Practice as detailed in thenational COP for HighwayMaintenance ManagementNot available at this timeNot available at thistimeHighwayGreen Spaces Not available at this time N/A Not available at this time Not available at this time Not available at thistimeStreet TreesApprox. £ 65kNominal budget reflectsremoval of dead, dying andpotentially hazardous treesonly. Currently running atapproximately 120 a year.N/AApprox. £ 65kActual funding is as per thestatutory safety obligations.Nominal budget reflects removalof dead, dying and potentiallyhazardous trees only.Estimated at an additional£0.935m pa for 5 years plus anadditional £25k pa.A survey of all street trees withinthe highway is underway and theinformation will be used todetermine the actual budgetsrequired for their on goingmanagement.Estimated at £1.0m pafor 5 years, thereafter£0.9M pa for lifecyclereplacement in order toreplace all street treesthat are removed eachyear as per theCouncil’s policy.43


Lifecycle Option Appraisal6.0 Lifecycle Option AppraisalA lifecycle plan documents how different options are selected for closingidentified performance gaps, including identifying different treatment options.6.1 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. Forexample where an asset has grown obsolete and can no longer be efficientlymaintained, where a road fails within its design life due to the passage of heavyvehicles and requires substantial reconstruction, or where a number of footwaysrequire maintenance work but adequate funding is not available.6.2 Lifecycle PlanningThe highway services within Newcastle upon Tyne are organised into threedistinct activities comprising of Routine Maintenance, Planned Maintenance, andImprovement activities.Routine Maintenance is theregular ongoing day-to-day workthat comprises servicing ratherthan repair and is necessary tokeep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal ofstructural elements orcomponents which have becomeunserviceable due to generalwear and tear or havedeteriorated for other reasons,but does include the day-to-dayreactive fault repairs undertakenon an adhoc basis.Planned Maintenance is therenewal/replacement workcomprised of major (programmed) work that does not increase the asset’sdesigned capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces or renews an existingasset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’).Improvement activities can be described as Creation, Acquisition or Upgrading,which is major work that creates or obtains a new asset that did not previouslyexist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond its existing designcapacity.The lifecycle plans document specific plans for how each phase of the assets lifeis managed (i.e. from creation to disposal) and in doing so recognise theinterdependency of the phases. It recognises how the investment in routine44


Lifecycle Option Appraisalmaintenance affects the renewals required, or how the original constructiondetails affect the future demands for maintenance expenditure.A well constructed asset in good condition should deteriorate at a slower ratethan an asset in poor condition and as the asset deteriorates its maintenancecosts will increase. It is therefore possible to assess an optimum level of assetcondition, which balances the upkeep with deterioration, and so balances theinvestment required between planned and routine maintenance.As all components of the asset have a finite life it is important to assess this lifeand highlight the routine and planned maintenance required to achieve this lifeterm, and also to enable the funding to be put in place for the eventualreplacement of the asset.45


Decision Making7.0 Decision Making7.1 OptimisationBy carrying out analysis to find the most cost effective means of managing theongoing demands placed on the asset and by identifying the optimal regime forthe maintenance of the network it is possible to select, from a range ofacceptable options, the ‘best’ option for managing the asset.In order to undertake this ‘optimisation’ process it is important to firstly identifythose options, which are clearly unacceptable for any reason, be it political,social, environmental or economic, and to ensure that robust and fully inclusivelevels of service are produced so that the ‘optimisation’ technique can be utilisedeffectively.Initial optimisation can be carried out for a single asset or service in order toselect the best option in the absence of any other constraints. A more high-leveloptimisation takes into account the competing demands of the different servicesand assets across the network.7.2 Budget ConsiderationAt present the major funding for the management of the highway asset withinNewcastle comes from three main sources:o Revenue funding – for day-to-day and planned highway maintenance(renewal), running costs, energy etc. This is allocated annually based ondefined service standards and contract costs. It is also dependent on thegovernment’s grant allocation based on the Relative Needs Formula(RNF) for highways maintenance identified for the Council and theCouncil Tax settlement.o Capital borrowing – f for planned highway maintenance (renewal). Thisis allocated annually by government through the joint Tyne and WearLocal Transport Plan (LTP).o Other specific allocations may be made from time to time. Newcastle CityCouncil have been successful in attracting investment from other sources ofthird party funding such as the Single Regeneration Budget (SRB), EuropeanRegional Development Fund (ERDF), Private Developer contributions andPrivate Finance Initiatives (PFI).Details of how these budgets are used within each asset grouping are set out inthe lifecycle plans.7.3 Asset Deterioration ModellingA possible future method of determining optimisation and budgetary constraintsis through the use of Asset Deterioration Modelling, which although being a46


Decision Makingcomplicated procedure involving the use of a vast array of data, can be simplyput as determining the current condition of the asset, how the asset will performover time and use, identifying what can be done to hold or improve the conditionto that set by the levels of service, and determining how best to spend theavailable budget.While an experienced Engineer can readily predict the requirements on a sectionof road in the short term, the ability to identify longer term problems, assess theimpact brought about by changes of use and predict the condition for a range offunding or treatment scenarios is better suited to the use of deteriorationmodelling.As part of the service option appraisal and in order to develop a comprehensiveforward work programme for carriageway maintenance Newcastle City Councilhave undertaken a modelling exercise based on the currently available data. Thiswork has used the carriageway CVI data and is based on the effect that anumber of differing forward work programmes and funding scenarios will have onthe resulting BVPI scores.47


Risk Assessment8.0 Risk AssessmentRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.Risk is part of everyone’s life. Some of us are more exposed to it because of ourpersonalities, activities or environment but we are all exposed to it.Risk is the possibility of loss but not of gain, for example:Health and safetySecurityFireFloodEnvironmentalService InterruptionHowever, speculative risk is dynamic and entrepreneurial and offers a prospectof gain:Political riskBusiness riskFinancial riskCultural riskEmployment practicesThe Treasury ‘orange book’ (January 2001) defines the two types of risks asfollows:direct threats (damaging events) which could lead to a failure to achieveobjectives,opportunities (constructive events) which if exploited could offer an improved wayof achieving objectives, but which are surrounded by threats.8.1 Types of RiskRisks can be classified according to type and to category. This can assist in theoverall management of risk. The Council is classifying risks as Strategic,Operational, Cross-cutting, Statutory and Discretionary.Risks can fall into more than one of these Risk Types. For example, the risk ofinjury to employees is operational in nature, subject to statutory requirementsand cuts across all services.Strategic risks can affect the long-term aims and objectives of the Council. Theserisks need to be identified and managed by Corporate Management Team aspart of corporate planning processes, strategy development and service bestvalue reviews.48


Risk AssessmentThe table below provides you with the broad categories that strategic risk fallsinto, together with some examples of the types of risk you might find within eachcategory:Table 8.1 Examples of Strategic RiskStrategic Risk Category Example risks in this categoryFailure to deliver government policyPoliticalIncorrect Strategic prioritiesFailure to meet election commitmentsMarket (Customer)Poor public imageFailure to meet customer needsLegislativeNew legislationChanging legislationFailure to deliver overall budgetEconomicDeclining local economyPoor investment decisionsTechnological Failure to implement electronic governmentSocialChanging demographicsCrime and disorderEnvironmentalImpact of planning and transportation strategiesFailure to meet Local Agenda 21 requirementsCompetitorFailure to demonstrate Best ValueOperational risks are those encountered on a day-to-day basis as the Councilseeks to meet its strategic aims and objectives. The officers responsible foroperating the relevant service should manage these.The table below provides you with the broad categories that operational risk fallsinto, together with some examples of the types of risk you might find within eachcategory.Table 8.2 Examples of Operational RiskOperational RiskCategoryPhysicalFinancialProfessionalLegalExample risks in this categoryfiretheftemployee accidentsbudgetary overspendfraudadequacy of insurance coverinadequate designincorrect advice givenfailure to comply with DDA49


Risk AssessmentContractualTechnologicalEnvironmentalHuman Rights Act failingsfailure of contractors to deliver servicesonerous contractual clausescyberliabilityloss of datapollution caused by activitiesnoise and dust caused by activitiesCross-cutting Risks are those risks which affect more than one service area ordirectorate and therefore need to be considered corporately and consistently.Statutory Risks are those risks, which arise from the exercise of a statutory dutyor statutory default power. These risks cannot be entirely transferred to anotherparty, for example a Council will retain the duty to educate despite havingtransferred the operational management of a school to the private sector in a PFIinitiative.Discretionary Risks are risks which the Council can choose not to assume, forexample risk arising from offering pest control services to private householders.These risks should only be taken where there are substantial benefits arising i.e.in meeting significant stakeholder need or significant financial gain.50


Forward Works Programme9.0 Forward Works ProgrammeNewcastle City Council are preparing a 10-year forward works programme foreach asset grouping based on the evaluation and ranking of alternativeimprovement projects and maintenance treatments, and including all cyclicroutine maintenance functions. These individual programmes will subsequentlybe amalgamated to form an Integrated Forward Works Programme (IWP), whichwill include all assets and services and input from other organisations who mayhave an interest in or an affect on the management of the highway network.The IWP will integrate the works required from all of the funding streams andinitiatives, and by bringing all of the proposed works on the network into onelocation enable co-ordination of works to take place. It will be able to assist withboth short-term road space/traffic management issues and longer term planning.With good quality condition data available for analysis it will be possible to predictthe likely future maintenance schemes and their locations. The timing of otherworks can then be reviewed to ensure situations don’t arise where new works aredestroyed by subsequent tasks.This long-term programme will be built on projections using currently held dataand knowledge, as such there will be significant limitations on the reliability of theprojections. The reliability of projections regarding the precise nature and locationof the works for the later years of the programme will be relatively low, howeveran aggregation of the anticipated needs is a valid method of predicting futurefunding requirements.The anticipated levels of confidence in the long-term programme are detailedbelow:Table 9.1 Confidence Levels in Forward Works ProgrammeYear(s) Description Confidence Level1 Work is in Progress 100%2 Firm Recommendation 95%3-5 Reasonable Assessment 75%6-10 Informed Assessment 50%The latter years of the forward works programme will essentially be used as aplanning tool.51


Physical Works & Service Delivery10.0 Physical Works & Service DeliveryAs with many authorities Newcastle CityCouncil has a number of arrangementsand contracts in place to enable theundertaking of physical works and thedelivery of each of the particular services.The organisation undertaking the majorityof the physical works associated with themanagement of the highway is theHighway and Traffic Signals Section(H&TS), which is an internal arm ofNewcastle City Council (formerly knownas a Direct Labour Organisation (DLO).)However a number of functions areundertaken by other internalorganisations, such as Environmental Services, and a number of differentcontracts exist with external contractors.The service delivery and physical works options related to each asset group arediscussed more fully within the appropriate the lifecycle plans.It is anticipated that a review of the current practices will take place followingimplementation of the Highway Asset Management Plan.52


Performance Measurement11.0 Performance MeasurementIn order to effectively manage the highway network it is necessary to obtaininformation on how the processes and procedures in place are meeting thestated goals and objectives of the Council. By assessing these processes againstthe levels of service it is possible to guide the decision making of thoseresponsible for the management of the asset.Newcastle City Council believes that the best way to make this assessment is byputting in place a number of performance indicators against each level of service,thus ensuring a measurable performance that is up to date, readily available andreliable.These performance indicators have been amalgamated under three headings;Strategic – Primary purpose to report on performance to others.Report on annual performance to external stakeholders, e.g. Best ValuePerformance Indicators. They provide a snapshot of the overallperformance but do not generally assist with the day-to-day managementof the asset.Tactical – Primary purpose to assist in resource allocation decisionmakingProvide ongoing management information to the highway authority, e.g.random auditing of the ongoing condition assessment of the asset.Operational – Primary purpose to provide information to improve theefficiency of service delivery.Provide operational information to service deliverers, principally focussedon measures associated with the delivery of the works, such as time torespond to reports of defects or the number of schemes brought in withinthe initial budget.Details of the performance measures put in place are included within theindividual asset lifecycle plans and are grouped together within Appendix A tothis document.53


Improvement Actions12.0 Improvement ActionsIt is recognised that this initial Highway Asset Management Plan, is only the firststep in implementing a coherent and efficient highway management strategy, theproduction of this plan has already highlighted a number of areas whereimprovements in information, processes and practices are required and these aredetailed within the lifecycle plans and within the Improvement Plan which isattached as Appendix C to this document.It is envisaged that as this plan is implemented a further amount of requiredimprovement actions will be discovered and that a continual review of the planitself will bring to light a number of discrepancies which will themselves lead toimprovement actions on the plan.A formal review of this Highway Asset Management Plan will take place everythree years at which time a new Improvement Plan will be developed in order toassist with the continual improvement of the service and the search for bestvalue.54


Asset Information Strategy13.0 Asset Information Strategy13.1 Asset GroupingsFor the purpose of this plan the Highway assets within Newcastle have beenbroken down into seven groupings comprising:Carriageways -Carriageway infrastructureRoad markingsGullies and Highway DrainagePedestrian refuges, central reservations & traffic islandsBridges & Other Highway Structures - Road BridgeFootbridgeAccommodation BridgeCulvertRetaining WallSubwayDisused Rail BridgeDisused Rail TunnelHigh Mast Lighting ColumnOverbridge – BuildingPedestrian WayRail TunnelSign GantryStairsTunnelTunnel – serviceRiver WallsRevetmentsFootways,Cycleways &Hard Verges -Highway GreenSpaces -Traffic signals -Street lighting -Footway infrastructureCycleway infrastructureKerbingHard Paved VergesFootway GulliesGrass VergesTreesHedgesFlower & shrub bedsPlantersSignalised junctionsPedestrian CrossingsSchool crossing lightsScoot apparatusLighting ColumnsLamps55


Asset Information StrategyCablingFeeder PillarsSubway LightsIlluminated signsIlluminated bollardsBelisha BeaconsSigns,Barriers &Street furniture -WinterMaintenance -Advance Direction signsDirection signsWarning signsInformation signsSign postsStreet name platesBollardsSeatsBus shelters (Council owned)Highway FencesPedestrian barriersSafety BarriersOther street furnitureSalt Storage AreasGrittersSalt BinsDetails of the information held regarding these asset categories and theimprovement processes for each grouping are set out below.13.2 CarriagewaysAsset Hierarchy: Principal RoadsClassified RoadsUnclassified RoadsBack LanesAsset Elements:Carriageway infrastructureRoad markingsGullies and Highway DrainagePedestrian refuges, central reservations & traffic islandsInformation Held: Road NameRoad ClassificationLengthBVPI surveysInternal Condition AssessmentsDate of Last Inspection56


Asset Information StrategyInformationRequired:WidthSurfacing MaterialColoured surfacing / anti-skidConstruction dateConstruction materials & thicknessMaintenance HistoryLocation of speed limitsLocation of traffic calming featuresRoad markings associated with TRO’sLocation of cellars under the carriagewayLocation of Highway DrainageCondition of Gullies & Highway Drainage13.2.1 Coverage: 99% of the name, classification and carriageway length isknown, over 90% of the local condition assessment asset information is knownand recorded. Following the video inventory survey undertaken by DCL recordsare now held relating to 30% of the Principal & Classified roads and 20% of theUnclassified roads. A full survey of the gully location and type has beenundertaken by means of both walked and GPS surveys and this has led to thedevelopment of a drainage strategy identifying where improvements are requiredto the capacity of the infrastructure.13.2.2 Records Format: Details that were previously held in hard copy and on alocal access database have now been transferred into the central Symologydatabase.The road name, classification & length information held is referenced to theNational Roads Gazetteer and can be plotted on the local ‘arcview’ GIS mappingsystem. The location accuracy of the information being +/- 1 metre.13.2.3 Last Survey: The last complete survey was undertaken in November2003, the video inventory collection was completed in 2005 and a number oflocal condition surveys are ongoing on a daily basis.13.2.4 Updating Frequency: Inventory information is updated wheneverchanges occur to the network, including information relating to acquisition andrecords of all works undertaken. Condition information is updated via the use ofScanner surveys on all Principal roads annually and on Classified roads biannuallywith CVI’s being undertaken on Principal & Classified roads annually,other roads are surveyed every 3 years. Local condition assessments areundertaken on a monthly basis for strategic routes and City centre roads and ona six monthly basis for all other roads.Table 13.2.1 details the existing asset inventory data available using a number ofcriteria: Coverage – The amount of information available expressed as apercentage of the whole asset.57


Asset Information StrategyRecords Format & Location – Whether the records are hard copy orelectronic, what type of electronic database and where they are presentlystored.Confidence Level – The level of confidence held that the existinginformation is correct & up to date.Last Surveyed – the date of the last full survey to used to populate theinventory information.Update Frequency – the frequency with which the existing data is checkedand updated.Table 13.2.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Carriageways)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationStreet Name 99 SymologydatabaseRoad Classification 99 SymologydatabaseLength 99 SymologydatabaseBVPI’s Principal & Classified 100 SymologyRoadsdatabaseBVPI’s unclassified Roads 100 SymologydatabaseCESCondition 95 SymologyAssessments Principal &databaseClassified RoadsCESCondition 95 SymologyAssessments unclassifieddatabaseRoadsDate of Last Inspection 100 SymologydatabaseWidth 40 SymologydatabaseSurfacing Material 80 SymologydatabaseColoured surfacing / antiskid40 SymologydatabaseConstruction date 5 Hard Copydocuments,GIS, SymologyConstruction materials & 2 Hard copythicknessdrawings,PlannedhistoryReactivehistorymaintenancemaintenance95for the last 15years95for the last 10yearsSymologyHard copydrawingsGIS, HARIMS,SymologyHard copydrawingsGIS, HARIMS,SymologyConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyedUpdateFrequency99 N/A 3 monthly oras changesoccur99 N/A As changesoccur98 N/A Annually95 Nov ‘05 Annually / biannually95 Nov ‘05 3 yearly(33% P.A.)25 Ongoing 6 monthly80 Ongoing 6 monthly100 Ongoing Monthly /6 Monthly100 Oct ‘04 As changesoccur80 Ongoing As changesoccur80 Oct ‘04 As changesoccur90 N/A As newschemes areundertaken90 N/A As newschemes areundertaken95 N/A As newschemes areundertaken95 N/A As newschemes areundertakenLocation of speed limits 40 GIS, Symology 90 Nov ‘01 As changesoccurLocation of traffic calming 90 Symology 90 N/A As changesfeaturesdatabase &occurhard copyRoad markings associated 95 Hard copy 10 N/A As changeswith TRO’sdocuments,58


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.2.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Carriageways)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationSymologyLocation of cellars under thecarriageway30 SymologydatabaseLocation of Gullies 70 SymologydatabaseLocation of Highway 80 Hard copyDrainageplans,Condition of Gullies 0Condition of Highway 0DrainageSymologyConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyedUpdateFrequency50 N/A Adhoc whenidentified95 2006 Adhoc whenidentified30 N/A No updatesundertaken13.2.5 Current information uses: Records used to inform future maintenanceplans & to prioritise works, the BVPIs are used as a reporting tool for centralGovernment and for inclusion in the LTP annual report. It is intended to put inplace a long term works programme based on the inspection records.13.2.6 Improvement Actions: It is anticipated that the additional requiredinformation will be gathered by a number of methods as set out below:Data Collection:A video survey of 30% of the Classified network and 20% of the unclassifiednetwork has been completed by DCL, with the roads picked being arepresentative sample of all of the roads within the network. Following validationof the survey results it is intended that the remaining percentage of the networkshould be surveyed by video and/or walked inspection within the next 12 months.The survey is intended to pick up details of Surface Type for Carriageways, trafficcalming features, build outs, anti-skid surfacing, lay-bys, central islands andcentral reserve.The Highway Inspectors have been detailed to record a number of pieces ofasset information during their regular six monthly inspections, the details include,Surface type, and condition.In addition the Highway control Assistants (HCA) have been asked to record anyconstruction details that can be found during their regular site visits (NRSWAopenings etc.) and from any additional cores and trial holes that may beundertaken for any reason, the HCA’s have also been asked to record theirinstitutional knowledge regarding any of the required information.Database PopulationIn order to populate the database as quickly as possible a number ofassumptions are being used regarding information on similar streets (e.g. widthof carriageway on residential streets = 5.5m). These assumptions will be testedover the coming months and amendments made where necessary.59


Asset Information StrategyIt is intended that all of the information will be stored on the Symology Database,with dedicated personnel being used for its input under the control of a singleresponsible officer.Table 13.2.2 Details the missing data collection processes to be used, and hownew & existing data will be validated and stored: Historic Data – How will historic data be collated/managed? Collection Method – How will the missing data be collected? Collection Date – When is the missing data expected to have beencollected? Validation Exercise – How will the existing and newly collected data bevalidated? Where Stored – Where will the collected information be stored (Formatand location)? Input Method – How will the information be entered into its storagelocation?Table 13.2.2 Details of Data Collection. (Carriageways)ItemStreet NameRoadClassificationLengthBVPI’s Principal &Classified RoadsBVPI’sunclassified RoadsCES ConditionAssessmentsPrincipal &classifiedCES ConditionAssessmentsunclassifiedDate of LastInspectionWidthSurfacing MaterialColoured surfacing/ anti-skidHistoricData mgtManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyCollectionMethodAdhocnotifiedAdhocnotifiedwhenwhenTaken fromGIS plansManual andmachinesurveyManual surveyHighwayInspectorsHighwayInspectorsHighwayInspectorsVideo andmanual surveyVideo, manualsurvey &recording ofinstitutionalknowledgeVideo andwalkedsurveysCollectionDateValidationExerciseWherestoredAdhoc Data review SymologydatabaseAdhoc Data review Symologydatabase12 months Data review ofadoptedstreetsAnnually Internal datareviewOngoingEvery 3 yearsOngoingEvery 6monthsOngoingEvery 6monthsInternalreviewNoneNonedataSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseOngoing None Symologydatabase12 months Site inspectionof smallsample12 months Site inspectionof smallsample12 months Site inspectionof smallsampleSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseInputMethodManualManualManualAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataManual &Automatedupload of dataManual &Automatedupload of data60


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.2.2 Details of Data Collection. (Carriageways)ItemConstruction dateConstructionmaterials/thicknessesMaintenanceHistoryLocation of speedlimitsLocation of trafficcalming measuresRoad markingsassociated withTRO’sLocation of cellarsunder thecarriagewayLocation ofHighway DrainageConditionGulliesofCondition ofHighway DrainageHistoricData mgtManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyManual inputintoSymologyCollectionMethodCollectionDateValidationExerciseWherestoredAs built As schemes Site inspection Symologyrecords for are undertaken of small databasenew workssampleAs built As schemes Site inspection Symologyrecords for are undertaken of small databasenew workssampleAs built As schemes Site inspection Symologyrecords for are undertaken of small databasenew workssampleVideo & 12 months Site inspection Symologywalkedof small databasesurveyssampleVideo & 12 months Site inspection Symologywalkedof small databasesurveyssampleVideo & 12 months Site inspection Symologywalkedof small databasesurveyssampleSite survey & Adhoc None Symologyrecording ofdatabaseinstitutionalknowledgeAdhoc Adhoc None SymologydatabaseManual 12 months Site inspection Symologyconditionof small databasesurveysampleAdhoc Adhoc None SymologydatabaseInputMethodManualManualManualManual &Automatedupload of dataManual &Automatedupload of dataManual &Automatedupload of dataManualManualAutomatedupload of dataManualThe information will be updated on a continuing basis following any completedworks and inspections. A repeat survey of a number of streets will be conductedat 5 yearly intervals to ensure the continuing validity of the information held.The information held on the database will be used to help inform the engineeringpersonnel regarding the budget requirements, forward works programme andoptimisation of work types and scheme designs.13.2.7 Access to Information: It is anticipated that the Street ManagementTeam, Highway Maintenance Design Team, Highway Design Team andEnvironmental Services will require access to the information. This document isavailable on the City Council website.61


Asset Information Strategy13.3 Footway & CyclewayAsset Hierarchy: Prestige Area (Category 1)Primary Walking Route (Category 1a)Secondary Walking Route (Category 2)Link FootwayLocal Access FootwayAsset Elements:Footway infrastructureCycleway infrastructureKerbingInformation Held: LocationCondition AssessmentDate of last inspectionInformationRequired:LengthWidthSurfacing MaterialKerb Type / MaterialChannel Type / MaterialConstruction dateConstruction materials & thicknessMaintenance History13.3.1 Coverage: Following the videoinventory survey undertaken by DCLgood records are now held relating to30% of the Principal & Classifiednetwork and 20% of the Unclassifiednetwork. It is believed that over 80% ofthe local condition assessment assetinformation is known and recorded, CVIsurveys are being undertaken on allfootways every 4 years withapproximately 50% of the footwayshaving CVI survey data available at thistime.13.3.2 Records Format: Details previously held in hard copy, on a local accessdatabase, or in excel spreadsheets. Have now been transferred into theSymology database.The information held is at present referenced to the National Roads Gazetteer /Ordnance Survey, and can be plotted on the local ‘arcview’ GIS system howeverit is intended that access to this will be via the Symology database. The locationaccuracy of the information being +/- 1 metre.62


Asset Information Strategy13.3.3 Updating Frequency: DVI’s are undertaken on class 1, 1a & 2 footwaysbiannually; all footways are assessed every 6 months by the highway inspectorsand are given a local condition rating. CVI surveys are being undertaken on allfootways every 4 years with approximately 50% of the footways having CVIsurvey data available at this time.13.3.4 Current information uses: Records are used to inform futuremaintenance plans & to prioritise works, the BVPIs are used as a reporting toolfor central Government and for inclusion in the LTP annual report. It is intendedto put in place a long term works programme based on the inspection records.Table 13.3.1 details the existing asset inventory data available using a number ofcriteria: Coverage – The amount of information available expressed as apercentage of the whole asset. Records Format & Location – Whether the records are hard copy orelectronic, what type of electronic database and where they are presentlystored. Confidence Level – The level of confidence held that the existinginformation is correct & up to date. Last Surveyed – the date of the last full survey to used to populate theinventory information. Update Frequency – the frequency with which the existing data is checkedand updated.Table 13.3.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Footways & Cycleways)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationLocation 90 Symologydatabase,GIS, hardcopy plansBVPIs 7 SymologydatabaseCVI survey data 50 SymologydatabaseLocal Condition Assessment 95 SymologydatabaseDate of Last Inspection 100 SymologydatabaseLength 40 SymologydatabaseWidth 20 SymologydatabaseSurfacing Material 90 SymologydatabaseKerb Type/Material 90 SymologydatabaseChannel Type/Material 30 SymologydatabaseConstruction Date 1 Hard copyas builtConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyedUpdateFrequency90 Ongoing 6 months90 Feb ‘04 Biennially90 Nov ‘05 Every 4 years80 Ongoing 6 months100 Ongoing 6 months100 Feb ’04 / Biennially2005100 Feb ’04 / Biennially200580 Ongoing Adhoc and aschanges occur80 Ongoing Adhoc and aschanges occur80 Ongoing Adhoc and aschanges occur90 Adhoc Adhoc and aschanges occur63


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.3.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Footways & Cycleways)ItemConstruction Materials &ThicknessCoverage(%)Planned maintenance history 95for the last 15yearsReactive maintenance history 95for the last 10yearsRecordsFormat &Locationrecords1 Hard copyas builtrecordsHard copydrawingsGIS,HARIMS,SymologyHarddrawingsGIS,HARIMS,SymologycopyConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyedUpdateFrequency90 Adhoc Adhoc and aschanges occur95 N/A As newschemes areundertaken95 N/A As newschemes areundertaken13.3.5 Improvement Actions: It is anticipated that the additional requiredinformation will be gathered by a number of methods as set out below:A video survey of 30% of the Classified network and 20% of the unclassifiednetwork has been completed by DCL, with the roads picked being arepresentative sample of all of the roads within the network. Following validationof the survey results it is intended that the remaining percentage of the networkshould be surveyed by video and/or walked inspection within the next 12 months.The survey is intended to pick up details of Surface Type, width, length, kerbtype, channel type.The Highway Inspectors have been detailed to record a number of pieces ofasset information during their regular six monthly inspections, the details include,surface type, kerb type, verge and condition.In addition the Highway Control Assistants have been asked to record anyconstruction details that can be found during their regular site visits (NRSWAopenings etc.) and from any additional cores and trial holes that may beundertaken for any reason, the HCA’s have also been asked to record theirinstitutional knowledge regarding any of the required information.In order to populate the database as quickly as possible a number ofassumptions are being used regarding information on similar streets (e.g. widthof footway on residential streets = 1.8m). These assumptions will be tested overthe coming months and amendments made where necessary.It is intended that all of the information will be stored on the Symology Database,with dedicated personnel being used for its input under the control of a singleresponsible officer.64


Asset Information StrategyThe information will be updated on a continuing basis following any completedworks and inspections. A repeat survey of a number of streets will be conductedat 5 yearly intervals to ensure the continuing validity of the information held.The information held on the database will be used to help inform the engineeringpersonnel regarding the budget requirements, forward works programme andoptimisation of work types and scheme designs.Table 13.3.2 Details the missing data collection processes to be used, and hownew & existing data will be validated and stored: Historic data management – How will historic data be collated / managed Collection Method – How will the missing data be collected? Collection Date – When is the missing data expected to have beencollected? Validation Exercise – How will the existing and newly collected data bevalidated? Where Stored – Where will the collected information be stored (Formatand location)? Input Method – How will the information be entered into its storagelocation?Table 13.3.2 Details of Data Collection. (Footways & Cycleways)ItemLocationBVPIsCVI Survey dataLocal ConditionAssessmentLengthWidthSurfacing MaterialKerbType/MaterialChannelType/MaterialConstruction DateHistoricdata mgtManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyManuallyenter intoSymologyCollectionMethodCollectionDateValidationExerciseReview of Adhoc Site inspectionadoptionof smallrecordssampleManual survey Ongoing Internal datareviewManual survey Ongoing Internal datareviewManual surveyby highwayinspectorsMeasured fromGIS andadoptionrecordsVideo &manualsurveysRecording ofinstitutionalknowledgeRecording ofinstitutionalknowledgeVideo &manualsurveysAs builtrecords fornew worksOngoing External CVIsurveys of asample18 months Internal datareview18 months Site inspectionof smallsampleAdhoc Site inspectionof smallsampleAdhoc Site inspectionof smallsample18 months Site inspectionof smallsampleAs schemes Site inspectionare undertaken of smallsampleWherestoredSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseInputMethodManualAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataAutomatedupload of dataManualManual &Automatedupload of dataManualManualManual &Automatedupload of dataManual65


