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motoringDirectionsSEPTEMBER 09Chief Executive’s OverviewA Decade of Action for Road SafetyAustralia Takes a New Track on Road SafetyElectric Vehicles – The Way of the Future?


Australian Automobile AssociationIncorporated in the ACTABN: 25 008 526 369GPO Box 1555Canberra ACT 2601Tel: 61 2 6247 7311Fax: 61 2 6257 5320Email: aaa@aaa.asn.auWebsite: www.aaa.asn.auEditorAllan YatesCommunications ManagerAustralian Automobile AssociationDesignMeta Design, Canberrawww.metadesignstudio.com.auThe views expressed in Motoring Directionsare not necessarily those of the AAA


ContentsChief Executive’s Overview 2Mike HarrisA Decade of Action for Road Safety 3Mike HarrisAustralia Takes a New Track on Road Safety 9Allan YatesElectric Vehicles – The Way of the Future?James Cameron2Australian Automobile Association


Chief Executive’s OverviewA Decade of Action for Road SafetyWelcome to the latest issue of Motoring Directions, theAustralian Automobile Association’s (AAA) occasionalpublication aimed at providing motoring clubs, membersand road safety stakeholders with some differentmaterial and views on a range of subjects.AAA has been very busy on a number of fronts to date in 2009.All Australians have a stake in ensuring road safety and reducingthe unacceptably high levels of road trauma and tragedy, andAAA acknowledges its role as the peak consumer and advocacybody on these motoring issues.Apart from our ongoing dialogue with the Federal Governmentand, through the Clubs, State and Territory Governments, wehave been active in taking up and dealing with internationalprograms such as the FIA’s call for a Decade of Action on itsglobal road safety campaign, Make Roads Safe.AAA is speaking to the Federal Transport Minister, AnthonyAlbanese, about attending a global summit in Russia laterthis year to discuss road safety issues and develop workablesolutions to this critical community issue.AAA’s assessment of the Federal Budget was scored a “pass”but not a “credit” – there are still areas of road safety andinfrastructure funding that can be improved.Despite large funding outlays for infrastructure projects, manyof them road infrastructure, there is still much that needs tobe done to ensure a safe, integrated, environmentally friendly,national road network.Serving Motorists’NeedsPeople should not have to die or end up in hospital if they makea simple mistake while driving. Often it is an unforgiving roadwayor “de-specced” vehicle that can exacerbate that mistake andturn it into a tragedy.There is an opportunity to build safety into the road networkand to ensure cars on the Australian market are safe. This is amessage that AAA and the clubs promote to governments androad agencies as often as possible.Having said that, the Commonwealth does recognise theimportance of road safety and has moved to establish the firstNational Road Safety Council, a body that will comprise a mixof road safety experts and high profile Australians who canhighlight issues and advise governments on action and effectivesafety measures.And for those people who are looking for a new car and wishingto do their bit for the environment, we include an article onelectric cars – what is available and what will be available inyears to come.It makes for some interesting and thought provoking reading.We commend Motoring Directions and its content to Clubmembers and all who have a stake in road safety.Happy MotoringMike HarrisExecutive DirectorAustralian Automobile AssociationBy Mike HarrisChief ExecutiveAustralian Automobile AssociationMake Roads Safe ‘Decade of Action’ reportlaunched to save 5 million livesGovernments in all countries must combat the world’s fastestgrowing public health emergency by committing to a roadsafety ‘Decade of Action’ which would save 5 million lives andprevent 50 million serious injuries, says the new report by theFIA Foundation’s Commission for Global Road Safety launched inRome on 5 May.A co-ordinated UN action plan for road safety is urgently neededwith road crashes set to become the leading cause of disabilityand premature death for children aged 5-14 across developingcountries by 2015.The report, Make Roads Safe, is the second report from theCommission for Global Road Safety, led by Rt. Hon. LordRobertson of Port Ellen. The Commission was established toexamine the framework for, and level of, international cooperationon road safety and to make policy recommendations.One key recommendation for the first ever Ministerial-level globalconference on road safety, was adopted by the UN GeneralAssembly in 2008.12,000,00010,000,0008,000,0006,000,0004,000,0004241Commission for Global Road Safety Chair, Lord Robertson,urged politicians to take action globally through the forthcomingMinisterial meeting to be held in November.“Five million lives are at stake over the coming decade. We havethe tools and the vaccines to save these lives, now we needthe international community to demonstrate the political will tosucceed,” Lord Robertson said.“The forthcoming ministerial meeting in Moscow can be theturning point marking a new direction for global road safety. Wemust respond to this preventable epidemic with urgency anddetermination.”The ‘Make Roads Safe’ report, endorsed by the world’s leadingroad safety experts, urges UN governments attending the firstever global governmental conference on road safety in Moscowin November, to support a ‘Decade of Action for Road Safety’between 2010-2020.During the Decade, the international community should invest ina $300 million action plan to catalyse traffic injury prevention andre-focus national road safety policies and budgets.Road crashes already kill more people in the developing worldthan malaria, at an economic cost of up to $100 billion a year,equivalent to all overseas aid from OECD countries:21MalariaTuberculosisHIV/AIDSRoad TrafficInjuries2,000,0000162222 2027 232005 2015 2030 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association


