He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

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He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

Whänau members are expected to reciprocate by contributing skills, labour or goods to thewhänau and hapü resource base. Kaupapa such as kotahitanga, manaakitanga, wairuatanga,whakapapa and whanaungatanga place rights and responsibilities on Mäori to care for eachother and work together for the greater good of whänau, hapü iwi and the society they live in.Consequently, the expression of kaupapa designed to contribute to the wellbeing of the whänauis a factor in fulfilling obligations to the whänau.Other kaupapa including kaitiakitanga, pükengatanga, te reo and rangatiratanga placeobligations on Mäori to care for, protect, and manage other things such as natural resources,the language, knowledge, and Te Ao Mäori as a whole. The expressions of kaupapa allowMäori individuals to contribute to the wellbeing of whänau and hapü and are rewarded bysocial approval, honour, respect and esteem. These expressions are mana enhancing, and theirexpression through tikanga contributes to the survival of Mäori as a people.Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression ofkaupapa through tikanga selected by the communityTrading tikangaThe economy of Mäori prior to settlement by other people has been previously describedas a subsistence economy. It was very closely linked to the natural world and provided theenvironment in which enough food is grown, hunted or gathered to provide for the people. Onetikanga of the time was that a surplus was only grown if a community desired or needed to tradewith neighbouring communities.Within the trade element where as an example, coastal iwi trade fish with inland iwi forvegetables; are expressions of manaakitanga in the context of reciprocal exchanges. In thesetrading tikanga, the notion of economics is contained within the many and varied concepts ofmanaakitanga.The true foundation of Mäori economics is the reciprocal exchange of kaupapa that are manaenhancing and contribute to the wellbeing of the whänau, hapü and iwi. This poses the question,“How do you measure Mäori community wellbeing?”Statements of wellbeingTo fully answer the question above many things must be considered including choice ofindicators, how measurements are made, how often and how the information is presented. Allof the above implies an understanding of what Mäori community wellbeing is and how it can beeffectively measured.The tikanga (policies, processes and arrangements) used to manage a Mäori community’swellbeing are developed using a selection of indicators or statements of wellbeing. This is bestarrived at by the community in question.32 For example, at Te Wänanga-o-Raukawaa small number of financial tikangaare employed under the kaupapa‘kaitiakitanga’ to guide the financialmanagement of the institution.Kaupapa and tikanga should provide appropriate indicators to measure Mäori communitywellbeing. The He Oranga Hapori study asked 25 individuals to consider the question “whatdo you look for to know that your Mäori community is doing well?” In conjunction with thatquestion, participants were asked to decide which of the 10 kaupapa tuku iho derived fromthe 10 guiding kaupapa of Te Wänanga o Raukawa 32 were being expressed in the activity. Theresulting contributions were not filtered or edited.14

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