Asset Information StrategyPlanters – records of the location and condition of planters are held in anelectronic database. A full survey was undertaken in 2005 and is repeatedannually. Inspections of the planters are carried out weekly, with works beingactioned following the inspection. An inventory survey of all grounds is beingundertaken, due for completion January 2007, which will identify all planterswithin the highway.Wooden Fencing – Very few records available although institutional knowledge isoften used to decide ownership issues.Information Required: Increase the confidence of the tree inventoryinformation.Undertake more robust and inclusive tree condition inspections.Location, area & condition of highway vergesLocation & area of flowerbedsLocation & length of hedges13.4.1 CoverageLocation information for all assets varies between 80 and 100 % coveragehowever condition information is only available for trees with other assets havingonly 10 % at best, at present information is only being kept where a problem isknown to exist.13.4.2 Records Format:Most of the records are in hard copy format kept at the Neighbourhood Servicesheadquarters at Cypress Avenue. Some tree and planter information is availableon separate electronic databases. It is intended that all of this information will betransferred onto the Symology database.13.4.3 Last Survey:A verge survey was undertaken in 1998 but has not been updated since, surveysof the trees and flowerbeds & planters were undertaken in 2004, other surveyshave not been undertaken. An inventory survey of all grounds is beingundertaken, due for completion January 2007, which will identify all highwayverges, planters, shrub beds, flower beds & young plantation trees.13.4.4 Updating Frequency:Tree, flowerbed & planter information is updated annually, regular surveys forother asset items have not yet been planned.13.4.5 Current information uses:Information at present is only used to inform the reactive maintenance work,forward programmes are not in place and budget strategies are not undertakento decide upon a forward works programme.67


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.4.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Highway Green Spaces)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyedUpdateFrequencyPlantersLocation 100 Electronicdatabasepaper copyCondition 100 Electronicdatabasepaper copy&&80 Ongoing Annual80 Ongoing AnnualHedgesLocation 90 Electronicdatabasepaper copyLength 90 Electronicdatabase&75 Ongoing Adhoc whenchanges occur75 Ongoing Adhoc whenchanges occur&paper copyWooden FencingLocation 0 N/A 0 N/A N/ALength 0 N/A 0 N/A N/ACondition 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A69


Asset Information Strategy13.4.6 Improvement ActionsData Collection: Undertake surveys to obtain full inventory and condition data foreach of the asset elements.Table 13.4.2 Details the missing data collection processes to be used, and hownew & existing data will be validated and stored: Historic data management – How will historic data be collated / managed Collection Method – How will the missing data be collected? Collection Date – When is the missing data expected to have beencollected? Validation Exercise – How will the existing and newly collected data bevalidated? Where Stored – Where will the collected information be stored (Formatand location)? Input Method – How will the information be entered into its storagelocation?Table 13.4.2 Details of Data Collection. (Highway Green Spaces)ItemHistoricdata mgtCollectionMethodCollectionDateValidationExerciseWherestoredInputMethodHighwayTreesLocation Electronic /Manual inputSpecies Electronic /Manual inputAge Electronic /Manual inputover next 6monthsHeight Electronic /Manual inputover next 6monthsDiameter Electronic /Manual inputover next 6monthsWorkRequiredElectronic /Manual inputover next 6monthsCondition Electronic /Manual inputover next 6monthsSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISManualManualManualManualManualManualManualVergesLocationAreaConditionExisting datanot usedExisting datanot usedExisting datanot usedSiteInspectionSiteInspectionSiteInspectionAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISAdhoc None SymologyGISManualManualManualFlower &shrub beds70


Asset Information Strategy13.5 Bridges & Other Highway StructuresAsset Elements:Information Held:Accommodation bridgeCulvertDisused Rail BridgeDisused Rail TunnelFootbridgeHigh Mast Lighting ColumnOverbridge – BuildingPedestrian WayRetaining WallRoad BridgeSign GantryStairsSubwayTunnelTunnel – ServiceStructure NumberStructure NameCounty/BoroughMaintaining RegionMaintaining Agent (Structure/Road surface)Date of last inspectionStructure OwnerYear structure commissionedDoes the road go over/under railway/canal/river/roadIs river tidal/navigableName of navigation/drainage authorityIs the structure susceptible to scour?Is the structure on the High Load Route?Is the structure on the Heavy Load Route?Is the structure scheduled as an ancient monument?Statutory undertakers having services on structureMinimum headroomDesign LoadDesign standard versionSpecial loading/restrictionStructure TypeGrid ReferencePrimary Deck Element CodePrimary Deck Material CodeSecondary Deck Element CodeSecondary Deck Material CodeEnd supportsIntermediate supportsNature of foundationsBridge Deck TypeBridge Deck AreaParapet Type72


Asset Information StrategyParapet LengthPedestrian Guardrail TypePedestrian Guardrail LengthFootbridge TypeFootbridge Deck AreaWing Wall TypeWing Wall LengthWing Wall AreaAbutment TypeAbutment AreaPier NoPier TypePier AreaRetaining Wall TypeRetaining Wall LengthRetaining Wall AreaStair TypeStair Plan AreaRamp TypeRamp Plan AreaCulvert TypeCulvert Plan AreaSubway TypeSubway Plan AreaSafety Fence TypeSafety Fence LengthAdvanced SignsHeight/Weight Restriction SignsLighting UnitsCondition Assessments – (Inspection & AssessmentRecords)Bridge Condition Indices (BCI’s).Information Required:Missing structures i.e. retaining walls and culverts that havenot yet been entered onto the existing database.13.5.1 Coverage: It is believed that over 90% of the asset inventory informationis known and recorded, but that some other information is missing such as:Condition information for some structures (50%)Construction details for some structures (25%)Location of structures (10%)Ownership of structures unknown or disputed (10%)Date of commission (30-40%)Statutory Undertakers apparatus on structures (50%)Presence of signs and lighting units needs verification (25%)Legal orders associated with structures (90%+)Traffic Flows over bridges (90%+)Works undertaken and maintenance records (10%+)Missing information percentage in brackets.73


Asset Information Strategy13.5.2 Records Format: Details are held in hard copy and on the BridgeManaccess database provided by Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), along with alocal access database. However it is intended to transfer all the information intothe Symology database.The information held is referenced to the Ordnance Survey with a locationaccuracy of +/- 1 metre and some structures are located on the ‘arcview’ GISsystem, however it is intended that access to this will be via the Symologydatabase.13.5.3 Last survey: An Asset Inventory Survey was undertaken in June ’04.Condition surveys are ongoing with 50% of the structures being inspectedannually.13.5.4 Updating Frequency: Records for each structure are updated every twoyears following the General Inspections or on completion of a significant project.13.5.5 Current information uses: Records used to inform future maintenanceplans & to prioritise works, the BCIs are used as a reporting tool for centralGovernment and for inclusion in the LTP annual report. It is intended to put inplace a long term works programme based on the inspection results.Table 13.5.1 details the existing asset inventory data available using a number ofcriteria: Coverage – The amount of information available expressed as apercentage of the whole asset. Records Format & Location – Whether the records are hard copy orelectronic, what type of electronic database and where they are presentlystored. Confidence Level – The level of confidence held that the existinginformation is correct & up to date. Last Surveyed – the date of the last full survey used to populate theinventory information. Update Frequency – the frequency with which the existing data is checkedand updated.Table 13.5.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Bridges & Other HighwayStructures)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationStructure Number 100 BridgeMan /PaperStructure Name 100 BridgeMan /PaperCounty/Borough 100 BridgeMan /PaperMaintaining Region 100 BridgeMan /PaperConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurvey100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/aUpdateFrequency74


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.5.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Bridges & Other HighwayStructures)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationMaintaining Agent 100 BridgeMan /(Structure/Roadsurface)PaperDate of last inspection 100 BridgeMan /PaperStructure Owner 100 BridgeMan /PaperYear structure 100 BridgeMan /commissionedPaperDoes the road go 100 BridgeMan /over/underPaperrailway/canal/river/roadIs river tidal/navigable 100 BridgeMan /PaperNameof 100 BridgeMan /navigation/drainagePaperauthorityIs the structure 100 BridgeMan /susceptible to scour?PaperIs the structure on the 100 BridgeMan /High Load Route?PaperIs the structure on the 100 BridgeMan /Heavy Load Route?PaperIs the structure 100 BridgeMan /scheduled as anPaperancient monument?Statutory undertakers 100 BridgeMan /having services onPaperstructureMinimum headroom 100 BridgeMan /PaperDesign Load 100 BridgeMan /PaperDesign standard 100 BridgeMan /versionPaperSpecial100 BridgeMan /loading/restrictionPaperStructure Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperGrid Reference 100 BridgeMan /PaperPrimary Deck Element 100 BridgeMan /CodePaperPrimary Deck Material 100 BridgeMan /CodePaperSecondary Deck 100 BridgeMan /Element CodePaperSecondary Deck 100 BridgeMan /Material CodePaperEnd supports 100 BridgeMan /PaperIntermediate supports 100 BridgeMan /PaperNature of foundations 100 BridgeMan /PaperBridge Deck Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurvey100 n/a n/aUpdateFrequency100 Varies Biennially100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a100 n/a n/a80 n/a n/a50 n/a n/a90 n/a n/a75 n/a n/a75 n/a n/a90 n/a n/a90 n/a n/a90 n/a n/a90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially75


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.5.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Bridges & Other HighwayStructures)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationBridge Deck Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperParapet Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperParapet Length 100 BridgeMan /PaperPedestrian Guardrail 100 BridgeMan /TypePaperPedestrian Guardrail 100 BridgeMan /LengthPaperFootbridge Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperFootbridge Deck Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperWing Wall Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperWing Wall Length 100 BridgeMan /PaperWing Wall Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperAbutment Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperAbutment Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperPier Number 100 BridgeMan /PaperPier Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperPier Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperRetaining Wall Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperRetaining Wall Length 100 BridgeMan /PaperRetaining Wall Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperStair Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperStair Plan Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperRamp Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperRamp Plan Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperCulvert Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperCulvert Plan Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperSubway Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperSubway Plan Area 100 BridgeMan /PaperSafety Fence Type 100 BridgeMan /PaperSafety Fence Length 100 BridgeMan /PaperConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyUpdateFrequency90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially76


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.5.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Bridges & Other HighwayStructures)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationAdvanced Signs 100 BridgeMan /PaperHeight/Weight 100 BridgeMan /Restriction SignsPaperLighting Units 100 BridgeMan /PaperCondition100 BridgeMan /Assessments –Paper(Inspection &Assessment Records)BCI’s. 100 BridgeMan /PaperConfidenceLevel(%)LastSurveyUpdateFrequency90 2004 Biennially90 2004 Biennially100 2004 Biennially100 n/a Biennially100 n/a Biennially13.5.6 Improvement Actions: It is anticipated that the additional requiredinformation will be gathered by a number of methods as set out below:Through the addition of items to the bi-annual inspection records, such that theinspectors will pick up inventory information as part of their regular practice.By using internal communication with other departments to elicit information thatis known elsewhere that can then be entered onto the database.By searching through the existing project files and work records to enable ‘asbuilt’ information to be collected and entered onto the system, and by recordingany institutional knowledge held by existing staff.Initially the information will be stored on the BridgeMan database but with theintention of transferring all information on to the Symology database, withdedicated personnel being used for its input under the control of a singleresponsible officer.The Update of the BridgeMan database can be done within the structures team,but will require freeing up of resources for the work to be undertaken, the transferfrom BridgeMan to Symology can be done automatically.The information will be updated on acontinuing basis following anycompleted works and as part of thebi-annual inspections. A repeatsurvey of a number of structures willbe conducted at 6 yearly intervals toensure the continuing validity of theinformation held.The information held on the databasewill be used to help inform theengineering personnel regarding the77


Asset Information Strategybudget requirements, forward works programme and optimisation of work typesand scheme designs.Table 13.5.2 Details the missing data collection processes to be used, and hownew & existing data will be validated and stored: Historic data management – How will historic data be collated / managed Collection Method – How will the missing data be collected? Collection Date – When is the missing data expected to have beencollected? Validation Exercise – How will the existing and newly collected data bevalidated? Where Stored – Where will the collected information be stored (Formatand location)? Input Method – How will the information be entered into its storagelocation?Table 13.5.2 Details of Data Collection. (Bridges & Other Highway Structures)ItemHistoricdata mgtCollectionMethodAll items Data transfer During generalfrominspectionBridgeman toSymologyBCI’s. N/A During BCIinspectionCollectionDateWithin twoyear periodWithin twoyear periodValidationExerciseDuring generalinspectionDuring BCIinspectionWherestoredSymologydatabaseSymologydatabaseInputMethodManualinputManualinput13.5.7 Access to Information: It is anticipated that the Structures Team,Highway maintenance Design team, Highway Consultancy Team, EnvironmentalServices and customer enquiry personnel will require access to the information.This document is available on the City Council website.78


Asset Information Strategy13.6 Traffic SignalsAsset Hierarchy:Asset Elements:Information Held:Information Required:Principal RoadsClassified RoadsUnclassified RoadsTraffic Signalised JunctionPelican / Puffin CrossingToucan CrossingPegasus CrossingSchool Crossing Patrol Flashing LightsSCOOT ApparatusSite numberDistrictSite location (street A & street B)Type of controllerControl systemListing of all power consuming equipment (Traffic Heads,Green arrows, Pedestrian Heads etc)Equipment contained within the controllerInspection RecordsCondition of InstallationNumber of Signal PolesCondition of Signal PolesLocation referenced to wardLocation referenced to road number/hierarchy13.6.1 Coverage: It is believed that the information held on the database is 99%complete, with the only omissions being recently constructed or decommissionedassets. Any missing data that is discovered is normally entered onto thedatabase within one month.13.6.2 Records Format: Information on the inventory of traffic signalinfrastructure is held on an access database operated by the traffic signalscontract section and has also been entered onto the central Symology database.In addition there is a site file for each location which contains as built paperrecords. Information on the number of signal poles and their condition has alsobeen entered into an Excel spreadsheet held by the Traffic Signals ContractTeam.Full records of the operational inspections are available in paper records with aprécis of the information containing the date of inspection entered onto theaccess database.13.6.3 Last Survey: A full inventory survey of the traffic signal asset includingGIS positioning was completed in September 2006, additionally inspections ofinstallations are ongoing on a daily basis.79


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.6.2 Details of Data Collection. (Traffic Signals)ItemHistoricData mgtCollectionMethodCollectionDateValidationExerciseWhereStoredInputMethodSite number Manually from Manually from Within 1 month of Random FRC Access Manualsite file. Enter site file or FRC site installation sampling of database andinto FRC Access access or removal current data Symologydatabase and databasedatabaseSymologyDistrict As above As above As above As above As above As aboveSite location (street As above As above As above As above As above As aboveA & street B)GPS referencing As above As above As above As above As above As abovePhotographic Record As above As above As above As above As above As aboveAge As above As above As above As above As above As aboveType of controller As above As above orsite visitControl system As above As above orsite visitListing of all power As above As above orconsumingsite visitequipment (TrafficHeads, Greenarrows, PedestrianHeads etc)Equipment contained As above As above orwithin the controllersite visitInspection Records As above Manually fromsite fileCondition of As above Manually fromInstallationinspectionrecords or sitevisitNumber of SignalPolesCondition of SignalPolesLocation referencedto wardLocation referencedto road number /hierarchyAs aboveAs aboveAs aboveAs aboveManually fromsite file or sitevisitManually fromsite visitManually fromsite locationand wardmaps.Manually fromsite locationand roadnumber/hierarchy.As above As above As above As aboveAs above As above As above As aboveAs above As above As above As aboveAs above As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As aboveAs required As above As above As above13.6.7 Access to InformationIt is anticipated that the Traffic Signals Team, Street Management Team,Highway Maintenance Design Team, the Highway Design Team, andEnvironmental Services will require access to the information. This document isavailable on the City Council website.82


Asset Information Strategy13.7 Signs, Barriers & Street FurnitureAsset Hierarchy:Asset Elements:Information Held:Principal RoadsClassified RoadsUnclassified RoadsAdvance Direction signsDirection signsWarning signsInformation signsSign postsStreet name platesBollardsSeatsBus sheltersHighway FencesPedestrian barriersSafety BarriersIlluminated Signs information;Gazetteer ReferenceStreet, TownLocation DescriptionOS Grid ReferenceUnit Number (where applicable)Sign Plate Reference Number (Traffic signs Manual)Plate DescriptionSign TypeSign DimensionsCondition (Good, Average, Poor)Photo ReferenceAll signs on Central Motorway, all ADS signs on thePrincipal network, a 30% sample on classified roads anda 20% sample on unclassified roads;Sign CategoryReflectorisationExternal IlluminationMounting MethodMounting HeightPlate SizeX-heightPostsOwnershipCondition Details (Good, Average, Poor)Safety Barriers all on Central Motorway, a 30% sampleon classified roads and a 20% sample on unclassifiedroads:83


Asset Information StrategyLocationTypeLengthConditionSafety Barriers associated with structures:LocationTypeLengthConditionPedestrian Guardrail & Bollards a 30% sample onclassified roads and a 20% sample on unclassifiedroads:LocationTypeMaterialLengthHeightConditionInformation Required:Signs:Gazetteer ReferenceLocation DescriptionOS Grid ReferenceUnit Number (where applicable)Sign Plate Reference Number (Traffic signs Manual)Plate DescriptionSign TypeCondition (Good, Average, Poor)Photo ReferenceSign CategoryReflectorisationExternal IlluminationMounting MethodMounting HeightNo of PolesPlate SizeX-heightOwnershipBarriers:LocationTypeLengthConditionAgeStreet Furniture:Location84


Asset Information StrategyTypeMaterialLengthHeightConditionAge13.7.1 Coverage: Following the recent inventory video survey undertaken byDCL records relating to signs barriers & street furniture are now available for30% of the Classified network and 20% of the unclassified network.13.7.2 Records Format: This information along with the records relating to theilluminated signs, the signs on the central motorway and the ADS signs on thePrincipal network which were held in different excel spreadsheets, have nowbeen imported to the Symology database, with locations also plotted on thearcview GIS system.Information regarding the newly installed safety barriers on the Central Motorwayare available in hard format and an inventory of the safety barriers associatedwith structures is available on the structures BridgeMan database.13.7.3 Last Survey: Video survey of 30% of the Classified network and 20% ofthe unclassified network undertaken in 2004/5. The survey of illuminated signswas undertaken in 2002, as were the surveys on the central motorway and theADS signs on the principal network.13.7.4 Updating Frequency: At present no updating of the existing informationis being undertaken.13.7.5 Current Information Uses: Currently the only information used is for thereactive maintenance of the safety barrier associated with structures, followingthe safety inspections. Although it is anticipated that the newly acquiredinformation will be used to form forward work programmes and to evaluateservice levels.Table 13.7.1 details the existing asset inventory data available using a number ofcriteria: Coverage – The amount of information available expressed as apercentage of the whole asset. Records Format & Location – Whether the records are hard copy orelectronic, what type of electronic database and where they are presentlystored. Confidence Level – The level of confidence held that the existinginformation is correct & up to date. Last Surveyed – the date of the last full survey to used to populate theinventory information. Update Frequency – the frequency with which the existing data is checkedand updated.85


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.7.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Signs, Barriers & StreetFurniture)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationSigns:Gazetteer Reference 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyLocation Description 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyOS Grid Reference 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyUnit No (where 25 Excel, GIS &applicable)SymologySign Plate Reference 25 Excel, GIS &Number (Traffic signsSymologyManual)Plate Description 25 Excel, GIS &SymologySign Type 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyCondition (Good, 25 Excel, GIS &Average, Poor)SymologyPhoto Reference 25 Excel, GIS &SymologySign Category 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyReflectorisation 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyExternal Illumination 100 Excel, GIS &SymologyMounting Method 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyMounting Height 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyNo of Poles 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyPlate Size 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyX-height 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyOwnership 25 Excel, GIS &SymologyConfidence Level(%)LastSurvey75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/AUpdateFrequencyBarriers:Location 30 Hard Copy /BridgeMan &SymologyType 30 Hard Copy /BridgeMan &SymologyLength 30 Hard Copy /BridgeMan &SymologyCondition 30 Hard Copy /BridgeMan &SymologyAge 075 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/A75 2002 / 2005 N/AStreet Furniture:Location 25 Symology 75 2005 N/AType 25 Symology 75 2005 N/AMaterial 25 Symology 75 2005 N/A86


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.7.1 Details of Existing Inventory Data. (Signs, Barriers & StreetFurniture)ItemCoverage(%)RecordsFormat &LocationConfidence Level(%)LastSurveyLength 25 Symology 75 2005 N/AHeight 25 Symology 75 2005 N/ACondition 15 Symology 75 2005 N/AAge 0UpdateFrequency13.7.6 Improvement Actions: It is anticipated that the additional requiredinformation will be gathered by a number of methods as set out below:Data Collection:A video survey of 30% of the Classified network and 20% of the unclassifiednetwork has been completed by DCL, with the roads picked being arepresentative sample of all of the roads within the network. Following validationof the survey results it is intended that the remaining percentage of the networkshould be surveyed by video and/or walked inspection within the next 12 months.The survey is intended to pick up details of:Signs:LocationSign TypeNumber of PolesBarriers:LocationTypeLengthStreet Furniture:LocationTypeInformation regarding the sign face and exact nature of the street furniture will berecorded on the video and will be available for inspection at a later date should itprove necessary.Following the input of this information into the system the Highway Inspectors willbe asked to undertake a 1-5 condition survey of the identified assets as part oftheir regular six monthly inspections.It is intended that all of the information will be stored on the Symology Database,with dedicated personnel being used for its input under the control of a singleresponsible officer.87


Asset Information StrategyThe information will be updated on a continuing basis following any completedworks and inspections. A repeat survey of a number of streets will be conductedat 5 yearly intervals to ensure the continuing validity of the information held.The information held on the database will be used to help inform the engineeringpersonnel regarding the budget requirements, forward works programme andoptimisation of work types and scheme designs.Table 13.7.2 Details the missing data collection processes to be used, and hownew & existing data will be validated and stored: Historic data management – How will historic data be collated / managed Collection Method – How will the missing data be collected? Collection Date – When is the missing data expected to have beencollected? Validation Exercise – How will the existing and newly collected data bevalidated? Where Stored – Where will the collected information be stored (Formatand location)? How entered – How will the information be entered into its storagelocation?88


Asset Information StrategyTable 13.7.2 Details of Data Collection. (Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture)ItemHistoricdata mgtType Manual inputinto SymologyLength Manual inputinto SymologyCondition Manual inputinto SymologyAge Manual inputinto SymologyCollectionMethodVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveys&&&&CollectionDateValidationExercise12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sampleWherestoredSymologySymologySymologySymologyInputMethodAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadStreet Furniture:Location Manual inputinto SymologyType Manual inputinto SymologyMaterial Manual inputinto SymologyLength Manual inputinto SymologyHeight Manual inputinto SymologyCondition Manual inputinto SymologyAge Manual inputinto SymologyVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveysVideomanualsurveys&&&&&&&12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sample12 months Siteinspection ofsmall sampleSymologySymologySymologySymologySymologySymologySymologyAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto uploadAuto upload13.7.7 Access to Information: It is anticipated that the Street ManagementTeam, Highway Maintenance Design Team, and the Highway Design Team willrequire access to the information. This document is available on the City Councilwebsite.90


Asset Information Strategy13.8 Street LightingThe street lighting & illuminated traffic signage function of Newcastle City Councilhas recently been let as a Private Finance Initiative project between NCC andTay Valley Lighting (Newcastle & North Tyneside) Ltd. The particularresponsibilities and demands of this 25 year agreement can be found in theproject documents.Specifically with regard to asset inventory and condition information the serviceprovider is required to fully populate and maintain an access database of thewhole street lighting asset, which is made available to the Council officers.A decision has therefore been taken not to include the street lighting asset withinthis Asset Information Strategy.91


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.0 Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.1 Goals and ObjectivesThere are a large number of goals andobjectives set down for carriageways ina number of policy documents, thespecific goals and objectives that relateto carriageway maintenance within theHighway Maintenance Strategy arethose which have the most relevance tothis lifecycle plan, these can be brokendown into three main areas, Policies,Practices, and Reporting, whichcomprise:Policies• Arrest the decline in the condition of local roads by 2004;• Clear the backlog of outstanding maintenance work by 2010;• Monitor the condition of the network and carry out maintenance to arrestdeterioration and ensure, where applicable, that the network will continue tobe able to carry appropriate traffic flows;• Implement proactive policies to identify defects and carry out resulting safetyand routine maintenance repairs;• Create an attractive well maintained highway environment through thepromotion of good maintenance policy, to contribute to urban renewal and tohelp attract new businesses to industrial and commercial areas;• Options for the procurement of Highway Maintenance services are beingassessed, with a view to forming future partnerships;• Seek and explore alternative and additional funding for HighwayMaintenance;Practices• Implement responsive practices to repair roads when stakeholders raiseconcerns, including repairing potentially hazardous potholes within 24 hours;• Investigate the percentage of the network failing skid resistance investigatorylevels on Principal roads and where funding allows reduce to an acceptablelevel over the next five years;• Manage the network asset to ensure that strengthening work is carried out atthe right time to minimise the whole life cost of maintaining the infrastructure;• Implement maintenance designs which are appropriate to the style of the areaand which help to promote tourism by the enhancement of the street scene;• Use appropriate materials to complement the appearance of areas of specificamenity value including conservation areas, the City Centre, and publicsquares when works are carried out;• Use maintenance treatments which reduce the long term reliance onquarrying new materials, disposing of existing materials to landfill sites andminimise the use of road transport of construction materials;92


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan• Inspect all roads in accordance with the code of practice for maintenancemanagement;• Carry out additional inspections in response to requests from Members andthe public, normally received through the Envirocall system;• Target future maintenance funds towards unclassified roads to address theimbalance in conditions between these roads and the classified network;• Progress the collection of highway inventory data to improve the effectivenessof highway maintenance management and highway asset management;• Prioritise the funding for the collection of highway inventory data, preferablyas an additional investment from resources outside of existing highwaybudgets.Reporting• Report progress of both implementation and performance indicators;• Ensure that national and local performance targets are met or exceededwithin the given timescales;• Benchmark processes and procurement to ensure cost effectiveness andvalue for money;• A ten year programme of planned highway maintenance schemes will bereported to the executive annually to meet the targets for the financial year;• The annual programme of works will be reported to area committee, with anupdate provided every 3 months;• Stakeholders directly affected by works in their street will be notified in writingof the proposed work, a minimum of one month prior to operationscommencing;• A second letter will be sent to stakeholders confirming the start date foroperations, and giving a minimum of 1 weeks notice;• Publish operational standards and work programmes;• Review Highway Maintenance strategy and performance and report annually;The above objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectives asdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.93


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of carriageway infrastructure is held on the assetmanagement system database (SYMOLOGY) which at present stores details of:• Street name (99%)• Road classification (99%)• Road length (99%)• BVPI Inspection details (100%)• Highway Inspectors condition assessments (95%)• Road width (30%)• Surfacing material (80%)• Coloured and High Friction surfacing (15%)• Historical planned maintenance (95% over the past year)• Historical reactive maintenance (95% over the last 3 years)• Location of traffic calming features (90% over the last 2 years)• Location of cellars under the carriageway (30%)It is intended that the Symology database will eventually hold full details of:• Street name• Road classification• Road length• BVPI Inspection details• CES condition assessments• Road width• Surfacing material• Coloured and High Friction surfacing• Construction date• Construction details• Inspection details• Location of speed limits• Location of traffic calming measures• Location of cellars under the carriageway• Winter maintenance routes• Carriageway maintenance histories• Gully positions• Highway Drainage details• Road Markings associated with Traffic regulation OrdersA video survey of 30% of the classified network and 20% of the unclassifiednetwork has been completed by DCL, with the roads picked being arepresentative sample of all of the roads within the network. Following validationof the survey results it is intended that the remaining percentage of the networkshould be surveyed by video or walked inspection within the next 12 months.In addition the highway inspectors and highway control assistants areundertaking an ongoing inventory collection for a number of carriageway assetelements as part of, and in addition to, their regular work duties.94


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanAlthough at this point a large amount of the required records are unavailablethere is a high level of confidence in the records, which are held and thisinformation has been used to assess the likely inventory of the asset.Table 14.2.1 Shows a summary of the network road lengths by classification andward.Table 14.2.1 Summary of Network Road Lengths (Km) by Hierarchy and WardWardPrincipalRoadsB Roads C Roads UnclassifiedRoadsBackLanesUrbanMotorwayAllRoadsTotalsBenwell andScotswood6.2 3.2 4.5 40.2 1.4 0 55.5Blakelaw 3.5 0.6 1.4 27.8 1.0 0 34.3Byker 3.1 2.3 3.0 29.0 2.9 0 40.3Castle 0.05 1.0 10.8 39.2 0.0 0 51.0Dene 3.0 0.0 2.9 25.5 0.25 0 31.6Denton 0.0 0.2 2.6 28.6 0.8 0 32.2East2.4 1.0 0.1 23.3 5.4 0 32.2GosforthElswick 3.9 2.2 5.2 36.5 2.8 0 50.6Fawdon 0.0 0.0 3.1 29.7 0.7 0 33.5Fenham 2.3 0.8 2.7 25.8 0.15 0 31.7Kenton 3.9 0.0 0.1 30.1 0.2 0 34.3Lemington 2.4 0.8 2.1 35.3 1.5 0 42.1Newburn 3.3 3.9 3.4 30.8 1.1 0 42.5North2.7 0.0 3.8 23.5 2.7 0 32.7HeatonNorthJesmond0.5 1.9 0.0 19.0 8.9 0 30.3Ouseburn 3.0 2.5 1.6 17.5 4.9 0.8 30.3Parklands 0.6 3.6 1.2 27.5 0.0 0 32.9South3.3 1.1 2.9 17.6 9.4 0 34.3HeatonSouthJesmond1.3 3.6 0.6 21.2 7.1 1.3 35.1WestGosforth1.9 0.9 2.2 28.6 5.6 0 39.2Westgate 5.6 4.8 5.2 27.9 0.9 0.4 44.8Walker 2.6 0.9 5.3 28.4 2.4 0 39.6Walkergate 2.9 0.3 2.3 23.3 3.4 0 32.2Westerhope 0.0 1.7 1.7 29.9 0.5 0 33.8Wingrove 5.1 0.6 6.4 19.0 4.7 0.5 36.3Woolsington 0.0 6.6 9.5 29.9 0.4 0 46.4All WardsTotals63.6 44.5 84.6 715.1 69.1 3.0 979.8*The A1 and A696 Trunk Roads within Newcastle Upon Tyne are maintained by Colasunder an agency agreement with the Highways Agency. The A69 Trunk Road ismaintained by Roadlink under a DBFO with the Highways Agency, although NCC havebeen retained as sub-contractors to undertake the routine maintenance works inpartnership with Northumberland and Cumbria County Councils.95