• More than one million people are killed on the roads ofdeveloping countries every year, and tens of millions areinjured – a toll set to double by 2030. Road crashes arealready the leading global cause of death for young peopleaged 10-24;• Road crashes have now overtaken malaria as a major killer indeveloping countries;• They are forecast to be the number one cause of disabilityand premature death for children aged 5-14 in developingcountries by 2015, according to World Health Organisation(WHO) projections.To tackle this growing epidemic, the Commission for Global RoadSafety makes a number of key recommendations:• The UN should approve a ‘Decade of Action for Road Safety’and governments should collectively commit to reducing theforecast 2020 level of road deaths by 50% (from 1.9 millionto below 1 million a year). It would have a similar status to thecurrent UN Decade to Roll Back Malaria;• Achieving the 2020 target could save up to 5 million livesand prevent 50 million serious injuries – a $300 millioninternational fund should be established to encourage andsupport road safety interventions;• Interim targets and strategies should be established topromote 100% helmet and seat belt use in every country by2020, together with other road safety interventions;• The World Bank, regional development banks and otherdonors should dedicate at least 10% of their road investmentbudgets to road safety;• The UN Secretary General should appoint a UN Special Envoyfor Road Safety to raise the profile of the issue.An Action PlanRoad crashes kill at least 1.3 million people each year and injure50 million, a toll greater than deaths from Malaria. Ninety percentof these road casualties are in low and middle income countries.Each year 260,000 children die on the road and another millionare seriously injured, often permanently disabled.By 2015 road crashes are predicted by WHO to be the leadingcause of premature death and disability for children aged 5 andabove. This hidden road injury epidemic is a crisis for publichealth and a major contributor to the causes of poverty. Yet aidagencies, development NGOs, philanthropic foundations and keyinternational institutions continue to neglect or ignore this rapidlygrowing problem.Road traffic fatalities are forecast to increase over the next 10years from a current level of more than 1.3 million to more than1.9 million by 2020. The Commission for Global Road Safetybelieves that the urgent priority is to halt this appalling andavoidable rise in road injury and then begin to achieve year onyear reductions. The world could prevent 5 million deaths and50 million serious injuries by 2020 by dramatically scaling upinvestment in road safety at global, regional and national levels.The first Global Ministerial Meeting on road safety, to be held inMoscow in November 2009 has the opportunity to set a newdirection for global road safety. The UN General Assembly willthen debate the results of the Moscow Ministerial during its 64thSession. The Commission, therefore, makes the following 10recommendations to the Moscow Ministerial and UN GeneralAssembly:1. The Moscow Ministerial should support, and the UN GeneralAssembly approve, the proposal that a Decade of Action forRoad Safety be launched by the United Nations in 2010, withthe objective of reducing the forecast level of road deaths for2020 by 50%.2. Governments should commit to attain the Decade goalby implementing a five pillar Action Plan designed to (1)build management capacity, (2) influence road design andnetwork management, (3) influence vehicle safety design,(4) influence road user behaviour and (5) improve post crashcare.3. Low and middle-income countries will be expending billionsof dollars in road infrastructure and transport over thecoming decades and it will be crucial that they sharpen theirinvestment focus on improving safety outcomes. To catalyzethis process the international community, including donorgovernments and private philanthropic foundations, shouldinvest US$300 million in the proposed 10-year Action Plan tobuild global, regional and country capacity, enable pilot anddemonstration projects and encourage increased nationalinvestments in road safety.4. Governments should commit to implement a series ofspecific and achievable actions at regional and national level,including setting ambitious road casualty reduction targets,the creation of a lead road safety agency (eg: with legallyestablished responsibilities and sustainable funding sources)and harmonised systems of data collection (eg: compliancewith prescribed International Road Traffic Accident Database– IRTAD Group – benchmarks).5. Governments should establish 2020 targets for: improvedinfrastructure safety (eg: compliance with prescribed userprotection scores); improved vehicle safety (eg: complianceat minimum with prescribed crash ratings); improved roaduser behaviour (eg: compliance with prescribed seat belt andmotorcycle helmet wearing rates); adherence to prescribedblood alcohol levels, and compliance with prescribed speedlimits; and improved post-crash responses (eg: compliancewith prescribed injury crash response times).6. The World Bank and the regional development banks,together with donor nations, should ensure that at least 10%of the cost of their road investment projects are dedicatedto safety rating, assessment and infrastructure improvement(eg: safety barriers, pedestrian facilities, roundabouts, motorcycle lanes, etc). This principle should be applied by donorsin line with the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.7. Governments in high income countries should lead byexample by continuing to make progress in improving theirroad safety performance, by the adoption of a ‘safe systems’approach to road safety, as recommended by the OECD/ITF‘Towards Zero’ expert report.8. High-income, high performing countries should alsorecognise their obligation to share their experience andknow-how with low and middle income countries, throughstudy exchanges and technical partnerships, and by enablingthe transfer of knowledge and supporting implementationprojects.9. The Commission urges that the UN Commission forSustainable Development (CSD) ensure that road safetyis for the first time fully recognised as a key contributor tosustainable development and the Millennium DevelopmentGoals when it examines transport in its forthcoming policycycle review (2010-11).10. The UN Secretary General should appoint a UN SpecialEnvoy for Road Safety to encourage progress and raiseawareness during the Decade of Action which should besubject to a mid-term review in 2015.Global road safety action planThe objective of the proposed Global Road Safety Action Plan isto increase local technical capacity in low and middle incomecountries, and to ensure that road safety management becomesself-sustaining over the long term.A 10-year program of catalytic investment is needed to supportthe Decade of Action, the funding of which the Commissionrecommends should be managed by the World Bank GlobalRoad