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UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONGLIBRARYHong Kong Collection(rift from:Census it Si/itislics ^e-t., II.


HONG KONGBY-CENSUS1966LAND AND MARINETRAINING MANUALCENSUS ANDSTATISTICAL PLANNING OFFICECOLONIAL SECRETARIATPRINTED BY S. YOUNG, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, HONG KONG


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CONTENTS1. THE PURPOSE OF A BY-CENSUS1.1 What is a By-Census? 11.2 Why is a By-Census held? 11.3 What is the value of a Census to citizens? 12. SAMPLING METHOD2.1 Different for marine and land 22.2 Marine census samples 22.3 Land census samples 23. GENERAL PLAN OF ENUMERATION3.1 Coverage of Land By-Census 33.2 Census Moment and Time (Land) 33.3 Coverage of Marine By-Census 33.4 Census Moment and Time (Marine) 33.5 Enumeration Items 44. ENUMERATOR'S RESPONSIBILITIES4.1 General 54.2 Duties 54.3 Complete information 54.4 Do not guess 64.5 Keep information confidential 65. HOW TO PROCEED WITH THE ENUMERATION5.1 Relations with public '. 65.2 Household Card 75.3 Three-visit method 75.4 Single visit method for Marine By- Census 75.5 From whom to seek information 85.6 Identification Card and Armband 85.7 Introduce yourself properly 8(Continued on page iv)


5. HOW TO PROCEED WITH THE ENUMERATION (Contd.)5.8 Correct interpretation 85.9 Never ask leading questions 95.10 Use simple & straight-forward questions 95.11 Census Identification Label for the Marine By-Census... 95.12 Thank for co-operation 105.13 Penalties 105.14 Special Procedure for Absentees (Marine) 106. HOW TO FILL IN THE SCHEDULE6.1 General remarks 106.2 Particulars relating to dwelling or household6.2.1 Functional description of household ... 126.2.2 Type of accommodation 136.2.3 Number of persons & summary oftheir economic status 156.3 Personal data6.3.1 Name 186.3.2 Relationship to head of household ... 206.3.3 Economic status in household 236.3.4 Sex 246.3.5 Age 246.3.6 Conjugal status 316.3.7 Number of children 326.3.8 Birth 336.3.9 Origin 356.3.10 Usual Language 376.3.11 Ability to speak English 386.3.12 Education 396.3.13 Place of study 406.3.14 Employment status 416.3.15 Hours worked 486.3.16 Industry 496.3.17 Occupation ,. 526.3.18 Place of work 536.3.19 Address at last Census 546.3.20 Address at last Chinese New Year 55(Continued on page v)


Appendix»>AIA IIA IIIA IVBCode 1Code 2Code 3Code 4Code 5Code 6Code 7Code 8Code 9Code 10Code 11Code 12Code 13Code 14Alohabetical IndexAs[e Conversion. Table (IVlarine)ditto (Chinese text) (Marine)Age Conversion Table (Land)ditto (Chinese text) (Land) . .Index of Yearsditto (Chinese text)Table of Japanese YearsCODESFunctional description of Householdditto (Chinese text)Type of accommodationditto (Chinese text)Domestic status in Householdditto (Chinese text)Economic status in Householdditto (Chinese text)Conjugal statusditto (Chinese text)Place of Birthditto (Chinese text)Place of Originditto (Chinese text)Usual Languageditto (Chinese text)Ability to speak Englishditto (Chinese text)Educationditto (Chinese text)Place of previous Residenceditto (Chinese text)Employment Statusditto (Chinese text)Industryditto (Chinese text)Occupationditto (Chinese text)686970717980798182838284858789908991929394959710211611712012857585960616367139


1. THE PURPOSE OF A BY-CENSUS1.1 What is a By-Census ?1.1.1 In some countries censuses are taken at intervals of ten years.If circumstances exist to require the taking of a census aftera shorter interval, this census is often described as a By-Census or a Mid-Term Census.1.1.2 It is the special function of a by-census to be supplementaryto a full census before and a full census after it, so that thedirection and amplitude of every change indicated by thetwo full censuses can be more accurately determined.1.2 Why is a By-Census held?1.2.1 The purpose of any census is to take a kind of photographof the population as it is at one instant and to follow it bysimilar photographs taken at regular intervals from which,as in a moving picture, the direction and rate of change canbe observed.1.2.2 Where there has been large scale internal migration andother unrecorded changes, so that in a few years from thelast Census count is lost of the age and sex breakdown ofthe total population and of its location by area and district,an interval of 10 years between censuses is too long and aby-census becomes necessary.1.2.3 A by-census is usually taken by sample, which enables economiesto be made and also allows for a higher standard ofenumeration and training.1.3 What is the value of a Census to citizens?1.3.1 A Census is no "Aladdin's Magic Lamp" that can give everythingone wants. But it is aimed at doing good for everybody,especially for the future generation. To that end thosein authority must know, as accurately as possible, generalfacts about the population for the planning of economic andsocial development so that money will not be wasted byfacilities being over-provided or provided in the wrong place,The necessary facts can be found only by the Census, Itis, therefore, incumbent on the general public to co-operatefully towards the success of the Census,1


2. SAMPLING METHOD2.1 The method of sampling used in this by-census is different forthe marine and for the land population.2.2 In the Marine Census 4 harbours will be taken to represent the wholemarine population and the sample within each of those harbours willbe calculated in such a way that the total comes to approximately•2J% of the total marine population. The 4 sample harbours areNgau Chi Wan, Shau Kei Wan Bay, Tai Po and parts of the YauMa Tei Typhoon Shelter. Within each harbour there will be 5strata distinguished by the type of boat and a separate sample will bedrawn within each stratum.\\ 2.2.1 The sample fractions in different harbours and different stratawill not be the same. Each will be worked out separately bythe statistical section.y^ 2.2.2 Each chief enumerator will be assisted by a SAMPLING OFFI-CER. The chief enumerator will list systematically every boatin the group assigned to him, identifying the stratum and writingdown the licence number in the appropriate column. When hereaches the line corresponding to the next number on the samplingofficers list, the sampling officer will inform him and that boatwill be enumerated. This method is known as co-listing.2.3 In the land census TWO-STAGE SAMPLING will be used. Theprimary sampling unit is the enumerator's block and the secondarysampling unit is the household. Opportunity will be taken, duringthe listing of every household in the primary sampling unit, todeliver a household card for completion by the head of everyhousehold in the block and, when collecting the card, to deliveranother questionnaire.2.3.1 The sampling fraction for the primary sample in all strata ofthe land census is approximately 5%.2.3.1.1 The household card is mentioned in greater detail inChapter 5.2.3.1.2 The questionnaire is one which is to be distributed onbehalf of Radio Hong Kong and the enumerator isnot responsible for doing anything but delivering it.It should not be delivered until after all Censuswork at that particular household has been completed.2.3.2 The second stage of sampling in the land census is carriedout after the list of households in the primary sampling unitshas been made. The sampling fraction at this stage isapproximately 20%.


3. GENERAL PLAN OF ENUMERATION3.1 Coverage of Land By-CensusThe enumeration will cover all persons who have passed thenight of lst/2nd August, 1966 in any dwelling included in thesample.3.2 Census Moment and Time of Land By-Census3.2.1 The Census Moment of the Hong Kong Land By-Census isfixed at 2 a.m. on 2nd August, 1966.3.2.2 The time allowed for taking the land by-census is 15 daysi.e. from 19th July 1966 to 2nd August 1966.3.2.3 Anyone born one minute after, or dying one minute before,"Census Moment", is not counted. In genuine cases * ofdoubt when the time of birth or death might have beenbefore, at or after the "Census Moment", take them asAFTER.,3 Coverage of Marine By-Census3.3.1 The enumeration will cover all persons who have passed thenight of 17thll8th June, 1966, on board the sample vessels inany one of the four sample harbours or on board the samplevessels which were then on the high seas but entered one of thefour sample harbours on or before 22nd June, 1966.3.3.2 The vessels covered by the Marine By-Census are samples fromthose described in items 4.0 to 4.4 of Code 2 (See Appendix B).This does NOT include ocean-going ships or warships whichare enumerated with the land population..4 Census Moment and Time of Marine By-Census3.4.1 The Census Moment of the Hong Kong Marine By-Census isfixed at 2 a.m. on 18th June, 1966.3.4.2 The time allowed for taking the Marine By-Census is 5 days,i.e. from 18th June, 1966 to 22nd June, 1966.3.4.3 Anyone born one minute after, or dying one minute before,"Census Moment", is not counted. In genuine cases of doubtwhen the time of birth or death might have been before^ at orafter the "Censtis Moment", take them as AFTER.


3.5 Enumeration ItemsThe enumeration items consist of:—3.5.1 Particulars relating to the dwelling or household.3.5.1.1 Functional description of household3.5.1.2 Type of accommodation3.5.1.3 Number of persons in household and summary oftheir economic status3.5.2 Personal data3.5.2.1 Name3.5.2.2 Identity Card number3.5.2.3 Relationship to head of household3.5.2.4 Economic status in the household3.5.2.5 Sex3.5.2.6 Date of birth3.5.2.7 Age3.5.2.8 Conjugal status3.5.2.9 Number of children born/living3.5.2.10 Place of birth3.5.2.11 Place of origin3.5.2.12 Usual language and ability to speak English3.5.2.13 Education3.5.2.14 School or place of study if still attending3.5.2.15 Employment status3.5.2.16 Number of hours worked in past 20 days (for parttimeworkers)3.5.2.17 Industry3.5.2.18 Occupation3.5.2.19 Place of work3.5.2.20 Address at last Census (7th March, 1961)3.5.2.21 Address at last Chinese New Year (21st January,1966)


4.1 General4. ENUMERATOR'S RESPONSIBILITIESYou are now being trained as an Enumerator for the Hong KongLand By-Census which will take place on 2nd August, 1966 or asan Enumerator for the Hong Kong Marine By-Census which willtake place on 18th June, 1966, or both. You should study theinstructions given in this manual carefully so that you know exactlywhat you must do during the enumeration. This is a great responsibility,and the ultimate worth of the By-Census depends largelyon the careful and conscientious way in which you carry out yourduties.4.2 DutiesThe duties which are expected of you are outlined in the list ofduties which has been handed to you. You should study it carefullyso as to acquire a thorough understanding of what is expected of you.4.3 Complete information4.3.1 If you are in the land census, it is your responsibility to listevery household in your sample block and report the listvery promptly to your chief enumerator so that the sampleof households for enumeration may be drawn quickly. Atthis stage of the proceedings you will deliver the householder'scard (see paragraph 5.2.).4.3.2 It is your responsibility to enumerate every person in thesample households or sample vessels assigned to you and tofill in accuiately and legibly every answer in the appropriatecolumn of the By-Census schedule.4.3.3 You must not attempt to collect any information except thatwhich is required to answer the questions set out in theschedule, and should follow as closely as possible the formand order of questioning given in these instructions.4.3.4 With the exceptions of columns 4 and 8, (in which you shouldinsert the answers directly in code) Column 10 afiKL-theiuiM34a


5.2 The Household CardIf you are an Enumerator for the Hong Kong Land By-Census,you will have to deliver one household card to each of the householdsin the sample blocks and collect them afterwards. In theHousehold Card you have to write down the surname, name, theIdentity Card number and the exact address of the head of thehousehold before you detach the card along the dotted line. Itis most important for you to make sure that the spellings andChinese characters of the name you have put down ir the HouseholdCard are the same as those in his/her Identity Card because thiswill ease the work of checking. It is also your duty to explain tothe head of the household that it is hoped that he/she will cooperatein supplying information on the total income of the householdand if he/she supplies it, it will be treated in full confidence.5.3 Three-visit methodThe method by which the land enumeration is carried out iscalled the "three-visit" method. In this method, after identifyingthe houses or floors in your block under the guidance of your ChiefEnumerator, you will have to pay the first visit to deliver thehousehold card to every household in the block. From the informationwhich you record on the household card counterfoils thesample of households to be enumerated will be drawn. You thenmake your second visit, in which you collect back the completedcards from each UN-SAMPLED household and begin enumerationon the regular schedule from all the SAMPLED households. Ifyou are fortunate enough at this visit to find the head of the SAM-PLED household at home, or someone else who knows all theparticulars of the family, you should record the name, sex and allthe other particulars of every member of the household. You willexplain that the details are treated as confidential, but that theymust be accurate so that the total will be accurate. If you arenot so lucky, you must find out at what time the head or otherresponsible member of the household will be at home so thatenumeration can be made. On the morning of 2nd August, 1966,you have to pay a third visit to each of the SAMPLE householdsto check whether there have been any changes (by births, deaths,removals in or out). At this visit you make your final correctionsand then collect the household cards for each SAMPLED household.5.4 Single visit method for Marine By-CensusUnlike the^ Land By-Census, the Marine By-Census enumerationmust be carried out by the "single visit" method, that is to say, it is


necessary to complete the enumeration of all persons living on boarda sample vessel at one visit. If the master or mistress of the samplevessel cannot give complete particulars of someone who has gone ashore,they must either be sent for to return on board or the special proceduredescribed in 5.14 must be followed.5.5 From whom to seek informationWhen enumerating a household or a vessel, it may not be necessaryto question every individual member. You should collect the informationfrom the person who knows it best. In the case of ahousehold or a family, it should be the head. In the case of achild, it will most probably be the mother. In the case of anyperson who does not want to disclose his/her personal particularsin the presence of other member or members of the household, youshould allow him/her to give it to you privately and in confidence.5.6 Identification Card and ArmbandYou will be issued with an identification card bearing your name,photograph and designation and an armband which must beprominently displayed on your left sleeve when performing yourduties. When introducing yourself to a respondent, you mustshow your identification card immediately in proof of your statusand authority.5.7 Introduce yourself properlyIntroduce yourself properly as soon as you enter a dwelling orare on board a vessel. A suggested form of introduction in Englishis: —"I am from the Census. Here is my identification cardbearing my photograph. Of course you have heard about theCensus. Can I see the head of the household or the person incharge and ask him/her some questions?'*If speaking Chinese a shorter form is suitable, viz :"WOOHOW TOONGIGH. NEEJURNG HIGH AWGEHJING-GEEN."5.8 Correct interpretation5.8.1 In the course of the enumeration, it must be borne in mindthat the official Chinese translation for"Census" is pPg£ft WOOHOW TOONGIGH"Enumerator" is jSpJHRi-& WOOHOW TOONGIGH-UNE


. _ .5.8.2 You must not interpret the wm-k Census as F 5 0 ^r£WOOHOW TEELCHAR or "Enumerator" as "SSflTEELCHAR-UNE or any similar term because iiS TEEL-CHAR suggests prying or interference.5.8.3 If a householder enquires as to the meaning of "by-census"you will give him the explanation in Chapter 1 of this handbook.5.9 Never ask leading questionsA leading question is one that suggests an answer in the form orsense desired by the questioner.You may, perhaps, get the information more easily if you use aleading question but such a method tends to distort the fact. Therespondent may think that the simplest way to get it over with is toanswer in the way you desire. Simple people may even be led tobelieve that the questioner is omniscient and the answer suggestedby him/her is true whereas the opposite is correct.You should, therefore, never ask any leading question. Forinstance, if a respondent tells you that he is 52 by the Chinese wayof recording age, you must check this in accordance with theinstructions on "How to use the Age Conversion Table". Youmust NOT suggest the answer.Right: "In what year of Man Gwok were you born?""NAYHIGH MUN-GWOK GAYNEEN CHURT-SIGH?"Wrong : "Were you not born in the 3rd year of Man Gwok? }>"NAY HIGHAM-HIGH MUN-GWOK SARM-NEEN CHURTSIGH?"5.10 Use simple and straight-forward questionsKeep your questions simple and straight-forward throughoutyour enumeration. Avoid difficult or technical language.5.11 Census Identification Label for the Marine By-CensusEvery boat listed will at once be labelled with a Census IdentificationLabel on the bow or stern. In addition, as soon as you havecompleted the enumeration of the SAMPLE boat assigned to you,you will stick a further label on the mast or superstructure about 6feet up from the deck. Impress on the person in charge the need tokeep the label there until after Dragon Boat day.