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.3 ConditionThe condition of the asset is assessed by regular inspection and by using anumber of assessment techniques. Newcastle City Council has a conditioninspection regime, with information recorded in the Symology database. Thehighway inspectors give a condition rating for each carriageway during thecourse of their planned inspections using a, 1 to 5 criteria:• 1 Excellent New or no defects, negligible wear• 2 Good Small number of minor defects, few or no safetyrepairs required• 3 Fair A number of minor defects, possible patchingrepairs required• 4 Poor A greater number of minor defects, inspect forpossible scheme• 5 Bad Higher number of defects, inspect forpossible maintenance schemeTable 14.3.1 identifies the percentage ranges for particular defects (for bothflexible and rigid carriageways), which are used to help judge the conditionrating.Table 14.3.1 Condition Monitors Used to Establish Condition Rating.Rating SubSetCondition Monitor (Defect)PercentageRangeFlexibleCarriageway(1) (a) Good(2) (a) Poor Camber / Riding Quality(b) Minor Carriageway (Fretting) 5 – 50(c) All other defects Under 5(3) (a) Minor Carriageway (Fretting) 50 – 100(b) Wearing Course Deterioration 5 – 25(c) Non-structural rutting 5 – 50(4) (a) Wearing course deterioration 25 – 100(b) Non-structural rutting 50 – 100(c) Major Carriageway 5 – 50(5) (a) Carriageway 50 - 100Rigid Carriageway(1) (a) Good(2) (a) All Defects Below 5(3) (a) Wearing Course Deterioration 5 – 50(b) Surface Spalling 5 – 50(c) Loss of joint sealant 5 – 50(d) Joint Spalling 5 – 50(4) (a) Wearing Course Deterioration 50 – 100(b) Surface Spalling 50 – 100(c) Joint spalling 50 – 100(d) Area Cracking 5 – 25(e) Longitudinal and/or transverse cracking with 25mm 5 – 25difference between sides(f) Bays / Joints move under traffic 0 – 2596


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.3.1 Condition Monitors Used to Establish Condition Rating.Rating SubSetCondition Monitor (Defect)PercentageRange(5) (a) Area cracking 25 – 100(b) Longitudinal and/or transverse cracking with 25mm 25 – 100difference between sides(c) Bays / Joints move under traffic 20 – 100(d) Combination of 4(d), 4(e) and 4(f) 25 – 70In addition a number of inspections are undertaken to assess the GovernmentsBest Value Performance Indicators (BVPIs) which are reported annually in theLocal Transport Plan (LTP) Annual Progress Report (APR).BV223 Condition of Principal Roads: gives the percentage of the eligibleprincipal road network where maintenance should be considered, determinedfrom the SCANNER surveys undertaken using a number of preset parameters.BV224(a) Condition of Non-Principal Classified Roads: gives the percentageof the eligible non-principal road network where maintenance should beconsidered, determined from the SCANNER surveys undertaken using a numberof preset parameters.BV224(b) Condition of Unclassified Roads: is derived using the followingcalculation; The proportion of the length of unclassified carriageway surveyed forthe annual indicator for which at least one of the UKPMS Rules and ParametersCondition Index thresholds shown in the table below have been equalled orexceeded, divided by the total length of unclassified carriageway networksurveyed for the annual indicator.Table 14.3.2 UKPMS Condition Index Threshold ValuesCondition IndexThreshold ValueStructural CI 85Edge CI 50Wearing Course CI 60The type and frequency of condition inspection or assessment undertaken foreach road hierarchy is detailed in table 14.3.3.Table 14.3.3 Frequency of Condition Inspections/AssessmentsRoad HierarchyPrincipal RoadsInspection/AssessmentTypeDefelectographSCANNERCoarse Visual Inspection (CVI)GriptesterHighway Inspector conditionassessmentFrequencyEvery 4 yearsAnnuallyAnnuallyAnnually6 Monthly97


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.3.3 Frequency of Condition Inspections/AssessmentsRoad HierarchyClassified Roads(B & C)Unclassified RoadsInspection/AssessmentTypeCVIGriptesterHighway Inspector conditionassessmentSCANNERCVIGriptesterHighway Inspector conditionassessmentFrequencyAnnuallyAs required6 MonthlyOne direction annuallyEvery 3 years (33% p.a.)As required6 MonthlyIn addition to the condition assessments above a number of routine and safetyinspections are carried out on the carriageways and the frequency of inspectionagainst route type are detailed in tables 14.3.4 and 14.3.5 below.Table 14.3.4 Frequency of Routine InspectionsRoad / Route TypeStrategic Route / City CentreMain DistributorSecondary DistributorLink RoadsLocal Access RoadsFrequencyMonthlySix MonthlySix MonthlySix MonthlySix monthlyTable 14.3.5 Frequency of Safety InspectionsRoad / Route TypeStrategic RouteMain DistributorSecondary DistributorLink RoadsLocal Access RoadsFrequencyMonthlyMonthlyMonthlyTri-monthlySix monthlyWhere reports of defects are received from Members or Stakeholders additionalinspections will be generated with safety inspections being undertaken within 24hours, and routine non-safety inspections being undertaken within 5 workingdays, the customer will be contacted within 15 working days, and necessaryrepairs will be undertaken within 30 working days.Current ConditionTable 14.3.6 shows the current BVPI condition ratings for Newcastle City Councilmeasured against the road hierarchy e.g. Principal, Classified and Unclassified.98


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.3.6 BVPI Condition RatingsRoad HierarchyBVPI Condition Ratings2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05Principal (BV223) 5.52% 3.32% 2.78% 1.08%Classified (BV224a) 23.59% 9.15% 12.06% 5.46%Unclassified (BV224b) 30.65% 27.41% 14.68% 10.44%In 2005/06 a mechanical traffic speed condition survey device (SCANNER) wasimplemented for principal and classified roads and the results of this differconsiderably from the data obtained using CVI surveys. In order to maintainsome consistency in the annual reporting NCC have continued to collect CVIdata also and a comparison between the two BVPI condition ratings can be seenin table 14.3.7 below.Table 14.3.7 BVPI Condition Ratings 2005/06 by Scanner & CVIRoad Hierarchy BVPI Condition Ratings -ScannerPrincipal (BV223) 18% 2.36%Classified (BV224a) 15% 7.34%Unclassified (BV224b) N/A 7.62%BVPI / LocalCondition Ratings -CVIFuture ConditionUsing the carriageway performance prediction programme as described insection 14.7.3 it has been possible to assess the future condition (backlog) of thecarriageways for a number of different funding scenarios. Figures 14.3.1 to14.3.3 show how the condition of the carriageways differ over a 28 year periodbased on the Minimum, Existing & Optimum service options as described insection 14.7. This is an ongoing assessment and will be revised as part of theannually plan update.99


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanFigure 14.3.1 – Condition Backlog for Principal RoadsCONDITION BACKLOG / INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTPRINCIPAL ROADS18161412100% of the network in need oftreatment - no longer sustainableMINIMUM (backlog)-budget £0.35m paEXISTING (backlog)-budget £0.4m paOPTIMUM(backlog)£million108OPTIMUM(investmentrequirement)64202006 2010 2020 2030 2034YearFigure 14.3.2 – Condition Backlog for Non-Principal Classified RoadsINVESTMENT REQUIREMENT -NON PRINCIPAL CLASSIFIED ROADS12108MINIMUM(backlog)-Budget £0.37m paEXISTING(backlog)-Budget £0.45m paOPTIMUM(backlog)£million6OPTIMUM(investmentrequirement)4202006 2010 2020 2030 2034Year100


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanFigure 14.3.3 Condition Backlog for Unclassified RoadsCONDITION BACKLOG / INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTUNCLASSIFIED ROADS£million454035302520MINIMUM (backlog)-budget £0.63m paEXISTING (backlog)-budget £0.75m paOPTIMUM(backlog)OPTIMUM(investmentrequirement)1510502006 2010 2020 2030 2034-5Year14.4 DemandsThe Highways Act states that the purpose of a carriageway is for the “freepassage of vehicles”, obviously this is a rather simplistic view and the demandsset on a carriageway can be numerous. A number of particular demandsidentified by Newcastle City are set out below:• Providing safe and reliable routes for all vehicles, particularly publictransport and goods vehicles at all times• Sufficient capacity to cater for the number of vehicles using the road toprevent undue delay and congestion and ensure the expeditiousmovement of traffic• Sufficient build quality to cope with the general wear & tear caused by thepassage of all vehicles including public transport and goods vehicles• Providing access routes for the disadvantaged particularly people withdisabilities• To contribute to urban renewal and to help attract new businesses toindustrial and commercial areas• Provide access to and enhance opportunities for employment, education,shopping, recreation and leisure• To provide on street parking where practicable• Enhancement of the environment• Creating an amenity value101


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanNewcastle City Council have placed particular emphasis on routes which aresignificant for public transport or where roads lead to existing or potentialcommercial areas.Some of the major areas where this will become important is within streetworksco-ordination and the potential future requirements of the “Traffic ManagementAct 2004”.14.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction or the gaps between desired/target condition and theactual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. For examplewhere a road fails within its design life, due to the passage of heavy vehicles,and requires substantial reconstruction, or where a number of roads requiremaintenance work but adequate funding is not available. A number ofperformance gaps identified within Newcastle are detailed in table 5.1 below.Table 14.5.1 Performance Gaps (Carriageways)Item Problem ResponseGully Cleaning There is no service levelagreement in place for theroutine cleaning of gullies andthe in-house target, set by theEnvironmental Services section,of all carriageway gullies beingroutinely cleaned twice a year isnot being met due to lack offunding and the inability toaccess some gullies in heavilyparked areas.Gully RepairsRepairs to some broken gulliesor drainage pipes are not beingundertaken due to a lack offunding and the lack of suitableequipment.Road MarkingsReplacement of worn markingsis undertaken on an adhoc basis.Road Surface & ConstructionThere has been some failure ofthe road surfacing orconstruction within the life spanexpected, it is believed that thisis due to a number of factorsincluding; poor workmanship,unacceptable materials &insufficient supervision.It has been noted that anincreased budget is required tomeet the target set. A proposalhas been put forward to arrangeroad closures and no parkingorders on particular streets toallow access for all maintenancevehicles including gully emptiersat least once per year.This is leading to deterioration inthe overall condition of the asset,which can only be rectified by anincrease in the budget.This area of work has sufferedfrom insufficient investment asthe monies available havegenerally been absorbed inrepairing potentially hazardousdefects.New framework partneringarrangements and sectorscheme approvals introduced bythe Highways Agency areexpected to help alleviate muchof this problem.102


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.5.1 Performance Gaps (Carriageways)Item Problem ResponseUse of expensive or unsuitablematerialsIncreasing size of the assetInordinate and increasingexpectation of service standardsIn some instances the materialsspecified in some locations fortheir amenity value areexpensive to maintain and mayin fact be unsuitable for purposeleading to a higher demand forrepair.The continually increasing sizeof the asset through creation,acquisition (adoptions), andupgrading is rarely reflected insimilar increases in themaintenance budget.Expectations of the manystakeholders involved with thehighway have increased to alevel where the funding availableis unable to meet therequirements.A better understanding of thelifecycle costs of a range ofdifferent materials, may lead todifferent decisions regardingtheir specification.A better understanding of thesize and worth of the existingasset and its true maintenancecosts can be used to betterinform the decision makers whoset the annual budgets.It would seem that the fundingneeded to meet customerexpectations is unlikely to bemade available, which meansthat realistic levels of serviceneed to be set andcommunicated to all.103


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.6 Option Appraisal14.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-to-day work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this alsocovers the reactive or adhoc repair or renewal of small elements or componentswhich have become unserviceable due to general wear and tear or havedeteriorated for other reasons. Routine maintenance activities for carriagewaysare detailed in table 14.6.1.Table 14.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance Activity Maintenance Interval ResponsibilityCyclic MaintenanceGully Cleaning Annually Environmental ServicesStreet Sweeping Weekly Environmental ServicesLitter PickingInspected Weekly, litter pick Environmental Servicesordered as required.Sign Cleaning Adhoc basis only Environmental ServicesReactive (Adhoc) MaintenancePothole Repair As required Street Management TeamMinor Patching As required Street Management TeamIsolated kerb relay As required Street Management TeamGully Repair As required Street Management TeamCleaning of safeticurb, pipes,manholes, soakaways etc.As requiredEnvironmental ServicesStreet Management TeamRemoval of Debris As required Environmental ServicesEmergency Call Out As required Street Management TeamRoad Marking replacement As required Street Management TeamThere are approximately 44,500 highway gullies within Newcastle previously thegully cleaning regime has been undertaken as a reactive maintenance followingreports of a blockage, of those sites reported approximately 60% have beensuccessfully rectified with one visit, of the other 40% some are passed on to theStreet Management Team for further works, but many are unable to be accesseddue to the prevalence of parked vehicles. A new specification for gullymaintenance is currently being prepared and will be available early 2007.14.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is majorplanned (programmed) work that doesnot increase the asset’s designedcapacity, but restores, rehabilitates,replaces or renews an existing assetto its original capacity. (Maintaining a‘Steady State’) Table 14.6.2 details anumber of ‘Steady State’ activitiestheir relative merits and their expectedprogramme intervals.104


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.6.2 Planned Carriageway Maintenance ActivitiesTreatmenttypeCommentsAnticipated frequencyyearsMajor Patching A large number of patch repairs or anumber of very large patches in a discretearea.Surface Dressing Application of a bituminous emulsion to thecarriageway upon which one or more layersof stone chippings are applied.Haunching Major repairs to the edge of thecarriageway.OverlayAddition of new surfacing materials on topof existing construction.Resurfacing (Inlay) Removal of existing surfacing materials,surface & binder courses, and replacementwith new.Reconstruction Removal of existing carriagewayconstruction, full or partial depth, andreplacement with new.Refurbishment of Replacement of all or part of a drainagedrainage systemsHigh friction (Antiskid)surfacingrun, or chamber.Application of high friction surfacing toimprove skid resistance.Principal Classified Unclass10 15 22N/A 7 1015 20 3012 18 2512 18 2525 40 6050 50 505 7 10These frequencies may of course differ for roads of different traffic loadings forinstance a little used cul-de-sac should require less frequent maintenance than amajor arterial route.14.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity. Examples of Creation, Acquisition & Upgradingactivities are detailed in table 14.6.3 with a programme of possible future worksdetailed in table 14.6.4.Table 14.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & UpgradingActivityCreationAcquisitionUpgradingCarriageway wideningJunction layoutimprovementCarriagewayExplanationAlthough it is very unusual to have a new carriageway asset created it doesoccur where a new route is required, where an existing substandardcarriageway needs replacing, or where additional drainage systems arerequired.Acquisition of carriageways is normally associated with the taking up ofmaintenance responsibilities following new developments, this is normallymanaged by the development control team using Section.38 or 106 legalagreements, or through the private streetworks procedure.A number of upgrading activities, which may take place to improve theexisting stock condition, are detailed below.Construction of additional carriageway space adjacent to an existing road inorder to cope with the traffic flows.Introduction of roundabouts or traffic lights, with associated kerb andcarriageway realignment.Strengthening of an existing carriageway in order to cope with increased105


Carriageways Life Cycle Planstrengtheningvehicle weights.Table 14.6.4 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading ProgrammeScheme Name Reason for work AnticipateddateScotswood Road Dualling Improve traffic flows and Comp –meet increased demand Sept ‘06Newcastle Great park Development Adoption of private 2008/9developmentHowdene Road & Howlett Hall Adoption of private 2006/07RoadstreetsBuston Terrace part Adoption of private 2006/07streetsSt James’ Road Adoption of private 2006/07streets14.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. Although disposal of carriageways is unusual there havebeen a number of instances in recent years and table 6.5 details the disposalactivities and the drivers behind their use.Table 14.6.5 Carriageway Disposal ActivitiesDisposal ActivityReason for DisposalCourt Road Ends, partial road closure Environmental Improvement14.7 Optimisation & Budget Considerations14.7.1 Reactive (Adhoc) MaintenanceAn overall budget based on historic precedent is made available to the StreetManagement Team, over the years this budget has been a target for financialcuts and so has decreased below the sum needed to maintain the highwayefficiently, and has made it increasingly difficult to respond to the risingexpectations of the residents.The carriageway budget is been split up within a number of different budgetheadings, initially broken down into Principal, Classified & Unclassified roads. Anumber of sub-headings are then used within these groupings, although in somecases the money from one budget heading is used for works within anotherheading where funds are insufficient to carry out the necessary work. Table14.7.1 details those items, which relate to the carriageway asset.106


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.7.1 Carriageway Reactive Maintenance Spend (£)2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 20004/05 2005/06Principal 0.63M 0.80M 38K 45K 71KClassified inc inc 315K 176K 202KUnclassified0.51K 0.28K 0.27KTable 14.7.2 Details the adhoc drainage maintenance spend over the last 5years.Table 14.7.2 Drainage Reactive Maintenance Spend (£)2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 20004/05 2005/06Principal 86K 86K 3.9K 2.3K 6.5KClassified 1.5K 4.5K 16.3KUnclassified7.3K 27.9K 57.2KThese sums are then allocated against work orders as and when requiredfollowing inspections or reports from members of the public highlightingcarriageway defects. The remaining budget available is updated as each neworder / invoice is placed and is checked on a fortnightly basis to limit anyoverspend.14.7.2 Planned Highway Maintenance schemes• Scheme Selection: Theidentification of plannedrevenue highway maintenanceschemes is undertaken atneighbourhood level using thecondition information gainedfrom the surveys. Thisinformation is then passed toMembers in the form of a plan.Assessment of this informationalong with recommendationsfrom the technical staff is usedto prioritise the need for work atvarious locations.• Scheme Selection: The identification of planned capital (LTP) highwaymaintenance schemes is undertaken using the condition informationgained from the surveys as assessed by the technical staff and theprogramme is approved by Members.107


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan• Scheme Validation: A proposed highway maintenance scheme, havingbeen requested and technically assessed, is also prioritised using the BestValue Performance Indicator (BVPI) results.• Provisional Programme of Works: Following the selection and validationprocedure listed above a provisional programme of works for the followingyear is developed to include estimated costs for the works. It is proposedto develop a detailed 2-year programme in future.• Consultation: Following this process, a timetable for the works is prepared.Residents are notified one month in advance of the works commencing,where possible, to advise them of the type of works to be undertaken anddetermine if they have any special access requirements. Residents areagain notified one week prior to works commencing on site and again atappropriate times during the works if access to properties is likely to beaffected.Table 14.7.3 Carriageway Planned Maintenance Revenue Spend (£)Principal,Classified &Unclassified2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 20004/05 2005/061,462,000 2,296,000 1,456,000 1,602,000 1,511,000The capital budget is initially used to meet the targets set within BV96 (PrincipalRoads) and then BV97a (Classified Roads) with the remainder being used tofund works on the Unclassified network including footways, the available fundinghas consistently fallen short of the amount required to maintain the network.Table 14.7.4 Carriageway Capital Maintenance Spend (£)2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 20004/05 2005/06Principal 434,000 1,360,000 354,000 349,000 265,000Classified &Unclassified 1,334,000 2,178,000 1,462,000 1,898,000 2,274,00014.7.3 BacklogTable 14.7.5 shows the current backlog required to bring the carriageways up toan acceptable standard, and the estimated backlog that would be expected by2016/17 based on the continuance of current funding levels over the next tenyears.108


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.7.5 Carriageway Condition Backlog EstimatesCurrent Backlog2006/07Estimated Backlog2016/17Principal Roads £ 1.35M £ 13.00MB & C Class Roads £ 2.50M £ 1.80MUnclassified Roads £ 18.00M £ 22.40MTotal £ 21.85M £ 37.20MUsing CVI data to assess present condition, and by utilising the known treatmentoptions and their expected life cycles Newcastle City Council in association withOpus International Consultants have undertaken a performance predictionanalysis for each road category based on the following intervention criteria.Decision Tree - A RoadsBSES +BWTR=20% ; =40%(3)BSES +BWTRBFEJ +BSDE=20%BSES +=40%>=20% ;>=20% ;


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanDecision Tree - BC RoadsBSES +BWTR=20% ; =40%(3)BSES +BWTRBLED +BREDBFEJ +BSDE=20%MI70BSES +=40%>=20% ;>=20% ;=20% ;


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.7.4 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.The following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP♦ Statutory Minimum: Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only♦ Minimum: The effect of reducing funding levels to current RNF and LTPallocations♦ Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels♦ Requested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirations♦ Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined from thelife cycle planning process.♦ Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints).Carriageway Service Options identified by Newcastle City Council are detailed inTable 14.7.6 below.Table 14.7.6 Carriageway Service OptionsAsset Group Statutory Minimum MinimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionCarriagewaysMinimum (Reactive)level of servicemeeting statutory orlegislativerequirements only.Approx. £0.628 m forone year onlyRapid andunsustainabledeterioration of roadnetwork, causing anincrease inmaintenance costs,backlog and a steepdecline in assetvalueThe effect ofreducing fundinglevels to currentRNF and LTPallocations£ 1.85 M paThe minimumbudget levelwould not besufficient tomaintain thecurrent networkcondition resultingin a greaterbacklog thanwould be the casefor current fundinglevels.Existing(2005/6 Budget)The current LoStypically as set outin the City’s MP ornational. COPsApprox. £3.1m paThe presentbudget level is notsufficient tomaintain thecurrent networkcondition resultingin a greaterbacklog of workseach year(Includesadditional budgetof £1.0m fundedby PrudentialBorrowing)RequestedAdditionalFundingA LoS that attemptsto meet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirationsExtra funds of£7.8m pa over a 5year periodfollowed by anadditional £2.1m pathereafterRequired to meetthe levels ofmaintenancedeemed necessaryto improve thecurrent BVPIratings and improvethe condition of allroads to anacceptablestandard and clearthe backlog.(Excludesadditional funding)OptimumLoS based uponengineeringprinciples &technicaljudgementEstimated at£9.9m pa for 5years, thereafter£4.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incarriagewaycondition over a5 year period,and allow forongoingmanagement tomaintain theasset at the newcondition levels111


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.7.5 Levels of ServiceLevels of Service identified by Newcastle City Council specific to theCarriageways asset can be found in table 14.11.1 along with their identifiedperformance measures.14.8 Risk Management– CarriagewaysRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk identification exercise has been undertaken and a risk register and matrixscoring system has been developed and is attached to this document asappendix B The following are examples of the significant risks associated withthis asset.14.8.1 The major risk with carriageways is that of total sudden failure, i.e.collapse of the carriageway, which could result in:♦♦♦♦♦Loss of lifeSerious injuryDamage to adjacent property and servicesEnvironmental damageProlonged disruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦♦♦♦♦Compensation claimsRepair to property & servicesEmergency services financial chargesReplacement of carriagewayEnvironmental clean upProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeThis risk can be mitigated by regular safety inspections and structural conditionassessments of all carriageways, which lead to necessary repairs being carriedout in a timely fashion, and the carrying out of routine maintenance to preventdeterioration of the carriageway.112


Carriageways Life Cycle Plan14.8.2 Secondary risks include a number of partial failures requiring:Major maintenance, which could result in:♦♦♦Long term closureEnvironmental damageProlonged disruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to financial implications for:♦♦♦♦Major repair costsEnvironmental clean upTraffic managementProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeEtc.This risk can be mitigated by regular condition inspections of all carriageways,which lead to minor repairs being carried out in a timely fashion to prevent orreverse further deterioration, and the carrying out of routine maintenance toprevent initial deterioration of the carriageway.14.8.3 Inability to maintain demand requirements, which could result in:♦♦♦Excessive traffic queuesTemporary traffic managementDisruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to financial implications for:♦♦Traffic managementProvision of an alternative route for some vehicles e.g. BusesConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesDamage to the environment due to standing trafficAlteration of bus routesHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeThis risk can be mitigated by regular monitoring of demand requirements andcurrent usage, and by introducing a pro-active approach to route management,along with measures to reduce traffic flows where appropriate.113


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanIt is intended that this risk assessment system will be further developed to beused as an option appraisal technique when choosing between differing serviceoptions and levels of service.14.9 Forward Works ProgrammeA 10-year forward works programme has been developed using a basicdeterioration prediction for planned’ maintenance operations these include:patching, haunching, overlay, resurfacing & reconstruction etc. There is areasonable level of confidence in this programme although the costs associatedwith the work are the best estimate available at this time and may varyconsiderably over the 10-year period.An indicative 2-year programme has been prepared for the Principal and OtherClassified Roads funded by the LTP Capital budget (see Appendix D). Annualprogrammes are selected to meet the actual LTP funding allocations publishedby the Department for Transport in December each year.A detailed 2-year programme is being prepared for Unclassified roads funded byrevenue and partly by LTP capital .It is intended to develop a forward works programme for creation, acquisition &upgrading although this is based on a forward thinking ‘wish list’ of ideas whichmay not come to fruition and so there is less confidence in this programme.These programmes are ‘live’ documents and it is expected that they will beamended and updated on a continuing basis.14.10 Physical WorksAt present works are commissioned through a number of routes althoughprocurement methods are constantly being reviewed in line with Councilprocedures.Current Situationi) Generally works for revenue budgeted and minor capital projects areordered through an internal agreement with the Highways & TrafficSignals section. In addition a Highway Construction Services frameworkpartnership has been entered into with Colas (North) Ltd and CumbrianIndustrials Ltd, for a period of two years with an optional third year, for theundertaking of specialist work and any work that cannot be sufficientlyresourced by H&TS, this framework agreement is due to expire at the endof 2007. Alternative procurement methods for this service are currentlybeing prepared.ii)Major capital maintenance works are generally procured throughcompetitive tender following the Council’s financial rules and regulationswith tenderers being chosen from a select list of contractors using a114


Carriageways Life Cycle Planformally identified process. E.g. the CME major maintenance or therepainting of the Tyne Bridge.iii)Occasionally specialist works will be subject to a competitive tendering orquotation process, which may involve contactors from outside of the selectlist. On such occasions quality and financial checks are undertaken on allcompanies invited to quote.Possible Future SituationNewcastle City Council Environmental Services are considering putting a numberof services to competitive tender commencing in year 2007/2008 including gullycleaning.14.11 Performance ManagementNational and local performance indicators are used to measure performance.The annual updates of the Local Transport Plan report on:♦ BVPI 223 (Previously BV96) Condition of Principal Roads. See section 3.0for details.♦ BVPI 224a (BV97(a)) Condition of Non-Principal Classified Roads. Seesection 3.0 for details.♦ BVPI 224b (BV97(b)) Condition of Unclassified Roads. See section 3.0 fordetailsAdditional local performance indicators are detailed in table 14.11.1 below.Table 14.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Carriageway AssetLEVELS OF SERVICEPERFORMANCEMEASUREREVIEWFREQUENCYTARGETSCOREOBJECTIVESInspectionsUndertake BVPI conditioninspections on all roads asper the recommendationsUndertake local CVI surveyson A, B & C roads annuallyUndertake serviceinspections on all roads onceevery six monthsUndertake routine safetyinspections on Principal &Classified roads monthlyPercentage ofinspectionsundertaken as perthe programmePercentage ofinspectionsundertaken as perthe programmePercentage ofinspectionsundertaken as perthe programmePercentage ofinspectionsundertaken as perthe programmeAnnually 100% Serviceability,SustainabilityAnnually 100% Serviceability,SustainabilityThreeMonthly100% Serviceability,SustainabilitySix Monthly 100% Safety115


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Carriageway AssetLEVELS OF SERVICEUndertake routine safetyinspections on unclassifiedroads six monthlyUndertake skid resistancesurveys (Griptester) onPrincipal Roads every yearUndertake deflectographsurveys on Principal Roadsevery 4 yearsSafety inspections forcarriageway markings androad studs shall beundertaken monthly or sixmonthly as part of thecarriageway safetyinspectionConditionMaintain the condition of allprincipal roads such that thepercentage meeting theBVPI investigatory levelremains below 18%Maintain the condition of allnon-principal classified roadssuch that the percentagemeeting the BVPIinvestigatory level remainsbelow 16%Maintain the condition of allunclassified roads such thatthe percentage meeting theBVPI investigatory levelremains below 15%Investigate skid resistancelevels on principal roads inorder to produce a skidresistance strategyMaintenanceEmergency defects shall beattended to with immediateresponse (not longer than 2hrs)Category 2 (non-emergency)defects shall be rectified ormade safe within 24 hrsPERFORMANCEMEASUREPercentage ofinspectionsundertaken as perthe programmePercentage ofsurveys undertakenas per theprogrammePercentage ofsurveys undertakenas per theprogrammePercentage ofsurveys undertakenas per theprogrammePercentage ofPrincipal roadnetwork wheremaintenance shouldbe consideredPercentage of Non-Principal Classifiedroad network wheremaintenance shouldbe consideredPercentage ofUnclassified roadnetwork wheremaintenance shouldbe consideredPercentage ofPrincipal roads scrimsurveyed in currentyear found to be ator belowinvestigatory levelPercentage ofdefects attendedwithin the allottedtimescalePercentage of Cat 2defects repairedwithin the allottedtimescaleREVIEW TARGETS COREFREQUENCYOBJECTIVESAnnually 100% SafetyAnnually 100%To beintroducedas animprovementaction.Annually 100%To beintroducedas animprovementaction.Annually 100% SafetyAnnuallyAnnuallyAnnuallyAnnuallyless than17%less than15%less than15%To beintroducedas animprovementactionQuarterly 100% SafetyServiceability,SustainabilityServiceability,SustainabilityServiceability,SustainabilityServiceability,SustainabilityServiceability,SustainabilityQuarterly 100% SafetySafety,Serviceability,Sustainability116