Safety Facility. Allocations within the proposed $300million plan were proposed in the first report of the Commissionfor Global Road Safety, as presented in the following table, andare indicative only. They will need to be reviewed within theproposed implementation plan based on the five pillars drawnfrom the ‘safe systems’ approach, and refined accordingly.Activity Component Activity BudgetA Strategic GlobalDirectionA Global activityCoordinationFunds for the Action Plan to 2020 to be directed by the Global Road Safety Facility,hosted by the World Bank, working in partnership with donor countries andorganisations, and other road safety stakeholders. Activities to be delivered by arange of implementation partners, including, for example, UN Global Road SafetyCollaboration members; Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP); iRAP; and theRoad Traffic Injuries Research NetworkCoordinationUN Global Road Safety CollaborationRole: to coordinate the response of UN agencies and regional commissions to roadtraffic injuries; organise bi-annual meeting and produce advisory publications;and to work with the Global Road Safety Facility, Road Traffic Injuries ResearchNetwork, Global Road Safety Partnership, and other stakeholders to ensure acommon agendaAdvocacyMake Roads Safe Campaign, Youth Road Safety network and other advocacyplatforms Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association


AdvocacyRegional ActivityBudget: Global/Regional ActivityNational ActivityRole: to promote global awareness of and political support for road safety; toorganise regional advocacy platforms to raise awareness and foster collaboration;to encourage and support the development of autonomous national civil societyroad safety coalitions.Capacity Building & CoordinationFunding to enable capacity building and coordination at regional level: workingwith road safety specialists in each UN Regional Commission and regionaldevelopment bank tasked with identifying and facilitating a network of nationalroad safety ‘champions’ in government and civil society; developing and sustainingregional strategies; and promoting wider adoption of best practice.10% budget allocation at $3 million per year for 10 years. $30 millionThe bulk of Action Plan funding to be directed to national activity, with theemphasis on providing seed corn funding for integrated, multi-sectoral projectsin line with the ‘systems approach’ to injury prevention. This stands to anchorthe country capacity building efforts in systematic, measurable, and accountableinvestment programmes. These integrated packages to include the following fourcomponents:Assessment &ResearchBudget: AssessmentResearch3. Infrastructure AssessmentSafety assessment of new road projects should be a core component of roadinfrastructure budgets. The Action Plan would complement this support by buildingassessment capacity – training the assessors – and in developing assessmenttools. The International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP) is developingassessment protocols for low and middle income countries which should beapplied nationally;4. Research into countermeasuresResearch into the effectiveness and transferability of countermeasures isan important quality control element within the integrated project approach.RTIRN researchers and advisers from transport consultancies such as TRLhave considerable experience in this area, and can work with institutions anduniversities in low and middle income countries developing national research skillsat the same time as measuring countermeasure delivery and results. Buildingsustainable national and regional capacity for designing,implementing, managingand evaluating control programmes will be a key objective of the Action Plan.10% Budget allocation at $3 million per year for 10 years $30 millionAssessment &ResearchAssessment & ResearchThe Assessment & Research component consists of four main elements:1. Road safety systems analysisAnalysis of a country’s road safety management capacity is essential for identifyinggovernmental strengths and weaknesses, data availability, and the operatingenvironment for any potential donor support. The Action Plan can provide fundingand experts to assist with this evaluation, which must be a prerequisite for supportin other areas;2. Data collection and analysisInjury data are a necessary tool for both understanding, and responding to, roadtraffic injuriesThe World Report considers in detail the data requirements for a reliable injuryreporting system. Data are not just of interest to academic researchers; they arevital political tools that provide the evidence needed to marshal resources anddetermine priorities for action. Without such evidence on the scale, incidence, andcausation of road crashes, the problem may be neglected, and the resources thatare made available may not be used in the most cost-effective way.Building the systems to deliver reliable data should be a priority action for manycountries. Funding through the Action Plan stands to catalyse knowledge transferand implementation of data collection in police and health services. A priorityshould be to develop the system with regionwide participation and coordination;Institutional CapacityInstitutional CapacityStrengthening the institutional capacity of government to lead road traffic injuryprevention needs to be a priority. Systemic capacity weaknesses – unsuitable orfragmented road traffic regulation; lack of accountability or coordination; weak orcorrupt governance and enforcement systems; lack of training and funding – arethe biggest obstacle to implementing road safety programmes, and the first areathat must be addressed.The Action Plan will facilitate assistance to governments in implementing the keyrelevant recommendations of the World Report: identifying and funding a leadagency; preparing national (and regional/local) road safety strategies and actionplans; and allocating financialand trained human resources to injury prevention.Addressing management systems, encouraging governmental integration atdepartmental/agency level, reviewing police enforcement issues and strategies,and encouraging a strong civil society response to road injuries (for examplethrough a National Road Safety Council and supporting victims groups) will all beincluded in capacity reviews.In many countries there is a shortage of skilled manpower and a lack ofknowledge and understanding. For road safety to be made a priority for actionthere must be capacity building and knowledge transfer in order to sustain longtermprogrammes. Secondment of experts, and twinning arrangements to trainlocal staff, conferences and workshops, and provision of technical expertise andmanuals are all methods to achieve capacity building so that expertise can beincreased. Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association


