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A Brief History of Headland Breakwaters for Shore Protection ... - fsbpa

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<strong>Brief</strong> <strong>History</strong> <strong>of</strong><strong>Headland</strong><strong>Breakwaters</strong>Usage inChesapeake Bay,USA.25 Years <strong>of</strong> Rock, Sand andPlants <strong>for</strong> <strong>Shore</strong> <strong>Protection</strong>Beach Tech 2011C. Scott Hardaway, Jr., Geologist, VirginiaInstitute <strong>of</strong> Marine ScienceJames R. Gunn,President, Coastal Design andConstruction, Inc.


Chesapeake BayBreakwater DataBase. SelectedSites.


Early on• 1979: Hardaway attends Coastal Engineering course at USCsponsored by Miles Hayes and taught by Richard Silvester.Some other students included Tim Kana, Jeff Williams, KennyFinklestein and Phil Vitae. So began the research by VIMS onspiral bays/pocket beaches• 1980:Hawk Anderson and Jim Gunn were experimenting withperched beaches and spurs• The time had come to apply the research• Summerille Spur – 1983: Early experimentation withSilvester’s spiral bay relationships with pocket beaches. Thetangential section aligns with the impinging wave climate andthe updrift or shadow section follows a logrithmic spiral.


Summerille/Staples, Coastal bay evaluation and predicted bay shoreline using SEB


Summerille/StaplesMarch 8, 1988 April 28 2004


Summerille/StaplesMarch 8, 1988 April 28 2004


Offsets and differential erosion <strong>of</strong>ten creates geomorphic opportunities


Mid-1980s• Drummond Field-1985: First breakwaterproject on private property. Existing headlandmorphology was used to position headlandbreakwater system• Aqua-po- 1987: Public Beach application withexisting groin field used to indicate netdirection <strong>of</strong> wave approach.


Drummond -Installed November 1985Aerial Date: 2005


Drummond Field: March 17, 1990Existing headllands


Drummond Field under construction: Summer 1985


Drummond Field: First tombolo


Drummond Field: April 7, 2010


Aqua-Po Public Beach: Installed March 1987


Aqua-Po: October 2009


Late 1980s, Maryland Non-StructuralProgram sites• Claiborne- 1988: <strong>Headland</strong> breakwaters on marshcoast. Required rock sills at creek entrance.• Elm’s Beach- 1988: <strong>Headland</strong> breakwaters on openChesapeake Bay. Survived Hurricane Isabel(2003)very well.• Ware and Dietrick et al-1989: Choptank Riverbreakwaters with small fetch warranted reduction inbreakwater parameters such as length, gap anddistance <strong>of</strong>fshore• Carden- 1989: <strong>Headland</strong> breakwaters used toprotect spit on Potomac River in Va.


Claiborne Landing: 2010


Claiborne Landing


Elm’s Beach: September 2000Installed 1988.


Elm’s Beach: Post –Isabel, October 2003


Elms Beach: October 20, 2009


Dietrick: Installed October 1989Some DudeWare: Installed Sept. 1989


Carden: January 2006Installed December 1989


Carden: September 2004


The 1990s• Yorktown: First three breakwaters installed in1994 and added onto over the next 10 yearsto total 12. Revitalized the historic waterfrontalong with addition <strong>of</strong> floating concrete docks.• Asbury – 1995:Beach sands acqiured fromadjacent banks.• Kingsmill - 1996: High banks with impressiveviewshed warranted large headland and baycouplets• VanDyke-1997: Took 10 property owners 5years to come together. Utilized sand fromthe banks <strong>for</strong> beach fill.


Yorktown Beach: Northeaster Novemeber 2009


Yorktown: 2010


Asbury: Pre-construction


Asbury: March 2007


<strong>Shore</strong> <strong>Protection</strong>Asbury, Patuxent RiverAsbury site be<strong>for</strong>e the project(November 1994), after theproject (October 1998), and inAugust 2000.


Asbury: 2008


Kingsmill: 2010


Kingsmill, pre-construction: 1996


Kingsmill: 2002


James River SitesWest Bank/Boykin: 2002Van Dyke: 1997Mogarts: 2010Luter: 1998


VanDyke: Post-Isabel


VanDyke: 2007


Luter200220072009


Luter: January 2010


AnnualSignificantWindsAnnualSignificantFetchFarshoreFetchWindowsStormFetchStormWinds90°90°TangentialBeachControl Line (R )OWave Crest LineOrthogonalR90°R/R =0.81OAnnualResultant WaveVectors H& at SiteL BSMB Output (H&T)RCP WAVE InputStormRCPWAVEBathymetricGridWave OrthogonalDiffractionPointPossible <strong>Headland</strong>AlignmentSpiralBeachSectionPossible Extent<strong>of</strong> <strong>Headland</strong>BWSpiral SectionTangentB mG BM bTangent SectionSpiralBWL =BW LengthBG B=Bay GapM =IndentationbB =Beach WidthmAverage Mb:Gb = 1:1.65Project UplandStatic Equilibrium Bay: Hsu et al 1989