Carriageways Life Cycle PlanTable 14.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Carriageway AssetLEVELS OF SERVICERepairs on category 3defects will be carried outwithin 10 working daysRepairs on category 4defects will be carried outwithin 1 monthClean all road gullies onceannuallyPERFORMANCEMEASUREPercentage of Cat 3defects repairedwithin the allottedtimescalePercentage of Cat 4defects repairedwithin the allottedtimescalePercentage of gulliescleaned as perprogrammeREVIEWFREQUENCYTARGETS COREOBJECTIVESQuarterly 95% Safety,Serviceability,SustainabilityQuarterly 95% Safety,Serviceability,Sustainability3 Monthly 90% Serviceability,SustainabilityRefer to section 14.3 for details of inspections undertaken.14.12 Improvement Actions• Complete full inventory survey• Collect and maintain condition data for all roads• Review levels of service and undertake a consultation process• Review forward work programme following review of levels of service• Review budget requirements and works programmes• Further develop risk assessment system• Review current business processes in light of asset management practiceto see where improvements can be made to the service provided• Develop skid resistance strategy and GIS systems and introduce skidresistance surveys (Griptester)• Reintroduce deflectograph surveys117


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.0 Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.1 Goals and ObjectivesThere are a large number of goals and objectives set down for footways andcycleways in a number of policy documents, the specific goals and objectivesthat relate to footway maintenance within the Highway Maintenance Strategy arethose which have the most relevance to this lifecycle plan, these can be brokendown into three main areas, Policies, Practices, and Reporting, they comprise:Policies• Implement proactive policies to identify defects and carry out resulting safetyand routine maintenance repairs;• Create a safer and more inviting environment for pedestrians and cyclists andprovide specific features and facilities within schemes;• Improve access for disabled people, for example by the inclusion of droppedkerbs at main crossing points;• Adopt a ‘clear streets’ policy for designated, well used routes;• Create an attractive well maintained highway environment through thepromotion of good maintenance policy, to contribute to urban renewal and tohelp attract new businesses to industrial and commercial areas;• Develop a customer focussed highway maintenance service;• Seek and explore alternative and additional funding for HighwayMaintenance;•Practices• Implement responsive practices to repair pavements when stakeholders raiseconcerns, including repairing potentially hazardous pavement trips andpotholes within 24 hours;• Implement maintenance designs which are appropriate to the style of the areaand which help to promote tourism by the enhancement of the street scene;• Use appropriate materials to complement the appearance of areas of specificamenity value including conservation areas, the City Centre, and publicsquares when works are carried out;• Use maintenance treatments which reduce the long term reliance onquarrying new materials, disposing of existing materials to landfill sites andminimise the use of road transport of construction materials;• Carry out routine inspections in accordance with the code of practice formaintenance management to identify highway defects, particularly trips in thefootway greater than 25mm to meet the requirements of the City’s riskmanagement strategy;• Carry out additional inspections in response to requests from Members andthe public, normally received through the Envirocall system;• Review design and maintenance standards so that, where appropriate,flagged footways are replaced with bituminous materials;• Options for the procurement of Highway Maintenance services will beassessed, with a view to forming partnerships;118


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan• Progress the collection of highway inventory data to improve the effectivenessof highway maintenance management and highway asset management;• Prioritise the funding for the collection of highway inventory data, preferablyas an additional investment from resources outside of existing highwaybudgets.Reporting• Consult widely on maintenance policies and programmes;• Report progress of both implementation and performance indicators;• Ensure that national and local performance targets are met or exceededwithin the given timescales;• Benchmark processes and procurement to ensure cost effectiveness andvalue for money;• A ten year programme of planned highway maintenance schemes will bereported to the Executive annually to meet the targets for the financial year;• The annual programme of works will be reported to area committee, with anupdate provided every 3 months;• Stakeholders directly affected by works in their street will be notified in writingof the proposed work, a minimum of one month prior to operationscommencing;• A second letter will be sent to stakeholders confirming the start date foroperations, and giving a minimum of 1 weeks notice;• Publish operational standards and work programmes;• Review Highway Maintenance strategy and performance and report annually;The above objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectivesdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.In addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which a well maintained footway infrastructure would help support:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;119


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development;15.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of footway infrastructure has been entered onto theSymology database. This is a recently acquired database, which at present onlyholds details of:• Street name (90%)• Footway classification (Prestige Area, primary / secondary walking routeetc.) (90%)• Location (90%)• BVPI’s (7%)• CVI data (50%)• CES condition assessment (95%)• Date of last inspection (95%)• Length (40%)• Width (20%)• Surfacing material (90%)• Kerb type / material (90%)• Channel type / material (30%)• Planned maintenance history (95% over the past year)• Reactive maintenance history (95% over the last 3 years)It is intended that the Symology database will eventually hold full details of:• Street name• Footway classification (Prestige Area, primary / secondary walking routeetc.)• Location• BVPI’s• CES condition assessment• Date of last inspection• Length• Width• Surfacing material• Kerb type / material• Channel type / material• Construction date• Construction materials / thickness• Planned maintenance history• Reactive maintenance history120


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanA video survey of 30% of the classifiednetwork and 20% of the unclassifiednetwork has been completed by DCL,with the roads selected being arepresentative sample of all of the roadswithin the network. Following validationof the survey results it is intended thatthe remaining percentage of thenetwork should be surveyed by videoand/or walked inspection within the next12 months.In addition the highway inspectors and highway control assistants areundertaking an ongoing inventory collection for a number of footway assetelements as part of, and in addition to, their regular work duties.Although at this point a significant amount of the required records are unavailablethere is a high level of confidence in the records, which are held.It is estimated that the overall length of footway (including cycleway) managed byNewcastle City Council is 1900Km of which approximately 140Km comprises theclass 1, 1a & 2 footways.15.3 ConditionThe condition of the asset is assessed by regular inspection and by using anumber of assessment techniques. Newcastle City Council has a conditioninspection regime, with information recorded in the Symology database. Thehighway inspectors give a condition rating for each carriageway during thecourse of their planned inspections using a, 1 to 5 criteria:• 1 Excellent New or no defects, negligible wear• 2 Good Small number of minor defects, few safety repairsrequired• 3 Fair A small number of minor defects, patching repairsrequired• 4 Poor A greater number of minor defects, inspect forpossible scheme• 5 Bad Higher number of defects, inspect for possiblemaintenance schemeTable 15.3.1 identifies the percentage ranges for particular defects (for bothflexible and rigid surfaces) for footways and kerbs, which are used to help judgethe condition rating.121


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanTable 15.3.1 Condition Monitors Used to Establish Condition Rating.Rating SubSetCondition Monitor (Defect)PercentageRangeFootways(1) (a) All defects Under 5(2) (a) Good but mixture of materials(b) Cracked rigid even surface 5 – 50(c) Minor Flexible 5 - 50(3) (a) Cracked but even surface 50 – 100(b) Minor Flexible 50 – 100(c) Major Flexible/Rigid 5 – 25(d) Cracked or uneven surface 5 - 30(4) (a) Major Flexible/Rigid 25 – 50(b) Cracked Rigid uneven 30 - 50(5) (a) Major Flexible Uneven 50 - 100(b) Cracked and Uneven 50 - 100Kerbing(1) (a) Good(2) (a) Kerb Height 25mm to 75mm or over 25 – 50150mm(3) (a) Kerb Height under 25mm 5 – 25(b) Kerbs Tilted/Sunken/Spalling 5 – 25(4) (a) Kerb Height under 25mm 25 – 75(b) Kerb Disintegrating/Laminated 5 – 25(c) Kerbs Tilted/Sunken/Spalling 25 – 50(5) (a) Kerb Height under 25mm 75 - 100(b) Kerb Disintegrating/Laminated 25 – 100(c) Kerbs Tilted/Sunken/Spalling 50 - 100(d) Combination of 4(b) & 4(c) 50 - 75In addition a number of inspections are undertaken to assess the GovernmentsBest Value Performance Indicators (BVPIs) which are reported annually in theLocal Transport Plan (LTP) update.BV187a Condition of footways: This indicator is based on the collection andanalysis of Detailed Visual Inspection (DVI) measurements, using the nationalRules and Parameters for UKPMS. It is designed to provide the percentagelength of the footway network with a Footway Condition Index greater than adefined threshold value (see below). This threshold is indicative of the need foran investigation to determine whether maintenance is needed to preserve thefootway serviceability. These rules cover different footway types and the defectsassociated with the type of footway (e.g. bituminous, flags) on different footwaycategories (hierarchies).122


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanA 50% survey of category 1, 1a, and 2, footways are covered each year, withthose receiving a Footway Condition Index greater than or equal to a thresholdvalue of 20.0 being reported as a percentage length of the footways surveyed.The type and frequency of condition inspection or assessment undertaken foreach footway hierarchy is detailed in table 15.3.2.Table 15.3.2 Frequency of Condition Inspections/AssessmentsFootwayHierarchyInspection/AssessmentTypePrestige Area Detailed Visual Inspection (DVI)Category 1 Highway Inspector conditionassessmentPrimary Walking Route DVICategory 1a Highway Inspector conditionassessmentSecondary Walking DVIRouteHighway Inspector conditionCategory 2assessmentLink Footway Highway Inspector conditionassessmentLocal Access Footway Highway Inspector conditionassessmentFrequencyBiennially6 MonthlyBiennially6 MonthlyBiennially6 Monthly6 Monthly6 MonthlyIn addition to the condition assessments above a number of routine and safetyinspections are carried out on the footways and the frequency of inspectionagainst route type are detailed in tables 15.3.3 and 15.3.4 below.Table 15.3.3 Frequency of Routine InspectionsFootway / Route TypePrestige AreaPrimary Walking RouteSecondary Walking RouteLink FootwayLocal Access FootwayFrequencyMonthlySix MonthlySix MonthlySix MonthlySix monthlyTable 15.3.4 Frequency of Safety InspectionsFootway / Route TypePrestige AreaPrimary Walking RouteSecondary Walking RouteLink FootwayLocal Access FootwayFrequencyMonthlyMonthlyMonthlyThree monthlySix monthly123


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanWhere reports of defects are received from Members or Stakeholders additionalinspections will be generated, with safety inspections being undertaken within 24hours, and routine non-safety inspections being undertaken within 5 workingdays, the customer will be contacted within 15 working days, and necessaryrepairs will be undertaken within 30 working days.Current ConditionTable 15.3.5 shows the last 3 years BVPI condition ratings for Newcastle CityCouncil for footway hierarchies 1, 1a & 2.Table 15.3.5 BVPI Condition RatingsFootway HierarchyPrestige Area (1)Primary Walking Route (1a)Secondary Walking Route(2)BVPI Rating2003/4 2004/05 2005/634.75 16.66 23.00The BVPI figure for footway condition has been inconsistent in the past. This ispartly due to the subjectivity of the survey methods and the approach to sampling50% of the network per annum making it difficult to draw any realisticcomparative performance figures year on year. However, it is considered that thegenerally the BVPI figure for footway condition is in the region of 20% +/- 3% andnow meeting the targets set.As there are no national performance indicators for the remaining 93% of thefootway network Newcastle have introduced a local performance indicator basedon CVI surveys and incorporated it in the HAMP to identify investment need andmonitor future performance. At present, 43% of the entire footway network hasbeen surveyed. The data is processed using UKPMS to produce an overallcondition index (CI) figure for either a residential street or a section notexceeding 250m in length.Backlog is identified by streets or sections consideredto be in need of treatment if the CI exceeds 20 in line with the CI used for DVIsurveys and the BV 187a. Life cycle replacement costs have been calculatedusing a linear deterioration rate.Based on the Newcastle method of assessment the current backlog stands at35.8% of the footway network in need of treatment.Figure 15.3.1 below details the condition backlog and investment requirementdetermined based on the Minimum, Existing and Optimum service options overthe next 25 years, for all footway classes; this is an ongoing assessment and willbe revised as part of the annual plan update.124


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanFigure 15.3.1 Condition Backlog FootwaysCONDITION BACKLOG / INVESTMENT REQUIREMENT -FOOTWAYS (ALL CLASSES)12010080MINIMUM (backlog) -Budget £1.25m paEXISTING (backlog)-Budget £1.5m paOPTIMUM (backlog)£million60OPTIMUM(investmentrequirement)402002006 2010 2020 2030 2034Year15.4 DemandsThe demands set on a footway or cycleway can be numerous. A number ofparticular demands identified by Newcastle City are set out below:• Providing safe and inviting routes for all pedestrians and cyclists• Sufficient capacity to cater for the number of pedestrians / cyclists usingthe route to ensure their expeditious movement• Sufficient build quality to cope with the general wear & tear caused by thepassage of pedestrians and cycles• Providing access routes for the disadvantaged particularly people withdisabilities• To contribute to urban renewal and to help attract new businesses toindustrial and commercial areas• Provide access to and enhance opportunities for employment, education,shopping, recreation and leisure• Enhancement of the environment• Creating an amenity value15.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. Forexample where a footway requires constant maintenance, relaying of slabs orwhere a number of footways require maintenance but there is insufficient funding125


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Planavailable to carry out the work etc. A number of performance gaps identifiedwithin Newcastle are detailed in table 5.1 below.Table 15.5.1 Performance Gaps associated with the Footway AssetItem Problem Possible ResponseMaintenance of High AmenityAreasAreas of high amenity whichhave been highlighted asrequiring higher maintenancestandards, are not budgeted for.Existing funding generally allowsfor the making safe of footways,rather than the replacement oflike for like materials, which maycost significantly more.Specialist Materials Some areas also havematerials, which are more proneto failure. Particular types ofpaving materials are unsuitablefor carrying anything but lightloadings. Where these areas aresubjected to vehicular loadingthey require constant repair andare a major drain on the reactivemaintenance budget. E.g.Northumberland StreetImproving access for thedisabled.Surfacing & constructionIncreasing size of the assetKnowledge / delineation ofextent of highwayThere is insufficient funding tomeet the Council’s commitmentto provide improved accessroutes for the disabled,particularly near PublicBuildings, Hospitals, Hostels,and Retirement Homes.There has been some failure ofthe footway surfacing orconstruction within the life spanexpected, it is believed that thisis due to a number of factorsincluding; poor workmanship,unacceptable materials &insufficient supervision.The continually increasing sizeof the asset through creation,acquisition (adoptions), andupgrading is rarely reflected insimilar increases in themaintenance budget.In many instances the extent ofthe adopted highway is notrecorded or delineated on sitemaking it difficult to judge whereprivate frontagers are impingingon the highway or where theauthority’s responsibility ends.A better understanding of thelifecycle costs of a range ofdifferent materials, may lead todifferent decisions regardingtheir specification.A better understanding of thelifecycle costs of a range ofdifferent materials, may lead todifferent decisions regardingtheir specification.A study has been undertaken tocost the improvements requiredto provide disabled friendlyroutes to customer servicecentres and other publicbuildings. As the existing budgetis incapable of meeting theseneeds outside sources of fundingare being actively sought forthese improvement works.An increase in supervision andmaterial testing would help toalleviate much of this problem.A better understanding of thesize and worth of the existingasset and its true maintenancecosts can be used to betterinform the decision makers whoset the annual budgets.Obtain a more accurate record ofthe highway boundaries in asystem which is accessible to all,and where necessary delineatethe highway boundary on site.126


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanTable 15.5.1 Performance Gaps associated with the Footway AssetItem Problem Possible ResponseInordinate and increasingexpectation of service standardsExpectations of the manystakeholders involved with thehighway have increased to alevel where the fundingavailable is unable to meet therequirements.It would seem that the fundingneeded to meet customerexpectations is unlikely to bemade available, which meansthat realistic levels of serviceneed to be set andcommunicated to all.15.6 Option Appraisal15.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-today work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this alsocovers the reactive or adhoc repair or renewal of minor elements or componentswhich have become unserviceable due to general wear and tear or havedeteriorated for other reasons. Routine maintenance activities for footways aredetailed in table 15.6.1.Table 15.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance Activity Maintenance Interval ResponsibilityCyclic MaintenanceFootway Gully Cleaning Annually Environmental ServicesFootway Sweeping Weekly Environmental ServicesLitter PickingInspected Weekly, litter pick Environmental Servicesordered as required.Tree & Hedge Trimming Inspected twice per yearworks instigated as requiredEnvironmental ServicesReactive (Adhoc)MaintenancePothole Repair As required Street Management TeamMinor Patching As required Street Management TeamIsolated slab relay As required Street Management TeamGully Repair As required Street Management TeamRemoval of Debris As required Environmental ServicesCleaning of drainage As requiredStreet Management Teamchannels, Aco drain etc.Environmental Services127


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is major(programmed) work that does notincrease the asset’s designedcapacity, but restores, rehabilitates,replaces or renews an existingasset to its original capacity.(Maintaining a ‘Steady State’) Table15.6.2 details a number of ‘SteadyState’ activities their relative meritsand their expected programmeintervals.Table 15.6.2 Steady State Maintenance ActivitiesTreatment type Comments AnticipatedfrequencySlab RelayA large number of slabs or a large area of slabsto be taken up and re-laid in a discrete area, of aflagged footway, with replacement of damagedslabs only.Slurry SealApplication of a thin screed surfacing to theexisting bituminous footway.OverlayAddition of new surfacing materials on top ofexisting bituminous construction, where possible.Resurfacing Removal of existing bituminous footwayconstruction and replacement with new.Resurfacing Removal of existing bituminous footwayRedconstruction and replacement with new.ReconstructionBituminous and slabRemoval of existing footway construction,including sub grade, and replacement with newconstruction. Only undertaken where sub-baselayers do not exist at present.25 year7 years30 years25 years15 years40 years15.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity. Examples of Creation, Acquisition & Upgradingactivities are detailed in table 15.6.3 with a programme of possible future worksdetailed in table 15.6.4.128


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanTable 15.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & UpgradingActivityCreationAcquisitionUpgradingFootwaywideningJunction layoutimprovementVehicleCrossingsPedestriancrossingsExplanationAlthough it is unusual to have a new footway or cyclewayasset created it does occur where a new route is required,or where an existing substandard footway needsreplacing.Acquisition of footways and cycleways is normallyassociated with the taking up of maintenanceresponsibilities following new developments, this isnormally managed by the development control team usingSection.38 or 106 legal agreements.A number of upgrading activities, which may take place toimprove the existing stock condition, are detailed below.Construction of additional footway or cycleway spaceadjacent to an existing footway in order to cope with anincreased need.Introduction of roundabouts or traffic lights, withassociated kerb and footway realignment.Changes & additional construction made to an existingfootway to allow the passage of motor vehicles into aproperty.Introduction of pedestrian crossings, with associated kerband footway realignment.Table 15.6.4 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading ProgrammeScheme Name Reason for work AnticipateddateNewcastle Great parkDevelopmentAdoption of private development 2008/915.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. Although disposal of footways is unusual there havebeen a number of instances in recent years and table 15.6.5 details the disposalactivities and the drivers behind their use.Table 15.6.5 Footway Disposal ActivitiesDisposal ActivityChatton Wynd footpath closureReason for DisposalAntisocial behaviour129


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.7 Optimisation15.7.1 Reactive (Adhoc) MaintenanceAn overall budget based on historic precedent is made available to the StreetManagement Team, over the years this budget has been a target for financialcuts and so has decreased below the sum needed to maintain the highwayefficiently and to respond to the rising expectations of the residents.The overall footway budget is split up within a number of different budgetheadings, initially broken down into Principal, Classified & Unclassified roads. Anumber of sub-headings are then used within these groupings, although in somecases the money from one budget heading is used for works within anotherheading where funds are insufficient to carry out the necessary work. Table15.7.1 details actual spend, which relates to the adhoc works on the footwayasset.Table 15.7.1 Footway Reactive Maintenance Spend (£)2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 20004/05 2005/06Principal 1.31M 1.54M 73K 79K 76KClassified inc inc 174K 188K 192KUnclassified927K 1.42M 1.0MThese sums are then allocated against work orders as and when requiredfollowing inspections or reports from members of the public highlighting footwaydefects. The remaining budget available is updated as each new order / invoiceis placed and is checked on a fortnightly basis to limit any overspend.15.7.2 Planned Footway Maintenance schemes:• Scheme Selection: The identification of planned revenue highwaymaintenance schemes is undertaken at neighbourhood level using thecondition information gained from the surveys. This information is thenpassed to the Members in the form of a plan. Assessment of thisinformation along with recommendations from the technical staff is used toprioritise the need for work at various locations. Each potential schemereceives a technical assessment before being included into themaintenance programme.• Scheme Validation: A BVPI for footways has been introduced, however,these indicators cannot be used to prioritise the majority of schemes asonly around 7% of the network is surveyed. The City’s existing highwayinspection condition data has therefore been adopted, together with a riskassessment, which identifies those streets where compensation claimshave been made against the council.• Provisional Programme of Works: Following the selection and validationprocedure listed above a provisional programme of works for the followingyear is developed to include estimated costs for the works. It is proposedto develop a detailed 2-year programme in future.130


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan• Accessibility: During the course of footway resurfacing works, theopportunity will be taken to install dropped kerbs for improved pedestrianaccess at no extra cost. In addition, motor crossings will be installed whereresidents indicate they intend to park their motor vehicles within theconfines of their property. There will be no charge to residents for thisservice if the additional costs of the works are minimal.• Consultation: Members are invited to endorse or amend, if necessary, theproposed schemes applicable to their own ward. Following this process, atimetable for the works is prepared. Residents are notified one month inadvance of the works commencing, where possible, to advise them of thetype of works to be undertaken and determine if they have any specialaccess requirements.Using the UKPMS reports gained from utilising the CVI data accumulated from a43% sample of the City’s footways and footpaths, and using the assumption thatthe areas surveyed are a representative sample of the whole of the footwayasset. NCC have produced a model for their footway maintenance need basedon a 25 year life cycle assuming that all of the bituminous and in situ concretefootways in the City will be either resurfaced or reconstructed once during the 25year period depending on condition. Flagged and block paved footways will berelayed on a 70mm or 100mm lean concrete base with 10% of damagedflags/blocks replaced. The assumption also includes for 50% relaying of existingkerbs and 10% replacement of damaged kerbs.Using this model it has been possible to estimate the funding need required tomaintain the asset in its present condition over the next ten years.15.7.3 BacklogNewcastle have introduced a local performance indicator for all footways basedon CVI surveys and incorporated it in the HAMP to identify investment need andmonitor future performance. At present, 43% of the entire footway network hasbeen surveyed. The data is processed using UKPMS to produce an overallcondition index (CI) figure for either a residential street or a section notexceeding 250m in length. .Backlog is identified by streets or sections consideredto be in need of treatment if the CI exceeds 20 in line with the CI used for DVIsurveys and the BV 187a. Life cycle replacement costs have been calculatedusing a linear deterioration rate.Based on the Newcastle method of assessment the current backlog stands at35.8% of the footway network in need of treatment, which equates to a currentbacklog cost of £54.8 M.15.7.4 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.131


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanThe following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP♦ Statutory (Minimum): Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only♦ Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels♦ Requested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirations♦ Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined from thelife cycle planning process.♦ Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints).Table 15.7.2 Footway & Cycleway Service OptionsAsset Group Statutory Minimum MinimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionFootways &CyclewaysMinimum (Reactive)level of servicemeeting statutory orlegislativerequirements only.Approx. £1.2m forone year onlyRapid andunsustainabledeterioration offootway network,causing an increasein both reactivemaintenance costsand backlog and asteep decline inasset valueThe effect ofreducing fundinglevels to currentRNF and LTPallocationsApprox £2.4 MpaThe minimumbudget would besufficient tomaintain thenetwork in itspresent conditionover the next tenyears, but wouldsteadilydeteriorate afterthat resulting in agreater backlogthan would bethe case forcurrent fundinglevels.Existing(2005/6 Budget)The current LoStypically as setout in the City’sMP or national.COPsApprox. £ 3.7mpaHas beensufficient todecrease the rateof deterioration inthe condition ofthe City’sfootways.However thefunding is notsufficient toimprove theoverall conditionof the footways(Includesadditional budgetof £1.0m fundedby PrudentialBorrowing)RequestedAdditionalFundingA LoS that attemptsto meet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirations£9.0m of additionalfunds pa over a 5year periodfollowed by anadditional £2.5mpa thereafterRequired to meetthe levels ofmaintenancedeemed necessaryto improve thecurrent BVPIratings and improvethe condition of allfootways to anacceptablestandard and clearthe backlog.OptimumLoS based uponengineeringprinciples &technicaljudgementEstimated at£11.7m pa for 5years, thereafter£5.2m paWill enable ademonstrableimprovement incondition of all theCity’s footwaysover a 5 yearperiod, and allowfor the continuedmanagement o thefootways at thenew conditionlevels15.7.5 Levels of serviceLevels of Service identified by Newcastle City Council specific to the Footwaysasset can be found in table 15.11.1 along with their identified performancemeasures.132


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.8 Risk Management– Footways and CyclewaysRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’s ability toachieve its objectives and tosuccessfully execute its strategies’(Audit Commission). A simpler definitionmight be ‘the chance of somethinghappening that will have an impact onobjectives’.A risk identification exercise has beenundertaken and a risk register andmatrix scoring system has beendeveloped and is attached to thisdocument as appendix B. The followingare examples of the significant risksassociated with this asset.15.8.1 The most common risk with footways is that associated with the trip hazardcaused by:♦♦♦Uneven or rocking slabs in a flagged footwayPotholes in a bituminous footwayUneven or rocking kerbsThis could result in serious or minor injury, which could lead to a significant financialimplication for:♦♦Compensation claimsRepairs to footwayConsequential costs could be:♦Poor public image of the CouncilThis risk can be mitigated by regular safety inspections of all footways and cycleways,which lead to necessary repairs being carried out in a timely fashion, and the carryingout of routine maintenance to prevent deterioration of the footway.15.8.2 Secondary risks include a number of partial failures:♦♦Inadequate drainage leading to flooding of the footway – this could lead topedestrians being put at risk by having to walk in the carriagewayBackfall and inadequate drainage leading to flooding of private propertyThis would lead to financial implications for:♦Compensation claims133


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan♦Repairs to footwayConsequential costs could be:♦Poor public image of the CouncilThis risk can be mitigated by regular condition inspections of all footways, which lead tominor drainage repairs being carried out in a timely fashion to prevent or reverse furtherdeterioration, and the carrying out of routine maintenance to prevent initial deteriorationof the footway.15.8.3 An overarching risk is that of:Inadequate maintenance funding leading to a drop in asset condition standards,which could eventually lead to closure of footways or cycleways due to theirbeing unsafe or unfit for purpose.This would lead to financial implications for:♦♦Provision and maintenance of barriers or other method of closureProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilFailure to meet policy objectives15.9 Forward Works ProgrammeA 10-year forward works programme has been put in place for all routine and‘steady state’ maintenance operations these include: patching, slab relay, slurrysealing, overlay, slab replacement & reconstruction etc. There is a high level ofconfidence in this programme although the costs associated with the work arethe best estimate available at this time and may vary considerably over the 10-year period.A detailed 2-year programme is being prepared for footways and cyclewaysfunded by revenue and partly by LTP capitalA forward works programme for creation, acquisition & upgrading is also beingdeveloped although this is based on a forward thinking ‘wish list’ of ideas whichmay not come to fruition and so there is less confidence in this programme.These programmes are ‘live’ documents and it is expected that they will beamended and updated on a continuing basis. The forward works programmesare attached as appendix D.134


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan15.10 Physical WorksAt present works are commissioned through a number of routes although it isenvisaged that this is continuously under review.Current Situationi) Generally works for revenue budgeted and minor capital projects areordered through an internal agreement with the Newcastle City CouncilHighways & Traffic Signals section. In addition a Highway ConstructionServices framework partnership has been entered into with Colas (North)Ltd and Cumbrian Industrials Ltd, for a period of two years with an optionalthird year, for the undertaking of specialist work and any work that cannotbe sufficiently resourced by H&TS.ii)iii)Major capital maintenance works are generally procured throughcompetitive tender following the Council’s financial rules and regulationswith tenderers being chosen from a select list of contractors using aformally identified process. E.g. the CME major maintenance or therepainting of the Tyne Bridge.Occasionally specialist works will be subject to a competitive tendering orquotation process, which may involve contactors from outside of the selectlist. On such occasions quality and financial checks are undertaken on allcompanies invited to quote.15.11 Performance ManagementNational and local performance indicators are used to measure performance.Biennial condition surveys are undertaken to report back in the Annual ProgressReport for the LTP:♦ BV187 Condition of footways. See section 3.0 for details.This covers only category 1, 1a, and 2 footways.Additional local performance indicators are detailed in table 11.1 below.Table 15.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Footway & CyclewayAssetLEVELS OF SERVICEPERFORMANCEMEASUREREVIEWFREQUENCYTARGETSCOREOBJECTIVESInspectionsUndertake BVPI conditioninspections on class 1, 1a & 2footways as per therecommendationsUndertake service inspectionson all prestige footways &cycleways monthlyPercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmeSix Monthly 100% Serviceability,SustainabilitySix Monthly 100% Serviceability,Sustainability135