Budget: InstitutionalcapacityInjury PreventionBudget: InjuryPreventionBudget: Post CrashInterventionsAction Plan TotalBudget35% budget allocation at $6 million per year, rising incrementally to$15 mil-lion per year by year 8.Road Traffic Injury PreventionPilot and demonstration projects focused on the recognised road injury risk factorsare another key area for activity within the Action Plan. The components of thePlan outlined above are intended to create an enabling environment for effectiveknowledge transfer from global and regional partners to low and middle incomecountries.This should take the form of well targeted and measurable projects andcampaigns addressing key areas such as seat belt use; helmet compliance; drinkdriving; and speed management. Projects could also include technology transferand adaptation from high income countries, for example low-cost median barriersand traffic calming measures30% budget allocation at $4 million Y1; $6 million Y2&3; then 10million per year rising to $12 million in Y9&10.Post Crash InterventionsFor people not killed outright in a road crash, prompt and effective post crashmedical intervention can save lives and reduce the severity of injuries, be thatby first aiders, medical staff trained in basic trauma care, or more advancedparamedics or physicians. The World Health Organisation has established clearpolicy guidance in this area, and has identified the institutional steps needed atnational level to improve the quality and availability of prehospital trauma care.There is a role for the Action Plan in investing in capacity building measure andin pilot projects that will measurably improve post crash intervention in low andmiddle income countries, and reduce the DALYS burden of road crashes onalready overburdened health systems.15% budget allocation at $3 million per year for 5 years and $6 millionper year for 5 years$105million$90 million45 million$300millionAustralia Takes a New Track on Road SafetyBy Allan YatesCommunications ManagerAustralian Automobile AssociationAustralia’s governments are taking a new turn in the quest toreduce road trauma and bring down the unacceptable highfatality rate on our roads. Road trauma continues to impose anenormous economic and social cost on Australians and it is clearthat new approaches are needed to accelerate national roadsafety improvement.The recent Council of Australian Governments (COAG) meetingin Hobart signed off on a newly-established National RoadSafety Council (NRSC) which, among other things, has adoptedthe internationally-recognised “safe systems” approach toroad safety – safer drivers in safer cars on safer roads – as anunderlying principle.The NRSC has been established to complement the NationalRoad Safety Strategy, which some advocates thought waslosing momentum, and facilitate the implementation ofnationally-agreed road safety reforms. It will harness theexpertise and resources of relevant stakeholders to support theimplementation of National Road Safety Strategies, Action Plansand other initiatives agreed by the Australian Transport Council(ATC).The NRSC will be established as an advisory body to the ATC.Its broad objective will be to contribute to a reduction in deathand serious injury on Australian roads by enhancing the nationalimplementation of effective road safety measures.Federal Transport Minister, Anthony Albanese, believes theCouncil will play a key role in developing and implementing roadsafety strategies at all levels – locally, regionally, state-based,nationally and internationally.“The Rudd Labor Government is committed to working withcommunity and road safety experts, as well as state and territoryauthorities, to reduce the unacceptable level of road trauma inthis country,” Mr Albanese said.“The Council will bring an integrated, national focus toaddressing the major social problem of road trauma.“It will be made up of community leaders and road safetyexperts, and will be tasked with advising Commonwealth, stateand territory transport ministers on the effectiveness of roadsafety measures.”Role, Functions and Operating PrinciplesThe role, functions and operating principles of the NRSC are setout in a formal Terms of Reference document included with thisarticle. Its primary role will be to facilitate the implementation ofkey road safety measures set out in the National Road SafetyStrategy and supporting Action Plans, and as otherwise agreedby the ATC.The State and Federal governments expect the NRSC to achievethe following outcomes:(a) identify opportunities to accelerate, optimise or expand theimplementation of road safety measures;(b) identify, consult and engage with relevant stakeholders tofacilitate the implementation of road safety measures;(c) monitor and report to the ATC on the implementation of roadsafety measures;(d) provide advice to the ATC on implementation progress, gaps,barriers and opportunities;(e contribute to the development of National Road SafetyStrategies, Action Plans and other road safety initiatives asrequested by the ATC.In undertaking its activities, the NRSC will:(a) be guided by: the National Road Safety Strategy andsupporting Action Plans; Safe System principles andpractices; and evidence-based approaches to road safetyimprovement;(b) assist the timely and effective delivery of ATC-agreed roadsafety actions;(c) establish mechanisms for effective and frequentengagement with relevant stakeholders;(d) operate under the banner of shared responsibility:recognising that government, industry, business, andcommunity sectors have distinct road safety roles andresponsibilities;(e) focus on opportunities to improve road safety practices andto maximise the support of relevant stakeholders; and(f) consult with the ATC Safety and Security Working Group,and other relevant advisory bodies, in the development anddelivery of its work program. Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association