5.12 Thank respondent for co-operationWhen you have obtained all the answers which you require,thank the respondent for his/her kind co-operation.5.13 PenaltiesSevere penalties are provided by law for refusing to answer, orgiving false answers to Census questions, or for obstructing a Censusofficer. However YOU MUST NOT THREATEN anybodywith these penalties, but persuade them in a friendly manner, andif your persuasion does not produce results, then call in your ChiefEnumerator to assist. A CENSUS OFFICER DOES NOTHAVE THE POWER OF ARREST OR FORCIBLE ENTRY.5.14 Special Procedure for Absentees in Marine By-Census5.14.1 Where a person is absent and his I her personal particulars cannotbe obtained through any other member on board the vessel^ askfor the licence book of the vessel; take possession of same andissue a receipt (on a form provided for this purpose) in exchangefor the licence book.5.14.2 Explain to the master {mistress or head of the household thatthe licence book will be returned to him/her when the absenteecalls at District By-Census Headquarters in your area to givehis personal particulars to the enumerator stationed there.5.14.3 When adopting this procedure do not forget that some time willelapse before the licence book and form giving the name andother details of the absentee can pass through your ChiefEnumerator to the District By-Census Headquarters. If theabsentee reports at headquarters before the papers arrive, hisjher time will be wasted and he/she will be annoyed. The bestway is to fix a definite time for himjher to call there and tomake sure the licence book gets there in ample time.6. HOW TO FILL IN THE SCHEDULE6.1 General RemarksBefore conducting the enumeration you should pay special attentionto the following points :—6.1,1 It is your duty to write down the answers on the schedulefor every respondent. You must NOT jot down answers ona piece of paper and then transcribe them on to the schedule.10


When there is a coding for the answer, put down the codingas well, except as explained in 4.3.4 above.6.1.2 All entries are to be made neatly and legibly in blue or blackink or by a ball-pen. Do not use any other coloured ink orpencil.6.1.3 List each person on a separate line. Do not use more thanone line for any one person or one line for more than oneperson.6.1.4 Do not use ditto marks, even though the answer is the samefor more than one person.6.1.5 Beware of abbreviations. Use ONLY the standard oneswhich are listed in this manual.6.1.6 The line number in your record book under which a householdis recorded should be written in the space provided onthe upper right hand part of the schedule.6.1.7 Use one schedule for each household, even though the householdmay consist of one person only. Among the boatpeople all persons being on board one vessel usually constituteone household, but see 6.2.3.1.2 below.6.1.8 If a household consists of more than 15 persons the next sheetshould be used. In this case the line number on the topsheet should have the number and brackets (1) added, andthe second sheet should have THE SAME written linenumber followed by (2). Similarly for the third (3) andsubsequent sheets for a few exceptionally large households,which will mostly be institutions.6.1.9 If you have to alter an entry, draw two horizontal linesacross the incorrect entry and write in the correct answerin the remaining space of the column. Do not erase or tryto BLACK OUT the incorrect entry.6.1.10 The space for "REMARKS" at the foot of the householdschedule is intended ONLY for the rare case when theanswer to any item is too long to be included legibly inthe proper place (e.g. if the industry is given as "PostalService of the United Arab Republic"); or if the answerraises doubts as to the correct classification, which you haveto refer to your chief enumerator, e.g. if the education isgiven as "Graduate of St. Theodora's College, Istanbul" andyou cannot find out whether this was a secondary school,a post-secondary training college or a university.11


6.2 Particulars relating to the dwelling or household6.2.1 Functional description of household (Box V of the ScheduleCODE 1)6.2.1.1 GeneralBy "functional description of household" is meantthe nature of the household. Households are classifiedinto four categories.6.2.1.2 How to enter6.2.1.2.1 Ring A in the square if the household is anINSTITUTION or COLLECTIVEHOUSEHOLD. In the last Census suchhouseholds were described as "non-householdunits". Examples of this category are:—ApartmentAsylumBarracksBlind HomeBoarding HouseBoarding SchoolBoys' HomeCampChaai TongChurchClinicClubContractor's MatshedConventCrecheDetention CentreDormitoryDoss HouseFactoryFire StationGirls' HomeGuest HouseHospitalHostelHotel12Joss-HouseLepers' HomeLodging HouseMaternity HomeMental HomeMonasteryNunneryNursing HomeOld Peoples' HomeOrphanagePolice StationPrisonQuartersReformatoryRehabilitationCentreSanatoriumShelter for StreetSleepers, etc.ShopStudioTempleTreatment CentreWelfare CentreWorkshop


6.2.1.2.2 Ring B in the square if the household is aDOMESTIC HOUSEHOLD WITHINAN INSTITUTION. An example of thistype of household is a flat occupied by thefamily of the manager of a residential clubor hotel. The criterion of whether it is aseparate domestic household will dependas in other cases, on where they take theirmeals. A boarding house in which theproprietress eats with all the guests is onecollective household.6.2.1.2.3 Ring C in the square if the household is aDOMESTIC HOUSEHOLD SHARINGPREMISES WITH ONE OR MOREHOUSEHOLDS. This covers the positionwhere you have separate householdswithin the same housing unit not physicallyseparated, but living and eating separately.6.2.1.2.4 Ring D in the square if the household is aDOMESTIC HOUSEHOLD OCCUPY-ING THE WHOLE OF THE PREMISESDESCRIBED.6.2.2 Type of Accommodation (Box I of the Schedule, CODE 2)6.2.2.1 GeneralThis question is provided to obtain information onthe housing problem in respect of the number ofhouseholds and the average number of persons livingin each type of accommodation.It will be obvious that some households occupyaccommodation in more than one of the descriptionsgiven, e.g. the household which occupies the top floorof a conventional building may also occupy a hut onthe same roof. In such cases ALL particulars mustbe noted on the schedule, though the coding willusually be kept for the higher grade of accommodation,i.e. the smaller number in the code. You will haveto tell tby your own observation whether the housein which the household has its accommodation is aconventional building, roof-top, mobile dwelling,marginal housing unit, rustic dwelling of non-permanentor semi-permanent materials or a makeshiftaccommodation in a place not intended for habitation.13


6.2.2,2 How to classify6.2.2.2.1 By a conventional building is meant abuilding made entirely of PERMANENTMATERIALS (concrete, stone or brick),not being a squatter hut and not being constructedon the roof of another building.6.2.2.2.2 By non-domestic accommodation is meantthose parts of a house which are DESIGN-ED FOR OTHER PURPOSES thansleeping, sitting or eating, e.g. hallways,corridors, passages, kitchens, lavatories,bathrooms, storerooms, shops or workshops.It also includes all basements, verandahsand cocklofts.6.2.2.2.3 A roof-top building includes anything ofany materials built as an addition on theroof of another building.6.2.2.2.4 In the case of matsheds the distinctionbetween 4.7 and 6.3 is the use. A matshedto provide temporary shelter for harvestersor other AGRICULTURAL labour is a"seasonal thatched shelter", 6,3. Onewhich provides shelter or lodging forbuilders, road gangs, waterworks workersand other NON-AGRICULTURAL labouris classified as 4.7 even when it isfound in a rural area.6.2.2.2.5 An essential ingredient of a marginalhousing unit is that it is in an urban areaor urban layout,6.2.2.2.6 For the purpose of the by-census a squatterhut is distinguishable from a " rusticdwelling" by being situated either in theurban area or in a layout area of the NewTerritories, and usually bears a distinctivenumber.6.2.2.2.7 You will regard as squatter huts(a) any building in an urban area or urbanlayout built of non-permanent orsemi-permanent materials, unless itfalls under 4,7 or 4.8.14


(b) any building within what you havebeen told to regard as a squatter area.(c) in case of doubt as to the materials ofwhich it is constructed, any buildirgwith a squatter hut number.6.2.2.2.8 An essential ingredient of a rustic dwellingis that it must be rural. The use of wood,thatch and similar materials is normal inagricultural surroundings. But when usedin an urban area such materials are notnormal and are classified under group 5(marginal). Difficulty arises in the NewTerritories where conventional villagesbecome absorbed into an adjoining town,and what had been a "rustic" farm outhousebecomes overnight a "marginal''shanty. The census criterion is whetherit is inside or outside a layout area, NOTwhether it has a permit.6.2.2.2.9 Where a house is let, sub-let and occupiedin distinct parts by different persons orfamilies, each distinct part so let or sub-letis to be considered as a separate dwellingunit and must be separately described e.g."second and third cubicle"; or "end bedspace,upper bunk".6.2.2.2.10 In the case of a shop, office or store, etc.with one or more caretakers in residence,only the portion of the building actuallyused by the caretakers is the type ofaccommodation to be recorded,6.2.2.2.11 Ask the head of the household whataccommodation in the house is occupiedby the household, the whole house, oneor more floors, a flat, a room, a cubicle,a verandah, a bed-space, or whatever it is.6.2.3 Number of persons in household and summary of their economicstatus (The summary table in Box II in the top part ofthe Schedule)6.2.3.1 General6.2*3.1.1 By household is meant a group of persons,generally bound by ties of kinship, who15


Hlive together under the same roof (or overthe same keel) and share in common thehousehold food. It includes the head ofthe family, other members of the family,the relatives living with him/her and thoseother persons who share the communitylife for reasons of work or other considerations.6.2.3.1.2 In most fishing and trading junks all thepeople on board are considered one bighousehold. Some of the stationary houseboatsmay have several households and thismay be true also of some of the larger seagoing vessels. If you find that severalhouseholds are living and eating separatelyin the vessel, they should be regarded asseparate households.6.2.3.1.3 Where two or more households are livingin a single house, provided that each householdcommonly makes its own arrangementsfor eating, they should be regardedas separate households sharing the onedwelling house. (See 6.2.1.2.3).6.2.3.1.4 Where several persons with no familyrelationship share the responsibility of ahousehold, they should be listed as ahousehold. In such case, you must takegreat care to find out which one is acceptedby the others as the head of the householdand record the others as "non-relatives".6.2.3.1.5 Domestic servants generally form part ofthe household. But in some well-to-dofamilies the servants may live quiteseparately each with his/her own dependantsand cooking arrangements. In such casesthey should be regarded as separatehouseholds.6.2.3.1.6 For the purpose of the Census each householdcan have ONLY ONE HEAD. Nohousehold can be shown as having "NOHEAD'* but in some households the headis resident elsewhere. The rule is thatif at least one member of the household16


is or has been married, or if unmarriedis 15 years old or more, that person maybe recorded as the head ; but if the wholehousehold consists of unmarried personsunder 15 years of age, then the name andaddress of the parent or guardian is to berecorded on the top line of the scheduleWITH A CLEAR STATEMENT THATTHIS PERSON RESIDES ELSE-WHERE. Such a non-resident head ofhousehold is NOT to be included in thesummary table (6.2.3.3 below).6.2.3.2 How to approach6.2.3.2.1 Ask the head of household or if he/she isabsent then ask the eldest or most responsibleperson in the household, "Howmany persons are there in your household ?""NAY FOR YAN YOW GAYDAWGAWYANNEH?"6.2.3.2.2 As soon as you have finished enumeratingevery member of the household, count upthe number of males and females, addthem up to get a total number. This totalshould correspond with the number ofpersons you are told and should be thesame as the number shown on the line onwhich the last member of the householdwas enumerated; but will be ONE LESSwhen the head of household is recordedas absent in accordance with 6.2.3.1.6above.6.2.3.3 How to enter the summary table (Box II at the top ofthe Schedule)The purpose of this table is to find out the economicstatus of the members of the household. If any ofthe financial contributors lives in a different place,record his/her sex and address in Boac VI at the footof the household schedule. After this, you have totransfer the number of these non-resident financialcontributors according to district, area, etc. to boxII at the top of the schedule. If the household is17


6.3 Personal datasupported by 1 resident sole supporter, put 1 in thecolumn of sub-total according to the sex given andadd this with the number of dependants accordingto sex to get the total. But if the household is madeup of financial contributors and dependants living inthe same household, then add (a) and (f) accordingto sex and get the ultimate total for both sexes.Remember not to include any non-resident head ofhousehold in the "total in household."6.3.1 Name (Column 1 of the Schedule)6.3.1.1 General for the land populationList by name every person whom you find livingin the household under enumeration; but as thecensus covers only those who pass the night of Istj2ndAugust, 1966> there, any whom you find on yourFINAL VISIT to have gone away are to be deletedby ruling one thin line (so as to leave all entries stilllegible) and the circumstances explained in theRemarks space.2 General for the marine populationList by name every person who has passed the nightof 17th/18th June, 1966, on board the vessel underenumeration.6.3.1.3 General for both land and marine population6.3.1.3.1 You are now coming to the threshold ofquestioning a respondent on his/her personalparticulars. Those who understandthe Census will, of course, take it as theproper procedure; but there are alsopersons who may not like their personalparticulars being questioned. In thiscase, you had better explain to them that"NAME" is required because it showswho has been and who has not beenenumerated. Besides, it is impossible toestablish the relationship of a man or awoman to other members of his/her familywithout a name.6.3.1.3.2 Chinese individuals may have more thanone name and sometimes even more than18


one surname. The name to be listed is thename the manfwoman himself I her self givesor by which hefshe is commonly known. Ifhe/she gives you several names, put themall down as aliases. If his/her IdentityCard gives another name, put that downtoo. This differs from the procedure infilling the counterfoil for the HOUSE-HOLDER'S CARD (see 5.2) where thename recorded MUST be written in thesame way as it is shown on the IdentityCard.6.3.1.3.3 In recording the surname of a person, itis advisable to record the Chinese characterin order to save a lot of confusion. Thesame surname may sound totally differentin another dialect, and even in the samedialect certain different surnames are pronouncedidentically.6.3.1.3.4 In the case of a recently born baby who hasnot yet been given a name, put down"NN" to denote "no name".6.3.1.4 How to approachL^ 6.3.1.4.1 The Marine Enumerators must remember'that many of the older generation of theboat people have had very little opportunityof an education. Don't on any account besuperior or patronizing for that reason, butkeep your questions simple and straightforwardand avoid difficult or technicallanguage,6.3.1.4.2 Remember that in Chinese the word"name" does not include surname. Thesurname conies first and then the name. Soyou must ask first "WHAT IS YOURSURNAME?" and then "WHAT ISYOUR NAME?"6.3.1.4*3 There are polite expressions for both thesebut the straight-forward way is"NAYGWIGH-SING?""{ft«H»-&*?f?''"NAY GEALJO MEE MENG?"19


6.3.1.5 Order of entryList head of the household first. Then members ofhis/her family and lastly household members not relatedto him/her.For example:—HeadWife or wives of headChildren (in order of age)Other relatives of headNon-relativesFor complex households follow the order of entrysuggested in 6.3.2.1.>.3.2 Relationship to head of household (Column 3 of the Schedule,CODE 3)6.3.2.1 How to classify and enter6.3.2.1.1 Write the name of the head of householdon the first line of the schedule. To berecorded as head of any household theperson reporting him/herself as such mustbe either married (or formerly married)or not less than 15 years old. If noperson in the household conforms to theseconditions, you must RECORD THENAME AND ADDRESS OF THE RE-SPONSIBLE ADULT (parent, guardian,etc.) and write this along the top line ofthe schedule.6.3.2.1.2 Put an S in the square of column 3 forthe spouse of the head of household, i.e.husband, wife or concubine. Under theS draw a line and under that write"husband" for the husband, "wife" fora wife or concubine.6.3.2.1.3 Put a C in the square of the column 3 forthe child of the head of household. Underthe C draw a lire and under that write therelationship i.e. son, daughter, adoptedson, adopted daughter, stepson, stepdaughter(but NOT sons-in-law ordaughters-in-law).20


6.3.2.1.4 Put an R in the square of column 3 forother relatives of head of household.Under the R draw a line and under thatwrite the relationship i.e.Father (or stepfather)Mother (or stepmother)Father's (or stepfather's) 2nd wife andso onWife's fatherWife's motherWife of 1st son2nd wife of 1st son, and so on1st son of 1st son2nd son of 1st son, and so on1st daughter of 1st son2nd daughter of 1st son, and so onWife of 2nd son2nd wife of 2nd son, and so on1st son of 2nd son, and so onFather's (or stepfather's) 1st brotherFather's (or stepfather's) 1st brother'swife1st son of father's (or stepfather's) 1stbrother2nd son of father's (or stepfather's) 1stbrother, and so on1st daughter of father's (or stepfather's)1st brother2nd daughter of father's (or stepfather's)1st brother, and so onFather's (or stepfather's) 1st sisterFather's (or stepfather's) 1st sister'shusband1st son of father's (or stepfather's) 1stsister, and so onMother's (or stepmother's) 1st brotherMother's (or stepmother's) 1st brother'swife2nd wife of mother's (or stepmother's)1st brother, and so onMother's (or stepmother's) 1st sisterMother's (or stepmother's) 1st sister'shusband, and so onvSon-in-law21


6.3.2.1.5 Put an N in the square of column 3 forall non-relatives. This includes all personsforming part of this household who are notrelated to the head. Under the N draw aline and under that write the status, e.g.domestic servant or other employee, lodger,guest, etc. The only difficulty may arisehere is that many relationships included ma Chinese family are not considered relationshipsin English. You should treateach household BY THE CUSTOM OFITS OWN COMMUNITY e.g. in anEnglish household the father or mother ofthe daughter-in-law is an unrelated person,but in the Chinese household the samerelationship is a close one.6.3.2.1.6 The 1st son of the head's 1st son shouldbe listed as "1st son of 1st son" and NOTas "grandson". The following terms willNOT BE USED because each of themhas more than one meaning:—Aunt,Brother-in-law, Clansman, Clanswoman,Cousin, Father-in-law, Godfather, Godmother,Granddaughtei, Grandfather,Grandmother, Grandson, Half-brother,Half-sister, Mother-in-law, Nephew,Niece, Relation, Relative, Sister-in-law,Stepbrother, Stepsister, Uncle. Butdaughter-in-law, Son-in-law, Stepfatherand Stepmother may be vised because eachhas only one meaning.6.3.2.1.7 If a member has no family relationship tothe head of the household, but is relatedto another member, the relationship to theother person should be recorded. Forinstance, if a visitor enumerated on line7 of the schedule has a child with her, thechild should be described as "Visitor,child of No. 7".6.3.2.1.8 Where several persons with no family relationshipshare the responsibility of ahousehold, they should be recorded as inthe case of an ordinary household. In22


such case, one of them will be representingthe head of the household whilst the otherare treated as "friends".6.3.3 Economic status (Column 4 of the Schedule, CODE 4)6.3.3.1 General6.3.3.1.1 The purpose of this column is to find outthe role played by each individual in thehousehold economy.6.3.3.2 How to enter6.3.3.2.1 Put an F in the square of column 4 for theSOLE or PRINCIPAL supporter of thehousehold. This person is often not thesame person as that described as the headof the household. For persons supportingthe household but not residing in it atthe time of the Census, you should recordthem separately. This is needed for thepurpose of a tabulation of households thesupporting members of which resideseparately.6.3.3.2.2 Put a P in the square of column 4 for onewho PARTLY SUPPORTS, OR PAYSA SHARE. This person is not the solesupporter of the household but contributesto its support, either by money from his/her regular employment or from his/hercasual or irregular part-time work, averagingat least one hour a day for the past 20days before the Census Day or as an"unpaid family worker". Cases may arisewhere one member of the household claimsto be its sole supporter while anothermember says he contributes e.g. the fathermaintains the household but one of thesons who is a student does part-time workand contributes a small share. Or anotherson resides separately and has his ownhousehold but also contributes to thefather's household. In such cases it iscorrect to show the father as "sole orprincipal supporter of the household",because he is the regular supporting mem-23


er. Where the household economicsappear to rest on a genuine partnership,either between brothers, father and son,or even husband and wife with separatesources of livelihood, it will be morecorrect to show nobody as constituting thewhole or principal supporter and each ofthe contributors as partly supporting thehousehold.6.3.3.2.3 Put a D in the square of column 4 for anyDEPENDANT. This category includesnon-paying guests, servants and employeestaking their meals with their employers.Also the housewife or *'home-maker"unless having other part-time employment.6.3.4 Seas (Column 5 of the Schedule)6.3.4.1 General6.3.4.1.1 For persons who are related to the head ofthe household, the sex need not be separatelyasked if it follows from the descriptionof the relationship to the head of thehousehold.6.3.4.1.2 In the case of visitors, lodgers, employees,etc. for whom no indication of sex is giventhen you have to ask the sex of each.6.3.4.2 How to enterWrite M for male; andF for female.6.3.4.3 Doubtful casesIf you are in doubt whether a person is male orfemale, record the sex claimed by the person orreported by the person's nearest relative or neighbour.If this cannot be done, consult your chief enumerator.6.3.5 Age (Columns 6 and 7 of the Schedule)To assist you in finding the detailed instructions in thisimportant section the main headings are listed below:6.3.5.1 General6.3.5.2 How to use the Age Conversion TableNote 1 Chinese Era or Reign NameNote 2 Cycle of Sterns and BranchesNote 3 Zodiacal Animal24