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle PlanTable 15.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the Footway & CyclewayAssetLEVELS OF SERVICEUndertake routine safetyinspections on all prestige,primary walking route &secondary walking routefootways and cycleways onceevery six monthsUndertake routine safetyinspections on all link footwaysand cycleways once everythree monthsUndertake routine safetyinspections on all local accessfootways and cycleways onceevery six monthsConditionMaintain the condition of allcategory 1, 1a & 2 footwayssuch that the percentagemeeting the BVPI investigatorylevel remains below 21%Maintain the condition of allcategory 3 and 4 footwayssuch that the percentage withan overall CVI condition indexrating below 20 remains below37%MaintenanceEmergency defects shall beattended to with immediateresponse (not longer than 2hours)Category 2 (non-emergency)defects shall be rectified ormade safe within 24 hoursRepairs on Category 3 defectswill be carried out within 10daysRepairs on Category 4 defectswill be carried out within onemonthPERFORMANCEMEASUREPercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage of category1, 1a & 2 footwayswhere maintenanceshould be consideredPercentage of category3, 4 & 5 footwayswhere maintenanceshould be consideredREVIEW TARGETS COREFREQUENCYOBJECTIVESSix Monthly 100% SafetySix Monthly 100% SafetySix Monthly 100% SafetyAnnuallyAnnuallyless than21%less than37%Serviceability,SustainabilityServiceability,SustainabilityPercentage of defectsattended within theallotted timescale Quarterly 100% SafetyPercentage of Cat 2defects attended withinthe allotted timescale Quarterly 100% SafetyPercentage of Cat 3defects attended withinthe allotted timescale Quarterly 95% SafetyPercentage of Cat 4defects attended withinthe allotted timescale Quarterly 95% SafetyRefer to section 15.3.0 for details of inspections undertaken.15.12 Improvement Actions• Complete full inventory survey and maintain• Collect and maintain condition data for all footways and cycleways• Review levels of service and undertake a consultation process todetermine attainable levels of service• Review forward work programme following review of levels of service• Review budget requirements and works programmes136


Footways & Cycleways Life Cycle Plan• Further develop risk assessment system• Review current business processes in light of asset management practiceto see where improvements can be made to the service provided137


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan16.0 Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan16.1 Goals and ObjectivesThe specific goals and objectives that relate to highway green spaces can bebroken down into three main areas, Policies, Practices, and Reporting, whichcomprise:Policies• Create an attractive well maintained highway environment through thepromotion of good maintenance policy, to contribute to urban renewal and tohelp attract new businesses to industrial and commercial areas;• Use engineering measures to improve the safety and environmental characterof roads;Practices• Implement maintenance designs which are appropriate to the style of the areaand which help to promote tourism by the enhancement of the street scene;• Use appropriate materials to complement the appearance of areas of specificamenity value including conservation areas, the City centre, and publicsquares when works are carried out;• Introduce amenity improvements in the City centre including new paving,landscaping, street furniture and public art;Reporting• Report progress of both implementation and performance indicators;The above objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectives asdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.Additional highway green space specific LTP goals, which are met by theprevious objectives, are:• Adopt measures to improve the safety and environmental character ofroads;138


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanIn addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which well maintained green space infrastructure will help support:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development.16.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of highway green spaces infrastructure is held byEnvironmental Services in hard copy format and on GIS plans, it is anticipatedthat this information will be entered onto the Symology database.The records currently held record details of:Trees – Plans of areas of tree planting are held in a hard copy format byEnvironmental Services, information on numbers of individual trees is kept inboth hard copy and on an electronic database, by the arboricultural team, whichcan also be accessed via the Arcview GIS system.Verges – plans of highway verge areas are kept in hard copy by EnvironmentalServices and on the GIS database, this data has not been updated since 1998.Flower & shrub beds – plans of the location and areas of planting are held inhard copy by Environmental Services. The last survey was conducted in 2004and is updated annually.Planters – records of the location and condition of planters are held in anelectronic database. A full survey was undertaken in 2004 and is repeatedannually.Hedges – plans of the location and lengths of hedges are held in hard copy byEnvironmental Services. A full survey has never been undertaken and theinformation is updated on an adhoc basis as and when changes occur.Wooden Fencing – No details available.It is intended that all this information will be transferred into the Symologydatabase.139


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanTable 16.2.1 Contains details of the total inventory.Table 16.2.1 Highway Green Spaces Total Inventory DataThe number of highway trees, is notseparated from the total number oftrees looked after by the authorityand is not broken down into wards,hierarchy, or species.Area of highway grass verge.Area of highway flower beds.Area of highway shrub bedsLength of hedgesNumber of plantersMature Trees 109,537Juvenile / Semi-maturetrees181,263Whips 265,315999,248 sqm1,463 sqm66, 198 sqm61,554 m2,850 No16.3 ConditionTrees - Condition data is recorded following the six monthly visual inspections,approx 40 % of all of the authorities trees are recoded using the husky hand helddevice, with between 80-90% of the trees having had a visual inspection. Inaddition to the visual inspections some trees are tested using the arbosonicdecay detector and the increment borer. The electronic and hard copy data isheld at the Jesmond Dene office.Verges – Condition information for verges is only known where persistentproblems occur, such as vehicle overriding causing rutting etc. The information,which is held in hard copy by Environmental Services, takes the form ofinspection reports or customer complaints.Flower beds & Shrub beds – Although substantial records are not kept of flower& shrub beds they are inspected monthly and any works identified as beingnecessary are undertaken as soon as practicable thereafter.Hedges – the only condition information recorded for hedges is where trimming isrequired, with works being actioned as soon as practicable.Planters – Planters are inspected weekly against a checklist of possible worksrequired at each location, with works being actioned as soon as practicablefollowing the inspection.140


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan16.4 DemandsThe demands placed on highway green spaces within the highway are mainly todo with creating a pleasant environment for the people of Newcastle.In addition to being a visual amenity trees & hedges can sometimes be used asnoise barriers between roads and properties, they can also be used for groundstabilisation and drainage as well as benefiting bio-diversity, creating a wildlifecorridor and are known to produce health benefits.The demands on flower & shrub beds are normally only with regard toappearance as a visual amenity, although they can be used as a way ofdelineating or separating areas of use, and can sometimes be of benefit withregard to drainage.As well as being a visual amenity planterscan also be used as a means of reducingaccess to areas of the highway as analternative to bollards or other street furniture.Highway verges can be a visual amenity, aswell as forming delineation between areas ofuse, they are often used as a way of draininghard surfaces although sometimes demandcan conflict with their nature where they areused for the parking of vehicles, verges arealso widely used to house statutoryundertakers information.Wide highway verge areas, which are not cutshort, are often used as wildlife corridors andcan be a good source of bio-diversity.16.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction or the gaps between desired/target condition and theactual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. For examplewhere a road fails within its design life, due to the passage of heavy vehicles,and requires substantial reconstruction, or where a number of roads requiremaintenance work but adequate funding is not available. A number ofperformance gaps identified within Newcastle are detailed in table 16.5.1 below.141


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanTable 16.5.1 Performance GapsGapRemedial MeasuresLack of inventory information for all highwaygreen space assetsCollect inventoryinformation and store indatabase.Lack of financial information relating toHighway Asset (Budget split not identified)Assess budgets used andor required to maintain thehighway asset.Lack of funding for maintaining newly Introduce commuted sumsintroduced trees as part of development orhighway works.for initial maintenance ofthe new asset.Areas of damaged verge, which have not been Increased inspection &rectified within a reasonable time frame. reduced response timesArea of verge not cut as per the schedule Monitor verge cut and reactto failuresHigh numbers of dead, dying or potentially Increase frequency ofhazardous treesinspections, increasebudget for removal andreplacement of treesLength of overgrown hedges not trimmed Increase frequency ofwhen requiredinspections, developprocedures for ensuringtimely trimming of hedgesTree maintenance budget insufficient Increase budget level,following survey of streettreesPlanters introduced without reference to or coordinationwith highways team.Develop procedures thatensure the introduction ofnew planters are reportedto the relevant personnel.16.6 Option Appraisal16.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-to-day work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this alsocovers the reactive or adhoc repair or renewal of small elements or componentswhich have become unserviceable due to general wear and tear or havedeteriorated for other reasons. Routine maintenance activities for highway greenspaces are detailed in table 16.6.1.142


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanTable 16.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenanceActivityMaintenanceIntervalCyclic MaintenanceGrass Cutting At start of growingseason, and 12 to 14times more throughout theseasonFlower & shrub bedsHedgesPlantersWeeds will be treated andremoved on a regularbasisHedge trimming will takeplace annually or twiceannually depending onspeciesWeeds will be treated andremoved on a regularbasisResponsibilityCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesReactiveMaintenanceTreesFlower & shrub beds(Adhoc)When reported potentiallyhazardous trees will beinspected within 3 hours,general tree enquiries willreceive a response within28 working days.If excessive weed growthis reported, it will receiveattention within 14 workingdaysGrass cutting The City Council hasundertaken to ensure thatthe grass on all Highwayverges that require cuttingwill be kept below 100mmheight and when reportedas being over will bereturned within 7 workingdaysHedges Overgrown hedges, orthose with holes in, thatare the responsibility ofEnvironmental Serviceswill receive attentionwithin 28 working days.Planters Defects within plantersthat are notified byresidents or located duringthe weekly inspections willbe rectified as soon aspracticable.City Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesArboricultural teamCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesCity Wide Services sectionEnvironmental ServicesReactive maintenance is generally carried out following routine inspections, orreceipt of reports from Envirocall, Ward Stewards etc.143


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan16.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is major planned (programmed) work that does notincrease the asset’s designed capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces orrenews an existing asset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’)Table 16.6.2 details a number of ‘Steady State’ activities their relative merits andtheir expected programme intervals.Table 16.6.2 Planned Maintenance ActivitiesTreatment type Comments AnticipatedfrequencyTree replacementVerge reinstatementPlanting trees to replace dead trees orthose that have been removed foranother reason, such as developmentworks.Planned reinstatement of a number ofdamaged verges within one worksprogramme.Programmes fortree replacementare instigated asand when required.Programmed whensufficient workshave beenidentifiedPlanned maintenance is generally carried out following routine inspections, orreceipt of reports from Envirocall, Ward Stewards etc, followed by a moredetailed inspection process and an assessment of the nature of the work to beundertaken and how it can best be programmed.16.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity. Examples of Creation, Acquisition & Upgradingactivities are detailed in table 16.6.3.Table 16.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & UpgradingActivityCreationAcquisitionUpgradingExplanationIntroduction of grass verges to replace hard surfacing, plantingof new trees and hedges, installation of new flower & shrubbeds or planting areas.Adoption of new developments that may contain grass verges,trees, hedges or flower & shrub beds.Increasing the size of a verge area or the introduction of grassgrid in verges. Replacement of fences with hedges, andreplacement of hard areas with flower & shrub beds.At this time there are no known or programmed works for creation, acquisition orupgrading.16.6.4 Disposal144


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. Although disposal of green space assets are unusualthere have been a number of instances in recent years and table 16.6.4 detailsthe disposal activities and the drivers behind their use.Table 16.6.4 Highway Green Spaces Disposal ActivitiesDisposal ActivityCutting Down of TreesRemoval of flower & shrub bedsRemoval of plantersReason for DisposalDead, dying or potentially hazardoustrees, or new development work.Repeatedly damaged or vandalised,prone to flooding or where budgets areinsufficient for adequate maintenance.Repeatedly damaged or vandalised,changes to highway infrastructure, whereplanters prevent access or wherebudgets are insufficient for adequatemaintenance.16.7 OptimisationThe Environmental Services budget for maintenance of highway green spaces iscontained within the overall budget and is not analysed for works within thehighway.Additional money is available from a number of differing sources, including theEuropean regional development fund for landscape improvements, the housingmarket renewal budget, the neighbourhood renewal fund, and throughsponsorship from local businesses for the maintenance of particular featuressuch as roundabouts and planters.Verges, flower & shrub beds and planters can also be subject to the ‘adopt-aplot’scheme where they are maintained on the council’s behalf by localresidents.16.7.1 BacklogAt present it is impossible to calculate a backlog figure due to the lack of financialinformation relating to the highway assets.However it is estimated that approximately 600 street trees have been removedwithin the last five years without any replacement having been carried out, it isfurther estimated that in order to rectify this deficiency as per the councilguidelines would require a budget of approximately £ 1.0M. This figure beingbased on the cost of replacing a tree within a hard area being approximately£3,000 and the cost of replacing a tree within a verge area being between £300& £1,500.16.7.2 Service Options145


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.The following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP♦ Statutory (Minimum): Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only♦ Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels♦ Requested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirations♦ Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined from thelife cycle planning process.♦ Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints).Table 16.7.1 below details the service options identified for this asset.Table 16.7.1 Highway Green Spaces – Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutory MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested AdditionalFundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive)level of service meetingstatutory or legislativerequirements only.The current LoStypically as set out inthe City’s HAMP ornational. COPsA LoS that attempts tomeet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles& technical judgementHighwayGreen SpacesStreet TreesFigures Not Available atthis time.Approx. £ 65 kNominal budget reflectsremoval of dead, dyingand potentiallyhazardous trees only.Currently running atapproximately 120 peryear.Figures Not Availableat this time.Approx. £ 65 kActual funding is asper the statutorysafety obligations.Nominal budgetreflects removal ofdead, dying andpotentially hazardoustrees only.Figures Not Availableat this time.Estimated at anadditional £0.935m pafor 5 years plus anadditional £25k pa.A survey of all streettrees within thehighway is about to beundertaken and theinformation will be usedto determine the actualbudgets required fortheir on goingmanagement.Figures Not Availableat this time.Estimated at £1.0m pafor 5 years, thereafter£0.9M pa for lifecyclereplacement in order toreplace all street treesthat are removed eachyear as per theCouncil’s policy.16.7.3 Levels of serviceThe LoS identified by Newcastle City Council for the management of highwaygreen spaces include:Maintenance146


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanVerges - Grass shall be maintained such that the height of grass shall remainbelow 100mm.Verges - Grass will be returned below 100mm height within 7 days of beingreported.Flower/shrub beds - If excessive weed growth is reported, the bed will receiveattention within 14 daysFlower/shrub beds - General shrub pruning enquiries will receive a responsewithin 28 working daysTrees - Where trees are reported as potentially hazardous the aim is to inspectwithin three hoursTrees - General tree enquiries will receive a response within 28 working daysHedges - Overgrown hedges, or those with holes in, that are the responsibility ofEnvironmental Services will receive attention within 28 working days.Hedges - Hedge trimming will take place annually or twice annually depending onspeciesInspectionsTrees - service inspections for highway trees will be undertaken every 5 yearsSafety inspections for highway trees shall be undertaken monthly or six monthlyas part of the carriageway or footway safety inspection.147


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan16.8 Risk Management – Highway Green SpacesRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk identification exercise has been undertaken and a risk register and matrixscoring system has been developed and is attached to this document asappendix B. The following are examples of the significant risks associated withthis asset.16.8.1 A major risk with highway green spaces is the inability to inspectand manage highway trees:This could be caused by♦♦Insufficient funding and /orInadequate resourcesWhich could result in:♦♦♦A potential hazard to the public and operativesDamage to the highway infrastructureDisruption to the travelling publicthis could in turn lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦Compensation claimsRepairs to the highwayConsequential costs could be:♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilHardship for the disadvantagedThis risk can be mitigated by regular inspections of all trees, and a targeted treemanagement regime.16.8.2 Another associated risk with highway green spaces is the inability toinspect and manage highway verges:This could be caused by♦♦Insufficient funding and /orInadequate resourcesWhich could result in:148


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan♦Potential hazard to the public and operativesthis could in turn lead to a significant financial implication for:♦Compensation claimsConsequential costs could be:♦Poor public image of the CouncilThis risk can be mitigated by regular inspections of all verges, and a targetedverge management regime including regular grass cutting.16.8.3 Another risk associated with highway green spaces is the possibilityof slips on slopes adjacent to the highway:This could be caused by♦♦♦Age of earthworksInadequate drainageSeverity of slopeWhich could result in:♦♦♦Potential hazard to the public & operativesDamage to the highway infrastructureDisruption to the travelling publicThis could in turn lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦Compensation claimsRepairs to the highwayConsequential costs could be:♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilHardship for the disadvantagedThis risk can be mitigated by regular inspections of all slopes, and theintroduction of a slope management regime.16.9 Forward Works ProgrammeIt is intended to develop a 10-year forward works programme for all routine and‘planned’ maintenance operations these will include:♦♦♦♦Regular inspections of the highway green spaces infrastructureGrass CuttingWeeding of flower beds and plantersHedge trimming149


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle Plan♦♦♦Verge reinstatementTree pruning / removalTree replacementIt is expected that once this exercise has been carried out there will be areasonable level of confidence in this programme although the costs associatedwith the work will be the best estimate available at the time and may varyconsiderably over the 10-year period.A forward works programme for creation, acquisition & upgrading is also beingdeveloped although this is based on a forward thinking ‘wish list’ of ideas whichmay not come to fruition and so there will be less confidence in this programme.Both programmes are ‘live’ documents and it is expected that they will beamended and updated on a continuing basis. The forward works programmeswill be added to appendix D on their completion.16.10 Physical WorksAt present works are commissioned through a number of routes although it isenvisaged that this may change within the near future.Current Situation• Generally works for revenue budgeted and minor capital projects areordered through an internal service level agreement with theEnvironmental Services section of Newcastle City Council.• Major capital maintenance works are generally procured throughcompetitive tender following the Council’s financial rules and regulationswith tenderers being chosen from a select list of contractors using aformally identified process. E.g. the CME major maintenance or therepainting of the Tyne Bridge.• Occasionally specialist works will be subject to a competitive tendering orquotation process, which may involve contactors from outside of the selectlist. On such occasions quality and financial checks are undertaken on allcompanies invited to quote.Future SituationNewcastle City Council Environmental Services have decided to put a number ofservices to competitive tender commencing in year 2007/2008 including groundsmaintenance, this will in turn include the maintenance of highway verges, trees,planters, shrubs, flowers, hedges & wooden fences.16.11 Performance ManagementAdditional local performance indicators are detailed in table 16.11.1 below.150


Highway Green Spaces Life Cycle PlanTable 16.11.1 Local Performance Indicators relating to the HighwayGreen Spaces AssetAsset Item Service Level ReviewfrequencyVergesGrass will be returned below100mm height within 7 days ofbeing reported.TargetSix monthly 95%Flower/shrubbedsFlower/shrubbedsTreesIf excessive weed growth isreported, the bed will receiveattention within 14 daysGeneral shrub pruning enquirieswill receive a response within 28working daysWhere trees are reported aspotentially hazardous the aim isto inspect within three hoursSix monthly 95%Six monthly 95%Six monthly 75%Trees General tree enquiries willreceive a response within 28working daysSix monthly 80%HedgesOvergrown hedges, or those withholes in, that are theresponsibility of EnvironmentalServices will receive attentionwithin 28 working days.Six monthly 80%16.12 Improvement Actions• Improve the current inventory information available• Identify the costs involved in undertaking works within the Highway.• Identify the budget required to meet the statutory minimum requirements,the existing budget, and the budget required for the optimum level ofservice.• Formulate a 10 year forward works programme for the maintenance ofHighway Green Spaces.• Identify the quantity and extent of performance gaps and any backlog.151


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan17.0 Bridges and Other Highway Structures Life Cycle Plan17.1 Goals and ObjectivesThere are a large number of goals and objectives set down for highwaystructures in a number of policy documents, the specific goals and objectives thatrelate to highway structures within the Highway Maintenance Strategy are thosewhich have the most relevance to this lifecycle plan, these can be broken downinto three main areas, Policies, Practices, and Reporting, they comprise:Policies• Prioritise strengthening & structural maintenance within the resourcesavailable to achieve the objective of the bridge rehabilitation programme;• Integrate bridge works with other planned works wherever possible and carryout works in an environmentally sensitive way;• Cost effectively maintain structures in a safe and serviceable condition;Practises• Complete a 15 year bridge rehabilitation programme in line with DfTrecommendations;• On routes which are significant for public transport, structures will bestrengthened to carry the appropriate bus loading;• Bridges will be strengthened to an appropriate level if restrictions wouldotherwise lead to existing or potential commercial areas becominginaccessible, or where diversions would impose excessive operating costs oradversely affect the local environment.Reporting• Annually improve the overall condition of the bridge stock;• Complete all structural assessments within the plan period;• Undertake safety inspections on highway structures at accepted intervals todetermine maintenance needs;The above objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectivesdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.152


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanIn addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which well maintained Bridges and other highways structures will helpsupport:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development;17.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of highway structures is held on the BridgeMandatabase. This is an Access database, which holds details of:• structure name• structure no• structure type• structure owner• structure location• maintenance responsibility• construction details• inspection detailsIn addition historical paper based records of structure drawings, inspection andassessment reports are also held, within the structures team.There is a high level of confidence in the records held although gaps are knownto exist in the records of:• retaining walls - retaining walls are found on a regular basis which are notcurrently on the database, often ownership of such structures is not clear• culverts - it is known that there are a number of culverts which do notfeature on the database mainly in Denes and parks, as these are buriedstructures they are difficult to identify.• riverside structures – records of river walls, revetments and jetties, andassociated pedestrian guardrail are not at present held within the inventorydata, a survey of these structures along the Tyne has been undertaken andthe results are currently being incorporated into the structure records.As and when missing structures are identified they are added to the database.Table 17.2.1 Details the inventory of the major structure assets by Type andWard, whilst table 17.2.2 & 17.2.3 details the inventory by Type and RouteHierarchy.153


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.2.1 Major Structures Assets by Type and WardWard Total Accommodation Culvert Footbridge Retaining Road SubwayStructures BridgeWall bridgeBenwell & 11 1 3 1 6ScotswoodBlakelaw 2 1 1Byker 16 1 3 8 3 1Castle 11 7 4Dene 1 1Denton 9 1 2 6East 5 2 1 2GosforthElswick 2 2Fawdon 1 1Fenham 2 2Lemington 8 2 2 1 3Newburn 11 4 1 3 3North 30 2 16 6 6HeatonNorth 3 1 1 1JesmondOuseburn 38 2 24 10 2Parklands 13 6 4 3South 5 1 3 1HeatonSouth 62 1 10 33 12 6JesmondWest 3 1 1 1GosforthWesterhope 3 2 1Westgate 32 6 13 9 4Wingrove 12 1 4 4 3Woolsington 8 6 2Total ofeach type288 2 31 43 113 60 39In addition to the above there are also a number of other structures, which aremaintained by Newcastle City Council they comprise of: Disused Rail Bridge 6 Disused Rail Tunnel 2 High Mast Lighting Column 42 Overbridge – Building 1 Pedestrian Way 4 Rail Tunnel 1 River Wall 1 Sign Gantry 9 Stairs 5 Tunnel 1 Tunnel – service 1Total of other Structures 73154


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.2.2 Major Structure Assets by Type and Route HierarchyRoadClassificationTotalStructuresAccomm -odationBridgeCulvert Footbridge RetainingWallRoadBridgePrincipal 57 3 36 13 5(motorway)Principal 102 4 7 42 26 23Non-Principal 3 1 2ClassifiedClassified 37 9 5 14 7 2Unclassified 89 2 17 28 21 12 9Total of EachType288 2 31 43 113 60 39Table 17.2.3 Other Structure Assets by Type and Route HierarchyRoadClassificationSignGantryStairsHighMastLightingColumnPedes -trianWayOverbridgeBuildingTunnel Tunnel -ServicePrincipal 8 1 9(motorway)Principal 1 42 43Non-Principal0ClassifiedClassified 0Unclassified 5 4 1 1 11Total of EachType9 5 42 4 1 1 1 63SubwayTotalStructuresTable 17.2.4 details the length of River Tyne frontage structures none of whichhaving been included in the above.Table 17.2.4 River Tyne Frontage Structures by TypePrincipal Structure Type Total Length (m) Length owned / partowned by NCC (m)Revetment 8850 5310Quay Wall 7450 5680Suspended Quay 1500 1500Relieving Platform 590 590Slipway 190 190Other 80 20Total Length of Riverside 18660 13290Structures155


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan17.3 ConditionThe condition of the asset isassessed by inspection andstructural assessment. Structuralassessments are a numericalassessment of a structures loadcarrying capacity and have beencarried out on all load bearinghighway structures subject to 40tonne vehicle loading. Theseassessments have been carriedout as part of the national bridgeassessment programme.Bridge inspections are carried out in accordance with the standards andrecommendations of the Department for Transport. Principal Inspections are aclose detailed inspection of a structure where as a General inspection is more ofa limited inspection.Table 17.3.1 Bridge Inspection DetailsInspection Type Frequency Asset Type CoveredGeneral InspectionsEvery 2 years except Culverts,which are inspected yearly.All highway structures(unless subject to a PrincipalInspection)Principal Inspections Every 6 years All highway structuresSpecial InspectionsPost Tension Inspections1, 3, 6, 12 monthly or asrequested.Once only (subject to nationalguidance)On weak or potentiallyhazardous structuresPost Tensioned StructuresUnderwater Inspections Every 6 years On vulnerable structurescarried out as part of aprincipal inspectionThe condition of a bridge is identified following a General Inspection and is ratedusing the County Surveyors Society (CSS) Bridge Condition Index. The conditionindicators for an individual bridge (BCI) or a stock of bridges (BSCI) areevaluated using the data collected during the bridge inspections, which typicallyreport the condition of different elements (e.g. main beams, abutments, drainageetc.) according to a predefined scale set out in the CSS inspection.The BCI values can be interpreted broadly as the “percentage service potential”of a bridge. Thus a BCI value of 100 implies that the bridge has retained 100% ofits service potential; a value of 60 implies that the bridge has lost 40% of itsservice potential and a value of 0 implies that the bridge is no longer serviceable.156


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanThe BCI av is the average BCI for a bridge evaluated taking into account thecondition of all structural elements in a bridge. The BCI crit is the critical BCI for abridge evaluated taking into account the condition of those elements deemed tobe of a very high importance to the bridge.The BSCI av and BSCI crit is a measure of the above condition index values for allbridges in the stock.Table 17.3.2 gives an interpretation of the BSCI av and BSCI crit values in terms ofthe general condition of the bridge stock. In deciding on the level of funding to beallocated to different bridge stocks, it should be recognised that the fundingrequired for a stock, which is in poor condition, e.g. BSCI 50, can be very highcompared to another stock which is in a fair condition with a BSCI 75, to obtainthe same increase in BSCI value.Table 17.3.2 Interpretation of Average and Critical Stock valuesScore100 – 95Very Good94 – 90Good89 – 80Fair79-65Poor64 – 40Very Poor39 – 0SeverAverage Stock Conditionbased on BSCI avStructure stock is in a very goodcondition. Very few structuresmay be in a moderate to severecondition.Structure stock is in a goodcondition. A few structures maybe in a severe condition.Structure stock is in a faircondition. Some structures maybe in a severe condition.Structure stock is in a poorcondition. A significant number ofstructures may be in a severecondition.Structure stock is in a very poorcondition. Many Structures maybe in a severe condition.Structure stock is in a severecondition. Many structures maybe unserviceable or close to it.Critical Stock Condition basedon BSCI critVery few critical load bearing elementsmay be in a moderate to severecondition. Represents very low risk topublic safety.A few critical load bearing elementsmay be in a severe condition.Represents a low risk to public safety.Some critical load bearing elements,may be in a severe condition. Somestructures may represent a moderaterisk to public safety unless mitigationmeasures are put in place.A significant number of critical loadbearing elements, may be in a severecondition. Some structures mayrepresent a significant risk to publicsafety unless mitigation measures areput in place.Many critical load bearing elementsmay be unserviceable and close to itand are in a potentially hazardouscondition. Some structures mayrepresent a significant risk to publicsafety unless mitigation measures areput in place.Majority of critical load bearingelements may be unserviceable orclose to it and are in a potentiallyhazardous condition. Some structuresmay represent a very high risk to publicsafety unless mitigation measures areput in place.The Structure Condition shall be measured for the following structure types,157


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan• Bridges – structures with a span of 1.5 metres or above. This category includessubways, culverts, footbridges, tunnels and underpasses.• Retaining Walls – all retaining walls associated with the highway, 1.5 metres orabove, are included provided their dominant function is to act as a retainingstructure• Sign/Signal Gantries – a structure spanning or adjacent to the highway, theprimary function of which is to support traffic signs and signalling equipment.• Other Structure Types - structure types associated with the highway that arenot covered by the aforementioned categories.17.3.1 Current ConditionTable 17.3.3 shows the current condition ratings BSCI av & BsCI crit for NewcastleCity Council measured against the road hierarchy e.g. Principal, Primary,Classified and unclassified.Table 17.3.3 Current Bridge Stock Condition RatingsStructure TypePrincipal BSCI av (90) BSCI critBridges 82 79Retaining Walls N/A** N/A**Sign/Signal96 85GantriesOther Structure N/A***N/A***TypesPrimary BSCI av (90) BSCI critBridges 81 72Retaining Walls N/A** N/A**Sign/Signal96 85GantriesOther Structure N/A***N/A***TypesClassified BSCI av (80) BSCI critBridges 77 67Retaining Walls N/A** N/A**Other Structure N/AN/ATypesUnclassified BSCI av (70) BSCI critBridges 68 68Retaining Walls N/A** N/A**Other Structure N/A***N/A***Types*Desired minimum given in brackets.**Figures for retaining walls are not yet available158


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan***Figures for other structures require production of in-house procedures toenable collection this is included as an improvement actionNewcastle City Council have taken the decision that all structures will bemaintained such that the BCI av rating for any structure should not be allowed tofall below 70, that any structure on a classified road should have a BCI av of noless than 80 and that those on a Principal/Primary route network should have aBCI av of at least 90.Where the BCI av falls below the required minimum it shall be assessed andprogrammed for works within 12 months or sooner if there is a risk to safety.17.4 DemandsThe demands for each structure type are identified in the Table 17.4.1. Highwaystructures are generally designed to provide a safe means of access for thetravelling public, eithercommercial or private.Newcastle City Council haveplaced particular emphasison routes which aresignificant for publictransport or where bridgeslead to existing or potentialcommercial areas where allstructures should becapable of carrying theappropriate bus or HGVloading.Additionally highwaystructures are provided tosupport the highway or the land surrounding the highway, to protect the highwayuser or to carry services including rivers and rainwater safely i.e. culverts.159


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.4.1 Demands - Highway StructureStructure Type Demand CommentsAccommodation BridgeCulvertFootbridgeHigh Mast LightingColumnOverbridge - BuildingLimited Vehicle and PedestrianaccessPassage of waterPedestrian with some cyclistprovisionTo support the lighting headsand electrical equipmentrequired to provide a standardof lighting as specified by theappropriate personnelNot ApplicableOccasional bridle way / DDAAccess requiredDDA Access requiredThis asset is now includedwithin the street lighting PFIPedestrian Way Pedestrian and cyclist DDA Access requiredoccasional light vehicleRetaining WallSupport above or below a DDA Access requiredhighway with vehicle orpedestrian usage.Road Bridge To carry the appropriate Some DDA Access requiredloading for the passage ofVehicles, Pedestrians, Cyclistsetc.Sign GantryTo support the signs and Provision of information onlyelectrical equipment required,as specified by the appropriatepersonnelStairs Pedestrian access Some DDA Access requiredor clear alternativeSubway Pedestrian / Cycle access DDA Access requiredTunnelTunnel - ServiceVehicle accessConduit for servicesGenerally the database will hold traffic data for road bridges and pedestrian/cyclist datafor footbridges and subways. All structures should as a minimum be maintained in asafe condition and be capable of carrying the required level of loading. The requiredlevel of loading will be identified for each structure in the database.160