MembershipThe Council will comprise seven members appointed onthe basis of their individual ability to undertake the requiredactivities. It is not expected that every member will have roadsafety expertise, but the membership must embody the range ofskills, experience and influence to enable the NRSC to meet itsobjectives.Members may be drawn from a range of sectors: industry,community, business, government and academia. Memberswould bring expertise in key elements of road safety endeavour(for example, vehicle design, road user behaviour, road androad environment, intelligent transport systems, public health,urban planning, enforcement, commercial vehicle operations),and/or other essential areas (for example communications,social marketing, environmental sustainability, corporate andgovernment influence).Members will be appointed for terms not exceeding threeyears on the basis of their personal skills and commitment, notas a representative of an organisation, stakeholder group orjurisdiction.SecretariatA small secretariat, led by a Director, NRSC, will support thefollowing functions:(a) partnership development and maintenance;(b) research and project management;(c) monitoring and reporting; and(d) administration support.The secretariat will be hosted by the Commonwealth, but willprovide for the secondment of staff from government agencies,academia and industry. This arrangement will provide the NRSCwith suitably qualified staff support, and also allow skill transferto the parent organisations on their return.Work Program and BudgetThe NRSC will develop a detailed work program, includingperformance indicators, at least once each financial year forapproval by the ATC. The work program will identify a prioritisedlist of key areas for the NRSC to address, and the Council willbe expected to consult with other relevant advisory bodies in thedevelopment and delivery of its work program.An initial budget of $1.6 million will be provided to cover alldirect costs associated with the operation of the NRSC during itsfirst full year of operation. If the NRSC plans to propose a budgetfor any financial year which is greater than $1.75 million, it mustgive preliminary advice of its intention and the reasons for it tothe ATC no later than November of the previous year.ReportingThe NRSC will report directly to the Chair of the ATC, andthrough the ATC, to COAG. By the end of April each year, or asotherwise agreed by the ATC, the NRSC will submit:(a) a full report on NRSC activities during the current financialyear, including performance against the ATC-approved workprogram; and(b) an annual work program and budget for the next financialyear, to be approved by the ATC.Review of the AgreementThe Parties commit to undertake and complete a full reviewof the operation of the NRSC and this Agreement no laterthan the fifth anniversary of the commencement of theAgreement. The review will make recommendations on whetherthe arrangements for the NRSC and matters set out in thisAgreement should continue or be amended or cease to be inforce.SCHEDULE ANational Road Safety Council Terms of ReferenceThe National Road Safety Council (NRSC) is established as anadvisory body to the Australian Transport Council (ATC) undera National Partnership Agreement. This Terms of Referencesets out the NRSC’s objective, role, functions and operatingprinciples.Objective of the NRSCTo contribute to the reduction in death and serious injury onAustralian roads by enhancing the national implementation ofeffective road safety measures.Role of the NRSCThe role of the NRSC is to:(a) facilitate the timely and effective implementation of roadsafety measures set out in the National Road Safety Strategyand Supporting Action Plans, and as otherwise agreed by theATC;(b) raise the profile of road safety as a major public healthissue across government, industry, business and communitysectors; and(c) provide advice on specific road safety matters as requestedby the ATC.Functions of the NRSCIn carrying out its role, the NRSC will perform the followingfunctions:(a) identify opportunities to accelerate, optimise or expand theimplementation of road safety measures;(b) identify and consult with relevant stakeholders across abroad range of sectors and interests;(c) engage with relevant stakeholders to:-(i) foster commitment to, and active support for, the road safetyobjectives and action priorities set out in the National RoadSafety Strategy and supporting Action Plans,(ii) develop processes for implementing specific road safetymeasures, and(iii) build productive partnerships with, and between,stakeholders to facilitate implementation of road safetymeasures;(d) monitor and report to the ATC on the implementation of roadsafety measures;(e) provide advice to the ATC on implementation progress, gaps,barriers and opportunities; and(f) contribute to the development of National Road SafetyStrategies, Action Plans and other road safety initiatives asrequested by the ATC.Operating PrinciplesIn undertaking its activities, the NRSC will:(a) be guided by: the National Road Safety Strategy andsupporting Action Plans; Safe System principles andpractices; and evidence-based approaches to road safetyimprovement;(b) establish mechanisms for effective and frequentengagement with government bodies, including safetyregulation and enforcement agencies, and with relevantindustry, business and community groups;(c) operate under the banner of shared responsibility:recognising that government, industry, business andcommunity sectors have distinct road safety roles andresponsibilities;(d) focus on opportunities to improve road safety practices andto maximise the support of relevant stakeholders;(e) consult with the ATC Safety and Security Working Group,and other relevant advisory bodies, in the development anddelivery of its work program.Reporting and DeliveryThe NRSC will report directly to the Chair of the ATC, andthrough the ATC, to COAG.By the end of April each year, or as otherwise agreed by the ATC,the NRSC will submit:(a) a full report on NRSC activities during the current financialyear, including performance against the ATC-approved workprogram; and(b) an annual work program and budget for the next financialyear, to be approved by the ATC.Approval to vary an approved work program may be sought fromthe ATC to accommodate unexpected shifts in priority.The ATC may also direct the NRSC to undertake specific taskson an ad hoc basis.10 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association 11