6.3.5.3 How to deduce age6.3.5.4 How to enter6.3.5.5 How to record Japanese age6.3.5.6 Warning about Europeans6.3.5.1 General6.3.5.1.1 By age is meant the number of completeyears a person has passed since birth. Thusa person whose age is 18 years 11 monthsand 29 days on the census day should berecorded as 18. However, ages of infantsless than one year old should be recorded bymonths, viz., 0 MTH=less than one monthold, 1 MTH=over one and less than twomonths old, and so on.6.3.5.1.2 Ages by Chinese calculation may be one,two or even three years in advance or theequivalent of the Western ages accordingto the time of the year at which the censusis taken. For this reason a ConversionTable of Chinese and Western ages hasbeen compiled, (see Appendix AIL/I XL.^^CA^-i-^6.3.5.1.3 To ascertain the exact age of a persongiven in the Chinese reckoning, it is necessaryto know the date of birth of theperson. Therefore, this question shouldbe dealt with in conjunction with thepreceding question—date of birth.6.3.5.2 Hozv to use the Age Conversion Table (Chinese andWestern)6.3.5.2.1 Ask "How old are you?"6.3.5.2.2 Look up the age given in the BLACKFIGURES.6.3.5.2.3 Ask "In what year were you born?" andcheck the answer in the first two " checkdata" lines. If they do not correspond,the YEAR is more likely to be right thanthe AGE GIVEN. (Note 1)25


N6.3.5 2.4 If the YEAR and the AGE GIVEN donot correspond, make a further check byasking the CYCLICAL LETTERS or t!ANIMAL. (Notes 2 and 3)6.3.5.2.5 If any two of the above answers agree,accept them. If no two agree, the mot 'likely to be right is the ANIMAL (i|known), next the CYCLICAL LETTERSnext the YEAR and last the AGE GIVEIXAccept the most likely as being correct6.3.5.2.6 The next question you must ask is


6.3.5.2.9 If the date of birth is ON OR BEFOREthe critical date for that year, then theGREEN figure at the bottom of the columnshows the correct Western age.Intercalary months6.3.5.2.10 Don't forget that in the Chinese lunarcalendar, about 19 years out of every 60have an extra lunar month. This is doneby repeating one of the months from the2nd to the 10th. The repeated month iscalled intercalary (YUN YUTE). Theintercalary month comes immediately afterthe ordinary month, e.g. if the third monthis repeated then the sequence of monthsin that year is 1st, 2nd, 3rd, intercalary3rd, 4th, 5th and so on.6.3.5.2.11 For the Marine By-census 1966 the onlyintercalary months you have to worry aboutare the 4th and 5th. If the critical date isin the ordinary 4th month, then ANY datein the intercalary 4th month is after thecritical date. If the critical date is in theintercalary 4th month, then ANY date inthe ordinary 4th month is before the criticaldate.6.3.5.2.12 For the Marine By-census 1966 the criticaldate can never fall in the intercalary 5thmonth, but only in the ordinary 5th month.So any date of birth in an intercalary 5thmonth MUST be after the critical date.6.3.5.2.13 For the Land By-census 1966 the onlyintercalary months you have to worryabout are the 6th and 7th. If the criticaldate is in the ordinary 6th month, thenANY date in the intercalary 6th month isafter the critical date. If the critical dateis in the intercalary 6th month, thenANY date in the ordinary 6th month isbefore the critical date.27


6.3.5.2.14 For the Land By-Census 1966 the criticaldate can never fall in the intercalary 7thmonth, but only in the ordinary 7th month.So any date of birth in an intercalary 7thmonth MUST be after the critical date.Note 1Note 2Note 3The Chinese have three ways of markingthe years. The first and most useful is bythe ERA or REIGN NAME and theYEAR of the era. For example thepresent year is the 55th year of the Republic,or MAN GWOK 55. See Index of Years(Appendix AIII).The second way of marking the Chineseyears is by the CYCLE of Stems andBranches. This repeats itself every 60years, so that the cyclical name of thecurrent year (BING-NG) is the same asthat for 1906, 1846, 1786, etc. But as itis easy enough to tell whether a man is 25or 85, the CYCLE is quite useful forascertaining ages, and many Chinese canremember the CYCLE name of their birthyearmore correctly than they can rememberthe number of the year or how many yearsold they are.The third way of marking the Chineseyears is by the Zodiacal ANIMAL towhich the year belongs. This repeatsitself every 12 years, so that THE YEAROF THE HORSE may be 1966, 1954,1942, 1930, 1918 and so on. But a lot ofsimple people who can only tell their ageto the nearest ten years can add positively"I belong to the OX (or COCK, MON-KEY, DRAGON, etc.), and from this thetrue age can be easily deduced, e.g. awoman who says, "I am in my sixties andI belong to the Snake" is 62 by Chinesereckoning. But if she says, "I am in myfifties and I belong to the Horse" you mustask her to think again whether she doesnot mean her forties or her sixties, becausethe "Horse" makes her 49 or 61.28


6.3.5.3 How to deduce age6.3.5.3.1 Some people, especially old people, whoare not sure of their exact ages, are apt togive their ages in round numbers such asapproximately 50, 55, 60, etc. Recordingof ages in round numbers is a common sourceof mistakes in censuses and you should takeevery precaution to guard against it. Youshould, therefore, help these people workout their correct age by way of:6.3.5.3.1.1 Comparison of ages ofspouse and/or eldest child.6.3.5.3.1.2 Age of contemporary.6.3.5.3.2 Comparing age of spouse and/or eldest childIt very seldom happens that the husbandand wife are both ignorant of each other'sage. Should you fail to get a satisfactoryanswer from one, you may put the questionto the other by asking by now many yearshe/she is older or younger than her/him.If the age of the eldest child of theseparents is known, you can deduce the ageof the man by asking how old he was whenthe child was born, and adding this age tothe present age of the child. Since it isunlikely (though not impossible) that themother was less than 16 or the father lessthan 18 when their eldest child was born,you can use these figures to obtain a roughestimate of their lower limit of age. Similarlyan upper limit of the mother's agecan be estimated from the age of heryoungest child, as she is very unlikely tohave been more than 46 when her lastchild was born. But remember that youmust not edit the answer or put in yourown ideas. These notes are to enable youto help the respondent recall his/her true age.6.3.5.3.3 Age of contemporaryYou can also deduce the age of a personby asking whether he/she is older or younger29


than someone either in the household orelsewhere whose age is known and whoappears to be his/her contemporary.6.3.5.4 How to enter6.3.5.4.1 If a person tells you straight away thathe/she was born on the 15th day of August,1927, the entry will be:—Age : 38Date of birth: 15/8/19276.3.5.4.2 If the answer is that he/she was born onthe 15th day of the Eighth moon in the16th year of "Man Gwok", (see AppendixAI or All) enter the given lunar day andmonth in Chinese characters to differentiatethose of the Western reckoning as follows:—Age : 38Date of birth: -hS/A/19276.3.5.4.3 If you can't write Chinese, write the letterC before the date. Thus: C 15/8/1927.6.3.5.4.4 If a person does know the month of his/herbirth but does not know the day, enter theestimated day. However, if he/she remembersthat the day was "CHAW GAY" :gjjjj"SUP GAY" -HR or "YAR GAY" -fch$|enter the 5th, 15th or 25th as the case maybe. However, if the month of birth wasthe 4th, 5th, 6th or 7th, this method is notsufficiently accurate and the proceduredescribed in 6.3.5.2.7/8/9 must be followed.6.3.5.4.5 If a person does not know either the dayor the month of his/her birth and it is notpossible to extract such information, enter"unknown" in the appropriate column,and record the age in years as the LunarCalendar age LESS TWO YEARS.6.3.5.5 How to record Japanese age6.3.5.5.1 In the course of your enumeration, youmay come across Japanese nationals, whogive their age and date of birth accordingto the year of the reign of the Emperors.30


6.3.5.5.2 For this purpose, a Japanese/Western agetable has been compiled, (see AppendixAIV). For instance, if the year Taisho12 is given, the corresponding year wouldbe 1923 and the age 42 or 43 according todate of birth.6.3.5.5.3 The figures in brackets appearing in twoplaces on the table indicate overlappingyears of two reigns. Taisho (15) isequivalent to Showa 1 and Meiji (45) toTaisho 1.6.3.5.6 Warning about Europeans6.3.5.6.1 If you are Chinese and are enumerating afamily of Europeans, remember that amongEuropeans it is not customary, as it is withChinese, to inquire a person's age. Apolite apology should therefore be made forthe necessity of asking this question, particularlyabout a female.6.3.5.6.2 It may be necessary to invite femaleEuropeans to write down their date ofbirth on a separate sheet of paper so thatother members of the household cannotsee or hear the answer. REMEMBERIT IS THE RIGHT OF ANY CENSUSRESPONDENT TO DEMANDSECRECY FOR ANY OF HIS/HERANSWERS.6.3.6 Conjugal status (Column 8 of the Schedule, CODE 5)6.3.6.1 General6.3.6.1.1 Conjugal status should be recorded accordingto the actual situation. Record personsas "married" whether or not they haveundergone any kind of ceremony orwhether the marriage has been registeredor not, so long as they say they are manand wife.6.3.6.1.2 Dp not attempt to distinguish betweenzvives, concubines, mistresses, etc. For thepurpose of the census they are all justwives.31


6.3.6.1.3 Do not use the word "single" or "unmarried".If they have ever been marriedbut are now single, they go down as"widowed 3 " or "divorced" according towhether their previous spouses are aliveor dead. Do not attempt to distinguishbetween legal separation, voluntary separationand divorce. However the mere factof living in separate houses, or on separateboats, does not amount to separation.6.3.6.2 How to approachAsk: "Are you married ?""NAY GEETJAW FUN MAY?"If the answer is "not yet" ("MAY") that means thatthe respondent is not married. But if the answeris "I have no husband" "AW MOE LOGOONG"or "I have no wife" "AW MOE LOPAW" this maymean and often DOES mean that the respondent is awidow or widower. In that case you have to askfurther questions in order to find out the actualconjugal status.6.3.6.3 How to enterPut NM in the square for a person who has NEVERMARRIEDPut 3Vt for a person who has a spouse (husband orwife) at the present time ...... MARRIEDPut W for a person who has been separated fromspouse by death and is not now remarried ............WIDOWED AND NOT REMARRIEDPut D for a person who has been living away fromspouse by separation or by divorce and is not remarriedto anyone else ............ DIVORCED ORSEPARATED, AND NOT REMARRIED6.3.7 Number of children born /living (Column 9 of the Schedule)6.3.7.1 GeneralThis question refers ONLY to married, widowed ordivorced women. It is, therefore, better to ask thewomen concerned.32


6.3.7.2 How to approach6.3.7.2.1 Ask: (1) "To how many children haveyou given birth?""NAY SAHNGGAW GAY-DAWGAW JIGHNOEY?"(2) "How many children given birthby you are still living?"11 f/w -ivn /-L. n*r l-r _!__ -t— «!« Ax An r&- rtAtf cfe 3'»"NAY CHUNSAHNG GEAJIGHNOEY YOW GAYDAW-GAW JUNGHAIDO?"6.3.7.2.2 Make it clear what we want is the totalnumber of her children born and the totalnumber of her children living. We don'twant to include in her answer:—(1) children born to her husband byanother wife;(2) adopted children.6.3.7.2.3 Do not ask a woman how many times shehas been married because this question isregarded by Chinese as offensive.6.3.7.3 How to enterPut down in the left-hand column the exact numberof children ever born and in the right-hand columnthe exact number of children still living. In the caseof males, and females who have never married, writeacross both columns N.A. to indicate "not applicable".6.3.8 Place of birth (Column 10 of the Schedule, CODE 6)6.3.8.1 GeneralThis question refers to the place where a person wasborn. In this Census we are interested only inwhether the place of birth was or was not in HongKong. By Hong Kong is meant Hong Kong,Kowloon, New Kowloon, the New Territories oranywhere within the territorial waters of the same.33


6.3.8.2 How to approach6.3.8.2.1 Ask: ''Where were you born?' !"NAY HIGH BEENSEE CHURT-SIGH?"6.3.8.2.2 Persons born on board small craft may reallynot know whether the boat was in or out ofterritorial waters at the time. If the birthwas registered in Hong Kong, then he/shewas born in Hong Kong. If the birth wasnot registered in Hong Kong, but wasregistered in some other country, then theperson was not born in Hong Kong. However,you should ask the following questionsto establish the place of birth :—(a) "Was the birth registered?""NAYGEH CHURTSAANG YOW-MO JEECHARK?"(YOWMO LOR CHURTSIGHJEE?)(6) If yes, ask: "Where?""HURNG BEENSEE JEECHARK?"The answer to this question settleswhether Hong Kong born or not.(c) If the birth was not registered, ask :"Is the boat registered in HongKong?""NAYJECK SEEN HIGHUMHIGHHURNG HURNG-GORNGCHURT-PYE?"If NOT, then the person is NOTHong Kong born.(d) If the birth was not registered and theanswer to (c) is "Yes", then ask:"Was the boat coming in or going outof Hong Kong at the time of yourbirth?"34


"NAY CHURTSIGH GEH SEE-HOW, GORJECK SEEN HIGHFARN-GUN HURNG-GORNGYICKWARK LAYHOY HURNG-GORNG?"If going out, then the person was NOTborn in Hong Kong; if coming in, thenhe/she was born in Hong Kong.6.3.8.2.3 Where after these questions the place ofbirth cannot still be ascertained, thenrecord it as NOT Hong Kong born.6.3.8.2.4 If the respondent doesn't know his placeof birth, record it the same as "Place ofOrigin" (6.3.9)6.3.8.3 How to enter6.3.8.3.1 Put a " I/" in the column headed "H.K."when the person was born in Hong Kong.6.3.8.3.2 Put a *V" in the column headed "NONH.K." when the person was not born inHong Kong.6.3.9 Place of origin (Column 11 of the Schedule, CODE 7)6.3.9.1 General6.3.9.1.1 To Chinese speaking people this questionusually refers to their "Heung Ha", i.e.the part of China from which the familycomes. In the case of NON-CHINESEit usually means the nationality or countryof origin.6.3.9.1.2 Despite the simplified coding, the actualplace or country should be given, e.g.Chung Shan, Shansi, Japan, Australia,England, etc.6.3.9.1.3 In the last Census it was found that quitea number of Hong Kong residents knewthe name of their ancestral village but didnot know where it was. Here you mustdo the best with the materials you have:the simplified codes mean that the possibilityof mistakes is reduced.35


6.3.9.1.4 More care must be taken to ensure thatvillages in the New Territories are notdescribed as "Po On" because althoughgeographically they are, like all the restof Hong Kong, part of this county it isnecessary for Hong Kong to be classifiedseparately from Po On.6.3.9.1.5 Some slight complication may arise fromserial number 5 of this code because ofchanges of provincial and county boundariesunder different Chinese governments,e.g. most of the Hakka speaking part ofPo On has been transferred to Wai Yeung,and a big slab of South-west Kwangtunghas been transferred to Kwangsi underits new title of the Chuang Peoples'Autonomous Area. You must just dothe best you can.6.3.9.2 How to approach6.3.9.2.1 If the household appears to you to beChinese and the language of the householdgiven to you is any dialect of Chinese,ask the question:—"What is your place of origin?""NAY HIGH BEEN-SEE YAN?"The answer should be one of serials 4 to 9in Code 7. These serials cover alsoBritish nationals of Chinese origin. Butif the respondent, though of Chineseorigin, says for example, "I am an Australian"or "I am from the West Indies"his/her answer must be accepted and his/her country recorded as Australia, etc.,according to the answer.6.3.9.2.2 If the household is non-Chinese, then theanswer is almost sure to be serial number 1.6.3.9.2.3 If the respondent does not know his/herplace of origin or his/her nationality, thenif he/she was born in HONG KONG,36


give his/her place of origin as HONGKONG; if he/she was from elsewhere,ask the country IN WHICH HE/SHELAST RESIDED BEFORE coming toHong Kong.6.3.9.2A Once you know the place of origin of thefather, it will not be necessary for you toask the same question in respect of hischildren but to treat the father and thechildren alike.M 6.3.9.2.5 If "Nam Hoi" is given as the place oforigin by the boat population, it may meanthe ancient $f $Jf [$ or just the South ChinaSea. You must follow up by asking fromwhich part of "Nam Hoi" does he/she comeso as to make sure whether he/she meansthe South China Sea or the district calledNam Hoi of which Fat Shan, near Canton,is thf principal town.6.3.10 Usual language (Column 12 of the Schedule, CODE 8)6.3.10.1 General6.3.10.1.1 By usual language is meant the languagecurrently spoken at home by the enumeratedperson with members of his/her family.6.3.10.1.2 The fact that your conversation with therespondent is in Cantonese does notnecessarily mean that Cantonese is thelanguage in answer to this question.6 3.10.1.3 This question should be asked of everybody.6.3.10,1.4 In the case of small children who are notdumb but have not yet begun to talk intelligiblyit should be fairly easy for youto ascertain what language the child willfirst speak. Where the family is multilingualthe language will probably be thatof the next elder child or of the mother.Where the rest of the family speaks onlyone language, it will of course be thatlanguage.37


