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ACRYLAMIDE IN FOOD II WORKSHOP 2004Exposure and Biomarkers Work GroupMaureen L. Storey, PhDRichard A. Forshee, PhDCenter for Food and NutritionPolicy at Virginia Tech

Important Areas of Progress

Acrylamide Concentration in Foods• Acrylamide concentration levels for manyadditional foods have been determined• Previously unknown food sources ofacrylamide have been discovered (e.g. blackolives, prune juice, certain coffee alternatives)• Ongoing research has improved ourunderstanding of how cooking processes affectacrylamide concentrations in foods, includingfoods prepared at home

Exposure Estimates• Acrylamide concentration data and food consumptiondata have been used to generate reasonably reliableestimates of acrylamide intake from foods and foodgroups• Various adducts (Hemoglobin, DNA) have beenidentified as useful biomarkers of acrylamide exposure• Ongoing research has improved our understanding ofthe bioavailability of acrylamide in foods, althoughmany questions remain

Current Research

Home Preparation• Wanted to test french fries designed forhome preparation• Deep frying cooking option selected• Various cooking times and temperaturesanalyzed• Discovered that same degree of browningyields same acrylamide levels, regardless ofcooking temperature

• Acrylamide levels also reduced withpresoaking for at least 15 minutes,pretreating with acidic “wash,” or roomtemperature storage prior to frying• Many other factors to consider for futureanalyses (variety and cut of potato,precooking by manufacturer, type of oil usedfor frying)

Acrylamide Levels in Toasted Bread• Higher levels in potato bread than in othervarieties• As in French Fries, level of browning is agood indicator of acrylamide levels• Can reduce acrylamide levels of toastedbread by 2/3 by scraping toast

Epidemiology• Epidemiology studies have not found astatistically significant association betweenacrylamide exposure and risk of cancerHowever• Existing epidemiological studies do not havethe power to detect cancer risk of acrylamideat the levels suggested by toxicology studies

Adduct Studies• Study of acrylamide hemoglobin adducts inNHANES is underway. The results willprovide data on acrylamide exposure from allsources for a nationally representativesample.• Hemoglobin adducts good measure ofacrylamide dose received, but not type ofexposure; cover about 120 days of exposure

Research Priorities

Research Priorities• Food exposure levels, biomarkers andtoxicity of acrylamide must be integrated toprovide a better understanding of riskassessment, management, andcommunication

Other Research Priorities• More data collection of food acrylamide levels neededto strengthen existing data and to examine “specialty”foods (seasonal, ethnic, diabetic)• More data sharing– Internationally– Between industry and government• Applicability of animal studies to humans must befurther examined (pure acrylamide dosing vsacrylamide from Maillard Reaction)


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