Electric Vehicles – The Way of the Future?By James CameronResearch AssistantAustralian Automobile AssociationElectric vehicles are fast moving out of the realm of being greengimmicks. Prices are tumbling, and more models are beingdeveloped and released every year.With improvements in battery technology, the age of the electriccar may be soon arriving. Significantly, the ranges that thesevehicles can venture before recharging are increasing. Somecountries are developing the infrastructure for electric cars, andeven if using power partly from coal-fired power stations, electriccars have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.There are a considerable number of electric cars that eitherare on the market now, or will be in coming months and years.These vehicles vary greatly in price and specifications, andso it is difficult to generalise about electric cars. What maybe true, however, is that electric cars are shaking off someof the stereotypes that have turned people away in the past– unattractive, expensive and with a very limited range.Electric cars are at present more expensive than similarly sizedinternal combustion (IC) engine cars. Whether they come downin price with increased sales and technological innovation is yetto be seen. Many of upcoming models would be affordable forthe average Australian family, however. The higher price must beweighed against the fact that the weekly running costs are muchlower.Most electric cars seem to need to have their battery replacedafter several years at considerable expense, although this toomay come down in price. Even if electric cars do not comedown in price, they are sure to be purchased by environmentallyconscious consumers. Therefore, there will be a niche marketregardless, as there is with the hybrid vehicles such as theToyota Prius.The distance that the affordable electric cars can travel beforerecharging is still much less than IC vehicles can travel on asingle tank of fuel. Despite this, the distances that many ofthe electric cars soon or now on the market can travel on asingle charge will surprise many, and are sufficient for thedaily commute of most people. If one wishes to travel furtherdistances, an electric-petrol hybrid such as the GM Volt, wouldbe the answer, with a combined range of 570kms.As with price, whether the ranges of electric vehicles can travelbefore recharging increases with technological improvement isa matter of speculation, but does seem more likely than not. Aswith petrol vehicles, the range will vary depending on a numberof factors including use of climate controls, driving style, roadconditions, number of passengers and the condition of thevehicle including tyre pressure.A question that consumers often want to know about electriccars is how they can be recharged and how long this will take.At the time of writing, this is an evolving issue, and it variesfrom model to model and country to country. California hasthousands of charging stations, other US states are following thislead. Denmark and Israel are also creating the infrastructure forrecharging electric car fleets. At present, there are no chargingstations in Australia, and those who buy electric cars will haveto charge them at home. The advantage of a charging station isthat it has the ability to fully charge some models of electric carsin half an hour, as opposed to the eight or so hours it would takeat home with a conventional power socket.Some companies, such as Renault Nissan and Better Place, arealso looking to design cars and machinery whereby a roboticarm reaches up under the engine, removes the battery thathas been used and replaces it with a charged one, all within acouple of minutes. What is important is that the infrastructurecreated should mean maximum convenience for consumers,while ensuring the large savings in running costs that electriccan potentially deliver. It is an issue that car companies andgovernments around the world need to carefully consider, andwork on together.It is often commented that if electric cars derive their powerfrom coal-fired power stations, then indirectly they are emittingCO 2 , and so are little or no better for the environment than ICvehicles. While this is largely true, the ideal would be for electricvehicles to receive their energy from renewable sources (such assolar, wind, wave, thermal power etc), and thus truly be a zeroemissionmode of transport. If the technology can be masteredto successfully sequester carbon, this would also work in favourof the environmental benefits of electric cars.Some countries, including Australia, have annual road racesfor vehicles that run solely on solar power, and the GM Volt willhave optional solar panels to help recharge its battery. While itsometimes commented that electric vehicles are more energyefficient than IC vehicles, the evidence on this is inconclusive.ExpectedPriceWhen Available inAustraliaOne subject that is often not discussed in relation to electriccars is safety. To extend the range of electric cars, there is thenatural inclination of manufacturers to create electric cars whichare smaller and lighter, and this may have an adverse effect onsafety. If electric cars have no engine at the front of the car, thiscan also potentially result in less protection for the occupants.The Indian REVA electric car performed very poorly in EuroNCAPtesting, and was only allowed on European roads because it wasclassed as a ‘quadricycle’ and not a ‘car’. The REVA may neverbe allowed on Australian roads. While all electric cars should notRange beforerechargingTop SpeedMitsubishi iMiEV AUD$32,000 2009-2010 160kms 130km/hr JapanGM Volt (electric/petrol hybrid)c.AUD$50,000 2012 64kms beforepetrol motor starts,but a total range of570kmTesla Roadster AUD$151,000 In production nowfor left-hand drivemarkets, but noplans for right-handdrive production.393km190km/hr200km(electronicallylimited)Tesla Model S AUD$70,000 See Roadster. 480km/hr 192km USAToyota Prius PluginHybrid Vehicle(PHV)Renault NissanElectric VehicleSmart ForTwoElectricAUD$40,000+c.AUD$35,000Speculatedto be underAUD$28,000Several years fromnow.Production to startoverseas in 2010.10km before petrolengine startsUnknownCountry ofmanufactureUSAUSAJapanUnknown Unknown France & Japan2012 115km 112km/hr FranceBYD E6 c.AUD$30,000 2010-2011 400km 160km/hr ChinaREVAi AUD$20,000 Not known 80km 80km/hr IndiaREVA L-ion AUD$40,000 Not known 120km 80km/hr IndiaHyundai Electron/Blade RunnerevME (convertedMazda 2)AUD$39,000 Now 120km 120km/hr Australia &South KoreaAUD$70,000 Now 200-280km 130km/hr Australia &Japanbe tarnished because of the REVA, and some will perform verywell in crash testing, it is essential that manufacturers do notcompromise safety with their electric car designs. It is equallyimportant that consumers do not overlook high safety standardswhen considering a particular model of electric car.So, when will we be able to go into to our local showroom andpurchase an electric vehicle? Some may say that all the talk ofelectric cars is well and good, but when can we own and driveone?12 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association 13