6.3.10.2 How to approachAsk: "What language do you currently speak inyour home?""NAY HURNG OAK-KAY PINGSEEGONG MEEYEH WAH?"6.3.10.3 How to enter6.3.10.3.1 In the language CODE 8, all languages ofChina are classified into 5 groups :2. CANTONESE3. HAKKA4. HOKLO5. SZEYAP6. ANY OTHER LANGUAGE OFCHINA6.3.10.3.2 For any Chinese language other than thefive named, FIRST examine the explanatorynotes in CODE 8 to see whether it isincluded under one of the others (e.g.Amoy under HOKLO, Tanka underCANTONESE.)6.3.10.3.3 For those whose home language is English,serial number 1 applies whereas all languagesother than English and Chinese arecovered by serial number 7.6.3.10.3.4 Put down the name of the language andthe serial number under it. For all dumbpeople put down "dumb" and the serialnumber 8.6.3.11 Ability to speak English (Column 12 of the Schedule,CODE 9)6.3.11.1 GeneralBy the expression ' 'ability to speak English" is meantwhether a person is able to conduct a short conversationor understand and answer questions put in thatlanguage.38


6.3.11.2 How to approach6.3.11.2.1 The simplest way to establish the answerto this question without conducting atest is for the question itself to be putin English.6.3.11.2.2 For any person whose usual language isEnglish, the question need not be asked.6.3.11.2.3 For those who give their usual languageas something else, but have been talkingEnglish to you in answer to the otherquestions, likewise the question need notbe asked as the answer is obvious.6.3.11.2.4 But for the majority who have answeredthe previous questions in Chinese, it willbe fair enough for you to say, at theappropriate moment, IN ENGLISH"DO YOU UNDERSTAND ENG-LISH?"6.3.11.2.5 If the answer is "yes", a second questionshould be asked."Where did you learn it?"6.3.11.2.6 Any person who can understand the twoquestions in 6.3.11.2.4 and 6.3.11.2.5 andreply to them intelligibly in English shouldbe recorded as speaking English.6.3.11.3 How to enter6.3.11.3.1 Put a "I/" in the column "YES" for anyone who can speak English.6.3.11.3.2 Put a "l/" in the column "NO" for anyone who cannot speak English.6.3.12 Education (Column 13 of the Schedule, CODE 10)6.3.12.1 GeneralThe answer to this question refers to the last orhighest grade (or year) of school reached.39


6.3.12.2 How to approach6.3.12.2.1 In the case of those still attending schoolyou may ask :"In what class or year are you atpresent?""NAY EEGAH DOOK DIE-GAYBARN?"6.3.12.2.2 In the case of those who are no longer atschool, the question should be:"What was your highest grade reachedat school ?"F?""NAY HIGH SEE-GOON DOOK-DOE DIE-GAY BARN?"6.3.12.2.3 If a child is away from home when youcall, and his/her parents do not knowwhat grade he/she is in, ask:"How many years has he/she been atschool?""KEY DOOKJAW GAYDAWNEENSEE?"If the answer is 3 years, then the codingshould be 2 which stands for lower primaryin CODE 10.6.3.13 School or place of study if still attending (Column 14 ofthe Schedule)6.3.13.1 GeneralThis question should only be applied to students.6.3.13.2 How to approachAsk: "What is the name of your school?"*?""NAY HIGH BEEN-GARN HOCKHAOWDOOK SEE?"40


6.3.13.3 How to enterPut in the name and address of the school or collegein the space provided.».3.14 Employment status (Column 15 of the Schedule, CODE 12)6.3.14.1 General6.3.14.1.1 Everybody either works for a living, hasprivate means or is supported by someone else.If he/she works for a living, he/she is eitherhis/her own boss, someone else's boss, orhas a boss. If he/she has a boss, he/she iseither a regular full-time/part-time workeror a casual or seasonal worker.6.3.14.1.2 For those who work for a living, list themunder the economically active group, i.e.serial numbers 0-6. For those who donot work for a living but have privatemeans or are supported by others, listthem under the economically inactive group.6.3.14.1.3 In the case of an employee, you have toenquire into the term of service and thesector he/she belongs. PAY CAREFULATTENTION TO THE EXPLANA-TORY NOTES AT THE FOOT OFCODE 12.6.3.14.1.4 The modern sector of the economy isdistinguished by these typical characteristics:(1) Premises usually specially designedfor the industrial undertaking.(2) Undertakings are often large.(3) Equipment often includes powerdrivenmachinery.(4) Labour (i) works set hours; (ii) is paidan agreed or contracted rate permonth, per day or per hour, withextra for overtime; or on piece workat an agreed or contracted rate; (iii)is union organized,41


(5) The capital is that of a joint stock(limited) company, the capital-labourratio is high, the levels of technologyand productivity are high and bear aneconomic relationship to the rewards.6.3.14.1.5 A SELF-EMPLOYED PERSON is onewho works on his/her own account.NEITHER EMPLOYED BY SOMEONEELSE NOR EMPLOYING OTHERS. Ifhe/she employs even one clerk, then he/sheis an employer: but domestic servants andmenial staff do not count in this respect. Inthe traditional sector quite a large householdmay be all self-employed doing "outwork'*,perhaps connected with the modernsector, e.g. farming women who in the offseasonsew buttons on to ready-madegarments. Though the factory itself maybe classified in the modern sector, many ofits outworkers, using traditional methodsand "cottage industry*' skills fall to beclassified in the traditional sector of theeconomy, and are self-employed. In suchcases they should NOT be classified as"out-workers'* (5.x). Though the line maybe hard to draw, and much will dependon the degree of dependence or independence.6.3.14.1.6 EMPLOYER includes a partner, directoror proprietor of a concern employing atleast one other person (other than menialstaff); but a salaried manager is an employee,not an employer. In the case of hotels,restaurants and clubs, the menial staff docount as employees and the proprietor isan employer. The difficulty of definitionhere is that a partner or director may alsodraw salary as manager. In the traditionalsector it is usual for the "proprietor"element to predominate, but in the modernsector a managing director or managingpartner is usually more of a manager thanhe is of a proprietor.42


6.3.14.1.7 WORK means, in this context, the productionof economic goods and services;usually though not necessarily for paymentor profit. Cases of difficulty includeHOUSE WORK (which is work when apaid servant does it, but is not work whenmembers of the family do it), STUDY(which is not work when a student atschool or university does it, but is workwhen a research worker or teacher does it).MUSIC and PAINTING (which arenot work when done for recreation, butare work when done for payment or in thehope of later payment, even though paymentis not actually received), and the PLAY-ING OF GAMES (which is work onlywhen done professionally).6.3.14.1.8 A difficulty of demarcation arises betweenstudents having PART-TIME EMPLOY-MENT and those who work but STUDYPART-TIME. The rule for the Censusis that just as occasional part-time worktotalling less than 40 hours in the 20-dayreference period does not count as WORK,so a working man who attends a few classesnot totalling 40 hours in the same referenceperiod is not considered a student.6.3.14.1.9 The traditional sector of the economy isdistinguished from the modern sector bythese typical characteristics:(1) Premises usually not designed forthe industrial undertaking, e.g. domesticpremises, the street, a village outhouseor squatter shack.(2) Undertakings are small, usually under20 persons.(3) Equipment consists of craft tools orsimple machinery; power-driven machineryis the exception.(4) Labour (i) is usually from one family,clan village or district; (ii) hours andconditions of work are not specified;43


(ni) receives no agreed or contractedrate of pay per month, day or hour;but either piece-work on a customarybasis, or profit-sharing with pocketmoney. Unpaid family help is verycommon, (iv) is not organized intounions.(5) The working capital is provided on afamily or partnership basis and thecapital-labour ratio is low. Productivityand rewards are not related.6.3.14.1.10 In the traditional sector there is usuallyno timekeeping. To those unfamiliarwith local customs there often seems tobe a lack of defined function. A farmer'swife is often both a full-time housewifeand a full-time farmer. Afarmer's old mother, though "retired" isprobably doing as much work on the landas anybody will let her. But the wivesof a business director, who help theirhusband entertain some business associateand his wives, should probably be regardedas non-working partners.6.3.14.1.11 An UNPAID FAMILY WORKER includesany one (related or not) who liveswith the family and DOES WORK, ASPART OF THE FAMILY ENTER-PRISE, (not domestic help) in return forfood and lodging. They are still describedas "unpaid" if they receive irregular oroccasional payments of pocket money, notbeing any agreed form of regular salary,wages, commission, bonus or share ofprofits. But a housewife, or a child whohelps its mother with the housework, isnot an "unpaid family worker" unless thehousehold is running a lodging house, etc,when housework is part of the family enterprise.6.3.14.1.12 A person who is aged 15 and over and whoneither has nor needs to seek any economicallyactive occupation, is described as44


OF INDEPENDENT MEANS. Youngpeople who have left school and are notyet at work, are dependent on their parentsor other relatives and therefoie are NOTof independent means. But some personswhose means of living is the receipt ofmoney from sons or daughters overseasmay in some cases be fairly described as"of independent means", though moreoften they are "dependants of a personresiding abroad".6.3.14.1.13 By PRINCIPAL TENANT in item 7.0is meant a person whose sole or chiefmeans of livelihood is owning or renting ahouse or flat (or part of a house) and sublettingit to others. But if he/she runs itas a lodging house, providing meals orservices, it is NOT classified as "principaltenancy" but as the business of lodginghouse keeping. If he/she owns or rentsmore than one house and rents them out,then it is the business of real estatemanagement. If he/she operates ashop or other business and rents out partof the premises to others, the classificationshould be that of the shop and not that ofsub-letting the rest of the premises.6.3.14.1.14 INDEPENDENT, BUT MEANS OFSUPPORT NOT ASCERTAINABLE(7.9) should be used sparingly and only inthe last resort, e.g. where the person isclearly of independent means but is ofunsound mind or too infirm to answerquestions, and the information requiredcannot be elicited from another member ofthe household.6.3.14.1.15 SUPPORTED BY REMITTANCESFROM CHILDREN OVERSEAS (7.y)refers to the case (very frequent in HongKong) where the family has collectively"invested" in setting up a member of itin business overseas. His/her regularremittances are thus regarded as a return on45


the investment. It is different where thehead of the family or group is himself/herself overseas, in which case the recipientsmay simply be his/her dependents.It follows that only very exceptionallycan any person under 21 years of age bedescribed as "of independent means".6.3.14.1.16 Be particularly careful with those between5 and 14 (by Western reckoning) for whomthere is a special category. No personunder 15 can be shown as "unemployed"or as "seeking work". He/she is eitherat school, in work, both, or neither.6.3,14.2 RemarksIn order that the census results shall be representativeof the size and composition of the economicallyactive population, it is necessary (except in the caseof farmers and fishermen for whom see 6.3.14.2.3)to specify the hours actually worked during the timereference period.6.3.14.2.1 TIME REFERENCE PERIODIf the purpose of the census is likened tothe taking of a kind of photograph of thepopulation as it is at one instant, then thetime reference period is the length of theexposure. While a longer exposure at anarrow diaphragm stop may be employedfor photographing a still object, a shorterexposure on a wider stop is needed for amoving object. From this concept itfollows that in an economy where peoplerarely change their jobs a longer exposuremay be employed; but in an economywhere the conditions change frequently,a shorter exposure is needed.As Hong Kong falls within the scope ofthe latter, the TIME REFERENCEPERIOD has been fixed at 3 weeks i.e.20 days prior to the date of the By-Census.46


If the question "What are you doing now ?"is answered by " Nothing", then thequestion following should be"What have you been doing duringthe past 20 days?"6.3.14.2.2 HOURS ACTUALLY WORKEDWith sedentary occupations, it is fairlyeasy to ascertain the number of hoursworked. If the work amounts to no morethan occasional assistance totalling LESSthan 40 hours during the 20 days ending onBy-Census eve, it should be disregarded.6.3.14.2.3 Section 6.3.14.2.1 does NOT apply toFARMERS or FISHERMEN. Anyonewho says he is a fanner or a fishermanshould be treated as economically activeeven though for reasons of the season, orstress of weather, he has not been able towork during the last 20 days. An unemployedfarmer is e.g. one with no landto farm. An unemployed fisherman ise.g. one with no boat or fishing tackle tofish with.6.3.14.3 How to enter6.3.14.3.1 In describing a person who is economicallyactive, it is necessary to take into considerationsimultaneously three things—employment status, industry and occupation.If the person is economically inactive, theindustry and occupation do not apply.In which case you just put down "N.A."for both industry and occupation.6.3.14.3.2 Sometimes a person may have more thanone employment status and it may bedifBcult for you to describe his/her mainemployment or principal economic activity.In that case his/her main employment willfollow the one at which he/she spent mosthours during the 20 days ending on By-Census Eve. If the hours were the same,47


ecord the one from which he/she receivesthe most income. If his/her main employmentstill cannot be found, then theclassification is NOT "regular full-timeemployment" but "regular part-time" or"casual".6.3.14.3.3 The general expression "He is my foki"is not good enough. You have to findout whether he is a regular full-time,regular part-time, casual or seasonalworker.6.3.14.3.4 Use mod. sec. to stand for modernsector and trad. sec. to stand for traditionalsector. Put either one beside therespondent's employment status accordingto the sector he/she belongs to.6.3.15 Number of hours worked in past 20 days (for part-time workers)(Column 16 of the Schedule)6.3.15.1 GeneralThis question should be asked of every regularpart-time worker and those who are not regularpart-time workers but whose work is not disregardedby the Census standard. It should be asked ofpeople of this category from both the modernsector and the traditional sector.6.3.15.2 How to approachAsk:6.3.15.3 How to enter"How many hours did you work in the past20 days?""NAY HURNG GWAWHOEY YEESUP-YUT-NOY JOEGAW GAYDORGAWJOONGTOWYEAH?"Put down the respondent's answer, to the nearestwhole number of hours, in the square of column 16.48


6.3.16 Industry (Column 17 of the Schedule, CODE 13)6.3.16.1 General6.3.16.1.1 In some text-books "industry" is describedas "branch of economic activity". Itrefers to the kind of establishment in whicha person works or the source from whichhis/her income or wages is derived, or thetype of product made or service rendered.6.3.16.1.2 As industry is closely interrelated withoccupation, it is of vital importance thatCODES 13 and 14 should be carefullystudied and thoroughly understood.6.3.16.1.3 The best way to explain industry andoccupation is to compare the caterer fora bus company with a van driver employedby a catering company. The former worksin the communication industry but his occupationis catering; the latter works in thecatering industry but his occupation iscommunication.6.3.16.2 How to enterH6.3.16.2.1 Do not use general terms such as mining,manufacturing, business, services, etc.You must specify clearly the kind ofproduct mined or manufactured, the kindof trade operated or the kind of servicerendered.6.3,16.2.2 For the marine population once you knowthe type of vessel, you will probably knowthe kind of industry in which the crewmembers are employed. The industrialclassification of individuals can thus besolved without any difficulty by followingthe type of vessel in which they are employed.For instance, persotis working onboard;—(a) a water boat come under the "watersupply" industry. (Major group 4,Code 13)49


H(b) a sailing or mechanized fishing junkor small fishing boat come under"fishing industry". (Major group X.Code 13)(c) a ferry, launch or tug; sailing passengerjunk, cargo boat or lighter ora trading junk come under "communicationindustry". (Major group 2,Code 13)6.3.16.2.3 A coxswain (Major group 3.9 Code 14)employed in type (c) is in the "communication"industry whereas he is in the "watersupply" industry if he works in type (a)or in the "fishing" industry if he is employedin type (b).,16.2.4 It can be seen that work of a similar naturecan be accorded different industrial classificationsaccording to the type of vesselin which the worker is employed.6.3.16.2.5 If a person worked in two or more industriesduring the time reference period;enter the industry to which he/she devotedthe most hours. For instance, if acarpenter worked at a building constructionsite for 2 weeks and in a furniture shopfor 1 week, enter the industry in whichhe worked more hours, i.e. "buildingconstruction" (Major group 5, Code 13)not *'manufacture of furniture and fixtures"(Major group 8, Code 13) or if acoxswain worked in a mechanized fishingjunk for 2 weeks and in a lighter for 1week, enter the industry in which he workedmore hours, i.e. "fishing industry" (Majorgroup X, Code 13) not "water transportindustry" (Major group 2, Code 13).6.3.16.2.6 If it is not possible to establish in whichindustry a person spent the most hours,record the one from which he/she receivedthe most income. If this too cannot beascertained, record the one in which he/she worked last.50