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan17.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of a structure to meet thedemands of its construction. Failures are measured against individual demands.For example load carrying capacity of a road bridge should be 40 tonnes. Thiscapacity is measured through assessment. Where this capacity cannot beachieved and a weight restriction has to be imposed traffic surveys and localconsultation to identify specific needs in and around the structure will be carriedout. In addition a nominal height limit of 5.1m (16’ 6”) for road/rail bridges and5.4m (17’ 7”) for footbridges has been set as the maximum height for mostvehicles and any structures that provide less clearance than this are deemed tohave restricted headroom and must be signed accordingly.At present Newcastle has 19 bridges with varying weight restrictions which aresigned accordingly. The decision has been taken that these are not critical routesand the cost involved in bringing them up to the 40 tonne requirement cannot bejustified, although this decision is under continual review with regard to thedemand usage.There are also 40 structures with restricted headroom, which are signedaccordingly and again the decision has been made that as there are alternativeroutes available for high vehicles the cost involved in rectifying these cannot bejustified, again this decision is under continual review.17.6 Option Appraisal17.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-today work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal of structural elements or components which havebecome unserviceable due to general wear and tear or have deteriorated forother reasons. Routine maintenance activities are detailed in table 17.6.1.161


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesStructure/substructurecomponent typePiers, abutments, wing-walls,retaining walls, reinforcedearth walls and crib wallsColumnsSteel beams, girders,trusses, concrete beams,and fasciasDeck carriageway, verge andparapet cantileverExpansion jointsMetal parapetsMasonry and concreteparapetsMaintenance ActivityRemove graffiti*Remove vegetation from structureClear debris from bearing shelvesClean drainage channelsRod outlet pipesClear drainage outlet manhole chambersRod weep pipes and remove silt & debrisCheck operation of flap valves andgrease where requiredRepair gap sealant to movement jointsCheck pedestrian protection measuresRemove graffiti*Remove debris and bird droppingsRemove graffitiRemove debris and bird droppings fromflangesClear drainage holes for box sectionsRemove grass and weeds from vergesand channelsRepair gap sealant to movement jointsClean out debris and vegetation (waterjetting where appropriate)Clear drainage systemsCheck and tighten where necessary anyloose nuts and bolts. Replace wherenecessary.Replace gaskets where there is a specificrequirement in the structure maintenancemanualCheck and tighten where necessary anyloose nuts and bolts. Replace wherenecessary.Clear hollow section drain holesRemove graffiti*Remove any vegetationMaintenanceInterval12 Months12 Months12 Months12 Months12 Months12 Months12 MonthsBearingssliding & roller)SubwaysCulverts(elastomeric,Remove general dirt & debrisWhere appropriate, clean sliding androller surfaces if accessible and regreaseRemove graffiti*Clear drainage channelsClean drainage outlets, rodding whererequiredCheck seating of drainage gratings andcovers, replace any missing or defectiveitemsRepair gap sealant to movement jointsCheck and clean security mirrorsRemove any vegetation and debris fromwithin the structure12 Months10 years12 Months6 Months162


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesStructure/substructurecomponent typeMaintenance ActivityRemove any silt build-up which isrestricting flow through the culvertRepair gap sealant to movement jointsSign gantries and high masts Tighten holding down bolts wherenecessaryMaintenanceInterval12 Months*Newcastle City Council have undertaken to remove any graffiti that is of anoffensive or racist nature within 24 hours of it being reported.17.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is major (programmed) work that does not increasethe asset’s designed capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces or renews anexisting asset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’) Table 17.6.2details a number of ‘Steady State’ activities their relative merits and theirexpected programme intervals.Table 17.6.2 Steady State Maintenance ActivitiesTreatment type Comments AnticipatedfrequencyRepainting Repainting steelwork to prevent corrosion 10 – 15 yearsWaterproofing Repair or replacement of waterproofing to bridgedecks. Work required to keep out water and5 - 12 yearschloride, which can cause corrosion ofreinforcement.Expansion jointsImpregnationResurfacingNon-slip surfacingOther workRepair or replacement of expansion joints inbridge decks. Work required to prevent damageto road surfacing. Sealing of joints required tokeep out water and chloride, which can causecorrosion of reinforcement.Concrete impregnation with silane to preventchloride entry.Repair or replacement of surfacing material toprotect the integrity of the waterproofingmembrane and to ensure a safe and comfortablesurface for vehicles or pedestrians.Repair or replacement of non-slip surfacing toensure a safe surface for vehicles or pedestrians.Other maintenance not shown above e.g. repairor replacement of brickwork, steelwork orbearings.6 – 8 years5 – 10 years5 - 12 years3 – 5 years10 –15 years17.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity. Examples of Creation, Acquisition & Upgradingactivities are detailed in table 17.6.3.163


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.6.3 Creation, Acquisition & Upgrading activitiesActivityCreationAcquisitionUpgradingWaterproofingPost-tensionedbridgesExplanationAlthough it is very unusual to have a new structural asset created itdoes occur where a new route is required or where an existingsubstandard structure needs replacing.Acquisition of structures is normally associated with the taking up ofmaintenance responsibilities following new developments, this isnormally managed by the development control team using Section.38or 106 legal agreements.A number of upgrading activities, which may take place to improve theexisting stock condition, are detailed below.Waterproofing of unprotected decks. Structures built prior to theintroduction of the present standards may need the addition ofwaterproofing to protect against corrosion.Rehabilitation of post tensioned bridges. Following checks forcorrosion of tendons in incompletely grouted ducts particularly insegmental decks.Parapet replacement Replacement of substandard parapets installed before theintroduction of the present standards or at sites where the risk ratingcalls for a higher standard of parapet. Associated strengthening of theedges of the bridge deck may be required.StrengtheningcolumnsDeflected tendonsMechanicalElectricalH & S aspectsof&Possible collision may require strengthening of piers and columns toresist higher impact forces, due to the increase in numbers andweights of HGVs.Repairs to deflected tendons in pretensioned beams includingreplacement of mortars with calcium chloride additives.Check and maintenance of mechanical and electrical installations arecarried out in accordance with current legislation.Health and safety aspects of access to bridges. Size and location ofaccess manholes, which do not comply with present dayrequirements.At this time there are no plans in place for the undertaking of any creation,acquisition or upgrading activities in relation to the Newcastle City structuresinfrastructure.17.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. Although disposal of structures is unusual there havebeen a number of instances in recent years and table 17.6.4 details the disposalactivities and the drivers behind their use.Table 17.6.4 Disposal ActivitiesStructure Type Disposal Activity Reasons for DisposalSubwaysFootbridgeStopping up of access or infill,with possible alternativeroute provided.Stopping up or demolition,removal and/or saleNon-use due to change ofroute, or due to perceivedlack of safety i.e. dark and/orintimidating.Realignment of pedestrianroute due to new highway164


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.6.4 Disposal ActivitiesStructure Type Disposal Activity Reasons for Disposalschemes.Culverts In-fill of culvert Realignment of watercourseor introduction of newdrainage system making theculvert redundant.At this time there are no plans in place for the undertaking of any disposalactivities in relation to the Newcastle City structures infrastructure.17.7 OptimisationThe funding for the maintenance of structures is obtained from a number ofsources:1. An annual revenue budget, presently in the region of £ 265,000 is allocated tothe Structures Team each April and the decisions on how to spend thatmoney are made within the Structures team. Of the £265,000 budgetapproximately £ 20,000 is allocated for routine maintenance, £ 30,000 isallocated for emergency works, and £ 35,000 is allocated for routine andminor maintenance work on the cross Tyne bridges. The cost of works on thecross Tyne bridges being shared with Gateshead Metropolitan BoroughCouncil.The remainder of the allocation is used for minor maintenance schemesvalued below £ 50,000 each, which are identified following the inspectionregime detailed in 17.3 above, taking into account any necessary works thathave not gained funding from previous years.2. Capital funding through the Local Transport Plan (LTP) bidding process, anyscheme valued at greater than £ 50,000 (£ 35,000 for the cross Tyne bridges)is put forward to bid for capital funds allocated through the LTP. A 5-yearprogramme of schemes is submitted with a review and update taking placeannually. The LTP committee, following notification of their allocation from theDfT, takes decisions on the allocation of funding for these schemes.In addition some minor schemes, which have not gained funding from therevenue budget, are on occasion put forward to bid for capital funding from anumber of sources such as the Integrated Transport budget. All bidssubmitted and allocations received are reported annually to the CouncilExecutive.3. The Structures team are always looking to explore other avenues of fundingand bids for minor amounts, £ 5,000 or £ 10,000, are often made to internal orexternal initiatives such as the SRB, Ward Stewardship budgets, etc.Table 17.7.0 below details the Structures maintenance spends over the last 5years.165


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.7.0 Bridges & Other Highway Structures Maintenance spend 2001 – 20062001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06RevenueAdhoc £216,083 £222,593 £224,973 £229,544 £234,948Revenue -Planned £216,083 £222,593 £224,973 £229,544 £234,948Capital - LTP £2,984,000 £6,000,000 £2,200,000 £503,500 £685,000Total spend £3,416,166 £6,445,186 £2,649,946 £962,588 £1,154,89617.7.1 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.The following are the service option categories selected by NCC for inclusion inthe HAMP♦ Statutory Minimum: Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only♦ Minimum: The effect of reducing funding levels to current RNF and LTPallocations♦ Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels♦ Requested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirations♦ Optimum Service: Assesses constraintsas well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service.This option is determined from the lifecycle planning process.♦ Attainable Service: Re-interprets theoptimum option in the light of availableresources. (E.g. budget constraints).166


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.7.1 Bridges & Other Highway Structures Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutoryMinimumMinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)RequestedAdditionalFundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionBridges &OtherHighwayStructuresMinimum(Reactive) level ofservice meetingstatutory orlegislativerequirements only.Approx. £250k forone year onlyMin budgetallocation andresidual life -hence higherwhole life cyclecosting andunpredictablefinancialmanagementThe effect ofreducing fundinglevels to currentRNF and LTPallocations£1.06 M paThe minimumbudget levelwould not besufficient tomaintain thecurrent stockconditionresulting in agreater backlogthan would bethe case forcurrent fundinglevels.The current LoStypically as set outin the City’s MP ornational. COPsApprox. £1.145 MpaMakes noallowance forimprovement worksand barelymaintains thecurrent condition ofthe asset. Thetarget date of 2010for replacing all substandard structuresis unlikely to be metA LoS that attemptsto meet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirationsAn additional£1.95m pa over a 5year periodfollowed by anadditional £0.65mpa thereafterTo allow for theremoval of thepresent backlogand the ongoingmaintenance of theasset to acceptablestandardsLoS based uponengineeringprinciples &technicaljudgementEst. at £3.1m pa for5 years, £1.8m pathereafter tomaintain therevised conditionlevelsWill allowinspection andmaintenance at therecommendedintervals as per theCode of Practice.The lifecycle ofeach structure ismore likely to reachand/or exceed itsdesign life therebydeferring costlyreconstructionwork.17.7.2 Levels of ServiceLevels of Service identified by Newcastle City Council specific to the Structuresasset can be found in table 17.11.1 along with their identified performancemeasures.17.7.3 BacklogThere are no national BVPIs in place to monitor the condition of structures.However the HAMP identifies that there is a current backlog in excess of £6m inthe funding of Highway Structures maintenance works.The graphs below considers the various funding options outlined aboveand shows the monetary value of the backlog in structures works overthe next 28 years and the investment requirement to meet the optimumservice option.167


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanFigure 17.7.3 Condition Backlog / Investment requirement HighwayStructures£20.0£18.0MINIMUM (backlog) -budget £0.68m pa£16.0£million£14.0£12.0£10.0£8.0EXISTING (backlog) -budget £0.80m paOPTIMUM - (backlog)£6.0£4.0£2.0£0.0OPTIMUM(investmentrequirement)2006201020152020202520302034YearIt can be seen that at current levels of funding the backlog will rise over three foldto over £18m in the next 25 years. Even an increase in funding to meet theneeds of structures on the Principal Routes will see the backlog rise over thesame period to £15m.17.8 Risk Management – Bridges & Other Highway StructuresRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk identification exercise has been undertaken and a risk register and matrixscoring system has been developed and is attached to this document as appendixB. The following are examples of the significant risks associated with this asset.17.8.1 The major risk is that of total sudden failure, i.e. collapse of thestructure, which could result in:♦♦♦♦♦Loss of lifeSerious injuryDamage to adjacent property and servicesEnvironmental damageProlonged disruption to the travelling public168


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanThis would lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦♦♦♦♦Compensation claimsRepair to property & servicesEmergency services feesReplacement of structureEnvironmental clean upProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeEtc.This risk can be mitigated by regular safety inspections of all structures, whichlead to necessary repairs being carried out in a timely fashion, and the carryingout of routine maintenance to prevent deterioration of the structure.17.8.2 Secondary risks include a number of partial failures requiring:Major maintenance, which could result in:♦♦♦Long term closureEnvironmental damageProlonged disruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to financial implications for:♦♦♦♦Major repair costsEnvironmental clean upTraffic managementProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeEtc.This risk can be mitigated by the introduction of weight restrictions to prevent theneed for strengthening works, by regular condition inspections of all structures,which lead to minor repairs being carried out in a timely fashion to prevent or169


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Planreverse further deterioration, and the carrying out of routine maintenance toprevent initial deterioration of the structure.17.8.3 Inability to maintain demand requirements, which could result in:♦♦♦♦Weight restrictionsLane / Width restrictionsTemporary traffic managementDisruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to financial implications for:♦♦♦♦Introduction and enforcement of restrictionsAdvertising and advance signing of restrictionsTraffic managementProvision of an alternative route for some vehicles e.g. HGV’s & BusesConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesAlteration of bus routesHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeEtc.This risk can be mitigated by regular condition inspections of all structures, whichlead to minor repairs being carried out in a timely fashion to prevent or reversefurther deterioration, and the carrying out of routine maintenance to prevent initialdeterioration of the structure.17.9 Forward Works ProgrammeA 15-year forward works programme has been put in place for all routine and‘steady state’ maintenance operations these include: painting; waterproofing,resurfacing, joint treatments, mechanical and electrical installations etc. There isa high level of confidence in this programme although the costs associated withthe work are the best estimate available at this time and may vary considerablyover the 15-year period.Tables 17.9.1 & 17.9.2 below summarises the forward work programme over thenext 6 years by the number of structures attended per year and by the estimatedannual expenditure.170


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.9.1 Future Maintenance Programme by Number of Bridges & Other HighwayStructures per yearMaintenanceType 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12General Inspection 144 144 144 144 144 144M+E Maintenance 5 5 5 5 5 5MajorMaintenance 19 20 14 13 56 29MinorMaintenance 64 42 30 29 31 28PrincipalInspection 50 50 50 50 50 50RoutineMaintenance 352 352 352 352 352 352Steady StateMaintenance 14 8 38 13 9 4Table 17.9.2 Future Maintenance Programme by Expenditure per yearMaintenance Type 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 20011-12General Inspection £36,750 £36,750 £36,750 £36,750 £36,750 £36,750M+E Maintenance £20,400 £20,400 £20,400 £20,400 £20,400 £20,400Major Maintenance £130,000 £157,500 £160,000 £336,000 £315,000 £194,500Minor Maintenance £47,500 £87,500 £24,000 £61,500 £63,600 £49,000Principal Inspection £80,000 £80,000 £80,000 £80,000 £80,000 £80,000Routine Maintenance £239,000 £239,000 £239,000 £239,000 £239,000 £239,000Steady State £1,415,000 £510,000 £1,755,500 £1,025,000 £915,000 £90,000MaintenanceTotals £1,970,150 £1,104,900 £2,315,950 £1,801,900 £1,681,300 £707,400A forward works programme for creation, acquisition & upgrading is also beingdeveloped although this is based on a forward thinking ‘wish list’ of ideas whichmay not come to fruition and although a 5 year LTP Capital funding bid issubmitted, there is less confidence in this programme, beyond the single yearperiod for which funding has already been allocated.Both programmes are ‘live’ documents and it is expected that they will beamended and updated on a continuing basis. The full forward works programmesare attached as appendix D.17.10 Physical WorksAt present works are commissioned through a number of routes.Current Situation171


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plani) Generally works for revenue budgeted and minor capital projects areordered through the Highway Services Framework Contract, which is inplace with Colas (North) Ltd and Cumbrian Industrials Ltd. In additionsome works, primarily involving the blacksmiths, are ordered through theNewcastle City Council Highways and Traffic Signals section.ii)iii)Major capital maintenance works are generally procured throughcompetitive tender following the Council’s financial rules and regulationswith tenderers being chosen from a select list of contractors using aformally identified process. E.g. the CME major maintenance or therepainting of the Tyne Bridge.Occasionally specialist works will be subject to a competitive tendering orquotation process, which may involve contactors from outside of the selectlist. On such occasions quality and financial checks are undertaken on allcompanies invited to quote.17.11 Performance ManagementNational and local performance indicators are used to measure performance.The annual updates of the Local Transport Plan report on:♦ Number of General inspections carried out in a year, with the target being100% of the inspections programmed. See section 3.0 for details.♦ Number of Principal inspections carried out in a year, with the target being100% of the inspections programmed. See section 3.0 for details.♦ Bridge Condition Indicators, average + critical (BCI av + BCI crit ), updatedscores for: Structures on Principal Roads Structures on Classified Roads Structures on Unclassified RoadsAdditional local performance indicators are detailed in table 17.11.1 below.Table 17.11.1 Local Performance Indicators for Bridges & Other Highway StructuresLEVELS OF SERVICE REVIEW FREQUENCY TARGETSInspectionsGeneral InspectionsCarry out General Inspections at a maximum frequency of 2 years.Excluding structures programmed for a Principal Inspection.Principal InspectionsCarry out Principal Inspections at a maximum frequency of 6 years.Excluding structures programmed for a General Inspection.Special Inspections (Non Emergency Callout)Carryout Inspection within 24hrs.Special Inspections (Emergency Callout)Carryout Inspection within 24hrs.AnnuallyAnnuallyAnnually 80%Every 3mths 90%100% of programmedGeneral Inspections carriedout annually100% of programmedPrincipal Inspections carriedout annuallyMaintenance172


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle PlanTable 17.11.1 Local Performance Indicators for Bridges & Other Highway StructuresLEVELS OF SERVICE REVIEW FREQUENCY TARGETSRoutine MaintenanceVisit every structure on the principal and primary network annually toundertake routine maintenance. (Except culverts - see below),Annually 90%Visit culverts twice every year to undertake routine maintenance Annually 100%Emergency MaintenanceAttend emergency maintenance call outs within 8hrs and make safe.This work is undertaken by HTS.Planned MaintenanceCarry out programmed planned maintenance to keep all structuresavailable for use at all times. With the exception of emergency repairs orworks closures due to health and safety requirements.Carry out maintenance to BCI crit elements identified by GeneralInspection within 12 months.Mechanical + Electrical InstallationsM+E installations shall be inspected in accordance with currentlegislation. Maintenance identified shall be carried out within 3mthssubject to funding restrictions.Every 3mths 90%Annually 80% of maintenancecarried out without a closure.Annually 80%Annually 100%UsageServiceabilityAll structures shall be kept available to take current/agreed trafficloadings.All structures shall be available under the DDA requirements wherestructurally/financially possible..Graffiti - Reported offensive graffiti of a sexual or racial nature shall beremoved within 24hr of being reported. This work is undertaken byEnvironmental Services.Height Restriction Signing shall be maintained at all times. If reported asmissing it shall be replaced within 7 working days. Signs shall bechecked as part of the Routine Maintenance programme.Weight Restriction Signing shall be maintained at all times. If reportedas missing it shall be replaced within 7 working days. Signs shall bechecked as part of the Routine Maintenance programme.Annually 85%Annually 85%Annually 90%Annually 85%Annually 85%ConditionAnnually improve the overall condition of the bridge stock, wherefunding is available. Annually 0.1 increaseRefer to section 17.3.1 for details of inspections undertaken.17.12 Improvement ActionsBridges & Other Highway Structures• Complete and maintain all Roads 277 forms for highway - 2 year process• Audit accessibility to all highway structures and identify achievableimprovements- 1 year• Have all highway structures on the GIS system - 1 year• Complete BCI condition ratings for all retaining walls• Develop & implement procedures for collecting BCI data for ‘other structures’• Prepare report on present backlog of works and schemes• Review works programmes and budget requirements• Further develop risk assessment system173


Bridges and Other Highway Structures Cycle Plan• Review current business processes in light of asset management practice to identifyimprovements that can be made to the service provided174


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan18.0 Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan18.1 Goals and ObjectivesThe goals and objectives that relate to traffic signal management within theHighway Maintenance Strategy and the Unitary Development Plan comprise:• Implement proactive policies to identify defects and carry out resulting safetyand routine maintenance repairs;• Create a safer and more inviting environment for pedestrians and cyclists andprovide specific features and facilities within schemes;• Improve access for disabled people;• Co-ordinate with road safety and traffic management schemes, bridgemaintenance and public transport initiatives;• Manage the transport system to reconcile the competing demands of all usersin the interests of safety, efficiency, accessibility and the environment;The above actions help to meet the Authority’s Local Transport Plan objectivesdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access andenhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities,especially for those without access toa car and people with particularmobility problems;• Economy - supporting economicgrowth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transportrelated atmospheric pollution, andother adverse environmental impact oftraffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.Specific goals associated with traffic signals include:• Safeguard the historic investment in transport infrastructure by maintaining itin a safe and usable condition;• Build on existing partnerships with stakeholders to ensure maximum impact ofany measures enacted;• Through liaison identify the particular needs of disabled people and meetthem wherever possible;175


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan• Improve road safety and contribute towards the national casualty reductionstrategy;• Improve safety for children;• Improve safety for pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders;• Introduce traffic management measures to alleviate congestion, in particularstanding traffic.In addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which well maintained traffic signal infrastructure will help support:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development.18.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of traffic signal infrastructure is held on an accessdatabase operated by the traffic signals contract team and also on the centralSymology database. This database holds details of:• Site number• District• Site location (street A & street B)• Type of controller• Control system• Listing of all power consuming equipment (Traffic Heads, Green arrows,Pedestrian Heads etc)• Equipment contained within the controllerIn addition a site file for each location has as built paper records, which providedetails of the number of signal poles present. Information on the number of signalpoles and their condition has also been entered into an Excel spreadsheet heldby the Traffic Signals Section.There is a high level of confidence in the records that are held, although atpresent they are not broken down on a ward or road hierarchy basis.Table 18.2.1 Details the total number of installations within Newcastle City.176


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.2.1 Number of Traffic Signal InstallationsType of InstallationNumber in NewcastleTraffic Signalised Junction 146Pelican / Puffin Crossing 129Toucan Crossing 20Pegasus Crossing 2School Crossing Patrol Flashing Lights 29Wig-Wag 3Total Installations 32918.3 ConditionThe condition of the asset is assessed by regular inspection and testing. TheTraffic Signal Section of Newcastle City Council has adopted the Department forTransport “Specification for Trunk Roads” for use as a guideline for its inspectionand testing regime. Annual inspections are undertaken to assess the operationaland condition data of each installation, any faults that are found are immediatelyreported and repairs undertaken.Full records of the operational inspections are available in paper records with aprécis of the information containing the date of inspection entered onto thedatabase. The street furniture condition data is only partially complete but it isintended that this should be fully populated within 12 months.A five yearly electrical testing inspection is also carried out at each installation, tothe relevant IEE standards, with the records being kept in a paper format.Where reports of defects are received from Members or Stakeholders faultreports will be generated, with site attendance being undertaken within 2 hours, ifpossible repairs will be enacted immediately, however where this cannot beachieved warning boards will be erected and repairs undertaken as quickly aspossible.Current ConditionDue to the immediate repair of all faults the general condition of all controller andelectrical equipment is considered to be satisfactory and a rating system for eachsite is not in place.Signal poles have been inspected and assessed on a 1 to 6 basis using thecriteria shown in table 18.3.1 below.177


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.3.1 Signal Pole Condition Assessment CriteriaCondition Code Status Action Required1 OK None2 Slight Damage No action required3 Surface corrosion Repainting4 Structural damage Note damage & repaint5 Corroded Replacementrecommended6 Potentially hazardous Replace immediatelyTable 18.3.2 details the number of poles in each assessment category.Table 18.3.2 Signal Pole ConditionCondition Code Number Percentage of Total1 845 562 523 343 126 84 0 05 33 26 0 0Total 1527 100The above condition assessments are objective ratings based on an installationas a whole rather than on individual poles and as such the confidence level in theinformation recorded is relatively low.18.4 DemandsThe demands set on a traffic signal installation can be numerous. A number ofparticular demands identified by Newcastle City are set out below:• Providing safe movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic• Providing efficient movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic• Sufficient build quality to withstand the usage and environment• Providing access routes for the disadvantaged particularly the disabled• Selective vehicle detection to aid in prioritising non-car traffic flows• Co-ordinated operation with other traffic management installations such asUrban Traffic Control (UTC).• Reliable equipment and an efficient maintenance and repair service178


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan18.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands.Examples of typical performance gaps are detailed in table 18.5.1 below.Within Newcastle of the 307 installations 39 are currently using controllers, whichare obsolete or no longer being maintained by their manufacturer. At present thecontrollers are being maintained by cannibalising the parts from controllers thathave been decommissioned, however this is only a short-term measure and veryshortly all of these controllers will need replacing.Table 18.5.1 Examples of Traffic Signal Performance GapsGap Measure ValueObsolete Equipment Number of obsolete controllers still in use 23 (7.4 %)Inadequate maintenance of Number of faults that could have been 42 (4%)equipmentprevented by regular maintenanceFaults not attended/fixed Percentage of faults not attended within time 1.5 %within specified time limits limitsNew works and maintenance Number of schemes not completed as per 0 (0%)programmes not met the programmeEquipment not suitable forlocationNumber of sites where existing equipment isnot suitable. I.e. where pedestrian facilitiesare unable to be fitted as part of the accessfor all programme.7 (2.4%)18.6 Option Appraisal18.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-to-day work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal of structural elements or components which havebecome unserviceable due to general wear and tear or have deteriorated forother reasons. Routine maintenance activities for traffic signals are detailed intable 6.1.Table 18.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance Activity Maintenance Interval ResponsibilityBulk lamp changes Twice per year Senior Traffic SignalsManager, Traffic SignalsSectionReprogram school Twice per year As above.flashers179


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan18.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is comprised of minor (reactive maintenance) andmajor (planned) work that does not increase the asset’s designed capacity, butrestores, rehabilitates, replaces or renews an existing asset to its originalcapacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’)Many of the steady state maintenance activities for traffic signals comprise of thereplacement of faulty or worn out equipment, much of which is initiated by thefault reporting system.The number of faults reported and attended per month in the 2003/2006 financialyear are detailed in Table 18.6.3 and the steady state planned maintenanceschemes between 2004/2007 are detailed in table 18.6.4.Table 18.6.3 Steady State Reactive Maintenance Activities 2003/2006MonthNo of faults attendedApril ‘03 93May ‘03 71June ‘03 1121 st Quarter 276July ‘03 83August ‘03 65September ‘03 942 nd Quarter 242October ‘03 95November ‘03 72December ‘03 873 rd Quarter 254January ‘04 80February ‘04 77March ‘04 964 th Quarter 253Total ‘03/’04 1025April ‘04 85May ‘04 75June ‘04 1011 st Quarter 261July ‘04 109August ‘04 108September ‘04 1002 nd Quarter 317October ‘04 92November ‘04 125December ‘04 993 rd Quarter 316January ‘05 142180


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.6.3 Steady State Reactive Maintenance Activities 2003/2006MonthNo of faults attendedFebruary ‘05 89March ‘05 934 th Quarter 324Total ‘04/’05 1218April ‘05 92May ‘05 85June ‘05 1031 st Quarter 280July ‘05 108August ‘05 104September ‘05 1022 nd Quarter 314October ‘05 93November ‘05 81December ‘05 663 rd Quarter 240January ‘06 69February ‘06 84March ‘06 554 th Quarter 208Total ‘05/’06 942Table 18.6.4 Steady State Planned Maintenance Schemesundertaken in 2003/2007Location Type of Installation Type of Work2003/2004Hillhead Road / Signalised Junction R & RHillhead ParkwayHadricks Mill Road / Pedestrian Facility R & RBrandling PHQueen Victoria Road /St Thomas StreetPedestrian Facility R & R2006/2007Grainger Street / Neville Pelican Crossing R & RStreetNetherby Drive Pelican Crossing R & R181


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan18.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity.Creation: The constant improvement of the Highway Network, particularly withregard to safety, means that new Traffic Signal assets are created on a regularbasis. Such work being instigated via LTP funding.Acquisition: Acquisition of traffic signal assets is normally associated with thetaking up of maintenance responsibilities following new developments, this isnormally managed by the development control team using Section.38 or 106legal agreements. However it is very rare for the Council to take on theresponsibility for other peoples installations and it is more likely that NCC arecommissioned to undertake the necessary installation work.Upgrading: A number of upgrading activities are regularly undertaken to thetraffic signal asset, as a consequence of the need to improve the HighwayNetwork particularly in regard to safety.Table 18.6.5 details the works undertaken in 2004/2005.Table 18.6.5 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Activities undertaken in2004/2005Location Type of Installation Type of WorkCreationCity Road / Crawhall Road SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusNeville Street / Clayton Street SCOOTInstallation of UTC apparatusGrainger Street / Bigg Market Signalised Junction Upgrade of signalsWCB / Stanhope Street Signalised Junction Junction InstallationWCB / Stanhope Street SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusWCB / St James Car Park Signalised Junction Junction InstallationWCB / St James Car Park SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusWCB / Holland Drive SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusWCB / North West Radial SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusWCB / New Mills SCOOT Installation of UTC apparatusWestgate Road / St Nicholas SCOOTStreetPercy Street / Gallowgate Signalised Junction Junction InstallationShields Road / Stotts Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationKenton Lane Puffin Crossing Puffin InstallationInstallation of UTC apparatusForsythe Road / Tankerville Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationRoadTrevelyan Road / Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationWhittingham RoadKenton Road / Salters Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationSt Mary’s Place / College Signalised Junction Junction InstallationStreetDurant Road / College Street Signalised Junction Junction InstallationScotswood Road / Mill Signalised Junction Junction InstallationGarages182