Currently, two Australian companies convert IC cars to electricvehicles – Blade Electric Vehicles and Energetique. However,these are not production vehicles, and you may have to be ontheir waiting lists a while. The Mitsubishi iMiEV should be onsale in Australia next year at the latest, while other companies’models should go on sale around the same time or not longafter. So electric vehicles will soon be in our local showrooms,that is a certainty. Unfortunately, there are no plans at presentfor the very sporty Tesla models to be built in right-handdrive versions, so they may be limited to enthusiasts who areprepared to import and convert them.GM Volt (electric/petrol hybrid)Tesla Model SRenault Nissan Electric VehicleWhether electric vehicles will eventually supersede IC vehiclesis a matter of speculation, and it would be unwise to attemptto predict. Electric vehicles face fierce competition in theenvironmental stakes from cars powered by ethanol, biodiesel,hydrogen fuel cells, LPG, compressed air as well as hybridvehicles on currently offer from Toyota and Honda.The battle to provide consumers with cheap, environmentallyfriendly and convenient means of private transport will be anintense one, and which mode will dominate in decades to comeis uncertain. Electric cars are, however, shaping up as a seriouscontender in the innovation race that is currently occurring.The table below provides a sample, and it should be noted thatthe AAA is not endorsing these vehicles, but wishes to illustratesome examples of electric cars that are or will be available in thenot too distant future:Mitsubishi iMiEVExpected Price: c.AUD$50,000When Available in Australia: 2012Range before recharging: 64km before the petrol motorstarts, but a total range of about 570kms.Top speed: 190km/hr Manufactured in: USAOther: A thermovoltaic solar power roof, allowing the ownerto charge the battery by leaving the vehicle in sunlight, will beoffered as an optional feature. Right-hand drive version to besold in Australia.Tesla RoadsterExpected Price: AUD$70,000When Available in Australia: Will start production in2011, and as with the Roadster, it depends whether it can beimported and undergo a right-hand drive conversion under theSpecialist and Enthusiast Vehicle Scheme.Range before recharging: Up to 480kmsTop speed: 192kms/hr Manufactured in: USAOther: Comfortably seats 5 adults and 2 children according tothe manufacturer. A battery swap can be done in 5 minutes. Aswith the Roadster, it is assumed that no right-hand drive versionis planned, and the battery will have a 5 year or 160,000km life.Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV)Expected Price: about AUD$35,000When Available in Australia: Production to start overseasin 2010.Range before recharging: UnknownTop speed: UnknownManufactured in: France and JapanOther details: After buying the car, owners will subscribeto a battery-replacement and charging plan based on theiranticipated mileage. Charging station networks planned inthe US, Israel and Denmark. Renault Nissan also plans tomanufacture an electric-petrol hybrid version of this vehicle.Smart ForTwo ElectricExpected Price: About AUD$32,000 based on currentexchange rates.When Available in Australia: Mitsubishi would like tolaunch it here soon after its June 2009 market release in Japan,but probably not until 2010.Range before recharging: 160kmsTop speed: 130kms/hr Manufactured in: JapanOther: Has met all of the applicable Australian Design Rules.Has three driving modes: ‘Drive’, ‘Eco’ and ‘Brake’. A sportsversion is also planned (see picture).Price: AUD$151,000When Available in Australia: In production now, butdepends whether it can be imported and undergo a right-handdrive conversion under the Specialist and Enthusiast VehicleScheme.Range before recharging: 393kmsTop speed: 200kms/hr (electronically limited)Manufactured in: USAOther: No plans for a right-hand drive version at this stage.Battery life of 5 years or 160,000kms. Tesla plans to deliver 1500Roadsters in 2009, and demand is high, despite the price-tag.Expected Price: More than AUD$40,000When Available in Australia: Several years from now.Range before recharging: 10kms before petrol enginestartsTop speed: 100kms/hr in electric modeManufactured in: Japan & AustraliaExpected Price: Speculated to be under AUD$28,000When Available in Australia: Mass production to begin in2012 in Europe, but this is not yet a certainty.Range before recharging: 115kmsTop speed: 112kms/hrManufactured in: FranceOther: Currently in use by some government authorities inBritain and Germany. Battery will last for 10 years.14 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association 15


BYD E6Hyundai Electron/Blade Runner(converted Hyundai Getz)Manufactured in: Australia & JapanOther: Current available model is a conversion of the Mazda2, which is done by Energetique, a company based in Armidale,NSW. The evMe is a digital system, unlike the Blade Runnerwhich is analogue.Please note: Range of the above vehicles may vary dependingon a number of factors including use of climate controls, drivingstyle, road conditions, number of passengers and the conditionof the vehicle.Prius Plug-In Hybridhttp://www.cnet.com.au/tag/plug_in-prius.htmhttp://media.smh.com.au/cars/car-reviews/driven-toyota-priusplugin-364628.htmlNissan Renault Electric Vehiclehttp://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/03/06/2181527.htmhttp://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/13/business/13auto.htmlExpected Price: UnknownWhen Available in Australia: Production could begin in1-2 years.Range before recharging: 400kmsTop speed: 160kms/hrManufactured in: ChinaOther: Battery life of 600,000kmsREVAi & REVA L-ionPrice: AUD$39,000 (or $29,000 if you supply the car forconversion). More government contracts should bring the pricedown.When Available in Australia: NowRange before recharging: 120kmsTop speed: 120kms/hrManufactured in: Australia/South KoreaOther: Based on a Hyundai Getz, and modified by Blade ElectricVehicles (BEV) in Victoria. Hyundai and BEV are not businesspartners, but