6.3.16.2.7 Persons doing the same kind of work mayhave different industries. For instance,a fitter working in a ship-building yardis in the "engineering" section of themanufacturing industry (major group 6,Code 13) whereas a fitter in a gas companyis in the "public utilities" (Major group 4,Code 13).6.3.16.2.8 Sometimes persons doing the same kindof work in the same establishment may havedifferent industries. For example, anoffice attendant in the shipping departmentof X company is in the "communication"industry whilst the one in the insurancedepartment of the same company is inthe "commerce" industry.6.3.16.2.9 If a person works in an industry which issubsidiary to the main industry of a factory,company or store, report the main industry.For instance, if he works in the warehouseof a factory, report the main industry ofthe factory, not "warehouse".6.3.16.2.10 The industrial classification of an unpaidfamily worker should be that of the personwhom he or she assisted.6.3.16.2.11 List persons in the economically activegroup under one of the major groups Oto X unless they have not yet found a jobor have a job which cannot be classified(Major group Y). List those in theeconomically inactive group underMajor group Y too.6.3.16.2.12 Difficult casesA private chauffeur is classified under"communication" (Major group 2) NOT"community service" (Major group 1);the coxswain of a pleasure yacht under"communication" (Major group 2) NOT"community service" (Major group 1);the private secretary or accountant of agentleman of independent means under51


"unclassifiable" (Major group Y) NOT''commerce" (Major group 3) nor "communityservice" (Major group 1).6.3.16.2.13 Use MANF/ENG for Manufactures(Engineering Section), major group 6-MANF/TEX for Manufactures (TextileSection), major group 7; and MANF/ORSfor Manufactures (other), major group 8.In all other cases name the group atlength and in all cases put the majorgroup number under the description.6.3.17 Occupation (Column 18 of the Schedule, CODE 14)6.3.17.1 GeneralOccupation refers to the kind of job or business a personhimself I her self does. This question is in some waysthe most difficult and at the same time the most importantof the job codes, because it gets right downto what the individual does. It is distinguished from"industry" which is the organization or branch ofeconomic activity in which he/she works; and from"employment status" which describes his/her relationshipto that organization and to others within it. Toavoid using a coding wrongly you should PAYCAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE EXPLAN-ATORY NOTES AT THE FOOT OF CODE 14.6.3.17.2 How to enter6.3.17.2.1 Do not use general or abridged terms suchas "office worker", "public servant","merchant", "labourer", "craftsman","factory worker", etc. Report the exactkind of job or business a person workedin the last 20 days prior to the date of theBy-Census according to the classificationsset out in CODE 14.6.3.17.2.2 In describing the kind of job or businessa person worked, it is necessary to referto the TIME REFERENCE PERIOD.(6.3.14.2.1)6.3.17.2.3 If the person worked during the timereference period, described the kind of jobor business he/she actually did*52


6.3.17.2.4 If the person had a job or business fromwhich he/she was absent ON LEAVEWITH PAY during the time referenceperiod, describe that job or business.6.3.17.2.5 If the person did not work (was unemployed)during the time reference period but hasnot yet retired, describe his/her lastjob or business.6.3.17.2.6 Describe only one job or business. If aperson did two or more kinds of job orbusiness during the time reference period,record the one at which he/she spent themost hours. If the hours were the same,record the one from which he/she receivedthe most income. If you cannot distinguishhis/her job or business by hoursworked or income received, record theone at which he/she worked last.6.3.17.2.7 For example, if a person worked for 10days as a carpenter (3.3), 7 days as asawyer (1.1), report him as a carpenterbecause he devoted more time to this work.6.3.17.2.8 If a person manufactures and sells aproduct or repairs and sells a product,report his productive work and not hisselling activity. For example report aperson engaged in making and sellingwearing apparel as a "tailor" (3.1). Reporta person engaged in making and sellingbean-curd as a "food worker" (3.4).Report a person engaged in repairing andselling footwear as a "cobbler" (3.7).6.3.17.2.9 In the case of a person seeking his/herfirst job, the appropriate codings will beMajor group Y for industry (CODE 13)and NrAr. for occupation (CODE 14).» » f3¥•!•6.3.18 Place of work (Column m 19 of the Schedule)6.3.18.1 GeneralBy "place of work" is meant the name and addressof the institution where the person works. All the53


egular full-time and regular part-time workers inboth sectors should be asked this question.6.3.18.2 How to approachAsk: "Where are you working?""NAY HURNG BEENDO JO YEAH?"6.3.18.3 How to enterPut down in column 19 the address given.6.3.19 Address at last Census, 7th March, 1961. (Column 20 of theSchedule, CODE 11)6.3.19.1 GeneralBy "address at last Census" is meant the address ofthe respondent on 7th March, 1961.6.3.19.2 How to approachAsk: "Where were you living on the day of thelast Census, 7th March, 1961 ?""HIGH YUT-GOW-LOOK-YUT NEENSARMYUTE CHUT-HO WOOHOWTOONGGIGH GEH SEEHOW, NAYHURNG BEENDO JEE?"6.3.19.3 How to enter6.3.19.3.1 If you can positively identify the Censusdistrict from the address you have beentold, put the appropriate serial numberin the column,6.3.19.3.2 If you cannot positively identify theCensus district from the answer given, orif you are not certain t you must record theaddress in sufficient detail to enable thedistrict to be identified when the scheduleis received in the head office. For thispurpose it is necessary to have the streetname and number and also the town,since many street names are repeated e.g.between Hong Kong and New Territoriestowns.54


6.3,20 Address at last Chinese New Year, 21st January, 1966.(Column 21 of the Schedule, CODE 11)6.3.20.1 General6.3.20.1.1 By "address at last Chinese New Year" ismeant the address of the respondent on21st January, 1966.6.3.20.1.2 People who have moved house during theintervening period and then moved backagain to the same address should be shownas not having moved.6.3.20.2 How to approachAsk: "Where did you live at last Chinese New Year,21st January, 1966?"6.3.20.3 How to enter"GUMNEEN GOWLICK SUN-NEENNAY HURNG BEENDO JEE?"6.3.20.3.1 If you can positively identify the Censusdistrict from the address you have beentold, put the appropriate serial number inthe column.6.3.20.3.2 If you cannot positively identify the Censusdistrict from the answer given, or if youare not certain, you must record the addressin sufficient detail to enable the district tobe identified when the schedule is receivedin the head office. For this purpose it isnecessary to have the street name andnumber and also the town, sine manystreet names are repeated e.g. betweenHong Kong and New Territories towns.55


1866 TOONG JEE 51867 „ 61868 71869 81870 , 91871 , 101872 , 111873 , 121874 , 131875 GWONG SOEY 11876 , „ 21877 , „ 31878 , „ 41879 518801881188218831884188518861887188818891890189118921893189418951896189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908APPENDIX A IIIINDEX OF YEARS6789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233341909 SUENTUNG 11910 „ „ 21911 „ „ 31912 MAN GWOK 11913 , „ 21914 „ „ 31915 „ „ 41916 „ „ 51917 „ „ 6BING-YARNDING-MAOWMO-SUNNGAY-JEEGANG-NGSUN-MAYYUM-SANGUY-YOWGARP-SHIRTYIT-HOYBING-JEEDING-CHOWMO-YARNGAY-MAOWGANG-SUNNSUN-JEEYUM-NGGUY-MAYGARP-SANYIT-YOWBING-SHIRTDING-HOYMO-JEEGAY-CHOWGANG-YARNSUN-MAOWYUM-SUNNGUY-JEEGARP-NGYIT-MAYBING-SANDING-YOWMO-SHIRTGAY-HOYGANG-JEESUN-CHOWYUM-YARNGUY-MAOWGARP-SUNNYIT-JEEBING-NGDING-M4.YMO-SANGAY-YOWGANG-SHIRTSUN-HOYYUM-JEEGUY-CHOWGARP-YARNYIT-MAOWBING-SUNNDING-JEETIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSEGOATMONKEYCOCKDOGPIGRATOXTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSEGOATMONKEYCOCKDOGPIGRATOXTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSEGOATMONKEYCOCKDOGPIGRATOXTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSEGOATMONKEYCOCKDOGPIGRAToxTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEJ: KEIOJ: MEIJItf}tt>tt}}tttttttJ: TAISHO231234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424341L4C12345661


1918191919201921192219231924192519261927192819291930193119321933193419351936193719381939194019411942194319441945194619471948194919501951195219531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966TOK 789Appendix A III (Contd.)Index of Years1011121314/l^)1617181920212223„ 2425262728293031323334„ 3536373839„ 4041„ 42„ 434445464748, 495051525354n 55MO-NGGAY-MAYGANG-SANSUN-YOWYUM-SHIRTGUY-HOYGARP-JEEYIT-CHOWBING-YARNDING-MAOWMO-SUNNGAY-JEEGANG-NGSUN-MAYYUM-SANGUY-YOWGARP-SHIRTYIT-HOYBING-JEEDING-CHOWMO-YARNGAY-MAOWGANG-SUNNSUN-JEEYUM-NGGUY-MAYGARP-SANYIT-YOWBING-SHIRTDING-HOYMO-JEEGAY-CHOWGANG-YARNSUN-MAOWYUM-SUNNGUY-JEEGARP-NGYIT-MAYBING-SANDING-YOWMO-SHIRTGAY-HOYGANG-JEESUN-CHOWYUM-YARNGUY-MAOWGAKP-SUNNYIT-JEEBING-NG(Contd.)HORSE J: TAISHO 7GOAT „ oMONKEY „ qCOCK , inDOG , 11PIGjoRAT „ nOX , uTIGER „ JJ: SHOWA 1HARE , , 2DRAGON „ 3SNAKE „ 4HORSE „ 5GOAT „ 6MONKEY „ 7COCK „ gDOG „ 9P*G „ 10RAT „ iOX , 12TIGER , 13HARE , 14DRAGON , 15SNAKE , 16HORSE , 17GOAT 18MONKEY , 19COCK 20DOG , 21PIG , 22RAT 23OXTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSEGOATMONKEYCOCKDOGPIGRATOXTIGERHAREDRAGONSNAKEHORSE2425262728, 29303132333435363738, 39404162


APPENDIX AIVTABLE OF JAPANESE YEARSWesternjYears1966 SHOWA PHfP1965196419631962196119601959195819571956195519541953195219511950194919481947194619451944194319421941194019391938193719361935193419331932193119301929192819271926TAISHO 7\JE192519241923192219211920191919181917r apaneseYews4140393837363534333231302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 987 6 5432 1151413121110 9876 Age0 1234 5 678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849WesternYears191619151914191319121911191019091908190719061905190419031902190119001899189818971896189518941893189218911890188918881887188618851884188318821881188018791878187718761875187418731872187118701869186818671866TAISHOMEIJI tylKEI-O §JapaneseYears54 32145444342414039383736353433323130292827262524232221201918171615141312111098765432132 Age505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910067


APPENDIX BCODE 1Functional Description of HouseholdA. An institution or collectiveApartmentAsylumBarracksBlind HomeBoarding HouseBoarding SchoolBoys' HomeCampChaai TongChurchClinicClubContractor's MatshedConventCrecheDetention CentreDormitoryDoss HouseFactoryFire StationGirls' HomeGuest HouseHospitalHostelhousehold, for example:—HotelJoss-HouseLepers' HomeLodging HouseMaternity HomeMental HomeMonasteryNunneryNursing HomeOld Peoples' HomeOrphanagePolice StationPrisonQuartersReformatoryRehabilitation CentreSanatoriumShelter for Street Sleepers, etc.ShopStudioTempleTreatment CentreWelfare CentreWorkshopB. A domestic household within an institution, (a)C. A domestic household sharing premises with one or more otherhouseholds, (b)D. Domestic household occupying the whole of the premises described.NOTES: 0) see 6.2.1.2.2(b) see 6.2.1.2,368


Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 2Type of Accommodation (a)THE HOUSING UNIT IS:—The entry in Code 1 must be(functional descriptionof household)1 CONVENTIONAL BUILDING, DOMESTIC ACCOMMODATION (6)1.0 whole house occupied by one household A,D1.2 whole house shared by two or more households B,C1.3 self-contained flat occupied by one household A,D1.4 self-contained flat shared by two or more households B,C1.5 one or more rooms or cubicles occupied by one household A,D1.6 one or more rooms or cubicles shared by two or more households B,C1.7 bedspace occupied by one household D1.8 bedspace alternately used by two or more households C2 CONVENTIONAL BUILDING, NON-DOMESTICACCOMMODATION (6) (c)2.1 verandah occupied by one household D2.2 verandah shared by two or more households C2.3 cockloft occupied by one household D2.4 cockloft shared by two or more households CNOTES, (a) see 6.2,2,1(6) see 6 2.2.2.1 and 6.2.2.2.6(c) see 6 2.2 2.2(Continued on page 72)70


Appendix B(Contd.)Code 2 (Contd.)The entry in Code 1 must be(functional descriptionof household)2.5 basement occupied by one household A,D2.6 basement shared by two or more households B,C2.7 staircase, lobby, passage or corridor2.9 shop, workshop, storeroom, boxroom, kitchen, scullery, bathroom, etc.3 ROOF-TOP (d)3.1 roof shack occupied by one household D3.2 roof shack shared by two or more households C4 MOBILE DWELLING4.0 boat (e) class III (stationary boat, house boat, miscellaneous boats)4.2 boat (e) class I, II or V (passenger sampan, cargo boat and lighter,trading boat)(Continued on page 74)NOTES: (d) see 6.2.2.2.3(e) By "boat" is meant one which floats and can be moved by water, eitherby oar, sail or power, or under tow.72


Appendix BCode 2(Contd.)(Contd.)The entry m Code 1 must be(functional descriptionof household)4.3 boat (e) class IV or VI (hand liner, hoklo teng, shrimper, gill netter,long liner, purse seiner, fish trawler, shrimptrawler, misc. fishing boats,)4.4 boat (e) other (ferry, launch, tug, pleasure craft)4.6 ship (/) or aircraft4.7 tent, nissen hut, contractor's matshed (g)4.8 caravan (h)5 MARGINAL HOUSING UNIT (/)5.1 squatter hut (K) occupied by one household A,D5.2 squatter hut (K) shared by two or more households B,C(Continued on page 76)NOTES: (e) By "boat'\ is meant one which floats and can be moved by water, eitherby oar, sail or power, or under tow.(/) By "ship" is meant an ocean-going or coastal vessel over 300 tons, ora warship.(g) see 6.2.2.2.4(K) A caravan is a small shed on wheels, designed to be pulled by a horseor ox or towed behind a motor vehicle. (In America this is called a"trailer", which in England means a small towed trolley).(/) see 6.2.2.2.5 and 6.2.2.2.8(k) see 6.2.2.2,7N.B. Roof-top structures are dealt with separately. (Group 3).74


4.340001 ftjfp 7000160001 W9 mm*4.4 ' ft& »*te*l» i4.64.7Cfi£A)5.1 A, D5.2 B, C75


Appendix BCode 2(Contd.)(Contd.)The entry in Code 1 must be(functional descriptionof household) ." Y5.6 urban uriboat (m) occupied by one household A,D5.7 urban ur&oat (m) shared by two or more households B,C6 RUSTIC DWELLING OF NON-PERMANENT ORSEMI-PERMANENT MATERIALS (/)6.0 farmer's wooden shack6.3 seasonal thatched shelter6.6 rural un-boat (m) occupied by one household A,Drural un-boat (m) shared by two or more householdsB^6.9 wooden or thatched shop in rural area ^7 MAKESHIFT ACCOMMODATION IN A PLACE NOT INTENDEDFOR HABITATION7.6 cave, tunnel, under a bridge7.7 street, open space, private or Crown land7.9 hawker stallNOTES: (Z) «« 6.2.2.2.8(m) By "un-boat" is meant a boat which no longer floats or can put to sea.76


Appendix B (Contd.)CODE 3Domestic Status in Household1. Head of Household, (a)2. (S) Spouse of the Head of Household i.e. husband, wife or concubine.3. (C) Child of the Head of Household i.e. son or daughter, (b)4. (R) Other Relatives of Head of Household, (c)5. (N) Non-relatives, (d)NOTES: (a) see 6.3.2.1.1(b) see 6.3.2.1.3(c) w« 6.3.2.1.4(d) see 6.3.2.1.5CODE 4Economic Status in HouseholdApplies to domestic households only (Code 1, B, C or D)This question need not be asked of transients, i.e. those visiting the Colonyfor 20 days or less.F: FULLY SUPPORTSThis person is the sole or principal supporter of the household.N.B. often not the same person as that described as the head ofthe household, (a)P: PARTLY SUPPORTS, OR PAYS A SHAREThis person is not the sole supporter of the household but contributesto its support, either by money or as an "unpaid familyworker", (b) ^p^ ftjuj, /ft J| ]^D: DEPENDANTThis person is wholly dependant, (c)NOTES: (a) see 6.3.3.2.1(b) see 6.3.3.2.2(c) see 6.3.3.2.379