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.6.5 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Activities undertaken in2004/2005Location Type of Installation Type of WorkFreeman Hospital Access / Signalised Junction Junction InstallationFreeman RoadSwing Bridge / Sandhill Signalised Junction Junction InstallationFossway Firestation Flashers Wig – Wag InstallationColby Court Fire Station Flashers Wig – Wag InstallationNewgate Street / Eldon Signalised Junction Junction InstallationSquareQuayside / King street Signalised Junction Junction InstallationUpgradeGrainger Street / Bigg Market Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsBarras Bridge / Claremont Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsRoadPercy Street / Eldon Square / Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsPrudhoe StreetSandyford Road / Civic Pelican CrossingPelican ModificationsCentreScotswood Road / Dunn Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsStreetGreat North Road / Moor Toucan CrossingToucan ModificationsRoadWalker Road / Pottery Bank Pelican Crossing Convert Pelican to PuffinCrossingNeptune House / Quayside Pelican Crossing ModificationsSwan House Roundabout / Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsCME ExitJohn Dobson Street / Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsNorthumberland RoadSaint Mary’s Place / Barras Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsBridgeClayton Street / NewgateController SwapStreetQuayside / Broad Chare Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsJesmond Dene Road / Signalised Junction R & RMoorfield RoadAdelaide Terrace / Signalised Junction R & RCondercum RoadWestgate Road / ClaytonStreetSignalised Junction R & RAcquisitionGreat Park Development Signalised Junction Adoption of signals followingend of warranty periodA1 Kingston Park Signalised Junction Junction InstallationRoundaboutA1 / Great Park Slip Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationShields Road / Huddlestone Signalised Junction Junction InstallationStreetFossway / Huddlestone Signalised Junction Junction InstallationStreetFossway / Millers road Pedestrian Crossing Puffin InstallationFossway / B & Q Pedestrian Crossing Puffin InstallationShields Road / Henley Street Pedestrian Crossing Puffin Installation183


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.6.6 details the works undertaken in 2005/2006.Table 18.6.6 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Activities Undertaken in2005 / 2006Location Type of Installation Type of WorkCreationScotswood Road / Whitehouse Signalised JunctionJunction InstallationRoadScotswood Road / Park Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationScotswood Road / Plummer Toucan CrossingToucan InstallationStreet EastScotswood Road / Plummer Toucan CrossingToucan InstallationStreet WestTrevelyan Drive / Whittingham Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationRoadColby Court Fire Station Wig - Wag Wig – Wag installationQueen Victoria Road / St Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationThomas StreetHaddricks Mill / The Brandling Puffin Crossing Puffin InstallationOsborne Road / Acorn Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationOsborne Road / Mistletoe Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationOsborne Road / Osborne Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationAvenueDurant Road / College Road Signalised Junction Junction InstallationGallowgate / St James Signalised JunctionJunction InstallationBoulevardUpgradeNeptune House / Quayside Signalised Junction Junction ModificationsSt James Street / Strawberry Pelican Crossing Convert Pelican toPlacePuffinShields Road / Depot Street Pelican Crossing Convert Pelican toPuffinChillingham Road/ Chapman Pelican Crossing Convert Pelican toRoadPuffinJohn Dobson Street / Durant Signalised JunctionJunction ModificationsRoadKenton Lane / Hazeldene Signalised JunctionJunction ModificationsAvenueStamfordham Road / A1 Signalised JunctionJunction ModificationsRoundaboutTable 18.6.7 details the works programmed for 2006/2007.Table 18.6.7 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Programme for 2006 / 2007Location Type of Installation Type of WorkCreationBenton Road / Manor Park Signalised JunctionJunction InstallationSchoolFenham Hall Drive / Ord Court Puffin Crossing Puffin InstallationBenton Road / Ainthorpe Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationGardens184


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanTable 18.6.7 Creation/Acquisition/Upgrading Programme for 2006 / 2007Location Type of Installation Type of WorkBrunton Lane / Cranleigh Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationAvenueBenton Park Road / Inland Signalised JunctionJunction InstallationRevenueRegent Farm Road / St Charles Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationSchoolRegent Farm Road / Arden Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationHouseHillhead Road / West Denton Signalised JunctionJunction InstallationWayWest Denton Way / Asholme Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationRoadWCR / St James Car park Signalised Junction Junction InstallationKingston Park Road / Puffin CrossingPuffin InstallationHuntingdon CloseUpgradeKingston Park Road / Windsor Signalised JunctionJunction ModificationsWaySt James Boulevard / Puffin CrossingPuffin ModificationsSunderland StreetWalker Road / Pottery Bank Pelican crossing Convert Pelican toPuffinJohn Dobson Street / Signalised JunctionJunction ModificationsNorthumberland RoadJesmond Dene Road / MoorsideRoadSignalised JunctionJunction Modifications18.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. Although disposal of traffic signals is very rare due to thepolitically sensitive nature of decommissioning safety equipment it does occurwhere new developments or roads alter an existing route. There are no disposalactivities programmed for the 2006/2007 year.18.7 Budget Information and OptimisationPlanned Maintenance schemes:• Scheme Selection: The majority of the proposed maintenance schemesemanate from inspection reports, which are collected throughout the yearand recorded on the database. Each potential scheme receives atechnical assessment before being included in the planned maintenanceprogramme.• Scheme Validation: Many of the schemes are put forward due to theobsolescence of the existing equipment, however at present the need forworks far outstrips the available budget, so the schemes are ranked on aworst first basis.185


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan• Provisional Programme of Works: Should sufficient funding becomeavailable the works programme will take into account the type and age ofequipment in order to reduce the need for maintenance knowledge ofparticular types of obsolete equipment and to reduce the amount ofsalvaged equipment required to be stored.Reactive (Adhoc) MaintenanceAn overall budget based onhistoric precedent, currentlyabout £ 40,000 p.a., is madeavailable to the Traffic SignalTeam to cover all the adhocmaintenance works identifiedfrom inspections or customerreports.Routine MaintenanceThe budget for undertaking annual inspections currently stands at £ 75,000 andagain is based on historical precedent, although this cost is monitored annuallyso that changes can be made if necessary.A budget of £ 47,000 is also made available for the bulk lamp changeprogramme.Table 18.7.0 Details the budgets available for traffic signal maintenance over thelast 5 years.Table 18.7.0 Traffic Signal Annual Expenditure 2002 – 20072002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07PlannedMaintenance 44,343 49,059 53,354 43,386 44,650AdhocMaintenance 296,665 325,516 351,825 377,362 384,530Capital 381,317 513,419 522,278 207,939 0Total 722,325 887,994 927,457 628,687 429,18018.7.1 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.The following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP♦ Statutory (Minimum): Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only186


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan♦♦♦♦Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levelsRequested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirationsOptimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined from thelife cycle planning process.Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints).Table 18.7.1 Traffic Signal Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutory MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested AdditionalFundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive)level of service meetingstatutory or legislativerequirements only.The current LoStypically as set out inthe City’s MP ornational. COPsA LoS that attempts tomeet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles& technical judgementTrafficSignalsApprox. £115k paAn increase in maint.backlog & a steepdecline in asset value.Reactive costs are likelyto be significantly higherwithout regularmaintenance work beingundertaken.Approx. £429k paDoes not approximateto a steady state, butaim to deliver BestPractice as detailed inthe national COP forHi/W Maint. Mgmt.Unavailable at thistime.Unavailable at this time18.7.2 Levels of ServiceLevels of Service identified by Newcastle City Council specific to the Trafficsignal asset can be found in table 18.11.1 along with their identified performancemeasures.18.7 Risk Management– Traffic SignalsRisk is ‘the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk identification exercise has been undertaken and a risk register and matrixscoring system has been developed and is attached to this document as appendixB. The following are examples of the significant risks associated with this asset.18.8.1 Equipment failure leading to a major Road Traffic Accident whichcould result in:♦♦♦♦Loss of lifeSerious injuryDamage to adjacent property and servicesEnvironmental damage187


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan♦Prolonged disruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦♦♦♦♦Compensation claimsRepair to property & servicesEmergency services feesReplacement of equipmentEnvironmental clean upProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative routeEtc.This risk can be mitigated by regular safety inspections and condition assessmentsof all equipment, which lead to necessary repairs being carried out in a timelyfashion, the carrying out of routine maintenance to prevent deterioration of theequipment and the introduction of robust procedures to ensure that fault reports aredealt with in a timely fashion.18.8.2 Loss of experienced personnel:As there is only a single service provider in the area should the staff levels fall belowthe operational minimum it will be very difficult to obtain replacement personnel or analternative provider.This could lead to:♦♦♦Reduction in serviceInability to carry out the planned maintenance programmeInability to meet fault attendance target of two hoursConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilIncrease in accidents due to faulty signalsIncrease in compensation claimsThis risk can be mitigated by training of existing staff, attractive salaries, goodworking conditions, appointment of a reserve contractor.18.8.3 Sole equipment providers:As much of the traffic signal equipment used is specific to one manufacturer orprovider the viability and reliability of such manufacturer is of great importance,188


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Planshould the company cease to trade or become unreliable with regard toserviceability of equipment or delivery times this could lead to:♦♦Enforced obsolescence of equipmentLack of parts required for repairsThis in turn could lead to:♦♦♦Reduction in serviceInability to carry out the planned maintenance programmeInability to repair faults in a timely fashionWhich could result in:♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilIncrease in accidents due to faulty signalsIncrease in compensation claimsThis risk can be mitigated by:♦♦♦Regular financial checks of suppliersRegular quality checks of suppliers18.9 Forward Works ProgrammeAn annual programme for new and improvement schemes is developed annuallyand the planned maintenance works are then fitted in and around this agreedprogramme, which is updated on a monthly basis.A loose programme of future works for the following 2/3 years has beenproduced based on the design request forms, which is then updated usinginformation from the H&TS civils programme.Should sufficient money become available, it is anticipated that a futureprogramme for the replacement of obsolete equipment could encompass a 7-year period, although this will have a number of staffing implications.18.10 Physical WorksAt present works are commissioned through a single in-house contractoralthough this is continually under revue.Current SituationA service level agreement for maintenance has recently been finalised, and iswaiting for ratification by the Council.Future situation189


Traffic Signals Life Cycle PlanIt is intended to introduce service level agreements for each of the functionsundertaken.18.11 Performance ManagementA number of Local performance indicators developed for Newcastle City CouncilTraffic Signals section are shown in table 18.11.1 below.Table 18.11.1 Traffic Signal Performance IndicatorsLevel of Service Performance Measure ReviewFrequencyTraffic signal installations shall bemaintained, wherever practicable,such that they are working asplanned at all times.Improve traffic signal installationsfor use by the visually impairedwherever possibleImprove pedestrian crossings foruse by the disabled whereverpossibleBulk lamp changes for all trafficsignal equipment shall beundertaken twice per yearLevels of obsolete equipmentremaining in use shall fall eachyearFaulty equipment shall beinspected within the agreedtimescalesReactive maintenance works shallbe undertaken within agreedtimescales.Planned schemes shall beimplemented within the agreedbudgetsImprove traffic flows whereverpossible on all routes, by reducingwaiting times at signalsPercentage of installationsnot working as planned overa given periodNumber of faults that couldhave been prevented byregular maintenancePercentage of fault repairscompleted as “Right FirstTime”Percentage of signals withvisually impaired provisionPercentage of pedestriancrossings with disabledprovisionPercentage of lamps changedtwice per yearNumber of installationscontinuing to make use ofobsolete equipmentNumber of inspections notundertaken within thespecified time framePercentage of works notunder taken within thespecified time framesNumber of schemes thatexceed the agreed estimatedcost by more than 5%Percentage of signalinstallations that are vehicleactivatedPercentage of signalinstallations that aremonitored and can beadjusted remotely by UTCMonthly 5%Annually 1%TargetAnnually 95%Annually 95%Annually 95%Six monthly 100%AnnuallyQuarterly 5%Quarterly 5%Annually 10%AnnuallyAnnuallyReduce by1%18.12 Improvement Actions190


Traffic Signals Life Cycle Plan• Introduce procedures to maintain inventory information• Collect and maintain condition data for all assets• Review levels of service and undertake a consultation process• Review budget requirements and works programmes• Review current business processes in light of asset management practiceto see where improvements can be made to the service provided191


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan19.0 Street Lighting Life Cycle PlanThe street lighting & illuminated traffic signage function of Newcastle City Councilhas recently been let as a Private Finance Initiative project between NCC andTay Valley Lighting (Newcastle & North Tyneside) Ltd. The particularresponsibilities and demands of this 25 year agreement can be found in theproject documents. However NCC still has a responsibility for street lighting andas such this Lifecycle plan remains relevant.19.1 Goals and ObjectivesThe goals and objectives that relate to street lightingwithin Newcastle City council are many, those thatrelate particularly to this plan comprise:• To provide suitable and adequate streetlighting to meet the needs of the people ofNewcastle• To improve the night-time safety of vehiclesand pedestrians and in particularvulnerable groups• To reduce crime and reduce the fear ofcrimeThe above actions help to meet the Authority’s Local Transport Plan objectivesdetailed below:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.Specific goals associated with street lighting include:• Safeguard the historic investment in transport infrastructure by maintaining itin a safe and usable condition;• Build on existing partnerships with stakeholders to ensure maximum impact ofany measures enacted;192


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan• Through liaison identify the particular needs of disabled people and meetthem wherever possible;• Improve road safety and contribute towards the national casualty reductionstrategy;• Improve safety for children;• Improve safety for pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders;In addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which well maintained street lighting infrastructure will help support:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development.19.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of lighting column infrastructure is held on an accessdatabase operated by the PFI service provider, a copy of which is available forthe monitoring team. This database holds details of:• Column number• Electricity Supplier• Local Authority Road Reference• Location Description• Street Name• Area Name• OS Grid Reference• 24 Hour Burn (Y/N)• Cen Value• Ward• Column Height• Column Type• Lamp Type• Lamp Quantity• Average Watts• STUSP Ref• Date Erected (Year)• Ownership• Authority (Y/N)• Road Class• Lantern Type• Bracket Type• Bracket Outreach• Bracket Quantity193


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan• Date Painted (Year)• Meter (Y/N)• Date Last TestedThe locations of the columns are also available on the Arcview GIS system withinNewcastle City Council.At present the database does not contain details of illuminated signs orilluminated bollards although information gained during a survey undertaken in2002 is available in an excel spreadsheet, along with a photographic record ofeach sign, on the NCC server. The spreadsheet which, holds details of 3850Illuminated Signs and Bollards within Newcastle, contains details of:• Gazetteer Reference• Street, Town• Location Description• OS Grid Reference• Unit No (where applicable)• Sign Plate Reference Number (Trafficsigns Manual)• Plate Description• Sign Type• Sign Dimensions• Condition (Good, Average, Bad, VeryBad)• Photo ReferenceThis information has not been updated since the initial survey and so confidencelevels in its accuracy are not high.The PFI service provider is tasked to update the information regarding theilluminated signs and bollards inventory and this is being undertaken as part ofthe replacement programme and as new illuminated signs are erected, it isexpected that a full illuminated sign and bollard inventory will be availablefollowing year 3 of the contract.There is a high level of confidence in the lighting column records that are held,and these are continually updated as works progress.Table 19.2.1 Details the total number of column installations within NewcastleCity as at the start of the contract July 2004.194


Street Lighting Life Cycle PlanTable 19.2.1 Number of Street Lighting Installations by Ward(These are based on the old ward boundaries at the start of the contract)WardNo of ColumnsBenwell 991Blakelaw 1654Byker 2052Castle 1956Dene 1446Denton 1485Elswick 978Fawdon 1075Fenham 1523Grange 1305Heaton 1055Jesmond 1287Kenton 1140Lemington 1298Monkchester 744Moorside 1243Newburn 1242Sandyford 2189Scotswood 949South Gosforth 981Walker 1316Walkergate 883West City 3796Westerhope 1611Wingrove 665Woolsington 1202Total 36066The contract specifies the upgrade of all equipment, except that which is‘deemed to comply’, up to the current British and European Design Standardswithin an agreed period, much of this work entails the addition, relocation ordisposal of units of apparatus, as such the asset inventory is changing on a dayto day basis.The existing inventory data is being updated on a regular basis with the intentionof producing a full inventory record after the initial three year implementationperiod.19.3 ConditionThe present condition of the asset is based on the expected life of each asset,with the initial assessment being either ‘to be renewed’ or ‘deemed to comply’.Those assets, which are to be renewed will be brought up to an as new standard,those assets, which are deemed to comply shall be renewed whenever theybecome life expired during the term of the contract.A condition survey has been undertaken to enable prioritisation of thereplacement programme.195


Street Lighting Life Cycle PlanA number of maintenance related inspections will be undertaken on a regularbasis and these are detailed in table 19.3.1.Table 19.3.1 Programme of Street Lighting InspectionsInspectionVisual Inspection Principal Road NetworkVisual Inspection Non-Principal Road NetworkInspection & Testing Electrical 16 th EditionInspection & Testing of High Mast InstallationInsurance Inspection of High Mast InstallationStructural testingLighting performance testsFrequency2 Years3 Years6 YearsAnnual3 Years5 yearsOn installation of new equipmentOther condition information will mainly be in the form of fault repair, night-timescouting shall be the main source for the detection of lighting faults, the ServiceProvider shall agree with the Authority’s Representative the night-time scoutingroutes and shall provide in advance a programme of night time scouting.19.4 DemandsThe demands set on street lighting installation can be numerous. A number ofparticular demands identified by Newcastle City are set out below:• Providing safe movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic• Providing sufficient luminance to allow identification of any hazard• Providing safe well lit pedestrian routes avoiding areas of shadow• Sufficient build quality to withstand the usage and environment• Good daytime appearance of apparatus• Reliable equipment and an efficient maintenance and repair service19.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. Forexample where an asset has grown obsolete and can no longer be efficientlymaintained. Examples of typical performance gaps are detailed in table 19.5.1below.Table 19.5.1 Examples of Street Lighting Performance GapsApparatus over30 years oldLighting units atcurrent lightingstandards (Newequipment only)Start of Contract As at July 2005 As at July 2006Number %age Number %age Number %age20918 58% 19200 53.3% 15688 43.5%0 0% 4288 11.9% 10,431 28.9%196


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan19.6 Lifecycle Option Appraisal19.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-today work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal of structural elements or components which havebecome unserviceable due to general wear and tear or have deteriorated forother reasons, but does include the day-to-day fault repairs undertaken on anadhoc basis. Routine maintenance activities for traffic signals are detailed intable 19.6.1.Table 19.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance Activity Maintenance Interval CommentsBulk lamp changes 3 years At present this is onlyprogrammed for newequipment.Clean Back Lane3 yearsClean Non-PRN 4 years The contracted interval of 4years has currently beenreduced to 3 yearsClean PRN 4 years The contracted interval of 4years has currently beenreduced to 3 yearsInspect & Clean High Mast 2 Years The contracted interval of 2years has currently beenreduced to annuallyRepainting of apparatus 8 YearsFault repairAdhoc (see below)• Emergency faults shall be made safe or repaired within one hour ofnotification,• A non-emergency fault involving the replacement of components ofapparatus shall be rectified within five working days,• A non-emergency fault involving the removal of offensive or racist graffitior attachments shall be rectified within one working day,• A non-emergency fault involving the removal of all other graffiti orattachments shall be rectified within five working days,• A non-emergency fault requiring the replacement of a complete unit ofapparatus shall be rectified within fifteen working days,• A non-emergency fault involving rectification where an illuminated bollardhas been knocked down or a belisha beacon globe is missing shall berectified within one day,• Non-emergency faults involving the repair or replacement of any of theDistribution Network Operator’s System shall be rectified within 30 workingdays.197


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan19.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is comprised of major (planned) work that does notincrease the asset’s designed capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces orrenews an existing asset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’)An 18 month initial asset renewal programme for all apparatus, which isstructurally unsound or has exceeded its design life (25 years), within Newcastlewas agreed and following this initial asset renewal period an ‘ongoing assetrenewal programme’ has been put in place on an annual basis. This annualrenewal programme shall be broken down into six monthly, three monthly andmonthly programmes of varying detail as prescribed in the PFI agreement. Theoverall period for both initial and ongoing asset renewal programmes is fiveyears.Table 19.6.2. below details the programmed replacement over the first 3 years ofthe contract and the performance to date.Table 19.6.2 Asset renewal programme July 2004 to June 2007MonthProposed(month)Installed(month)Proposed(cumulative)Installed(cumulative)July 04 100 185 100 185August 04 200 300 300 485September 04 300 304 600 789October 04 400 450 1000 1239November 04 200 351 1200 1590December 04 150 271 1350 1861January 05 200 506 1550 2367February 05 150 546 1700 2913March 05 300 436 2000 3349April 05 500 396 2500 3745May 05 500 180 3000 3925June 05 500 363 3500 4288July 05 700 704 4200 4992August 05 700 668 4900 5660September 05 700 563 5600 6223October 05 650 476 6250 6699November 05 500 429 6750 7128December 05 250 254 7000 7382January 06 300 376 7300 7758February 06 360 501 7660 8259March 06 480 296 8140 8555April 06 700 480 8840 9035May 06 700 603 9540 9638June 06 700 793 10240 10431July 06 700 N/A 10940 N/A198


Street Lighting Life Cycle PlanTable 19.6.2 Asset renewal programme July 2004 to June 2007Month Proposed(month)Installed(month)Proposed(cumulative)Installed(cumulative)August 06 700 N/A 11640 N/ASeptember 06 660 N/A 12300 N/AOctober 06 540 N/A 12840 N/ANovember 06 420 N/A 13260 N/ADecember 06 210 N/A 13470 N/AJanuary 07 300 N/A 13770 N/AFebruary 07 360 N/A 14130 N/AMarch 07 480 N/A 14610 N/AApril 07 700 N/A 15310 N/AMay 07 700 N/A 16010 N/AJune 07 700 N/A 16710 N/AAt present the asset renewal programme is being exceeded and as a result theworks programme is changing on a daily basis, with weekly whereabouts sheetsbeing provided to the client, along with monthly programme updates.19.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity.Creation: The constant improvement of the Highway Network, particularly withregard to safety, means that new Street Lighting assets are created on a regularbasis. Such work being instigated by the Client teams, through the Traffic &Highways Design teams.Acquisition: Acquisition of street lighting assets is normally associated with thetaking up of maintenance responsibilities following new developments, this isnormally managed by the development control team using Section.38 or 106legal agreements. However it is very rare for the Council to take on theresponsibility for other peoples installations and it is more likely that NCC arecommissioned to undertake the necessary installation work.Upgrading: A number of sites within the initial or ongoing renewals programmeinvolve the upgrading of the existing apparatus to meet the new designstandards, the amount of work being undertaken makes a breakdown of thisinformation not feasible at this stage.19.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation. A number of sites within the initial or ongoing renewalsprogramme involve the disposal of the existing apparatus to meet the new design199


Street Lighting Life Cycle Planstandards, the amount of work being undertaken makes a breakdown of thisinformation not feasible at this stage.19.7 OptimisationThe budgets for the works are set down within the PFI contract, the method ofpayment is by a monthly lump sum which, can be reduced due to the Operatingsub-contractor failing to meet the required performance standards, or increased ifadditional works are requested by the client over and above those specified inthe PFI. Any additional works are costed from a specified schedule of rates orthrough negotiation.Changes in the asset inventory (Accruals & De-accruals) also affect the amountof the lump sum payment.19.8 Risk Management – Street LightingRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.Within the PFI contract the majority of the risks associated with the StreetLighting asset have been passed over to the Contractor, however a number ofrisks do remain and these have been detailed in the attached Risk Register(appendix B)Examples of the risks associated with service failure are detailed below:19.8.1 Failure of the Electrical Supply due to the District Network Operator:♦♦Failure of the DNO to adequately resource the connections programmeFailure of the DNO to adequately maintain their apparatus and toefficiently repair faultsThis could lead to♦♦♦♦Loss of safety for vehicles, pedestrians and particularly vulnerable groupsHardship for the disadvantaged due to lack of lightingIncrease in trips and fallsIncrease in crimeThis could lead to a financial implication for:♦Compensation claimsConsequential costs could be:200


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businesses19.8.2 Secondary risks include loss of experienced personnel:As there is only a single service provider in the area should the staff levels fallbelow the operational minimum it will be very difficult to obtain replacementpersonnel or an alternative provider.This could lead to:♦♦♦Reduction in serviceInability to carry out the planned maintenance programmeInability to meet fault attendance target of two hoursConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilIncrease in accidents due to faulty signalsIncrease in compensation claimsThis risk can be mitigated by training of existing staff, attractive salaries, goodworking conditions, and the appointment of a reserve contractor.19.8.3 Additional risks include sole equipment providers:As much of the street lighting equipment used is specific to one manufacturer orprovider the viability and reliability of such manufacturer is of great importance,should the company cease to trade or become unreliable with regard toserviceability of equipment or delivery times this could lead to:♦♦Enforced obsolescence of equipmentLack of parts required for repairsThis in turn could lead to:♦♦♦Reduction in serviceInability to carry out the planned maintenance/replacement programmeInability to repair faults in a timely fashionWhich could result in:♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilIncrease in accidents due to faulty signalsIncrease in compensation claimsThis risk can be mitigated by:♦Regular financial checks of suppliers201


Street Lighting Life Cycle Plan♦Regular quality checks of suppliers19.9 Forward Works ProgrammeThe existing forward works programme is detailed in section 6 above.This initial programme is updated on a monthly basis with the intention ofproducing a new programme to include all routine and structural maintenanceworks at the end of the 3 year implementation period.19.10 Physical WorksThe physical works are administered through the PFI project with Newcastle CityCouncil acting as client, Tay Valley Lighting being the Service Provider andSouthern Electric Contracting Ltd (SEC) being the Operating sub-contractor.NCC as the client undertake the contract administration and performancemonitoring roles, SEC are detailed with the responsibility for all design, build, andmaintenance functions.19.11 Performance ManagementAt the end of each month a report shall be submitted to the Authority’s ProjectRepresentative detailing the following:• Performance with regard to faults and design• A comparison of times of receipt of faults against actual response times• During the initial asset renewal period and the ongoing asset renewalperiod the service provider shall undertake a performance review tocompare the progress made against the programme• A record of frequency of night-time scoutingAn annual service report shall be prepared for the Authority’s ProjectRepresentative detailing the following:• The number of faults reported from all sources and relevant responsetimes• The number of life expired units of apparatus replaced during specificperiods• The number of requests for ‘lighting’ identified and resolved withconsultation from the Authority• The number of inefficient light source apparatus replaced with moreefficient units of apparatus• Average time taken to attend emergencies• The number of streets which conform to lighting standards referred to inthe Output specificationA number of Best Value Performance Indicators (BVPIs) and Local PerformanceIndicators (LPIs) have been put in place:202


Street Lighting Life Cycle PlanBVPIs reported on an annual basis• BVPI 95 – Average Cost of a Working Street Light• BVPI 180 – Average Lamp Circuit Watts• BVPI 215a – Number of days taken to repair a non-emergency faultLPIs reported on a monthly basis• LP1 – Percentage of apparatus over 30 years old• LP2 – Percentage of units of apparatus conforming to the required lightingstandards• LP3 – Average time taken to repair a non-emergency fault working days• LP4 – Average time taken to attend an emergency• LP5 – Percentage of electrical tests undertaken against programme (Notcommenced until completion of installation programme)• LP6 – Percentage of re-lamp and clean undertaken against programme(Not commenced until year 3 of the contract)Table 19.11.1 Street Lighting Local Performance MeasureResults 2005 and 2006Start of July 2005 July 2006contractApparatus over 30 years old 58% 53.3% 43.5%Lighting units at current lighting 0 6.7% 28.9%standards (New equipment only)Average time taken to repair nonemergencyRequired less 4 Days 2.35 Daysfaultthan 5working daysAverage time taken to attendemergency faultRequiredwithin 1 HourLess than 1HourLess than 1Hour19.12 Improvement Actions Populate database withilluminated sign and bollardinformation Continue to update thedatabase as renewal worksprogress Import positional informationinto Symology and relate to GIS203


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan20.0 Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan20.1 Goals and ObjectivesThe goals and objectives that relate to signs and street furniture within theHighway Maintenance Strategy and the Unitary Development Plan comprise:• Create a safer and more inviting environment for pedestrians and cyclists andprovide specific features and facilities within schemes;• Implement maintenance designs which are appropriate to the style of the areaand which help to promote tourism by the enhancement of the street scene;• Co-ordinate with road safety and traffic management schemes, bridgemaintenance and public transport initiatives;• Use appropriate materials to complement the appearance of areas of specificamenity value including conservation areas, the City centre, and publicsquares;• Manage the transport system to reconcile the competing demands off allusers in the interests of safety, efficiency, accessibility and the environment;• Restrain traffic in the city centre to give priority to service vehicles, publictransport, pedestrians, cyclists, and those cars essential to its operation andviability and to enhance environmental quality.These objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectives detailedbelow:• Accessibility - improving access and enhancing opportunities to reach a fullrange of facilities and activities, especially for those without access to a carand people with particular mobility problems;• Economy - supporting economic growth, promoting regeneration andimproving prosperity;• Environment - reducing transport related atmospheric pollution, and otheradverse environmental impact of traffic to enhance the sustainability oftransport;• Integration - improving the links between public transport networks, closerintegration of land-use and transportation planning and better liaison withneighbouring authorities; and• Safety - improving road safety and reducing the fear of crime associated withtransport.Specific goals associated with traffic signals include:• Safeguard the historic investment in transport infrastructure by maintaining itin a safe and usable condition;• Build on existing partnerships with stakeholders to ensure maximum impact ofany measures enacted;• Through liaison identify the particular needs of disabled people and meetthem wherever possible;204