Hyundai will honour the warranty once modified.BEV offers a 5 year warranty. Three Australian councils haveordered them for their fleets, and a contract of 200 has beenplaced from New Zealand. Batteries would need to be replacedafter eight years at a cost of about $9000 at today’s prices.SourcesiMiEVAnthony Albanese Press release 8 April 2009http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/03/mitsubishi-deliversmiev.phpCanberra Times article 3 April 2009http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/07/mitsubishi-i-mievelectric-car-launch-japan-2009.phpHyundai Electron/Blade Runner: http://www.bev.com.au/http://www.carpoint.com.au/news/2008/small-passenger/hyundai/getz/blade-electron-an-electric-getz-7592http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,24654075-11949,00.htmlGM Volthttp://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=57556http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11332425Smart ForTwohttp://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/07/09/technical-detailson-the-smart-fortwo-electric-drive/http://www.smart.com/-snm-0135207752-1239438434-0000021373-0000000030-1240203263-enm-view/electricdrive/mpc-en_en_EN_EUR_urn:uuid:e46d8929-c110-5337-8f7f-9a8c3549a788?nm_collar=teaserhttp://www.webwombat.com.au/motoring/news_reports/smarthybrid-zero-emission-cars.htmBYD E6http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/byd-electric-car-e6-crossover-mpv.phphttp://www.onelectriccars.com/tag/byd-e6/http://www.byd.com/showroom.php?car=e6evMe (converted Mazda 2)http://www.engadget.com/2008/07/09/gm-dropping-voltsrange-from-600-to-360-miles/http://gas2.org/2009/04/14/the-chinese-byd-f3dm-first-massproduced-electric-car-fails-with-consumers/Expected Price: AUD$20,000 for the REVAi and AUD$40,000for the REVA L-ionWhen Available in Australia: Depends when it passes thenecessary testing, if ever.Range before recharging: 80kms for the REVAi and120kms for the REVA L-ionTop speed: 80kms/hrManufactured in: IndiaOther: The basic discontinued REVA model performed verypoorly in EuroNCAP crash testing. Was allowed on British roadsbecause it was classed as a ‘quadricycle’ and not a ‘car’.Expected Price: AUD$70,000When Available in Australia: Taking orders now.Range before recharging: 200-280kmsTop speed: 130kms/hr (electronically limited)Tesla Roadsterhttp://www.teslamotors.com/http://www.airtrust.org/e107_images/custom/tesla-roadster.jpghttp://digiads.com.au/car-news/latest-TESLA-news/2009_Tesla_Sedan_California_Made_200807.htmlTesla Model Shttp://www.teslamotors.com/models/index.phphttp://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/03/tesla-motors-models-electric-car-information-specifications-photos-performancerange-speed.phpREVAi & REVA L-ionhttp://www.revaaustralia.com.au/revaabout.htmevMehttp://evme.com.au/http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleId=6160816 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association 17


AAA Graphs and StatisticsNational Road Safety Strategy & the Road TollWhile the rate of road fatalities has declined since the start ofthe National Road Safety Strategy, the Australian AutomobileAssociation is very concerned that the target is not being met, asshown above.So far this year, the figures are particularly troubling. Greaterefforts need to be made by all road users – supported bygovernments at all levels – to ensure that more lives are notneedlessly thrown away.Thousands of Australian families are devastated each year withthe loss of loved ones, as well as caring for far-greater numbersof permanently disabled relatives, which the above graphdoes not reveal. In addition, the annual economic cost of roadcrashes in Australia has been conservatively estimated to be atleast $18 billion in 2005 (Australian Transport Safety Bureauestimate).With the National Road Safety Strategy for the next decade nowbeing considered, the Australian Automobile Association urgesthat a systematic appraisal is conducted as to how lives can besaved. The Australian Automobile Association advocates the‘safe systems approach’, which means ‘safer drivers in safercars on safer roads’.Improved technology such as Intelligent Transport Systemswill also play a role. Although one can not accurately predictroad spending in more than five years time, or the uptake ofsafety innovations in cars in the future, a strategy should meanexactly that – it should not just be a goal, but the creators of thestrategy need to spell out in detail how we are going to reachthat goal.The ‘strategy’ should not be a matter of setting an optimistictarget and then crossing our fingers and hoping for the best.All levels of government, as well as community groups, shouldbe involved in the creation of the new strategy, and the generalpublic should be thoroughly informed of the goals of the strategy,the plan of how they will be met, and whether or not they arebeing met as the decade progresses.We must all realise that road deaths account for the equivalentof four Jumbo Jets full of people every year.18 Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009Australian Automobile Association 19


Objectives of AAAa) To promote responsible, safe, affordable motoring.b) To represent, safeguard and protect the interests of Australian motorists.c) To facilitate opportunities for the mutual benefit of member clubs.d) To engender a spirit of cooperation between member clubs.e) To manage relationships with the Federation Internationale de l’Automobile(FIA) and international motoring clubs.Themes and strategic outcomesMotoristsEasier, safer, more pleasurable and affordable motoringSafetySafer motoringInfrastructureA transport network which moves people and freight safely, quickly and efficientlyEnvironmentImproved environmental performance of carsAAA working groupsBest practicePublic affairsInfluence, inform and lead debateInternational relationsStrong links to the international motoring community to enhance opportunities forsharing of experiences, development of products and creation of public policyConstituentsNRMA Motoring and ServicesRoyal Automobile Club of Victoria LimitedRoyal Automobile Club of Queensland LimitedRoyal Automobile Association of South Australia IncorporatedRoyal Automobile Club of Western Australia IncorporatedRoyal Automobile Club of Tasmania LimitedAutomobile Association of Northern Territory IncorporatedRoyal Automobile Club of Australia20Motoring Directions SEPTEMBER 2009

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