0 Never Married (NM).3 Married (M).Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 5Conjugal Status6 Widowed and not remarried (W).9 Divorced or Separated, and not remarried (D).NOTE: No distinction is to be made between wives and concubines, norbetween legal and customary, civil and religious, formal andinformal marriage; nor between legal and customary divorce,judicial, contractual or practical separation. But couples who liveseparately because of economy or convenience and remain infact man and wife should not be recorded as "separated."CODE 6Place of Birth1. (YES) Born in Hong Kong, Kowloon, New Kowloon, the NewTerritories or within the territorial waters of the same.2. (NO) Born anywhere else.N.B. (i) see 6.3.8.2,2(ii) For the 1966 Census the place of birth is to be identifiedonly as in/out of Hong Kong. It is possible that for the1971 Census a finer breakdown will be required.82


ffiC-0 & » Ml ' JfAfI'(1 ) "( 2 )84


Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 7Place of Origin (a)9 Hong Kong, Kowloon, New Kowloon, the New Territories orterritorial waters, (b)8 Canton, Macao and places adjoining Hong Kong, Canton or Macao;including the following hsien or localities: Bocca Tigris (Fu Mun),Chek Kai, Chung Shan (c), Fa ^ Yuen (d), Ladrone Islands(Man Shan), Lema Islands (Tarn Kon Shan), Nam Hoi (e), NamTau, Po On (/) (except Hong Kong and the New Territories), PunYue, Sam Shui, Sham Chun, Shek Lung, Shun Tak, Tai Pang,Tsang Shing, Tsung Fa, Tung Kwun, Wai Yeung (g),7 Sze Yap; including all localities customarily included in the expressionNg Yap (Five Districts) or Sze Yap (Four Districts),among which are: Hoi Ping, Hok Shan, Kong Mun, San Wui,Toi Shan, Yan Ping.6 Chiu Chau; including Swabue, Swatow and the adjoining hsien,including: Ching Hoi, Chiu On, Chiu Yeung, Fung Shun, HoiFung, Kit Yeung, Nam O (&), Nam Shan (/), Po Ning, Wai Loi,Yiu Ping.5 Elsewhere in Kwangtung or Kwangsi. (k) (I),4 Anywhere in China outside Kwangtung or Kwangsi (k) (Z); includingTaiwan (Formosa), Tibet, Sinkiang and Inner Mongolia,but NOT Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia or Outer Mongolia.1 All other places, (a)(Continued on page 86)85


Appendix B(Contd.)Code 7 (Contd.)NOTES: (a) w* 6.3.9.1.2(b) see 6.3.9.1 A(c) Originally Heung Shan.(d) Carefully distinguish from Fa Ik Yuen in SouthernKwangtung.(e) Do not confuse with "Nam Hoi" given as place oforigin by the Tan Ka. see 6.3.9.2,5(/) Originally called San On. Also see 6.3.9.1.4(g) Originally Kwai Shin. And see 6.3.9.1.5(h) Do not confuse with "Nam O" in the New Territories,or Narn O on Mirs Bay.(/) Carefully distinguish Nam Shan village in the NewTerritories and the mountain range Nam Shan inWestern China.(k) see 6.3.9.1.5(/) we 6.3.9.1.386


j#r "5|'^Pf JPI,il^SI^^JIf-^LT'N-^^ftgSffifbM* o ( E? )H 5? H Sft # m Si K»*J?JP 9 »All• *StTKtto (ZO»jm»«n»5e»E 8 Kffl5Si*nfiS«n» *M »^m c mm^^ ^04) '7ESCT) » KlU»Sr» fflHtpJ^S'ffiiS(^) »*w»«§gcnrss*f* » *^?Pff^^^ ) » * A » H7K » «#11 > ^11' HH1S > ^cll' If M » fl6ft» m5B»S»C«f»B»D °KB 7 ^S^iS'^e'^'lZHg'^^^!!^*:IB¥ * WU4» SCP^ »fft"»T^Hl » S¥ oiw 6 'ftusRK»2*»Raia}s»SBK » SI® ' SHU » ^^'fS^'m^CBD»mi-uc^)»##,ffl&,«PFoMS^mffi 5 fis^jgrnm^n^^ffi*^ c *) o^* 4 i*^» ®M » ^ ii^-ag«•»^m' is' o«ffi i feggfifxmffift °87


1 ENGLISH2 CANTONESEHAKKAHOKLOSZE YAPANY OTHERAppendix B(Contd.)CODE 8Usual Languagei.e. the language generally spoken in CantonCity and any dialect which is easily intelligibleto a Canton man. Includes the TANKAdialect.including all the languages of the MIN group,namely, HOKLO proper, Swabue, Swatow,Chiu Chau, Amoy, Kiung Chau and all kindreddialects of Fukien and Taiwan provinces,Hainan and coastal Kwangtung.LANGUAGE OF CHINA including WUgroup languages, Kuo Yu, Mongol, Manchu,Tibetan and tribal languages.7 ANY OTHER LANGUAGE, other than English and Chinese.8 DUMBN.B. see 6.3.10.1.3 and 6.3.10.1.4CODE 9Ability to Speak English1. (YES) Can speak and understand some English.2. (NO) Cannot speak or understand any English.N.B. see 6.3.11.289


16:* ssi * , < *ȴ


1 Private Tutor (a)2 Lower Primary (b)3 Upper Primary (c)Appendix B4 Junior Middle (Chinese) (d)5 Lower Secondary (English) (e)6 Senior Middle (Chinese) (/)CODE 10Education7 Higher Secondary (English) (g)(Contd.)8 Post Secondary, other than university (h)9 University—not graduated ( £ )XYUniversity graduate with B.A. degree or higherNo Schooling (j) or KindergartenNOTES: (a) Including private study.(b) Primary I-IV.(c) Primary V-VI.(d) Junior Middle I-1II in Chinese School.(e) Form I-III in English or Anglo-Chinese School.(/) Senior Middle I-III in Chinese School.(g) Form IV-VI in English or Anglo-Chinese School.(h) Including Teacher Training Schools, Technical Colleges,vocational Training and other Post SecondaryColleges.(z) Including courses in a University which do not leacto a degree in Hong Kong or elsewhere.(j) Those 5 years of age or over who have never been t


o*X93


Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 11Place of Residence (a)A. At last Census (7th March, 1961— gBH+^aE/J:^ — 0)Please state whether the individual was residing : —1 at the same address as now.3 at a land address (b) in the same census district (c)5 at a land address (b) inside the Colony, but in differentDistrict of the same Census Area (c)7 at a land address (b) inside the Colony, but in a differentCensus Area (d)9 at a land address outside the Colony (e)Y on board a boat anywhere (e)B. At last Chinese New Year (21st January, 1966— ^^lEJ!^— 0)Please state whether the individual was residing: —1 at the same address as now.3 at a land address (b) in the same census district (c)5 at a land address (b) inside the Colony, but in differentDistrict of the same Census Area (c)7 at a land address (b) inside the Colony, but in a differentCensus Area (d)9 2.t a land address outside the Colony (e)Y on board a boat anywhere (e)NOTES: (a) see 6.3.20.1.2(b) You should ask the land population whether they wereenumerated in this year's Marine By-Census from June18 to 22. If they were, complete the enumerationbut report the occurrence to your Chief Enumerator.(c) see 6.3.19.3.2 and 6.3.20.3.2(d) In this case the Census Area and District must be shown.(e) In these two cases the full address need not be given.94


CK-OC1961 £? 3 J? 7± C fin ) 8fl- ClEEH)95


Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 12Employment Status and Degree of Economic Activity0 MODERN SECTOR (EMPLOYER OR SELF-EMPLOYED) (a)0.0 self-employed (6)0.1 employer (c)1 MODERN SECTOR (SECONDARY EMPLOYMENT) (a)1.3 home-maker (d) who also spent 80 hours or more (e) at work (/>?£?1.4 home-maker (


Appendix BCode 12(Contd.)(Contd.)6 UNEMPLOYED (£)6.9 no previous job6.x last job was in modern sector (a)6.y last job was in traditional sector (p)7 OF INDEPENDENT MEANS («)7.0 principal tenant (t>)7.9 independent, but means of support not ascertainable (zv)7.x sufficient capital or income from investments (x)7.y supported by remittances from children overseas (y)8 ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE I8.0 home-maker (d) without other part-time employment (/)8.9 retired person (#) without part-time employment (/)9 ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE II9.0 student (h) without other part-time employment (/)9.9 under 5 years of age (#)9.x of school age (5-14) but neither at school nor at work (/) (za)NOTES: (a) see 6.3.14.1.4(6) see 6.3.14.1.5(c) see 6.3.14.1.6(rf) A home-maker is a man or woman who looks after the home whileother members of the household are out at work. If female she isalso called a housewife.(e) In the 20 days preceding Census Day.(/) see 6.3.14.1.7(#) A retired person is one who has previously had paid employment butnow by reasons of age or disability no longer does a regular full-timejob. It includes a pensioner. Anybody aged 65 and over who isunemployed is also considered a retired person.(K) see 6.3.14.1.8(/) see 6.3.14.3.2(&) "On commission only" means that commission on turnover is the soleor principal means of remuneration. Piece-work payment is notcommission and a partner^who receives commission or bonus in additionto his share as a partner is not "employed on commission only." Noris a salaried employee who receives commission or bonus in additionto salary. But the free-lance agent or broker, though he may at firstdescribe himself as "self-employed" will often be found to be a "percentageman", employed on commission, perhaps by more than oneemployer.(I) What constitutes "full-time" will differ according to the sector and tothe industry. A poet or artist may be "full-time** but be quite unableto state his hours of work. However, for the purposes of a census,if the working time appears to take less than 40 hours in the referenceperiod it must be counted out. With regard to working times of40-79 hours, or over 80 hours but not amounting to a conventional"full working day or week" you must, in the artistic field, use yourdiscretion.98


Appendix BCode 12(Contd.)(Contd.)(m) A seasonal worker is one whose work is dictated by the weather orthe time of year. A casual worker is one who offers his services toany employer who wants him for the moment. Both are usually paidby the day, hour or piece. The chief difference is that a seasonalworker knows in advance when his services will be required, but thecasual worker knows only on the day or just before it.(n) An apprentice, trainee or learner means a person under 25 who islearning a skilled trade. In the modern sector he is usually bound bya written agreement for a specified period. In the traditional sectorthere may be a customary period. Generally he receives only tokenremuneration, or pocket money and his keep. Nobody of 25 yearsor over should be classified under this heading.(o) An outworker does not mean a person who works out of doors, butan employee who is free to take his work home or anywhere he pleases.A pohce constable on his beat, a postman on his round, a detective orjournalist out on a case, or a commercial artist painting a ^landscape,are NOT outworkers, because their place of work, though it changes,is designated by the nature of their employment and not left to theirfree choice.A self-employed free-lance, or a commission agent, is not anout-worker. Nor is a commercial traveller if his territory is restrictedby his employer.(p) we 6.3.14.1.9(q) see 6.3.14.1.10(?•) It is very hard to say when retirement occurs in the traditional sector.(s) see 6.3.14.1.11(t)To be "unemployed" a person must be at least 15 years old and notyet 65 years old, have no work and not be of independent means. Aperson who is under 15 is still of school age and if neither at schoolnor at work is classified separately (9.x). A person who is 65 or overand is no longer working is "retired" (8.9). A person who has work,but during the reference period of 20 days did not take 40 hours athis work is classed as "unemployed"—but for this purpose paid sickleave or paid holiday counts as "work".(«) see 6.3.14.1.12(t;) we 6.3.14.1.13(w) see 6.3.14.1.14(x) The respondent, not you, is the judge of "sufficiency". You arenot to ask for details of the investments.(y) see 6.3.14.1.15(z) These age boundaries must be carefully established by Western reckoning,using the age conversion tables. The exact dates are givenbelow (pages 100 and 101).(za) This description over-rides any others, i.e. any person betweenhis fifth and fifteenth birthdays (by Western reckoning) who is neitherat school nor during the 20 days reference period did work exceeding40 hours, must be^included only here, even if he appears to satisfysome other description (e.g. of independent means).99


Appendix BCode 12(Contd.)(Contd.)The dates required in connection with notes (g), («), (t\ (M), (3;) and(za) are:—MARINECENSUS1. Anybody born on or before 18th June 1901 (GWONG SOEY27th YEAR SUN-CHOW, OX YEAR, 5th MOON, 3rd DAY)is 65 years or older, and if unemployed is classified as "retired".2. Anybody born on or before 18th June 1941 (MAN GWOK 30thYEAR SUN-JEE, SNAKE YEAR, 5th MOON, 24th DAY) is25 years or older, and cannot be classified as an apprentice, traineeor learner.3. Anybody born on or before 18th June 1945 (MAN GWOK 34thYEAR YIT-YOW, COCK YEAR, 5th MOON, 9th DAY) is21 years or older and is an adult.4. Anybody born on or before 18th June 1951 (MAN GWOK 40thYEAR SUN-MAOW, HARE YEAR, 5th MOON, 14th DAY) is15 years or older.5. Anybody born on or before 18th June 1960 (MAN GWOK 49thYEAR GANG-JEE, RAT YEAR, 5th MOON, 25th DAY) is6 years or older and if born between that date and 19th JUNE1951 (MAN GWOK 40th YEAR SUN-MAOW, HARE YEAR,5th MOON, 15th DAY) is of school age.6. Anybody bom on or after 19th June 1961 (MAN GWOK 50thYEAR SUN-CHOW, OX YEAR, 5th MOON, 7th DAY) is notyet 5 years old.(Note that the above critical dates for the Marine Census are all inthe FIFTH moon.)LANDCENSUS1. Anybody born on or before 2nd August 1901 (GWONG SOEY27th YEAR SUN-CHOW, OX YEAR, 6th MpON, 18th DAY) is65 years or older, and if unemployed is classified as "retired".2. Anybody born on or before 2nd August 1941 (MAN GWOK 30thYEAR SUN-JEE, SNAKE YEAR, INTERCALARY 6th MOON,10th DAY) is 25 years or older and cannot be classified as an apprentice,trainee or learner.(Continued on page 101)100


Appendix BCode 12(Contd.)(Contd.)3. Anybody born on or before 2nd August 1945 (MAN GWOK 34thYEAR YIP-YOW, COCK YEAR, 6th MOON 25th DAY) is21 years or older and is an adult.4. Anybody born on or before 2nd August 1951 (MAN GWOK 40thYEAR SUN-MAOW, HARE YEAR, 6th MOON 30th DAY) is15 years or older.5. Anybody born on or before 2nd August 1960 (MAN GWOK 49thYEAR GANG-JEE, RAT YEAR, INTERCALARY 6th MOON,10th DAY) is 6 years or older and if born between that date and 3rdAugust 1951 (MAN GWOK 40th YEAR SUN-MAOW, HAREYEAR, 7th MOON 1st DAY) is of school age.6. Anybody born on or after 3rd August 1961 (MAN GWOK 50thYEAR SUN-CHOW, OX YEAR, 6th MOON, 22nd DAY) isnot yet 5 years old.(Note that the critical date for the Land Census may be in the 6th,intercalary 6th or 7th moons.)101


') :112


CS1) :113


Appendix BCODE 13Industry(Contd.)Major Group 0 FARMINGIncludes the cultivation of rice, vegetables, flowers, fruit and forestproducts; the keeping of cattle, pigs and poultry; the breeding offish in ponds; hunting and trapping of animals and birds.Does not include the processing of food, hides or feathers (Group 8);the trapping of fish; breeding of edible oysters; breeding andimplantation of pearl oysters (Group X).Major Group 1 COMMUNITY SERVICEIncludes all Government departments, whether Hong Kong's orforeign. Consulates, Trade Commissions. Universities, collegesand schools. Hospitals and clinics. Churches, religious, civic,social, fraternal and welfare associations. Firms of legal advisors,advocates, notaries, accountants, auditors, trades unions, chambersof commerce, architects, engineers, surveyors, and all other organizationsproviding professional advice and business or trade services.Cinemas, theatres, radio, television and other recreational service.Domestic and personal services (laundries, hairdressing establishments,massage, shoeshine, window cleaning; white ant eradication).Hotels, restaurants, clubs, guest houses, brothels, photographicstudios, concert halls, art galleries. Police, prisons, armies, naviesand air forces (of whatever country). Does not include ship andcargo surveying (Group 2), Public utilities (Group 4).Major Group 2 COMMUNICATIONIncludes all forms of Transport, by rail, road, water or air. Carparks, piers, docks, godowns, warehouses, pilotage, package andcrating, travel agencies and other services incidental to transport.Posts, telegraphs, telephones and radio communication.Does not include Broadcasting, television or redifTusion (Group 1),Major Group 3 COMMERCEIncludes retail and wholesale trade, importing, exporting, distribution;finance, banking, insurance, real estate; brokerage and allkinds of commercial agency.Does not include Trade promotion, accountancy, etc. (Group 1).Major Group 4 PUBLIC UTILITIESIncludes Electricity, gas, water, sewage and refuse removal.Does not include Buses, ferries, trams (Group 2).(Continued on page 118)116


Appendix BCode 13(Contd.}(Contd.)Major Group 5 CONSTRUCTIONConstruction of houses, bridges, roads, piers, sea-walls, reclamations,reservoirs and all buildings whether public or private. Drivingof tunnels, digging of wells. Plumbing, wiring, air-conditioning.Major Group 6 MANUFACTURING (Engineering Section)Manufacture and repair of machinery, vehicles, aircraft equipmentfor vehicles and aircraft. Building, repairing and breaking upships.Major Group 7 MANUFACTURING (Textile Section)Includes Spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing; manufactureof garments (except shoes). Manufacture of carpets,tapestry and other made-up textile goods; rope, twine, cordage,nets and matting.Major Group 8 MANUFACTURING (Other)Includes the manufacture of food, drink and tobacco; the processingof agricultural, forest and sea products; manufacture of articlesfrom wood, leather, rubber, chemicals, metal or plastic; and allmanufactures not included in Groups 6 and 7.Does not include mining (Group 9), agriculture (Group 0), fishingor pearl oyster cultivation (Group X).Major Group 9 MINING & QUARRYINGIncludes the winning of sand, clay and felspar; ore processing.Does not include smelting (Group 8).Major Group X FISHINGIncludes fish trapping, breeding of edible oysters, breeding andimplantation of pearl oysters, fish trawling; shrimp trawling, longlining, hand lining, purse seining, gill netting, cast net fishing,crab netting, cage trapping, fish drying and fish collecting.Does not include the breeding of fish in ponds (Group 0).Major Group Y ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE OR UNCLAS-SIFIABLEIncludes all those seeking work who have not previously beenemployed; those who are employed in industries of differentgroups and cannot assign a preponderant part to either group;and those whose industry cannot be assigned to any group, (a)(a) No individual may be classified as "unclassifiable" by anyenumerator until every effort has been made to find the rightclassification and the enumerator has discussed the case withhis chief enumerator.118