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan• Improve road safety and contribute towards the national casualty reductionstrategy;• Improve safety for children;• Improve safety for pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders;• Manage access to urban areas;• Manage use of the primary route network;• Introduce traffic management measures to alleviate congestion, in particularstanding traffic;• Introduce measures to remove through traffic from the City centre whilstretaining access for service vehicles;• Introduce amenity improvements in the City centre including new paving,landscaping, street furniture, and public art;• Introduce safety and security measures to reduce the fear of crime andaccidents.In addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which well maintained signs, barriers and street furniture will helpsupport:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Structural Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development.20.2 InventoryAt present the inventoryinformation available inregard to signs, barriersand street furniture is farfrom complete, however anumber of elements ofinformation are held withinthe Council by variousdepartments or teams andthese are detailed below.Information gained duringa survey of illuminatedsigns and illuminatedbollards undertaken in2002 is available in anexcel spreadsheet, alongwith a photographic recordof each sign. The spreadsheet which, holds details of 3850 Illuminated Signs andBollards within Newcastle contains details of:205


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan• Gazetteer Reference• Street, Town• Location Description• OS Grid Reference• Unit No (where applicable)• Sign Plate Reference Number (Traffic signs Manual)• Plate Description• Sign Type• Sign Dimensions• Condition• Photo ReferenceThe location of each illuminated sign is also available on the Arcview GISsystem. This information has not been updated since the initial survey and soconfidence levels in its accuracy are not high.An inventory is also available for all signs on the Central Motorway and for allAdvance Direction Signs (ADS) on the Principal Network, the information beingstored on a local database and as a GIS shape file, along with a photographicrecord of each sign.This database contains details of:• Sign Category• Reflectorisation• External Illumination• Mounting Method• Mounting Height• Plate Size• X-height• Ownership• Condition Details (Good, Medium, Poor)Information regarding the newly installed safety barriers on the Central Motorwayare available in hard format and an inventory of the safety barriers associatedwith structures is available on the structures database.Following the recent inventory video survey undertaken by DCL records relatingto signs, barriers & street furniture are now available for 30% of the Classifiednetwork and 20% of the unclassified network.This information along with the records relating to the illuminated signs, the signson the central motorway and the ADS signs on the Principal network which wereheld in different excel spreadsheets, have now been imported to the Symologydatabase, with locations also plotted on the arcview GIS system.206


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanFollowing validation of the survey results it is intended that the remainder of thenetwork should be surveyed by video or walked inspection within the next 12months.20.3 ConditionAs with the inventory there is little condition data available at the present timewith regard to signs, barriers and street furniture; the information that is availablefrom varying sources is detailed below.General data detailing condition for the illuminated signs is available from the twoyear old survey mentioned above, however this data is now well out of date. ThePrincipal Road ADS signs database also contains details of condition (Good,medium, poor) relating to Sign plate, pole and external illumination, thisinformation is also 2 years old.The structures team undertake regular inspections of the safety barrierassociated with the structures and record the condition data. Other safetybarriers are not inspected and their condition is not known.The six monthly inspections undertaken by the street management team pick updetails of any damaged signs, poles, barriers, or street furniture that need repairor replacing as part of the adhoc reactive maintenance.Following the recent inventory video survey condition information relating tosigns, barriers & street furniture is now available for 30% of the Classifiednetwork and 20% of the unclassified network, this is based on a courseinspection as detailed in table 20.3.1 below.Table 20.3.1 Local Condition Rating Criteria for Signs, Barriers & Street FurnitureRating Signs Sign Posts Guardrail / Safety FenceBollards1 As new As new As new As new2 Sound Sound Sound3 Some signs ofcorrosionSome signs ofcorrosionSome signs ofcorrosionSome signs ofcorrosion4 Significant Significant Significant Significantsigns of signs of signs of signs ofcorrosion corrosion corrosion corrosionand/or difficultto read5 Badly corroded Badly corroded Badly corroded Badly corrodedand/or can’tand/or woodenreadpostsM Missing Missing Missing MissingPRequirespaintingRequirespaintingRequirespaintingN/A207


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanUsing the survey information, and factoring for the areas yet to be surveyed, ithas been possible to estimate the overall condition of the existing Signs, Barriers& Street Furniture asset.Table 20.3.2 below gives the estimated quantity of assets and percentage ofeach asset type that fall into each of the condition ratings.Table 20.3.2 Estimated Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture ConditionAsset ItemTotalRating1Rating2Rating3Rating4Rating5RatingMRatingPSigns 18773 No 9818 4731 1690 695 620 1220 N/A% 52.3 25.2 9.0 3.7 3.3 6.5 N/APosts 12377 No 7290 3107 1186 235 347 210 1324% 58.9 25.1 9.6 1.9 2.8 1.7 10.7Safety 39.6 Km 9.2 9.3 6.5 2.2 10.9 1.4 N/AFence Km % 23.3 23.5 16.5 5.5 27.6 3.6 N/APedestrian 53.2 Km 9.6 30.6 8.5 0.8 2.7 1.0 23.9Guardrail Km % 18 57.5 15.9 1.6 5.2 1.8 44.8Bollards 10682 No 2008 7125 353 118 534 534 1346% 18.8 66.7 3.3 1.1 5.0 5.0 12.620.4 DemandsThe demands set on signs, barriers and street furniture can be numerous. Anumber of particular demands identified by Newcastle City are set out below:• Providing safe movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic• Providing efficient movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic• Sufficient build quality to withstand the usage and environment• Providing access routes for the disadvantaged particularly the disabled• Providing advice and guidance to motorists, location, parking areas etc20.4.1 Levels of ServiceA number of aspirational levels of service have been set with regard to theregular replacement of old and worn out equipment (Table 20.4.1) but at presentfunding is not available for undertaking these activities, there is also insufficientfunding available for undertaking a regular cleaning regime which means thatsigns may become obscured by dirt and detritus making them unfit for purpose.Table 20.4.1 Aspirational levels of service for equipment replacementTypeSign PostsRegulatory sign platesADS signsInformatory signsReplacement Frequency30 Years15 years15 years15 years208


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan20.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands.Examples of typical performance gaps are detailed in table 20.5.1 below.Table 20.5.1 Examples of Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture PerformanceGapsItem Problem Possible ResponseSign clutterLack of appropriate signsExisting signs out of date orredundantCondition of signs, posts &street furnitureInadequate repairs to signs &street furnitureCondition of safety barrierToo many signs erected inone area causing confusionfor road users. Or signsbeing obscured by othersigns or street furniture.Insufficient signs erected toadequately perform purpose.Where alterations have beenmade to the transportinfrastructure signage hasnot been updated to reflectthis.Age of signs, posts & streetfurniture and lack ofmaintenance leading tostructural failure.Repairs to damaged signs,posts & street furniture notbeing undertaken within areasonable timescale.Age of safety barrier andlack of maintenance leadingto structural failure.Review and rationalise signs& street furniture whereverpossible.Review existing signage andarrange for provision ofadditional where necessary.Review existing signage andarrange for amendmentswhere necessary. Includingremoval of redundant posts.Undertake regular conditionsurveys of the sign & streetfurniture asset.Set and measureperformance standards forthe repair of damaged signs,posts & street furniture.Undertake regular conditionsurveys of the safety barrierasset.20.6 Option Appraisal20.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-today work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal of structural elements or components which havebecome unserviceable due to general wear and tear or have deteriorated forother reasons, but does include the day-to-day fault repairs undertaken on anadhoc basis. Routine maintenance activities for signs, barriers and streetfurniture are detailed in table 20.6.1.209


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanTable 20.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance Activity Maintenance Interval ResponsibilityRepair or replacement Adhoc reactive Street Managementof damaged sign, maintenanceTeambarrier, etc.20.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is comprised of major (planned) work that does notincrease the asset’s designed capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces orrenews an existing asset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’)Many of the steady state maintenance activities for signs, barriers and streetfurniture comprise of the replacement of faulty or worn out equipment as part of aplanned carriageway or footway scheme rather than being an independentscheme.20.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity.Creation: The constantimprovement of the HighwayNetwork, particularly with regard tosafety, means that new signs,barriers and street furniture assetsare created on a regular basis. Suchwork being instigated by Planning &Transportation and EngineeringServices.Acquisition: Acquisition of sign, barrier & street furniture assets is normallyassociated with the taking up of maintenance responsibilities following newdevelopments, this is normally managed by the development control team usingSection.38 or 106 legal agreements.Upgrading: Upgrading activities are not regularly undertaken to the signs,barriers and street furniture asset, although some works are undertaken as aconsequence of the need to improve the Highway Network particularly in regardto safety.210


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan20.6.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation.As with asset creation the constant improvement of the Highway Network,particularly with regard to safety, means that signs, barriers and street furnitureassets are disposed of on a regular basis. Such work being instigated byPlanning & Transportation and Engineering Services.20.7 OptimisationReactive (Adhoc) MaintenanceAs with other assets the monies for repairs or minor replacement of signs,barriers and street furniture comes from the overall budget which is based onhistoric precedent and is made available to the Street Management Team. Inrecent years this budget has been a target for financial cuts and is below the sumneeded to maintain the highway efficiently and to respond effectively to therequests of residents.The adhoc highways revenue budget of approaching £ 2.1 million, has been splitup within a number of different budget headings, initially broken down intoPrincipal, Classified & Unclassified roads. A number of sub-headings are thenused within these groupings, although in some cases the money from one budgetheading is used for works within another heading where funds are insufficient tocarry out the necessary work.These sums are then allocated against work orders as and when requiredfollowing inspections or reports from members of the public highlighting defects.The remaining budget available is updated as each new order / invoice is placedand is checked on a weekly basis to try to limit any overspend.The budget highlighted for signs, barriers & street furniture currently stands atapproximately £90,000, which covers only the reactive maintenancerequirements of the infrastructure and makes no allowance for plannedmaintenance works or improvement schemes.It is estimated that £50,000 is required for meeting purely the statutory (safety)obligations of the council with regard to signs, barriers & street furniture, whichwould not allow for the replacement of missing nameplates or repairs to othersigns, barriers or street furniture which were not considered to be potentiallyhazardous.20.7.1 Service OptionsA developed asset management approach is intended to facilitate better decisionmaking by providing enhanced information to support the decision makingprocess. In practical terms this means the identification and assessment ofService Options.211


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanThe following are the service option categories selected for inclusion in theHAMP♦ Statutory (Minimum): Meeting statutory or legislative requirements only♦ Existing: Is the effect of a continuance of current funding levels♦ Requested: The amount of additional funding required based on customerexpectations and political aspirations♦ Optimum Service: Assesses constraints as well as desires to identify aneconomically optimal Level of Service. This option is determined from thelife cycle planning process.♦ Attainable Service: Re-interprets the optimum option in the light ofavailable resources. (E.g. budget constraints).Table 20.7.1 below details the service options determined for the asset.Table 20.7.1 Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Service OptionsAsset GroupStatutory MinimumExisting(2005/6 Budget)Requested AdditionalFundingOptimumGeneraldescription ofeach ServiceOptionMinimum (Reactive)level of service meetingstatutory or legislativerequirements only.The current LoStypically as set out inthe City’s MP ornational. COPsA LoS that attempts tomeet customerexpectations andpolitical aspirationsLoS based uponengineering principles& technical judgementSigns,Barriers &StreetFurnitureApprox. £130K paReplace potentiallyhazardous and damagedsigns & furniture only butthis would be offset by arise in reactivemaintenance in futureyears.Approx. £130K paAt present onlyreactive maintenanceis undertaken.Estimated at anadditional £1.57m pafor 5 years, plus anadditional £0.87m pathereafterThis will bring theassets up to anacceptable standardand remove thebacklog of works. Thisis based on a 20%sample of surveyedassets using bothinventory and conditioninformationEstimated at £1.7m pafor 5 years, thereafter£1.0m pa for lifecyclereplacementsMore flexible “needs”based maintenanceschedule. Signs &street furnitureinspected, cleaned andpainted on a regularbasis in order tomaintain the assetcondition in line withthe Code of Practice20.7.2 Levels of ServiceLevels of Service identified by Newcastle City Council specific to the Signs,Barriers and Street Furniture can be found in table 20.11.1 along with theiridentified performance measures.20.7.3 BacklogUsing the estimated condition ratings based on the condition survey, a currentbacklog figure has been calculated for each of the assets based on works beingrequired to any asset that falls within rating bands 4, 5 and M. (See table 20.3.1)Current backlog figures are shown in table 20.7.2 below.212


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanTable 20.7.2 Current Backlog of Signs, Barriers & Street FurnitureAsset Percentage ValueSigns 14.5 £1.0MPosts 6.4 £0.3MSafety Fence 36.7 £2.6MPedestrian Guardrail 4.6 £0.7MBollards 11.1 £0.3M20.8 Risk Management – Signs, Barriers and Street FurnitureRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk identification exercise has been undertaken and a risk register and matrixscoring system has been developed and is attached to this document asappendix B. The following are examples of the significant risks associated withthis asset.20.8.1 The major risk with signs, barriers and street furniture is that ofequipment failure leading to a major Road Traffic Accident which couldresult in:♦♦♦♦♦Loss of lifeSerious injuryDamage to adjacent property and servicesEnvironmental damageProlonged disruption to the travelling publicThis would lead to a significant financial implication for:♦♦♦♦♦♦Compensation claimsRepair to property & servicesEmergency services feesReplacement of equipmentEnvironmental clean upProvision of an alternative routeConsequential costs could be:♦♦♦♦Poor public image of the CouncilEconomic loss to local businessesProlonged environmental damageHardship for the disadvantaged when using the alternative route213


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle PlanThis risk can be mitigated by regular safety inspections and conditionassessments of all equipment, which lead to necessary repairs being carried outin a timely fashion, the carrying out of routine maintenance to preventdeterioration of the equipment and the introduction of robust procedures toensure that fault reports are dealt with in a timely fashion.20.8.2 Secondary risks include: The inability to maintain demandrequirements.This could result in:♦♦Inadequately signed routes,disruption to travelling public,The financial implications being:♦The cost of providing temporary signageWith the consequential costs being:♦♦♦poor public image,economic loss to businesses,hardship for disadvantaged20.9 Forward Works ProgrammeAs most maintenance work undertaken for these assets is adhoc reactivemaintenance there is no forward work programme in place, although a budgetarysum can be allocated for the annual programme based on historical data.A programme of major maintenance schemes, which may involve some repairsto these assets is in place but the specific works related to signs, barriers andstreet furniture is not costed separately.A programme of new works for the introduction of assets within traffic &transportation schemes is also in place these works being instigated by thePlanning & Transportation team and Engineering Services.20.10 Physical WorksGenerally works for revenue budgeted and minor capital projects are orderedthrough an internal agreement with the Newcastle City Council Highways &Traffic Signals section. In addition a Highway Construction Services frameworkpartnership has been entered into with Colas (North) Ltd and CumbrianIndustrials Ltd, for a period of two years with an optional third year, for theundertaking of specialist work and any work that cannot be sufficiently resourcedby HTS.214


Signs, Barriers & Street Furniture Life Cycle Plan20.11 Performance ManagementA number of Local performance indicators developed for Newcastle City Councilare shown in table 20.11.1 belowTable 20.11.1 Local Performance IndicatorsLEVELS OF SERVICEMaintenanceEmergency defects shall beattended to with immediateresponse (not longer than 2hours)Category 2 (non-emergency)defects shall be rectified ormade safe within 24 hoursRepairs on Category 3 defectswill be carried out within 10daysRepairs on Category 4 defectswill be carried out within onemonthInspectionsService inspections of signs(illuminated & non-illuminated) andother street furniture will beundertaken every 2 yearsSafety inspections of safetybarriers and guard rail will beundertaken at a maximum 6monthly interval as part of thecarriageway or footway safetyinspectionsSafety inspections of signs(illuminated & non-illuminated) andother street furniture will beundertaken at a maximum 6monthly interval as part of thecarriageway or footway safetyinspectionsPERFORMANCEMEASUREREVIEWFREQUENCYTARGETSCOREOBJECTIVESPercentage ofdefects attendedwithin the allottedtimescale Quarterly 100% SafetyPercentage of Cat 2defects attendedwithin the allottedtimescale Quarterly 100% SafetyPercentage of Cat 3defects attendedwithin the allottedtimescale Quarterly 95% SafetyPercentage of Cat 4defects attendedwithin the allottedtimescale Quarterly 95% SafetyPercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmePercentage ofinspections undertakenas per the programmeAnnually 100%To beimplementedas animprovementaction whenfundingbecomesavailableAnnually 100% SafetyAnnually 100% SafetyServiceability,Sustainability20.12 Improvement ActionsComplete full inventory survey and maintain• Collect and maintain condition data for all assets• Review levels of service and undertake a consultation process• Review forward work programme following review of levels of service• Review works programmes and budget requirements• Further develop risk assessment system• Review current business processes in light of asset management practiceto identify improvements that can be made to the service provided215


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle Plan21.0 Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanA winter maintenance snow & ice plan has been developed for Newcastle City Counciland incorporates in much greater detail information regarding the Gritting Routes, HandSpreading Locations & Location of Grit Bins throughout the City of Newcastle.21.1 Goals and ObjectivesThe goals and objectives that relate to winter maintenance within Newcastle Citycouncil are many, those that relate particularly to this plan comprise:• To provide safe movement of traffic within Newcastle City on those roadsidentified as a priority to the travelling public• To allow free movement on footpaths on those routes identified as a priority topedestrians• To prevent accidents to members of the public caused by adverse weatherconditions while travelling by mechanical vehicle or on foot• To ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that the safe passage along ahighway is not endangered by snow or ice.These objectives meet the Authorities Local Transport Plan objectives detailedbelow:• Build on existing partnerships with stakeholders to ensure maximum impact ofany measures enacted;• Through liaison identify the particular needs of disabled people and meetthem wherever possible;• Improve road safety and contribute towards the national casualty reductionstrategy;• Improve safety for children;• Improve safety for pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders;In addition the Local Transport Plan identifies the following Transport StrategyThemes, which an effective winter maintenance plan will help support:• Access for All;• Cycling;• Public Transport;• Maintenance;• Safety and Security;• Travel and Demand Management;• Economic Development;• Environmental Protection.21.2 InventoryInformation on the inventory of the winter maintenance infrastructure takes manyforms and is held within a number of different media:216


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanPhysical assetsNewcastle City Council have two salt stockpiles the main stockpile is housed atthe Rothbury Terrace depot in the east of the City, with a reserve stockpile beinghoused at the Whitehouse Enterprise Centre in the west of the City. Bothstockpiles comprise approximately 11,000 tonnes of salt.The authority has 14 mechanical gritting machines throughout the City asdetailed in table 21.2.1Table 21.2.1 Types and locations of Mechanical Gritting machinesGritter Type Size Depot & NumberFixed Body 16 Tonne Rothbury Terrace 4NoFixed Body 10 Tonne Rothbury Terrace 8NoDemountable 8 Tonne Newington Road 2NoGrit BinsThere are at present 6 large grit bins and 427 small grit bins located throughoutthe City. (For further location detail refer to the Newcastle City Council wintermaintenance ice & snow plan)21.3 ConditionThe condition of the highway asset regarding winter maintenance is as a directresult of the reactive work carried out on any given day and thus cannot berecorded within this document.21.4 DemandsThe demands placed upon the winter maintenance function are to ensure, as faras is reasonably practicable, that the safe passage along a highway is notendangered by snow or ice. In practice it is impracticable to treat all roads withinthe City of Newcastle and therefore a priority list of roads and footpaths to betreated has been set up.Those roads identified for pre-treatment to prevent the formation of snow and iceon the carriageway are those named on the primary and secondary grittingroutes, appendices 3 and 4, within the snow & ice plan.The primary gritting routes comprise of the following category of road:• Scheduled bus routes• Strategic link roads• Trunk roads• Principal roads• Other classified roads217


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanThe roads on the secondary gritting routes are made up of residential streets withmajor inclines, industrial estates and historic routes.The primary gritting routes are confirmed clear prior to moving on to thesecondary gritting routes and this may mean that in severe weather conditions,where the primary routes require a number of passes, that the secondary grittingroutes do not get completed.All identified roads are gritted full width during ice conditions but may be reducedto a single track during heavy snowfall.• Salt used should meet the standard set in BS3247:1991• Vehicle Spread Rates should meet the standard set in BS1622 see Table21.4.1Table 21.4.1 Salt Spread RatesWeather ConditionSpread Rate - grams per squaremetreFrost 20Ice 20Snow 30 - 40Snow ploughs will be fitted to the mechanical gritters when snowfall is forecast,with ploughing of carriageways commencing when accumulations of snow reacha depth of 4cm and is expected to last for long periods.Footpaths will not receive pre-treatment; the treatment of footpaths will only becarried out when ice has been identified.Those footpaths to be treated for ice are contained in appendix 1 of the ice &snow plan and will be treated in strictly priority order within each team’s route.Appendix 5 & 6 of the snow & ice plan details the footpaths to be treated onlywhen snow falls to a depth of 5cm or more, they do not receive treatment whencovered in frost or ice.Grit bins are provided for use on roads and footways where the layout offootways and roads may lead to hazardous areas during severe weatherconditions. Requests for Grit Bins are taken by Neighbourhood ResponseManagers via envirocall. The Neighbourhood Response Manager will assess thelocation and consideration will be given where: -• The highway is on a steep incline• The road contains a sharp bend• The highway joins a major road from a minor road and is nottreated as part of the Primary Gritting Route shown in Appendix (3)section 5 of the snow & ice planThe siting of the grit bin when meeting the above criteria will be based onwhether a convenient area can be located and the majority of residents approvethe location.218


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanThe decision to send out the mechanical gritters or hand spreading gangs istaken by the Waste Operations Manager or the Senior Service Delivery Manageror their appointed deputies and is based upon the weather forecast received fromthe Met Office and on the ‘rototherm’ temperature indicator located at theRothbury Terrace depot.Indicators from the Met Office detail a red, amber or green condition and areacted upon as detailed in table 21.4.2.Table 21.4.2 Reactions to Met Office ForecastCode Colour Meaning ReactionRedThe temperature is due todrop below freezing at agiven timeAmberGreenThe temperature maydrop below freezing andshould be monitored.Weather is not due todrop below freezingDeploy mechanicalgritters on theappropriate routesPay close attention torototherm and deploygritters if necessaryNo action necessaryThe rototherm is an indicator of temperature change and the decision to grit isbased on a rapid deterioration in outside temperature with a continuing drop intemperature following.Emergency call out response times in severe weather change will be up to 2hours. This does not include vehicle start up times and loading times. The routescovered are those shown in Appendix (3) of the snow & ice plan, Primary RoutesOnly.21.5 Performance GapsPerformance Gaps are a measure of the failures of an asset to meet thedemands of its construction, or the gap between the desired/target condition andthe actual condition. Failures are measured against individual demands. Forexample where an asset has grown obsolete and can no longer be efficientlymaintained. Examples of typical performance gaps are detailed in table 21.5.1below.219


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanTable 21.5.1 Examples of Winter Maintenance Performance GapsPerformance Gap Reason for gap CommentNo pre-treatment of footpaths Availability of labour A decision has been madethat due to resourceconstraints this is anNo frost & ice clearance onlower category footpathsNon-treatment of lowercategory roadsNon-presence of IcepredictionsystemInability to predict iceconditionAvailability of labourAvailability of labourBudgetary constraintsFailure of Rotothermtemperature gaugeacceptable performance gapA decision has been madethat due to resourceconstraints this is anacceptable performance gapA decision has been madethat due to resourceconstraints this is anacceptable performance gapIt is felt that the existingrototherm air temperaturegauge located at theRothbury Terrace depot isinsufficient to effectivelymonitor the networkThe Rototherm failed duringthe winter period but hassince been repaired.21.6 Lifecycle Option Appraisal21.6.1 Routine MaintenanceRoutine Maintenance is the regular ongoing day-to-day work that comprisesservicing rather than repair and is necessary to keep assets operating, this doesnot cover the repair or renewal of structural elements or components which havebecome unserviceable due to general wear and tear or have deteriorated forother reasons, but does include the day-to-day fault repairs undertaken on anadhoc basis. Routine maintenance activities are detailed in table 21.6.1.Table 21.6.1 Routine Maintenance ActivitiesMaintenance ActivityReview & update as necessary theroads & footpath gritting routesServicing of gritting vehiclesRefilling of salt storage locationsRefilling of grit binsMaintenance IntervalAnnuallyBefore the star of the winter period andapproximately 10 weeks later.Before the start of the winter period and asrequired due to high usage.Annually or as required after prolonged periods ofinclement weather.By its very nature winter maintenance is a reactive procedure however althoughthe number and severity of occurrences may differ from year to year the nature ofthe work itself can be classified as being routine.220


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanThe Winter Maintenance – Ice & Snow Plan contains details of both themechanical and hand spread gritting routes throughout the City.There are 17 Primary gritting routes totalling 212 miles in length and 14secondary gritting routes, 6 in the east of the City and 8 in the west of the Citytotalling 83 miles in length. Information regarding these routes is also held in planformat at the Environmental Services’ Rothbury Terrace depot with copies beingissued to each of the gritter drivers prior to starting their routes.The footpath snow clearance & hand gritting areas are administered byNeighbourhood Services, City Wide Services & Engineering Services with hardcopy plans of each of the locations kept at the Environmental Services’ RothburyTerrace Depot and at the relevant depots throughout the City.21.6.2 Renewal/ReplacementRenewal/replacement work is comprised of major (planned) work that does notincrease the asset’s designed capacity, but restores, rehabilitates, replaces orrenews an existing asset to its original capacity. (Maintaining a ‘Steady State’)A replacement programme for gritting vehicles is in place for when a vehiclebecomes unserviceable, this programme being the responsibility of fleet services.21.6.3 Creation/Acquisition/UpgradingCreation/Acquisition/Upgrading is major work that creates a new asset that didnot previously exist, or works that upgrade or improve an asset beyond itsexisting design capacity.There is no creation or acquisition programme in place for winter maintenancealthough additional grit bins are supplied when requested and approved.21.5.4 DisposalDisposal is any activity that removes a decommissioned asset, including sale,demolition or relocation.There is no disposal programme associated with the winter maintenance plan.21.7 OptimisationThe existing budget for winter maintenance is based around historical precedentbut also takes into account the total mileage of the gritting routes, the time takento grit the routes (2-3 hours) the number of vehicles and personnel used and thepresence of a permanent nightshift to undertake the majority of the gritting.The required budget is assessed by breaking down the costs associated witheach of the following items: Cost of salt/grit221


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanCost of purchase and maintenance of the appropriate number ofvehicles to operate the service to the standards setCost of site rental and maintenance of the salt barnCost of providing the appropriate level of manpower to operatethe service to the set standards, including an additional 8temporary full time staff for the 5 month duration of the winterperiod.The current budget for winter maintenance is £ 524,000 of which £ 127,000 is thecost of the salt and the remainder is the costs associated with providing thewinter maintenance service.21.8 Risk Management– Winter MaintenanceRisk is 'the threat that an event or action can adversely affect an organisation’sability to achieve its objectives and to successfully execute its strategies’ (AuditCommission). A simpler definition might be ‘the chance of something happeningthat will have an impact on objectives’.A risk register for winter maintenance is being prepared and will be incorporatedinto this document on its completion.21.9 Forward Works ProgrammeIt is difficult to project a forward work programme for winter maintenance as themajority of the work is reactive, however historical precedent can be used toestimate the amount of works required and the cost of the works. At present thisis done on an annual basis and may vary greatly due to changes in weatherconditions.21.10 Physical WorksThe majority of the winter maintenance works are undertaken by theEnvironmental Services cleansing section as a statutory duty; with theEnvironmental Services City Wide Services section and Engineering servicesundertaking the gritting of some footpaths during snow conditions.The particular responsibilities for each section related to the appendices numbersof the snow & ice plan are detailed below.Environmental Services - CleansingManual team gritting roads and footpaths treated during frost, ice & snowconditionsGrit bin locating and refillingPrimary gritting routesSecondary gritting routesEnvironmental Services Cleansing has 4 hand spreading teams who operatewithin in the City centre.222


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle PlanNeighbourhood Response SectionThe neighbourhood response section operates 26 ward based handspreading teams who operate outside of the City centre.Environmental Services - GroundsPersonnel reallocated from other duties to carry out footpath gritting only duringsnow conditionsEnvironmental Services Grounds operate teams from four depots; RothburyTerrace, Jesmond Dene, Sandhills & Condercum Road.Engineering ServicesPersonnel reallocated from other duties to carry out footpath gritting only duringsnow conditionsEngineering Services operate hand spreading gangs for the west of the City fromCondercum Road depot and for the east of the City from Newington Road depot.Possible Future SituationNewcastle City Council Environmental Services have decided to put a number ofservices to competitive tender commencing in year 2007/2008 including themanagement and operation of the winter maintenance service.21.11 Performance ManagementThere are no performance measures in place for winter maintenance, routinesupervision of works is undertaken and operatives are required to fill in a wintermaintenance book to record that the route has been completed.There are no time limits set for winter maintenance and as such the time taken tocomplete each route is not recorded.21.12 Improvement Actions• Develop and agree a number of performance measures related to thewinter maintenance service, including: Spread rates for the gritting vehicles Re-filling of salt bins within two working days of receiving arequest• Development of a service improvement plan looking at a number of topicssuch as the effectiveness of outsourcing the service, the updating orreplacing of the existing vehicles, the cost of providing a network wide iceprediction system etc.• Update and publish the snow & ice plan, and make it available via theinternet223


Winter Maintenance Life Cycle Plan• Introduce network wide ice prediction system Review current business processes in light of assetmanagement practice to identify improvements that can bemade to the service provided224


Conclusions and Recommendations22.0 Conclusions and RecommendationsA large amount of improvement actions have been undertaken throughoutthe development of the HAMP, particularly in relation to data collection,storage and maintenance together with a change in processes necessary toimplement a cohesive highway asset management strategy.The improvement actions that have been identified within this plan are key tothe ongoing implementation of asset management and as such are seen as apriority within the service.Newcastle City Council is committed to improving the management andmaintenance of the highway and is keen to engage all parties in progresstowards providing a safe, accessible, economically viable, environmentallyfriendly and well maintained asset.225

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