Elevation (feet)Elev ation (feet)3020BmPresent beach widthbase bank to MHWSpartina patensTomboloSpartinaalternifloraBreakwaterA10Beach NourishmentBerm0Bottom3020BmPresent beach widthbase bank to MHWSpartina patensMbMaximum bay indentationcenterline breakwater to MHWB100Beach NourishmentBermBottomBreakwater componentsHardaway and Byrne, 1999


Chesapeake Bay<strong>Headland</strong>Breakwater SitesShallow Water WaveLength (L=(gh)½ x T)L = Wave length (meters)h = Water depth (meters)T = Wave period (seconds)From Hardawayand Gunn, 2000Site1. DrummondFieldAverageFetch(km)DateInstalledLand Use Coast Type WaveAnnual6 to SW Sep 1985 Residential Embayed T=2.0h=1.2 L=6.72. Aquia Landing 7 to E Mar 1987 Public Beach <strong>Headland</strong> T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.63. Elm’s Beach 30 to NNE Oct 1988 Public Beach Straight T=2.5 sec.h=1.5 L=9.84. Christ 3 to NE Jul 1988 Farm Straight T=1.4 sec.h=0.9 L=4.35. St. Catherine’sIsland7 to NW Mar 1989 Spit <strong>Headland</strong> T=2.0 sec.h=1.2 L=6.76. Ware 3 to E Sep 1989 Residential Embayment T=1.5 sec.h=0.9 L=4.67. Dietrick 3 to SE Oct. 1989 Farm Embayment T=1.6 sec.h=0.9 L=4.98. Carden 17 to NNE Dec 1989 Spit <strong>Headland</strong> T=2.0 sec.h=1.2 L=7.09. Yorktown 18 to NE Sep 1994 Public Beach Straight T=2.5 sec.h=1.5 L=9.810. Asbury 6 to NW Dec 1995 Residential Embayed T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.611. Kingsmill 11 to SW Mar 1996 Residential Embayment T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.612. Putnam 30 to SW May 1997 Residential <strong>Headland</strong> T=2.5 sec.h=0.9 L=7.613. Van Dyke 12 to N Sep 1997 Residential <strong>Headland</strong> T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.614. Luter 13 to NNE May 1998 Farm Straight T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.6ClimateStormT=3.0 sec.h=1.8 L=12.8T=3.0 sec.h=2.1 L=13.7T=5.0 sec.h=2.1 L =22.9T=2.0 sec.h=1.5 L=7.6T=2.7 sec.h=1.8 L=11.3T=2.5 sec.h=1.5 L=9.8T=2.5 sec.h=1.5 L=9.8T=4.5 sec.h=1.8 L=18.9T=4.0 sec.h=2.7 L=20.7T=3.5 sec.h=2.1 L=15.9T=3.5 sec.h=2.4 L=17.1T=4.5 sec.h=1.8 L=18.9T=3.5 sec.h=2.4 L=17.1T=3.5 sec.h=2.4 L=15.9


Bidirectional Wind/Wave SettingSite Coast Type AverageFetch (km)LongestFetch(km)L B(m)G B(m)M b(m)B M(m)L B :G BM b :G B6. Ware Embayment 3 to E 4 to E 18.3 19.8 13.7 10.7 1:1 1:1.44. Christ Straight 3 to NE 4 to SE 21.3 24.4 16.8 7.6 1:1.3 1:1.57. Dietrick Embayment 3 to SE 4 to E 19.8 29.0 18.2 9.1 1:1.5 1:1.611. Kingsmill Embayment 11 to SW 20 to S 53.3 64.0 51.8 21.3 1:1.2 1:1.213. Van Dyke <strong>Headland</strong> 12 to N 22 to NNW 27.4 39.6 22.9 15.2 1:1.4 1:1.78. Carden <strong>Headland</strong> 17 to NNE 43 to E 33.5 33.5 24.4 12.2 1:1.0 1:1.412. Putnam <strong>Headland</strong> 30 to SW 68 to SE 33.5 42.7 42.7 18.3 1:1.3 1:1.03. Elm’s Beach Straight 30 to NNE 35 to SE 47.2 53.3 45.7 13.7 1:1.1 1:1.6AVERAGE: 1:1.2 1:1.4LB = Breakwater LengthGB = Breakwater GapMb = Minimum Bay IndentationFrom Hardawayand Gunn, 2000