611m a ' : C_IHl** mm


Appendix B(Contd.)CODE 14Occupation (#)0. Unskilled labourers and manual workers in any branch of economicactivity0.0 in service, sport & recreation OCCUPATIONSe.g. advertisement and bill posters, caddies, coolies, newspaperboys, shoe-shiners, street sweepers.0.1 in manufacturing OCCUPATIONS.0.2 in transport & communication OCCUPATIONS.0.3 in mines & quarries.0.4 in commercial OCCUPATIONS.0.5 in government, armed services and public utilities, e.g.messengers.0.6 in agriculture & fisheriesO.y unskilled casual workers reporting more than one occupation oroccupations unidentifiable or inadequately described (b).1. Menial and semi-skilled workers; domestic and office servants1.0 in service (other than government), sport & recreationOCCUPATIONSe.g. amahs, attendants, billiard markers, caretakers, charwomen,chauffeurs, chimney cleaners, cleaners, cooks, cook-boys,gardeners, hall porters, house coolies, janitors, lift operators,valets, nursemaids, waiters, bartenders, building caretakers,vergers, window cleaners, bath attendants, wardrobe mistresses(stage and studio), telephone operators, maids, baby-sitters,bookmakers (c).NOTES: (a) By "Occupation" is meant the kind of job or businessa person himself does. It is distinguished from"industry" which is the organization or branch ofeconomic activity in which he works; and from"employment status" which describes his relationshipto that organization and to others within it.(b) Unskilled workers with two or more occupations inthe same branch of economic activity should beclassified in that sub-group and not here.(c) Bookmakers are professional betting men.(Continued on page 121)120


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)1.1 in manufacturing OCC UFA TIONSe.g. abrasive mixers, abrasive wheel moulders, brazers, brick &tile kilnmen, brick & tile moulders, cable splicers, candledippers, caid cutters, cement furnacemen, coremakers, fibredrawers, joss-stick makers, sawyers, wood furniture finishers.1.2 in package & cratinge.g. labellers, packers, wrappers and related workers.1.3 in transport & communication OCCUPATIONSe.g. greasers and oilers (motor vehicle & ship), railway signalmen,railway switchmen, bus and tram conductors, regulators andassistant regulators (bus & tram), telegraph installers, bicycleand tricycle drivers (goods or passenger).1.4 in mines & quarriese.g. mines timbermen, mineral crusher operators, mine &quarry brakemen, mine cutting machine operators, stonesplitters, well drillers.1.5 in commercial OCCUPATIONSe.g. petrol-service-station attendants, street hawkers.1.6 in government, armed services and public utilitiese.g. office attendants.1.7 in agriculture & fisheriese.g. farm hands, fish butchers, fish curers, fish preservingcooks, nursery workers (farm).2. Lower ranks of disciplined services, and minor supervisory staff inGovernment Service2.0 Police constables, corporals, sergeants, staff sergeants, assistantrevenue officers, revenue officers, senior revenue officers.2.1 Detective district watchmen, principal detective districtwatchmen, district watchmen, assistant head district watchmen,head district watchmen, firemen, leading firemen, senior firemen,principal firemen, hawker control constables, hawker controlcorporals, hawker control sergeants, senior hawker controlsergeants, immigration assistants, warders, assistant warders,principal warders, junior prison officers.(Continued on page 122)121


Appendix B(Contd.)Code 14 (Contd.)2.2 Petty officers and N.C.Os. of the Royal Navy, Army (includingGurkha Brigade) and R.A.F., other ranks of the Royal Navy,Army (including Gurkha Brigade) and R.A.F.; and correspondingranks in foreign armed forces.2.3 Accounting machine operators, addressograph operators, bookbinders,senior bookbinders, estate caretakers, head estatecaretakers, charge-hands, chauffeurs, compositors, senior compositors,demarcators, diver's linesmen, dredger masters, rockdrillers, special drivers, engine drivers, field assistants, fisheriessupervisors class III, foremen, foremen (mechanical), foresters,assistant tree inspectors, tree inspectors, gate checkers, hallporters, handicraft instructors, head attendants, headmen,house service inspectors, senior house service inspectors,installation mechanics, instrument mechanics, senior instrumentmechanics, kitchen supervisors, layout and planning officers,linotype operators, senior linotype operators, lithographerpressmen, lithographers, marshallers, master shipwrights,master tailors, meter readers, junior and senior meter readers,monotype operators, museum attendants, overseers, overseers(metal workshop), permanent way sub-inspectors, photographers,photoprinters, police photographers, postmen class I, headpostmen, postman drivers, pressmen, senior pressmen, printingdesigners, printing platemakers, junior proof readers, projectionists,radio mechanics, retouchers, shotfirers, stampers,stewards, head stewards, stone checkers, tailors, assistant ticketprinters, timekeepers, trade instructors, water samplers.3. Skilled Operatives3.0 in service, sport & recreation OCCUPATIONSe.g. air hostesses, barbers, beauticians, croupiers, dry cleaners,embalmers, hairdressers, hotel keepers, launderers, make-upmen (stage & studio), manicurists; mannequins, pressers, stewards(ship, aircraft, deck or cabin), tourist guides, undertakers.3.1 in textile OCCUPATIONSe.g. cutters, dyers, furriers, knitters, spinners, tailors, weaversand related workers.(Continued on page 123)122


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)3.2 in metal-making OCCUPATIONSe.g. cabinet-makers, coopers, drawers, electricians, furnacemen,jewellers, linemen, machinists, moulders, platers, plumbers (d)precision-instrument makers, rollers, radio mechanics, toolmakers,watchmakers, welders, metalworkers and related workers.3.3 in construction OCCUPATIONSe.g. bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, painters, paperhangers,paviours, plasterers, plumbers (e), roofers, scaffolders & tilers.3.4 in food, beverage & tobacco processese.g. bakers, brewmasters, butchers, curers, fish salters, millersand other food and beverage workers, tobacco preparers andtobacco-products makers.3.5 in printing & paper-makinge.g. book binders, compositors, engravers, pressmen, printersand related workers.3.6 in machinerye.g. operators of stationary-engines, bulldozers, graders,excavating and lifting equipment (/), and related workers.3.7 Skilled craftsmen and production-process workers not elsewhereclassifiede.g. hatmakers, milliners, basketry weavers, mattress makers,embroiderers, sewers, musical instrument makers, shoe makers,shoe repairers, sole fitters, harness and saddle makers, potters,kilnmen, lasters and glass-blowers.3.8 in agriculture & fisheries, but not jnaster farmers or masterfishermene.g. skilled farm hands, poultry hatchery workers, farm equipmentoperators, fishermen, divers, fish hatchers, oyster culturists.NOTES: (d) "Plumbers" in metal-making means makers of plumbsor sounding leads.(e) "Plumbers" in construction means fitters & repairersof pipes.(/) Lifting equipment includes hoists, cranes, etc. butnot passenger lifts.(Continued on page 124)123


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)3.9 in transport & communication OCCUPATIONSe.g. able seamen, barge crews and boatmen, boatswains, shipsquarter masters, railway engine drivers and guards, telegraphists,lighthouse operators, lightermen, railway brakemen, motorvehicledrivers.3.x skilled miners & quarrymen.4. Supervisory staff4.0 in service, sport & recreation OCCUPATIONSe.g. butlers, stage managers, house-stewards, matrons, referees,umpires.4.1 in manufacturing OCCUPATIONSe.g. fabric examiners, manufacturing supervisors, textile foremen,engineering foremen.4.2 in transport & communication OCCUPATIONSe.g. transport and communication supervisors, aircraft controllers,inspectors (bus & tram).4.3 in mines and quarriese.g. mining and quarrying foremen.4.4 in commercial OCCUPATIONSe.g. business service supervisors, data processing supervisors,time and motion study officers.4.5 in government, armed services and public utilitiese.g. health inspectors, railway inspectors and officers, policeinspectors, immigration inspectors, fire officers, inspectors ofhawker control force, principal officers and prison officers,warrant officers.4.6 in agriculture & fisheries124(Continued on page 125)


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)5. Clerical & Sales staff5.0 Clerical & sales staff in recreation, sport & service except,government (g).5.1 Clerical & sales staff in manufacturing OCCUPATIONS.5.2 Clerical & sales staff in transport & communications.5.3 Clerical & sales staff in mining & quarrying.5.4 Canvassers, commercial travellers, demonstrators, salesmen &shop assistants in wholesale & retail trade (h).5.5 Clerical & sales staff in government.5.6 Clerical & sales staff not elsewhere specified, including bookkeepers,cashiers, clerical assistants, clerks, office machineoperators, receptionists, shroffs, stenographers, tellers & typists;also accountants & auditors if not professionally qualified («').6. Managers and working proprietors6.1 Working proprietors in wholesale or retail trade.6.2 Directors (/), managers (k) & working proprietors in banking &insurance.6.3 Directors (/), managers (k) & working proprietors in industry,import and export.6.4 Master farmers (/).6.5 Master fishermen (m).NOTES: (g) For those in government, put under Code 5.5.(h) Including those in market stalls but not includingstreet hawkers.(2) If professionally qualified, put under Code 9.x.(/) "Directors" includes managing directors and workingpartners, but not "sleeping" (i.e. non-working) partners.(k) *'Managers" includes assistant managers, sectionmanagers, sales managers and personnel managers.(1) Including heads of farming enterprises, i.e. owners &tenants of farms or managers, and not hired hands.(m) Including masters or skippers of fishing craft.(Continued on page 126)125


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)7. Artists, draughtsmen & technicians (n)7.1 Draughtsmen or technical assistants to architects, engineers orsurveyors, clerks of works, inspectors of works.7.2 Nurses, midwives; sub-professional medical workers; technica 1assistants to physicians, surgeons or dentists.7.3 Draughtsmen or technical assistants not elsewhere specified.7.4 Actors, athletic coaches, dancing masters, professional jockeysor trainers.7.5 If not professionally qualified:—Librarians, music teacherP.T. instructors, school teachers, social welfare workers.8. Government officials in the administrative and executive grades8.1 Members of the administrative grade of the H. K. Government (o).8.2 Members of the executive grade of the H.K. Government (o).8.3 Heads & assistant heads of H.K. Government departments (o)not being of the administrative or executive grades.8.4 Gazetted officers in the armed forces, police & other disciplinedprotective services.8.5 Chief clerks & section heads not elsewhere specified; postmasters& railway station masters.8.6 Foreign & Commonwealth diplomats, consuls, commissioners,trade commissioners & their non-local staff.9. Professional staff and QUALIFIED technologists9.0 Architects, engineers and surveyors.9.1 Agronomists, biologists, chemists, geologists, pharmacists,physicists, veterinarians, and other physical and relatedscientists.9.2 Dentists, physicians and surgeons.NOTES: (n) Those with professional qualifications are found inmajor group 9.(o) Give the name of department in government.(Continued on page 127)126


Appendix BCode 14(Contd.)(Contd.)9.3 Marine superintendents, marine engineer superintendents,chief engineers (ship), captains and chief officers (ship &aircraft), engineer officers (ship), deck officers (ship), pilots andnavigation officers (aircraft), radio operators (ship & aircraft).9.4 QUALIFIED (p) teachers in primary schools & kindergartens.9.5 QUALIFIED (p) teachers in secondary schools.9.6 Lecturers, readers, professors, other teaching and researchworkers in universities & post-secondary colleges.9.7 Clergy and members of religious orders.9.8 Barristers, jurists, lawyers, notaries, solicitors.9.9 Actuaries, QUALIFIED librarians & social welfare workers(p), statisticians.9.x QUALIFIED accountants & auditors.9.y Editors, radio announcers, writers, composers, and similaroccupations requiring high-level occupational and professionalskill but not formal certification.X. Occupation Unclassifiablex.y Occupation unidentifiable or inadequately described (#).Y. No occupationy.9 Job-seekers.y.y Economically inactive.NOTES: (p) If not professionally qualified, they should be putunder Code 7.5.(q) Excluding unskilled workers (O.y).127


a * * *6*eYX8'e*'YX9*£41* * YXMtfel(K) m 4-


ALPHABETICAL INDEXA-airNoteOrdinary numerals (as 18) refer to pages.Bold Roman numerals (as III) refer to Appendices AI to IV.Bold Arabic numerals preceded by C refer to the codes inAppendix B.Italic entries apply only to the Marine Census.abbreviations 11ability to speak English 38, C.9able seaman C.14absentees 8,10accommodation, type of 4, 13-15, C.2accountant C.14accounting machine operator C.14accounting service C.13accuracy 5activity, economic 14, C.12actor C.14actuary C.14address4, 7, 54-5, C.llAdministrative officer ... C.14adopted child 20,33adult 20, C.12advocate C.14advocate service C.13age 4,9,24-31age breakdown 1age conversion table, how to use 24-5age conversion table (Land)IIage conversion table (Marine)Iage, infant less than 1 year old 24age, JapaneseIVagricultural products processing C.13agriculture C.13agronomist C.14air conditioning C.13aircraft C.2aircraft controller C.14air force C.13air hostess C.14139


air—bas Alphabetical Index (Contd.)airtransport C.13aliases 19alteration 11amah C.14Amoy 38Anglo-Chinese secondary C.10animal (calendar) 24,26,28,1,11animal husbandry C.13announcer C.14answers to be written on schedule 10apartment 12apprentice C.12architect C.14architect service C.13area 1armband 8Army C.13army officer C.14arrest 10art gallery C.13artist C.14assistant head of department C.14asylum12, C.Iathletic coach C.14attendant C.14auditing service C.13auditor C.14aunt 22Australian Chinese 36BB.A. degree C. 10baby , ... 19baker C.14bakery C.13banking C.13barber C.14barge crew C.14barracks12, C.Ibarrister C.14bar-tender C.14basement 14 ? C.2140


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) bas—-buildbasket weaver C.14bath attendant C.14bathroom 14, C.2beautician C.14bed-space 15, C.2beverage processor C.14beverages C.13billiard marker C.14billposter C.14biologist C.14bird trapping C.13birth, date of 4,25,30birth on board C.6birth, place of 4, 33-5, C.6birth registration 34birth, time of (Land) 3birth, time of (Marine) 3blind home 12boarding house12, C.Iboarding school12, C.Iboat C.2boatman C.14boatswain C.14bookbinder C.14bookkeeper C.14bookmaker C.14bootmaker C.14boxroom C.2Boys* Home 12brakeman C.14branch (calendar) 24,28,1,11,111branch of economic activity 49breeding C.13brewery C.13brewmaster C.14bricklayer C.14bridge C.2bridge construction C.13broadcasting C.13brokerage C.13brothel C.1brother-in-law 22builder C.14141


uild—cha Alphabetical Index (Contd.)building 14, C.13bulldozer operator C.14business service supervisor C.14bus conductor C.14bus inspector C.14butcher C.14butler C.14By-Census, definition 1,9By-Census, purpose of 1ccabinet-maker C.14cable splicer C.14caddie C.14cage trapping C.13camp12, C.ICanton C.7Cantonese 37-8, C.8canvasser C.14captain C.14caravan C.2card, household 2,5,7card, identification 8card, identity 4,7caretaker C.14cargo boat 50, C.2cargo surveying C.13carparks C.13carpenter C.14carpet manufacturer C»13cashier C.14cast net fishing C.13casual employment 48, C.12cattle keeping C.13cave C.2Census, how to translate 8census identification label (Marine) 9census, last 4census moment and time 3census, value of 1chaai tong12, ClChamber of Commerce C.13142


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) char—colcharge hand C.14chauffeur 51checker C.14chemicals C.13chemist C.14chiefclerk C.14chief engineer C.14chief enumerator 2chief officer C.14children 20, 29, 37, C.3children, adopted 20,33children of school age 46children, number born and living 4,32-3chimney-sweep C.14Chinese characters 7,19,20Chinese era 24,28Chinese junior middle C.10Chinese languages C.8Chinese New Year 4,55Chinese senior middle C.10Chinese word for "Census'* 8Chiu Chau C.7Chuang 36, C.7church 12, C.13cinemas C.13civic associations C.13clansman 22clanswornan 22clay winning C.13cleaner C.14clerical assistant C.14clergy C.14clerk C.14clerk of works C.14clinic 12, C.1, 13club 12, 42, C.1, 13cockI, II, IHcockloft 14, C.2code numbers5, 11, C.l-14co-listing 2collective household 12, C.1colleges C.13coloured ink 11143


com—cri Alphabetical Index (Contd.)commerce 51-2, C. 13commercial traveller C.14commissioner C.14common mistakes 29communications 50—1, C.13communication supervisor ... C.14community service 52, C.13comparison of ages 29complete information 5complex households 20composer C.14compositor C.14concert hall C.13concubine 20, 31, C.3, 5confidential, information to be kept 6,8,31conjugal status 4, 31, C.5constable C.14construction C.13consul C.14consulate C.13contemporary 29contractor C.14contractor's matshed 12, C.1, 2contributor 17, 23, C.4conventC.Iconventional building 14, C.2cook C.14cooper C.14co-operation 6, 10cordage manufacture C.13corporal , C.14corridor 14, C.2counterfoil 7country 35, C.7courtesy 6cousin 22coverage 3coxswain 50-1crab netting C.13craftsman C.14crating C.13creche C.1critical date 26-7,1,11144


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) cro—domcroupier C.14Crown Land C.12cubicle 15, C.2curer C.14custom C.3cutter C.14Cyclical Letters 24,26,28,1,11,111Ddancing master C.14data processer C.14date of birth 4,25dates 3, 30daughter 20-1, C.3daughter-in-law 20,22death, time of 3deck officer C.14deducing age 29degree C.10degree of economic activity C.12demarcator C.14demonstrator C.14dentist C.14department head C.14dependant 24, 45, C.4designer C.14detective C.14Detention Centre 12, C.1diplomat C.14director 42, C.14disclosure 6distribution trade C.13district 1District Watchman C.14ditto marks 11diver ... C.14diver's linesman C.14divorce32, C.Sdocks C.13dogI, H, IIIdomestic accommodation C.2domestic household13, C.I145


dom—engl Alphabetical Index (Contd.)domestic servants 16,24,42domestic service C.13domestic status 16, C.2dormitory12, C.Idoss house12, C.IdragonI, II, IIIDragon Boat Day 9draughtsman C.14drawer C.14dredger master C.14driller C.14drink manufacture C.13driver C.14dry cleaner C.14dumb 37-8duties 5dwelling 4, 12dyer C.14Eeconomic activity C.12economically active 41,46,47,51economically inactive 41, 47, 51, C.12economic status in household 4,23, C.4edible oyster breeding C.13editing 6,29editor C.14education 4, 39, 40electrician C.14electricity C.13embalmer C.14embroiderer C.14employed on commission C.12employee 24, 42, C.12employer 42, C.12employment status 4, 41-7, C.12engine driver C.14engineer C.14engineering ... 51-2, C.13engineer officer C.14English language4, 38, C.8,9English secondary C.10146


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) eng—fishengraver C.14entries must be legible 11entries, not to be erased 11entry, order of 18enumeration, how to proceed with 6-10enumerator, how translated 8enumeration plan 3—4enumerator's responsibilities 5-6era 24erasure 11Europeans 25, 31excavator C.14executive officer C.14export trade C.13Ffabric examiner C.14factory 12, C.1farm equipment operator C.14farmer 47, C.14farmer's shack C.2farmhand C.14farming C.13father 21father-in-law 22feather processing C.13felspar C.13females 17,24ferry 50, C.2field assistant C.14final visit 7,18finance C.13financial support 17fireman C.14fire officer C.14fire station.,. 12firms , C.13fish breeding C.13fish collecting C.13fish drying C.13fisheries supervisor C.14fisherman 47, C.14147


fish—grade Alphabetical Index (Contd.)fish hatcher C.14fishing C.13fishing boat 50, C.2fishsaiter C.14fish trapping C.13fish trawlerC.2,13fitter 51fiatC.1,2flower cultivation C.13food manufacture C.13food processing C.13forcible entry 10foreign governments C.13foreign government official C.14foreman C.14forester C.14forestry C.13fraternal associations C. 13friendly demeanour 6friends 23fruit C.13full-time employment C.12functional description of household 4, 12, C.1furnaceman C.14furrier C.14Ggardener C.14gas supply C.13gate checker C.14gazetted officer C.14geologist C.14gillnetter : C.2,13Girls' Home 12glass blower ... ... C.14goati, n, ingodfather 22godmother 22godown C.13government C.13government official ... C.14grade 39,40148


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) grad—highgrader operator C.14graduate C.10granddaughter 22grandfather 22grandmother 22grandson 22greaser C.14guesswork 6guest 24guesthouse12, C.1,13Hhairdresser C.14hairdressing C.13Hakka 38, C.8half-brother 22half-sister 22hall porter C.14hallway 14handicraft instructor C.14hand linerC.2,13harbours in sample 2hareI, II, HIharness maker C.14harvesters' shelter 14hatcher C.14hatmaker C.14hawker C.14hawker control constable C.14hawker stall C.2head attendant C.14headman ... C.14head of department C.14head, every household must have one and one only 15head of household 4,7-8,16-7,20, C.3head of household, relationship to 20-22"HeungHa" 35health inspector C.14hide processing C.13higher degree C.10higher secondary C.10highest grade 39,40149


hok—hus Alphabetical Index (Contd.)Hoklo 38, C.8Hokloteng C.2home-maker24, C.4,12Hong Kong C.7Hong Kong born 33-5, C.6Hong Kong government C.13Hong Kong origin 36horseI, II, IIIhospital12, C.1,13hostel 12hostess C.14hotel12, C.1,13hotel keeper C.14hours worked 4,43,47-8house C.2house construction C.13household card 2,5,7household, collective12, C.Ihousehold, description of 15-6household, domestic13, C.Ihousehold economy 23household, functional description4, 12, C.Ihousehold, head of 4, 7-8,16-7, 20, C.3household income 7household more than 15 persons 11household, number of persons 4,11,15,17household, relationship to head 20-22households, complex 20household, size of 15households, list of 5households, sampled and un-sampled 7households sharing accommodation C.2house service inspector C.14house steward C.14housewife 24, 44, C.4housework 43-4housing problem 13housing unit , C.2hunting , C.13husband20,C.3150


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) I—juridentification 8identification card 8identification label 9identity card 4,7illiteracy 19imagination 6immigration assistant C.14import trade C.13inactive, economically 41, 47, 51, C.12income 7incorrect entry, how to alter 11independent means 45, 51, C.12Index of yearsIllindustry 4, 47, 49, C.13industry and occupation distinguished 49information,from whom to seek 8ink, write in 11inspector C.14inspector of works C.14installation mechanic C.14institution12, C.Iinstructor C.14insurance C.13intercalary months 27interpretation 8' introduce yourself properly 8items, enumeration 4Jjanitor C.14Japanese 25,30-1Japanese years, table ofIVjeweller C.14job 52job-seeker C.12jockey C.14joiner C.14Joss-house12, C.Ijoss-stick maker C.14jottings 10junior middle C.10jurist C.14151


K—lep Alphabetical Index (Contd.)Kkeeping livestock C.13Keio (Japanese era)IVkilnman C.14kindergarten C.10kindergarten teacher C.14kinship 15kitchen 14, C.2kitchen supervisor C.14knitter C.14knitting C.13Kowloon 33, C.7KuoYu C.8Kwangsi 36, C.7Kwangtung 36, C.7Llabel 9labeller C.14labourer C.14Land Census 2,27-8Land Census, sampling method 2Language 4, 37-8, C.8language, very samll children 37last census 4,54laster C.14lastjob C.12launch C.2launderer C.14laundries C.13lavatory 14lawyer C.14layout officer C.14leading questions 9learner C.12leather manufacture C.13leave with pay 53lecturer C.14legal advisors C.13legibility 11lepers* home 12152


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) lib—marlibrarian C.14licence book 10licence number 2lifting equipment operator C.14lift operator C.14lighter 50, C.2lighterman C.14lighthouse operator C.14lineman C.14line number 11linotype operator C.14list of households 5lithographer C.14lobby C.2lodginghouse12, 44-5, C.Ilong linerC.2,13lower primary C.10lower secondary C.10lunar ages 25-7,30lunar months (Land)Hlunar months (Marine), ... IMMacao C.7machine operator C.14machinery 41, C.13machinist C.14main economic activity 47, C.12makeshift accommodation C.2make-up man C.14males 17,24manager 42, C.14manicurist C.14mannequin C.14manual worker C.14manufacture C.13manufacturing supervisor C.14marginal housing unit 14, C.2Marine Census 2-3,7-9,19,27,49Marine Census, sampling method 2marine superintendent , C.14married 20, 31, 33, C.5153


mar—mus Alphabetical Index (Contd.)marshaller C.14massage C.13master farmer C.14master fisherman C.14master shipwright C.14master tailor C.14materials 14maternity home12, C.Imatron C.14matshed 14, C.2mattress maker C.14meals 24means, independent 45, 51, C.12mechanic C.14medical technician C.14Meiji (Japanese era)IVmember of religious order C.14mental home12, C.Imetal manufacture C.13metalworker C.14meter reader C.14method, sampling 2middle school C.10mid-term census 1midwife C.14migration 1miller C.14milliner C.14miner ... C.14mining ... C.13mistress, not to be distinguished from wife 31mobile dwelling C.2modern sector41-2, 48, C12monastery12, C.Imonk C.14monkeyI, II, IIImonotype operator C.14months 25mother 21mother-in-law 22motor driver C.14multiple classification „ 50, 53museum attendant C.14154


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) mus—nunmusic 43musical instrument maker C.14musician C.14Nname 4,7,18-9name, baby without 19name, more than one 18Nam Hoi 37, C.7nationality 35naval officer C.14naval rating C.14navigation officer C.14navy C.13N.C.O C.14nephew 22net making C.13never married C.5new-born babies 19New Kowloon 33, C.7newspaper boy C.14New Territories 14, 33, 36, 54-5, C.7New Year 4NgauChiWan 2niece 22nissen hut C.2no erasures 11"No husband", indicates widow not spinster ... 31non-domestic 14, C.2non-permanent materials ... 14, C.2non-relatives 20, 22, C.3non-resident contributor 17no previous job C.12no schooling C.10notaries C.13notary C.14no threats 10number of children born and living 4, 32-3number of hours worked in past 20 days 4, 43, 47-8number of persons in household 4,11,15,17numbers, round 29nun C.14155


nun—pav Alphabetical Index (Contd.)nunnery12, C.Inurse C.4nursing home12, C.Ioobservation 13occupation 4,47,49,52occupation, more than one ^ 53ocean-going ships included in Land Census ... 3office 15office machine operator C.14of independent means 45, 51, C.12Old People's Home12, C.Ione line one person 11open space C.2order of entry 20ore processing C.13organized labour 41,44origin, place of 4, 35-7, C.7orphanage12, C,lout-worker 42, C.12oversea remittances 45overseer C.14oxI, II, IIIoyster cultivator C.14oyster culture C.13Ppackage C.13paid leave 53painter C.14painting 43paper-hanger C.14particulars relating to the dwelling or household... 12-17partly supports or pays a share ... 23partners 24, 42part-time 43, 48, C.12passage 14, C.2paviour C.14156


Alphabetical Index (Contd.)pearl—porpearl culture C.13penalties 6, 10permanent materials 14, C.2permanent way inspector C.14personal data 18-55personal service C.13persons in household 4,11,15,17petrol station attendant C.14petty officer C.14pharmacist C.14photographer C.14photography C.13photoprinter C.14physician C.14physicist C.14piece-work 44pier construction C.13pier operation C.13pigI, II, IIIpig keeping C.13pilot C.14pilotage C.13place of birth 4, 33-5, C.6place of origin 4, 35-7, C.7place of previous residenceC.llplace of study 4, 40place of work 4,53planning officer C.14plasterer C.14plastic manufacture C.13plate-maker C.14plater C.14playing games 43pleasure craft C.2plumber C.14plumbing C.13police C.13policeman C.14police station12, C.Ipoliteness 6, 31pond fish breeding C.13PoOn 36, C.7porter C.14157


post—quar Alphabetical Index (Contd.)postal service C.13postman C.14postmaster C.14post-secondary C.10potter C.14poultry farmer C.14poultry farming C.13precision instrument maker C.14premises 41, 43presser C.14pressman C.14previous addressC.llPrimary Sampling Unit 2primary school C.10primary school teacher C.14principal supporter of the household 23principal tenant 48, C.12printer C.14printing designer C.14prisonprison officer C.14private land C.2private tutor C.10processing C.13production process worker C.14professional advice C.13professor C.14profit-sharing 44projectionist C.14proof-reader C.14proper introduction 8proprietor 42P.T. instructor C.14public, relations with ... 612, C.1,13public utilities C.13purse seinerC.2,13Qquarries ... C»13quarryman C.14quartermaster C.14quarters 12158


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) ques—retquestionnaire 2questions, leading 9questions must be asked in prescribed form andorder 5Rradio C.13Radio Hong Kong 2radio mechanic C.14radio operator C.14rail transport C.13railwayman C.14ratI, II, HIreader C.14real estate 45, C.13receptionist C.14reclamation construction C. 13record book 11recreational service C.13RedirTusion C.13referee ... C.14reference period 46,52reformatory 12, C.1refuse removal C.13registration 34regular part-time employment C.12regulator C.14rehabilitation centre 12Reign name24, 28, HI, IVrelationship to head of household 4, 20, 22, C.3religious association C.13remarks 6, 11remarried C.5remittances 45repairingC13research worker C.14reservoir construction C.13residence, previous C.11residential club C.1responsible person 20restaurant 42, C.13retail salesman C.14159


et—sea Alphabetical Index (Contd.)retail trade C.13retired C.12retoucher C.14revenue officer C.14rice cultivation C.13ring 5road making C.13road transport C.13rock driller C.14roller C.14roofer C.14roof-top building 14, C.2room C.2rope making C.13round numbers 29rubber manufacture C.13rural un-boat C.2rustic dwelling 14-5, C.2ssaddler C.14salesman ... C.14sampan C.2sample boat 9sampled households 7sample harbours 2sampling, advantages of 1sampling method 2sampling officer 2sanatorium12, C.1,13sand winning C.13sawyer C.14scaffolder C.14schedule, how to fill in 6,10-11school 4, 39-40, C.10schoolteacher C.14scientist ... C.14scullery C.2sea products C.13seasonal employment C.12seasonal shelter C.2160


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) sea—skilsea wall construction C.13secondary education C.10Secondary Sampling Unit 2secondary school teacher C. 14secrecy 6, 8, 31seeking work 46, C.13self-contained flat C.2self-employed 42, C.12semi-permanent materials 14, C.2senior middle C.10separation 32, C.5sergeants C.14servants 16,24services C.13sewage disposal C.13sewer C.14sex 4,7,24sex breakdown 1sex, doubtful cases 24shanty C.2shared premises 13, 16, C.2ShauKeiWan 2ship C.2shipbreaking C.13shipbuilding C.13ship's quartermaster C.14ship surveying C.13shoemaker C.14shoemaking C.13shoe repairer C.14shoeshineC.13,14shop12, 14-5, C.1,2shop assistant C.14shotfirer C.14Showa (Japanese era)IVshrimper C.2shrimp trawlerC.2,13shroff C.14single, term not to be used 32single visit method 7sister-in-law 22size of household 15skilled craftsman C.14161


sme—stud Alphabetical Index (Contd.)smelting C.13snakeI, II, IIIsocial associations C.13social welfare workers C.14sole fitter C.14sole occupancy C.2sole supporter of the household 23solicitor C.14son 20-1, C.3son-in-law 20,22special driver C.14special procedure for absentees 10spelling of names 7spinner C.14spinning C.13spouse C.3squatter area 15squatter hut 14-5, C.2stage manager C.14staircase C.2stall C.2stamper C.14stationmaster C.14status, conjugal 4, 31, C.5status, domestic C.3status, economic 4, 23, C.4status, employment 4,41, C.12stem (calendar) 24,28stenographer C.14stepbrother 22stepdaughter 20stepfather 21-2stepmother 21-2stepsister 22stepson 20steward C.14stone checker C.14store ... 15storeroom 14, C.2strata 2street sleepers12, C.1,2student C.12studio 12, C.13162


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) study—tigstudy 43summary 4, 17supervisor C.14supported by remittances from children overseas... 45surgeon : C.14surname and name, spelling of 7surname 19surveyorC.13,14sweeper C.14SzeYap38, C.7,8Ttact 6tailor C.14TaiPo 2*Taisho (Japanese era)IVTanKa 38, C.8tapestry C.13teacher C.14teacher training school C.10technical assistant C.14technical college C.10technical language 9technician C.14technologist ... C.14telegraphist C.14telegraph installer C.14telegraphs ... C.13telephone operator C.14telephones C.13television service C.13teller C.14temple12, C.Itent C.2terms not to be used 22textiles 52, C.13thank for co-operation 10theatres C.13three-visit method *. ... 7tick 5ticket printer C.14tiger ...I, n, III163


til—an Alphabetical Index (Contd.)tiler C.14timber C.13timberman C.14time and motion study officer C.14timekeeper C.14Time Reference Period 46,52tobacco manufacture C.13tobacco preparer C.14toolmaker C.14tools 43tourist guide C.14trade C.13Trade Commission C.13Trade Commissioner C.14trade instructor C.14trade promotion C.13trade services C.13trade union C.13trading junk 50, C.2traditional sector 42-3, 48, C. 12trainee C.12trainer C.14tram conductor C.14tram service C.13transport C.13transport occupations C.14trapping C.13travel agency C.13trawlerC.2,13treatment centre C.12tricycle driver C.14tug C.2tunnel driving C.13tutor C.10twine C.13two-stage sampling 2type of accommodation 4, 13-5, C.2typist C.14uumpire C.14un-boat C.2164


Alphabetical Index (Contd.) unc—watuncle 12undertaker C.14undertakings 41, 43unemployed 46unemployed farmer 47unemployed fisherman 47unit, housing C.2universityC.10,13unmarried, term not to be used 32unpaid family worker 23, 44, 51, C.12unrelated household members 19, 22unskilled worker C.14upper primary C.10urban layout 14, C.2usual language 4, 37-8, C.8utilities 51, C.13Vvalet ... C.14vegetable cultivation C.13vehicle repair C.13verandah 14, C.2verger C.14vessel, type of 3veterinarian C.14village 35-6visitor 22visits 7, 18vocational training C.10voluntary separation 32wwaiter C.14WaiYeimg 36, C.7warder C.14wardrobe mistress C.14warehouse... C.13warrant officer C.14warship 3, C.2water sampler C.14165


wat—Zod Alphabetical Index (Contd.)water supply C.13water transport C.13watchmaker C.14watchman C.14weaver C.14weaving C.13welder C.14welfare C.13Welfare Centre12, C.Iwell digging C.13well driller C.14white ant eradication C.13whole house C.2wholesale trade C.13widowed 32wife 20-1,31window cleaner C.14window cleaning C.13win trust 6wiring C.13wooden shack C.2wood finisher C.14wood manufacture C.13work, definition of C.12working proprietor C.14work, hours of4, 43, 47-8, C.l|work, place of 4,53workshop12, 14, C.1,2wrapper ... C.14write in ink 11writer C.14YYauMaTei 2year of birth 25-6year of era24, III, IVZZodiacal Animal ... 24,28,111166


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X01b7Dt,31HK22 226697Hong Kong. Census and StatisticalPlanning Offi ce .Hone Koru? bv—

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