Unidirectional Wind/Wave SettingSiteCoastTypeAverageFetch(km)LongestFetch(km)L B(m)G B(m)M b(m)B M(m)L B :G BM b :G B1. DrummondFieldEmbayed 6 to SW 12 to S 27.4 54.9 22.9 9.1 1:2.0 1:2.410. Asbury Embayed 6 to NW 13 to NW 33.5 57.9 36.6 21.3 1:1.8 1:1.75. St. Catherine’sIsland<strong>Headland</strong> 7 to NW 15 to W 30.5 29.0 21.3 21.3 1:1* 1:1.4*2. Aquia Landing <strong>Headland</strong> 7 to E 9 to NE 33.5 48.8 19.8 18.3 1:1.5 1:2.514. Luter Straight 13 to NNE 23 to NNW 29.0 48.8 30.5 15.2 1:1.7 1:1.69. Yorktown Straight 18 to NE 43 to E 49.0 91.4 51.8 15.2 1:1.8 1:1.8AVERAGE: 1:1.8 1:1.9LB = Breakwater LengthGB = Breakwater GapMb = Minimum Bay IndentationFrom Hardawayand Gunn, 2000


The New Millenia• Pax River NAS- Fuel Pier: 2001: Design elementsinclude protecting jet fuel facility, acquire beach sandfrom banks and protect archaeology without bankgrading.• West Bank/Fort Boykin- 2002: Create uniquebreakwater system with large bays and minimal bankgrading.• Pax River NAS- Gate 4: 2004: Design <strong>for</strong> future site <strong>of</strong>Base Officers Club to s<strong>of</strong>ten the hard edge andprovide a protective recreational beach.


Pax River, NAS, April 8, 1993


Pax River, NAS: January 11, 2003


Pax River, NAS: March 30,2007


Fuel Pier


West Bank/Fort Boykin


Fort Boykin with West Bank seen in distance


Pax River Gate 4: 1998


Pax River Gate 4: 2007


Gate 4


Lately• Davis – 2005: located near mouth <strong>of</strong> Bay onEastern <strong>Shore</strong> with high eroding dunes• Clarke – 2008: Required upland excavation t<strong>of</strong>it the system in landward <strong>of</strong> first <strong>of</strong>fshore barso as to minimize downdrift impact. Providesenhanced tiger beetle habitat.• VIMS -2010: Finally, a breakwater project <strong>of</strong>fthe institute to create an environmental edgeto the hardened east coast and a beach dunesystem to the eroding west coast.


Davis 2008


Davis: 2010


Davis: 2011


Clarke: 2008, under construction


Clarke: 2009


Clarke :2010


Clarke: 2010


<strong>Headland</strong> Breakwater Systems in Chesapeake Bay, selected siteschronologicallyHardaway and Gunn, 2010IDSite NameWaveFieldInstall DateAverage Number <strong>of</strong> Number <strong>of</strong> Lb Gb Mb BmFetch BWs BaysLb : Gb Mb :Gb(km) (m) (m) (m) (m)Drummond Field1U September 1985 6 to SW 6 5 27 55 23 9.1 1:2 1:2.42 Aqua-Po U March 1987 7 to E 4 5 34 49 20 18.3 1:1.5 1:2.53 Claiborne U April 1988 11 to SE 4 4 26 31 18 4.6 1:1.2 1:1.84 Christ Bi July 1988 3 to NE 3 2 21 24 17 7.6 1:1.3 1:1.55 Elm’s Beach Bi October 1988 30 to NNE 3 2 47 53 46 13.7 1:1.1 1:1.66 St.Cats Island U March 1989 7 to NW 3 4 31 29 21 21.3 1:1 1:1.47 Ware Bi September 1989 3 to E 3 3 18 20 14 10.7 1:1 1:1.48 Dietrick Bi October 1989 3 to SE 4 4 20 29 18 9.1 1:1.5 1:1.69 Carden Bi December 1989 17 to NNE 4 4 34 34 24 12.2 1:1 1:1.410 Rock Hall Bi June 1990 11 to SW 1 2 18 25 20 24.4 1:1.4 1:1.311 Yorktown U August 1994/1997 18 NE 2 to 2 1 to 3 49 91 52 15.2 1:1.8 1:1.912 Asbury U December 1995 6 to NW 4 5 34 58 37 21.3 1:1.8 1:1.713 Kingsmill Bi March 1996 11 to SW 7 6 53 64 52 21.3 1:1.2 1:1214 Van Dyke Bi September 1997 12 to N 9 8 27 40 23 15.2 1:1.4 1:1.715 Luter U May 1998 7 to NW 13 12 29 49 31 15.2 1:1.7 1:1.616 PR FP Bi October 2001 6 to NW 5 4 45 55 35 17 1:1.2 1:1.617 West Bank U December 2002 11 to SE 8 7 50 100 40 15 1:2 1:2.518 PR G4 Bi November 2004 3 to NE 5 4 50 40 30 14 1:1.3 1:1.319 Davis Bi 2005 32 to SW 3 2 55 64 26 18.2 1:1.2 1:2.520 Clarke U 2008 24 to SW 3 2 67 50 38 18.2 1:1.3 1:1.3


VIMS East: Post-construction: 2010


VIMS West: 2010


VIMS East: January 2011


Questions?For Mr. HardawayYorktown, Virginia: York River and Coleman Bridge in background

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